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Sample records for hydrocarbon-degrading azoarcus spp

  1. 16S rRNA-targeted polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide hybridization to screen for Azoarcus spp., grass-associated diazotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurek, T; Burggraf, S; Woese, C R; Reinhold-Hurek, B

    1993-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses after reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA of nitrogen-fixing, grass-associated Azoarcus strains confirmed their affiliation to the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Strains representing three different species formed a phylogenetically coherent unit related to Rhodocyclus purpureus, with actual percent similarities among the three sequences ranging from 93.1 to 97.3%. Within variable regions V2 and V5, we found stretches of sequences considerably conserved within the genus Azoarcus but differing from most other gram-negative bacteria, with the specificity being enhanced when different regions were combined. Genus-specific primers selected from both regions amplified fragments from all but one Azoarcus species in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) but not from any reference strain tested. Primers of lesser specificity generated fragments from members of all five Azoarcus species as well as from some reference strains. Those unspecific amplifications could be differentiated by oligonucleotide hybridization, detecting only fragments generated from Azoarcus strains except strain 6a3, which represents the same group which could not be detected by genus-specific PCR. Thus we propose the application of PCR amplification with 16S rRNA-targeted, genus-specific primers in combination with hybridization of a 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide to PCR-generated fragments as diagnostic tests; this allows an initial screening for presence of members of the genus Azoarcus.

  2. Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

  3. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on the phylloplane ... The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and ... Article Metrics.

  4. Hydrocarbon degradation abilities of psychrotolerant Bacillus strains

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    Fulya Kolsal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation requires identification of hydrocarbon degrading microbes and the investigation of psychrotolerant hydrocarbon degrading microbes is essential for successful biodegradation in cold seawater. In the present study, a total of 597 Bacillus isolates were screened to select psychrotolerant strains and 134 isolates were established as psychrotolerant on the basis of their ability to grow at 7 °C. Hydrocarbon degradation capacities of these 134 psychrotolerant isolate were initially investigated on agar medium containing different hydrocarbons (naphthalene, n-hexadecane, mineral oil and 47 positive isolates were grown in broth medium containing hydrocarbons at 20 °C under static culture. Bacterial growth was estimated in terms of viable cell count (cfu ml–1. Isolates showing the best growth in static culture were further grown in presence of crude oil under shaking culture and viable cell count was observed between 8.3 × 105–7.4 × 108 cfu ml–1. In the final step, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH (chrysene and naphthalene degradation yield of two most potent isolates was determined by GC-MS along with the measurement of pH, biomass and emulsification activities. Results showed that isolates Ege B.6.2i and Ege B.1.4Ka have shown 60% and 36% chrysene degradation yield, respectively, while 33% and 55% naphthalene degradation yield, respectively, with emulsification activities ranges between 33–50%. These isolates can be used to remove hydrocarbon contamination from different environments, particularly in cold regions.

  5. Polyphasic analysis of an Azoarcus-Leptothrix-dominated bacterial biofilm developed on stainless steel surface in a gasoline-contaminated hypoxic groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Tibor; Táncsics, András; Szabó, István; Farkas, Milán; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Fábián, Krisztina; Maróti, Gergely; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-05-01

    Pump and treat systems are widely used for hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater remediation. Although biofouling (formation of clogging biofilms on pump surfaces) is a common problem in these systems, scarce information is available regarding the phylogenetic and functional complexity of such biofilms. Extensive information about the taxa and species as well as metabolic potential of a bacterial biofilm developed on the stainless steel surface of a pump submerged in a gasoline-contaminated hypoxic groundwater is presented. Results shed light on a complex network of interconnected hydrocarbon-degrading chemoorganotrophic and chemolitotrophic bacteria. It was found that besides the well-known hydrocarbon-degrading aerobic/facultative anaerobic biofilm-forming organisms (e.g., Azoarcus, Leptothrix, Acidovorax, Thauera, Pseudomonas, etc.), representatives of Fe(2+)-and Mn(2+)-oxidizing (Thiobacillus, Sideroxydans, Gallionella, Rhodopseudomonas, etc.) as well as of Fe(3+)- and Mn(4+)-respiring (Rhodoferax, Geobacter, Magnetospirillum, Sulfurimonas, etc.) bacteria were present in the biofilm. The predominance of β-Proteobacteria within the biofilm bacterial community in phylogenetic and functional point of view was revealed. Investigation of meta-cleavage dioxygenase and benzylsuccinate synthase (bssA) genes indicated that within the biofilm, Azoarcus, Leptothrix, Zoogloea, and Thauera species are most probably involved in intrinsic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Polyphasic analysis of the biofilm shed light on the fact that subsurface microbial accretions might be reservoirs of novel putatively hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species. Moreover, clogging biofilms besides their detrimental effects might supplement the efficiency of pump and treat systems.

  6. Hydrocarbon degradation by Antarctic coastal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.E. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Dept. of Agricultural Science; Nichols, P.D. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div. of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); Franzmann, P.D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Wembley (Australia); McMeekin, T.A. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cultures obtained through selective enrichment of beach sand collected 60 days and one year after treatment of sites in a pilot oil spill trial conducted at Airport Beach, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, were examined for the ability to degrade n-alkanes and phenanthrene. The effects of different hydrocarbon mixtures (Special Antarctic Blend [SAB] and BP-Visco), (fish oil [orange roughy]) and inoculation of replicate sites with water from Organic Lake, (previously shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria) on the indigenous microbial population, were examined. Of the cultures obtained, those from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco degraded n-alkanes most consistently and typically to the greatest extent. Two mixed cultures obtained from samples collected at 60 days and two isolates obtained from these cultures extensively degraded phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-naphthoic acid formed the major phenanthrene metabolite. Lower levels of salicyclic acid, 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthaquinone and phenanthrene 9-10 dihydrodiol were detected in extracts of phenanthrene grown cultures. This study shows that under laboratory conditions indigenous Antarctica bacteria can degrade n-alkanes and the more recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene. The enrichment of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in Antarctic ecosystems exposed to hydrocarbons, is relevant for the long term fate of hydrocarbon spills in this environment. (author)

  7. Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria: Isolation and Identification

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    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little information how to identify hydrocarbon degrading bacteria for bioremediation of marine oil spills. We have used gravel which contaminated oil mousse from Beach Simulator Tank, in Marine Biotechnology Institute, Kamaishi, Japan, and grown on enrichment culture. Biostimulation with nutrients (N and P was done to analyze biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds: Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Trichlorodibenzofuran and Benzo[a]pyrene. Community of bacteria from enrichment culture was determined by DGGE. Isolating and screening the bacteria on inorganic medium contain hydrocarbon compounds and determination of bacteria by DAPI (number of cells and CFU. DNA was extracted from colonies of bacteria and sequence determination of the 16S rDNA was amplified by primers U515f and U1492r. Twenty nine strains had been sequence and have similarity about 90-99% to their closest taxa by homology Blast search and few of them have suspected as new species.

  8. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ... Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2015) > ... The degradation of 2 % heavy crude oil and other PAHs from the isolate PM-1 was assessed ... Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep.

  9. Comparative Genomics of the Ubiquitous, Hydrocarbon-degrading Genus Marinobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Webb, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The genus Marinobacter is amongst the most ubiquitous in the global oceans and strains have been isolated from a wide variety of marine environments, including offshore oil-well heads, coastal thermal springs, Antarctic sea water, saline soils and associations with diatoms and dinoflagellates. Many strains have been recognized to be important hydrocarbon degraders in various marine habitats presenting sometimes extreme pH or salinity conditions. Analysis of the genome of M. aquaeolei revealed enormous adaptation versatility with an assortment of strategies for carbon and energy acquisition, sensation, and defense. In an effort to elucidate the ecological and biogeochemical significance of the Marinobacters, seven Marinobacter strains from diverse environments were included in a comparative genomics study. Genomes were screened for metabolic and adaptation potential to elucidate the strategies responsible for the omnipresence of the Marinobacter genus and their remedial action potential in hydrocarbon-polluted waters. The core genome predominantly encodes for key genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation, biofilm-relevant processes, including utilization of external DNA, halotolerance, as well as defense mechanisms against heavy metals, antibiotics, and toxins. All Marinobacter strains were observed to degrade a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon species, including aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic as well as acyclic isoprenoid compounds. Various genes predicted to facilitate hydrocarbon degradation, e.g. alkane 1-monooxygenase, appear to have originated from lateral gene transfer as they are located on gene clusters of 10-20% lower GC-content compared to genome averages and are flanked by transposases. Top ortholog hits are found in other hydrocarbon degrading organisms, e.g. Alcanivorax borkumensis. Strategies for hydrocarbon uptake encoded by various Marinobacter strains include cell surface hydrophobicity adaptation via capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment

  10. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

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    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  11. Structure, Function and Expression Regulation of Hydrocarbon-degrading Enzymes and Their Encoding Genes%石油烃降解酶及其基因的结构、功能和表达调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于寒颖; 杨慧

    2012-01-01

    The research on the enzymes and genes involving in hydrocarbon biodegradation is the important basis of molecular assay of petroleum microbes and construction of the engineering strains. In this review, the recent advances of structures, functions and regulations of hydrocarbon-degrading enzymes and the corresponding genes were summarized. The first enzymes in the aerobic metabolism pathways of hydrocarbon included several types of oxydases. Among them, the crystal structures of particulate methane monooxygenase protomer, the terminal oxygenase component of cumene dioxygenase and naphthalene dioxygenase were reported. The aryl-succinate or alkyl-succinate synthase were the first basic enzymes in the anaerobic transformation of hydrocarbon while ethylbenzene dehydrogenase catalyzed the initial reaction of anaerobic degradation of ethylbenzene in Azoarcus sp. For bacteria, the hydrocarbon-degrading genes consisting of operons and their transcriptions were induced by hydrocarbon or analogues and limited by global cell control. Some microorganisms possessed the complicated hydrocarbon-degrading regulations which were consistent with their various hydrocarbon metabolism pathways. In addition, the related study on ecology indicated that the induction process of genes involving in the hydrocarbon degradation in the environment were different from that of the culture in the laboratory. Based on the analysis of the unsolved questions of construction the hydrocarbon-degrading engineering bacteria, the significance of research on the comprehensive regulation of hydrocarbon metabolism in the cells and the induction of the related enzymes and genes in the environment was proposed. The application of the enzymes and genes, involving in hydrocarbon biodegradation, for the theoretic research on toxicant degradation and bioremediation in the future was prospected.%研究烃降解酶及其基因是进行石油微生物分子检测和工程菌构建的重要基础.本文对目前烃

  12. Azoarcus sp. CIB, an anaerobic biodegrader of aromatic compounds shows an endophytic lifestyle.

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    Helga Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endophytic bacteria that have plant growth promoting traits are of great interest in green biotechnology. The previous thought that the Azoarcus genus comprises bacteria that fit into one of two major eco-physiological groups, either free-living anaerobic biodegraders of aromatic compounds or obligate endophytes unable to degrade aromatics under anaerobic conditions, is revisited here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Light, confocal and electron microscopy reveal that Azoarcus sp. CIB, a facultative anaerobe β-proteobacterium able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions, is also able to colonize the intercellular spaces of the rice roots. In addition, the strain CIB displays plant growth promoting traits such nitrogen fixation, uptake of insoluble phosphorus and production of indoleacetic acid. Therefore, this work demonstrates by the first time that a free-living bacterium able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic and anoxic conditions can share also an endophytic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rDNA and nifH genes confirmed that obligate endophytes of the Azoarcus genus and facultative endophytes, such as Azoarcus sp. CIB, locate into different evolutionary branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a bacterium, Azoarcus sp. CIB, able to degrade anaerobically a significant number of aromatic compounds, some of them of great environmental concern, and to colonize the rice as a facultative endophyte. Thus, Azoarcus sp. CIB becomes a suitable candidate for a more sustainable agricultural practice and phytoremediation technology.

  13. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan

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    J. Felden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amon mud volcano (MV, located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  14. Candidates for the development of consortia capable of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    David, J.; Gupta, R.; Mohandass, C.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Bacteria and yeasts from different niches of the tropical Indian waters were screened for their hydrocarbon degrading potential using 1% w/v in artificial seawater over a period of 6 days. About 20% of the 75 bacterial and 24% of the 27 yeast...

  15. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory.

  16. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amo

  17. Use of the Complex Conductivity Method to Monitor Hydrocarbon Degradation in Brackish Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Beaver, C. L.; Kimak, C.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Rossbach, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of the subsurface is a global environmental problem. The size, location and recurrence rate of contamination very often inhibits active remediation strategies. When there is no direct threat to humans, and direct/invasive remediation methods are prohibited, monitored natural attenuation is often the remediation method of choice. Consequently, long-term monitoring of hydrocarbon degradation is needed to validate remediation. Geophysical methods, frequently utilized to characterize subsurface contamination, have the potential to be adopted for long term monitoring of contaminant degradation. Over the last decade, the complex conductivity method has shown promise as a method for monitoring hydrocarbon degradation processes in freshwater environments. We investigated the sensitivity of complex conductivity to natural attenuation of oil in a brackish setting, being more representative of the conditions where most oil spills occur such as in coastal environments. We performed a series of laboratory hydrocarbon biodegradation experiments whilst continuously monitoring complex conductivity. Sediments from a beach impacted by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill were used to provide the hydrocarbon degraders, while fluids with three different salinities, ranging from fresh water to brackish water, were used as the supporting media. All experimental columns, including two abiotic controls, were run in duplicate. Early results show a dependence of the complex conductivity parameters (both electrolytic and interfacial) on biodegradation processes. Despite the small signals relative to freshwater conditions, the imaginary part of the complex conductivity appears to be sensitive to biodegradation processes. The columns with highest salinity fluids - similar to the salinites for the site where the sediments were collected - showed distinctive complex conductivity responses similar to microbial growth curves. Geochemical monitoring confirmed elevated rates

  18. Cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent characterisation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Guaymas Basin sediments

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    Tony eGutierrez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the biodegradation of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the diversity and function of these organisms in deep-sea sediment. Here we used stable-isotope probing (SIP, a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading bacteria under aerobic conditions in sediments from Guaymas Basin with uniformly labeled [13C]phenanthrene. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from phenanthrene enrichments were identified to belong to the genus Cycloclasticus. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Cycloclasticus to determine their abundance in sediment incubations amended with unlabeled phenanthrene and showed substantial increases in gene abundance during the experiments. We also isolated a strain, BG-2, representing the SIP-identified Cycloclasticus sequence (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, and used this strain to provide direct evidence of phenanthrene degradation and mineralization. In addition, we isolated Halomonas, Thalassospira and Lutibacterium spp. with demonstrable phenanthrene-degrading capacity from Guaymas Basin sediment. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea.

  19. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential of Soil Bacteria Native to the Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-Yu; GAO Dong-Mei; LI Feng-Min; ZHAO Jian; XIN Yuan-Zheng; S.SIMKINS; XING Bao-Shan

    2008-01-01

    The bioremediation potential of bacteria indigenous to soils of the Yellow River Delta in China was evaluated as a treatment option for soil remediation. Petroleum hydrocarbon degraders were isolated from contaminated soil samples from the Yellow River Delta. Four microbial communities and eight isolates were obtained. The optimal temperature, salinity, pH, and the ratios of C, N, and P (C:N:P) for the maximum biodegradation of diesel oil, crude oil, n-alkanes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons by ndigenous bacteria were determined, and the kinetics changes in microbial communities were monitored. In general, the mixed microbial consortia demonstrated wider catabolic versatility and faster overall rate of hydrocarbon degradation than individual isolates. Our experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon by indigenous bacteria for oil remediation in the Yellow River Delta.

  20. A Review on the Genetics of Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the high diversity of hydrocarbons, degradation of each class of these compounds is activated by a specific enzyme. However, most of other downstream enzymes necessary for complete degradation of hydrocarbons maybe common between different hydrocarbons. The genes encoding proteins for degradation of hydrocarbons, including the proteins required for the uptake of these molecules, the specific enzyme used for the initial activation of the molecules and other necessary degrading enzymes are usually arranged as an operon. Although the corresponding genes in many phylogenetic groups of microbial species show different levels of diversity in terms of the gene sequence, the organisation of the genes in the genome or on plasmids and the activation mode (inductive or constitutive), some organisms show identical hydrocarbon-degrading genes, probably as a result of horizontal gene transfer between microorganisms.

  1. Molecular cloning of novel genes for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation from Comamonas testosteroni GZ39.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Three strains of Comamonas testosteroni were isolated from river sediment for the ability to degrade phenanthrene; two of the strains also grew on naphthalene, and one strain also grew on anthracene. The homology of the genes for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in these strains to the classical genes (nah) for naphthalene degradation from Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4 was determined. The three C. testosteroni strains showed no homology to the nah gene probe even under low-stringe...

  2. DNA-based stable isotope probing coupled with cultivation methods implicates Methylophaga in hydrocarbon degradation.

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    Sara eMishamandani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the oxidation and ultimate removal of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. Those with an almost exclusive ability to utilize hydrocarbons as a sole carbon and energy source have been found confined to just a few genera. Here we used stable isotope probing (SIP, a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in coastal North Carolina sea water (Beaufort Inlet, USA with uniformly labeled [13C]n-hexadecane. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from n-hexadecane enrichments were identified to belong to the genus Alcanivorax, with ≤98% sequence identity to the closest type strain – thus representing a putative novel phylogenetic taxon within this genus. Unexpectedly, we also identified 13C-enriched sequences in heavy DNA fractions that were affiliated to the genus Methylophaga. This is a contentious group since, though some of its members have been proposed to degrade hydrocarbons, substantive evidence has not previously confirmed this. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Alcanivorax and Methylophaga to determine their abundance in incubations amended with unlabeled n-hexadecane. Both showed substantial increases in gene copy number during the experiments. Subsequently, we isolated a strain representing the SIP-identified Methylophaga sequences (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and used it to show, for the first time, direct evidence of hydrocarbon degradation by a cultured Methylophaga sp. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the marine environment.

  3. New hydrocarbon degradation pathways in the microbial metagenome from Brazilian petroleum reservoirs.

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    Isabel Natalia Sierra-García

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs.

  4. New Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Microbial Metagenome from Brazilian Petroleum Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

  5. Characterization of the transcriptome of Achromobacter sp. HZ01 with the outstanding hydrocarbon-degrading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yue-Hui; Deng, Mao-Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Chou-Fei; Xiao, Xi; Zhu, Qing; Sun, Xian-Xian; Zhou, Qian-Zhi; Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2016-06-15

    Microbial remediation has become one of the most important strategies for eliminating petroleum pollutants. Revealing the transcript maps of microorganisms with the hydrocarbon-degrading ability contributes to enhance the degradation of hydrocarbons and further improve the effectiveness of bioremediation. In this study, we characterized the transcriptome of hydrocarbon-degrading Achromobacter sp. HZ01 after petroleum treatment for 16h. A total of 38,706,280 and 38,954,413 clean reads were obtained by RNA-seq for the petroleum-treated group and control, respectively. By an effective de novo assembly, 3597 unigenes were obtained, including 3485 annotated transcripts. Petroleum treatment had significantly influenced the transcriptional profile of strain HZ01, involving 742 differentially expressed genes. A part of genes were activated to exert specific physiological functions, whereas more genes were down-regulated including specific genes related to cell motility, genes associated with glycometabolism, and genes coding for ribosomal proteins. Identification of genes related to petroleum degradation revealed that the fatty acid metabolic pathway and a part of monooxygenases and dehydrogenases were activated, whereas the TCA cycle was inactive. Additionally, terminal oxidation might be a major aerobic pathway for the degradation of n-alkanes in strain HZ01. The newly obtained data contribute to better understand the gene expression profiles of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms after petroleum treatment, to further investigate the genetic characteristics of strain HZ01 and other related species and to develop cost-effective and eco-friendly strategies for remediation of crude oil-polluted environments.

  6. Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics'era.

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    Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment's complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment's reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying "omics" approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we

  7. Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics’era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana eCravo-Laureau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment’s complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature, nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment’s reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying ‘omics’ approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon

  8. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Exhibit a Species-Specific Response to Dispersed Oil while Moderating Ecotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Will A.; Marks, Kala P.; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David J.; Snell, Terry W.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in April 2010 represented the largest accidental marine oil spill and the largest release of chemical dispersants into the environment to date. While dispersant application may provide numerous benefits to oil spill response efforts, the impacts of dispersants and potential synergistic effects with crude oil on individual hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, two environmentally relevant species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were utilized to quantify the response to Macondo crude oil and Corexit 9500A-dispersed oil in terms of bacterial growth and oil degradation potential. In addition, specific hydrocarbon compounds were quantified in the dissolved phase of the medium and linked to ecotoxicity using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved rotifer assay. Bacterial treatment significantly and drastically reduced the toxicity associated with dispersed oil (increasing the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] by 215%). The growth and crude oil degradation potential of Acinetobacter were inhibited by Corexit by 34% and 40%, respectively; conversely, Corexit significantly enhanced the growth of Alcanivorax by 10% relative to that in undispersed oil. Furthermore, both bacterial strains were shown to grow with Corexit as the sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species demonstrate a unique response to dispersed oil compared to their response to crude oil, with potentially opposing effects on toxicity. While some species have the potential to enhance the toxicity of crude oil by producing biosurfactants, the same bacteria may reduce the toxicity associated with dispersed oil through degradation or sequestration. PMID:26546426

  9. A simple strategy for investigating the diversity and hydrocarbon degradation abilities of cultivable bacteria from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučková, Maria; Puškarová, Andrea; Chovanová, Katarína; Kraková, Lucia; Ferianc, Peter; Pangallo, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    The use of indigenous bacterial strains is a valuable bioremediation strategy for cleaning the environment from hydrocarbon pollutants. The isolation and selection of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria is therefore crucial for obtaining the most promising strains for site decontamination. Two different media, a minimal medium supplemented with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and a MS medium supplemented with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, were used for the isolation of bacterial strains from two hydrocarbon contaminated soils and from their enrichment phases. The hydrocarbon degradation abilities of these bacterial isolates were easily and rapidly assessed using the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol assay. The diversity of the bacterial communities isolated from these two soil samples and from their enrichment phases was evaluated by the combination of a bacterial clustering method, fluorescence ITS-PCR, and bacterial identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Different PCR-based assays were performed in order to detect the genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation. The best hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, including Arthrobacter sp., Enterobacter sp., Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, were isolated directly from the soil samples on minimal medium. The nahAc gene was detected only in 13 Gram-negative isolates and the sequences of nahAc-like genes were obtained from Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas brenneri, Pseudomonas entomophila and P. koreensis strains. The combination of isolation on minimal medium with the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol assay was effective in selecting different hydrocarbon-degrading strains from 353 isolates.

  10. Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways used by Coastal Sediment Microbial Communities exposed to Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding-Astudillo, F.; Sharrar, A.; Orcutt, B.

    2016-02-01

    The site-specific microbial community response to crude oil exposure in marine environments is not well described. Moreover, the abundance of genes implicated in long-chain alkane (LCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation are not well understood. Coastal sediments from the Beaufort Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and Portland Harbor were treated with crude oil and incubated aerobically. Deep-sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were treated with the same crude oil and anaerobically incubated in situ for five months before recovery. Cycloclasticus, a known hydrocarbon-degrader, was abundant in all oiled, aerobic samples regardless of temperature, demonstrating a generalist oil-response strategy. Other hydrocarbon degrading bacteria showed differential response to either site or temperature. Primers for alkB, assA, bssA, and ncr, catabolic gene markers for aerobic LCA degradation, anaerobic LCA degradation, anaerobic LCA & PAH degradation, and anaerobic PAH degradation, respectively, were found in literature and tested on DNA extracts in a QPCR-based assay. Gene abundance was site and condition variable.

  11. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Sohail [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Afzal, Muhammad [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad (Pakistan); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Environmental Resources and Technologies Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Brady, Carrie L. [Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: > E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. > E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. > E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. > E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. > Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  12. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza L; Leite, Deborah C A; Ferreira, Edir M; Ferreira, Lívia Q; Paula, Geraldo R; Maguire, Michael J; Hubert, Casey R J; Peixoto, Raquel S; Domingues, Regina M C P; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-30

    Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0-5, 15-20 and 35-40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0-5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15-20 and 35-40 cm), which were similar to each other.

  13. Microcosm-based interaction studies between members of two ecophysiological groups of bioemulsifier producer and a hydrocarbon degrader from the Indian intertidal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markande, A R; Nerurkar, A S

    2016-07-01

    Isolates were obtained from intertidal zone site samples from all five western and one eastern coastal states of India and were screened. These ecophysiological groups of aerobic, mesophilic, heterotrophic, sporulating, and bioemulsifier-producing bacteria were from Planococcaceae and Bacillaceae. This is the first report of bioemulsifier production by Sporosarcina spp., Lysinibacillus spp., B. thuringiensis, and B. flexus. In this group, Solibacillus silvestris AM1 was found to produce the highest emulsification activity (62.5 %EI) and the sample that yielded it was used to isolate the ecophysiological group of non-bioemulsifier-producing, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (belonging to Chromatiales and Bacillales). These yielded hitherto unreported degrader, Rheinheimera sp. CO6 which was selected for the interaction studies (in a microcosm) with bioemulsifier-producing S. silvestris AM1. The gas chromatographic study of these microcosm experiments revealed increased degradation of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) and the growth of Rheinheimera sp. CO6 in the presence of bioemulsifier produced by S. silvestris AM1. Enhancement of the growth of S. silvestris AM1 in the presence of Rheinheimera sp. CO6 was observed possibly due to reduced toxicity of BTX suggesting mutualistic association between the two. This study elucidates the presence and interaction between enhancers and degraders in a hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal zone and contributes to the knowledge during application of the two in remediation processes.

  14. Mycobacterium pyrenivorans sp. nov., a novel polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derz, Kerstin; Klinner, Ulrich; Schuphan, Ingolf; Stackebrandt, Erko; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M

    2004-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, strain 17A3(T), isolated from contaminated soil was determined using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic properties. The isolate showed phenotypic properties that were diagnostic for species of the genus Mycobacterium. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis assigned 17A3(T) to the 16S rRNA gene subgroup that contains Mycobacterium aurum, Mycobacterium austroafricanum, Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, but it could clearly be distinguished from these species using a combination of physiological, chemotaxonomic markers and internal rRNA gene spacer analyses. The data showed that strain 17A3(T) (=DSM 44605(T)=NRRL B-24244(T)) merits recognition as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium. The name Mycobacterium pyrenivorans sp. nov. is proposed for the species because of its ability to use pyrene as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  15. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boonfei; Jane Fowler, S; Laban, Nidal Abu; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities. PMID:25734684

  16. Highly Active and Stable Large Catalase Isolated from a Hydrocarbon Degrading Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preety Vatsyayan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hydrocarbon degrading Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324 produces a high level of extremely active and stable cellular large catalase (CAT during growth on n-hexadecane to combat the oxidative stress caused by the hydrocarbon degrading metabolic machinery inside the cell. A 160-fold purification with specific activity of around 66 × 105 U mg−1 protein was achieved. The native protein molecular mass was 368 ± 5 kDa with subunit molecular mass of nearly 90 kDa, which indicates that the native CAT protein is a homotetramer. The isoelectric pH (pI of the purified CAT was 4.2. BLAST aligned peptide mass fragments of CAT protein showed its highest similarity with the catalase B protein from other fungal sources. CAT was active in a broad range of pH 4 to 12 and temperature 25°C to 90°C. The catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km of 4.7 × 108 M−1 s−1 within the studied substrate range and alkaline pH stability (half-life, t1/2 at pH 12~15 months of CAT are considerably higher than most of the extensively studied catalases from different sources. The storage stability (t1/2 of CAT at physiological pH 7.5 and 4°C was nearly 30 months. The haem was identified as haem b by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS/MS.

  17. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luiza L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm, which were similar to each other.

  18. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boonfei; Fowler, S Jane; Abu Laban, Nidal; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities.

  19. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chronopoulou, P.M.; Sanni, G.O.; Silas-Olu, D.I.; van der Meer, J.R.; Timmis, K.N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; McGenity, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induc

  20. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chronopoulou, P.M.; Sanni, G.O.; Silas-Olu, D.I.; van der Meer, J.R.; Timmis, K.N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; McGenity, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No

  1. Life in oil :Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial mineralization in oil spill-polluted marine environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms is one of the primary ways by which an oil spill is eliminated from contaminated sites.One such spill was that of the Russian tanker the Nakhodka that spilled heavy oil into the Sea of Japan on January 2,1997.This paper describes the three main processes of the Nakhodka oil spill,including:(1) the weathering of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (genus Pseudomonas)and crystallized organic compounds from the Nakhodka oil spill-polluted seashores after nine years;(2) the laboratory-scale biodegradation of the Nakhodka oil spill over a 429-day period;and (3) the bioavailability of kaolinite clay minerals and the role they play in seawater polluted with the Nakhodka oil spill.Upon the slow evaporation of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year weathering,the dendritic crystal growth of paraffin (a mixture of alkanes) occurred in the oil crust under natural conditions.Heavy metals were obtained in the original heavy oil samples of three seashores in the Sea of Japan.Si,S,Ti,Cr,Ni,Cu,and Zn were found in the original Nakhodka oil spill samples whereas these heavy metals and S were no longer present after 9 years.The anaerobic reverse side of the oil crust contained numerous coccus-type bacteria associated with halite.The hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and paraffin wax in the oil crust may have a significant effect on the weathering processes of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year bioremediation.A biodegradation process of heavy oil from the Nakhodka oil spill by indigenous microbial consortia was monitored over 429 days in the laboratory.The indigenous microbial consortia consisted of bacteria and fungi as well as the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Atake seashore,Ishikawa Prefecture,Japan.Both bacteria and fungi had a significant role in the observed biodegradation of heavy oil during the 429-day bioremediation with respect to the pH of the solution.Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria had a tendency to

  2. Degradation Characteristics and Community Structure of a Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacterial Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Gu Guizhou; Zhao Chaocheng; Zhao Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    A hydrocarbon degrading bacterial consortium KO5-2 was isolated from oil-contaminated soil of Karamay in Xinjiang, China, which could remove 56.9%of 10 g/L total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) at 30℃after 7 days of incu-bation, and could also remove 100%of lfuorene, 98.93%of phenanthrene and 65.73%of pyrene within 3, 7 and 9 days, respectively. Twelve strains from six different genera were isolated from KO5-2 and only eight ones were able to utilize the TPH. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to investigate the microbial community shifts in ifve different carbon sources (including TPH, saturated hydrocarbons, lfuorene, phenanthrene and pyrene). The test results indi-cated that the community compositions of KO5-2 in carbon sources of TPH and saturated hydrocarbons, respectively, were roughly the same, while they were distinctive in the three different carbon sources of PAHs. Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudo-monas sp. could survive in the ifve kinds of carbon sources. Bacillus sp., Sphingomonas sp. and Ochrobactrum sp. likely played key roles in the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons, PAHs and phenanthrene, respectively. This study showed that speciifc bacterial phylotypes were associated with different contaminants and complex interactions between bacterial spe-cies, and the medium conditions inlfuenced the biodegradation capacity of the microbial communities involved in bioreme-diation processes.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  5. Distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the soil environment and their contribution to bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Yuki; Horii, Sachie; Matsuno, Toshihide; Matsumiya, Yoshiki; Mukai, Masaki; Kubo, Motoki

    2013-05-01

    A real-time PCR quantification method for indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) carrying the alkB gene in the soil environment was developed to investigate their distribution in soil. The detection limit of indigenous HDB by the method was 1 × 10(6) cells/g-soil. The indigenous HDB were widely distributed throughout the soil environment and ranged from 3.7 × 10(7) to 5.0 × 10(8) cells/g-soil, and the ratio to total bacteria was 0.1-4.3 %. The dynamics of total bacteria, indigenous HDB, and Rhodococcus erythropolis NDKK6 (carrying alkB R2) during bioremediation were analyzed. During bioremediation with an inorganic nutrient treatment, the numbers of these bacteria were slightly increased. The numbers of HDB (both indigenous bacteria and strain NDKK6) were gradually decreased from the middle stage of bioremediation. Meanwhile, the numbers of these bacteria were highly increased and were maintained during bioremediation with an organic nutrient. The organic treatment led to activation of not only the soil bacteria but also the HDB, so an efficient bioremediation was carried out.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  7. Mycobacterium frederiksbergense sp. nov., a novel polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading Mycobacterium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, P; Karlson, U; Stackebrandt, E; Kroppenstedt, R M

    2001-09-01

    A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from coal tar-contaminated soil in Denmark was characterized by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetically and chemotaxonomically, it was related to members of the genus Mycobacterium. The isolate contains chemotaxonomic markers that are diagnostic for the genus Mycobacterium; i.e. the meso isomer of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose as diagnostic whole-cell sugars, MK-9(H2) as the principal isoprenoid quinone, a mycolic acid pattern of alpha-mycolates, ketomycolates and wax-ester mycolates, unbranched saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plus a small amount of tuberculostearic acid and a significant amount of a C18:0 secondary alcohol. Based on the unique combination of chemical markers among mycobacteria, it is proposed that the isolate should be assigned to a new species, Mycobacterium frederiksbergense sp. nov. This novel species is phylogenetically closely related to Mycobacterium diernhoferi, Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium hodleri. The type strain of M. frederiksbergense is strain FAn9T (= DSM 44346T = NRRL B-24126T).

  8. Exploration of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on soils contaminated by crude oil from South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Napoleon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3 sites of contaminated soil and treated using SBS medium were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnumoniae, Streptococcus beta hemolisa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acinotobacter calcoaceticus. Isolates that survived on 300 ppm of hydrocarbon concentration were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter cakciaceticus Selected isolates posses the ability to degrade hydrocarbon by breaking hydrocarbon substance as the energy source to support isolates existence up to 1,67 TPH level. Based on results accomplish by this research, we urge for further research involving the capacity of isolates to degrade wide variety of hydrocarbon substance and more to develop the potential of these bacteria for bioremediation.

  9. Comparison of Paraffin and Diesel Oil as Cultivation Medium Supplements for Preparing a Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokukins Eduards

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of liquid paraffin and diesel oil as nutrient amendments for hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was compared. Different parameters were analyzed - optical density of bacterial suspension, oxygen consumption by biomass, morphology of bacteria, etc. In some experiments the paraffin was more preferable for microorganisms, but in other tests the results for both substances were similar. The influence of the comparable substances strongly depends on cultivation conditions.

  10. Identification and biosynthesis of a novel xanthomonadin-dialkylresorcinol-hybrid from Azoarcus sp. BH72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A Schöner

    Full Text Available A novel xanthomonadin-dialkylresorcinol hybrid named arcuflavin was identified in Azoarcus sp. BH72 by a combination of feeding experiments, HPLC-MS and MALDI-MS and gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of this non-isoprenoid aryl-polyene containing pigment are reported. A chorismate-utilizing enzyme from the XanB2-type producing 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and an AMP-ligase encoded by these gene clusters were characterized, that might perform the first two steps of the polyene biosynthesis. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the already known or novel biosynthesis gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of polyene containing pigments like arcuflavin, flexirubin and xanthomonadin revealed the presence of similar gene clusters in a wide range of bacterial taxa, suggesting that polyene and polyene-dialkylresorcinol pigments are more widespread than previously realized.

  11. Succession of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil spill in the gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Conrad, Mark E; Chakraborty, Romy; Bill, Markus; Borglin, Sharon E; Hollibaugh, James T; Mason, Olivia U; M Piceno, Yvette; Reid, Francine C; Stringfellow, William T; Tom, Lauren M; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

    2013-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill produced large subsurface plumes of dispersed oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico that stimulated growth of psychrophilic, hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. We tracked succession of plume bacteria before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine the microbial response and biodegradation potential throughout the incident. Dominant bacteria shifted substantially over time and were dependent on relative quantities of different hydrocarbon fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest proportions of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at depth and corresponded with dominance by Oceanospirillaceae and Pseudomonas. Once partial capture of oil and gas began 43 days into the spill, petroleum hydrocarbons decreased, the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons increased, and Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, and Pseudoalteromonas increased in dominance. Enrichment of Methylomonas coincided with positive shifts in the δ(13)C values of methane in the plume and indicated significant methane oxidation occurred earlier than previously reported. Anomalous oxygen depressions persisted at plume depths for over six weeks after well shut-in and were likely caused by common marine heterotrophs associated with degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter, including Methylophaga. Multiple hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria operated simultaneously throughout the spill, but their relative importance was controlled by changes in hydrocarbon supply.

  12. In situ biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by nitrate and phosphate injection using a dipole well configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Coulomb, Bruno; Guelorget, Yves; Maier, Joachim; Höhener, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of source zone bioremediation by nitrate and nutrient injection in a crude-oil contaminated aquifer using a recirculating well dipole. Groundwater pumped from a downgradient well at a rate of 2.5 m3 h- 1 was enriched with bromide (tracer), nitrate and ammonium phosphate and injected in a well 40 m upgradient. The test was run for 49 days with solute injection, followed by 65 days of dipole operation without solute addition. The resulting bromide breakthrough curve allowed quantifying a first-order leakage coefficient of 0.017 day- 1 from the dipole, whereas from the nitrate data a first-order nitrate consumption rate of 0.075 day- 1 was determined. Dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations including benzene decreased to non-detect in 84 days but experienced important rebounds after ending circulation. Nitrite accumulated temporarily but was consumed entirely when solute injection stopped. The mass balance calculations revealed that about 83% of the nitrate was used for hydrocarbon degradation, with the remaining being used for oxidation of reduced sulfur. A reactive transport model was used for the delineation of the treated zone. This model suggested that denitrification influenced flow and transport in the dipole. It is concluded that successful promotion of denitrifying hydrocarbon degradation is easily obtained in this aquifer and enables to abate dissolved concentrations, and that dipole configuration is a good option.

  13. Multi-Year Analysis of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities at the Petroleum-Contaminated site in Bemidji, Minn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, S.; Beaver, C. L.; Atekwana, E. A.; Enright, A. M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Lund, A.; Slater, L. D.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the synchronized geophysical and microbiological analysis of the subsurface petroleum spill in Bemidji, MN. Initially, the center of the free-phase hydrocarbon plume exhibited high magnetic susceptibility (MS) around the water table, however, the MS values decreased in subsequent years. To monitor the composition of the microbial community over time, sediment cores were collected in five consecutive years from the free-phase petroleum plume. Assisted by the sample-freezing drive shoe, continuous cores were collected that stretched below the water table. High-throughput DNA sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene was applied to closely-spaced samples from the cores, and MS was measured in situ and from the cores. Exactly around the fluctuating water table, where the magnetic susceptibility anomaly had been measured, a methanogenic microbial community was found. The main microbial populations in this community were, besides the hydrocarbon-degrading Firmicutes, the syntrophic propionate oxidizer Smithella and the methanogenic Archaeon Methanoregula. Both genera, Smithella and Methanoregula, were consistently present in samples from all five years, and seem to follow the fluctuating water table. A high water table coincided with high MS and the presence of magnetite, whereas a lower water table may have resulted in the oxidation of magnetite resulting in the measurements of lower MS. Augmented by laboratory analyses of iron oxide minerals and microcosm studies, we are evaluating how certain microbial populations influence the geophysical characteristics of the surrounding sediments during microbial hydrocarbon degradation.

  14. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-11-25

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies.

  15. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies. PMID:27886221

  16. Effects of prokaryotic diversity changes on hydrocarbon degradation rates and metal partitioning during bioremediation of contaminated anoxic marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Beolchini, Francesca; Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie; Dell'Anno, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    We investigated changes of prokaryotic diversity during bioremediation experiments carried out on anoxic marine sediments characterized by high hydrocarbon and metal content. Microcosms containing contaminated sediments were amended with lactose and acetate and incubated in anaerobic conditions up to 60 d at 20 or 35 °C. Microcosms displaying higher degradation efficiency of hydrocarbons were characterized by the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria and Methanosarcinales and the lack of gene sequences belonging to known hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. Multivariate analyses support the hypothesis that Alphaproteobacteria are important for hydrocarbon degradation and highlight a potential synergistic effect of archaea and bacteria in changes of metal partitioning. Overall, these results point out that the identification of changes in the prokaryotic diversity during bioremediation of contaminated marine sediments is not only important for the improvement of bio-treatment performance towards hydrocarbons, but also for a better comprehension of changes occurring in metal partitioning which affect their mobility and toxicity.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus PDSLzg-1, a Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Li, Hongna; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus strain PDSLzg-1, an efficient hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, was isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Here, we present the complete sequence of its circular chromosome and circular plasmid. The genomic information is essential for the study of degradation of oil by B. pumilus PDSLzg-1.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium Alcanivorax dieselolei KS-293 Isolated from Surface Seawater in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2015-12-10

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Alcanivorax dieselolei KS-293, a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium isolated from the Mediterranean Sea, by supplying diesel oil as the sole carbon source. This strain contains multiple putative genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways and that are highly similar to those described in A. dieselolei type strain B5.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus Strain STW2, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading and Denitrifying Bacterium from the Rhizosphere of Seagrass Enhalus acodoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Juan; Lin, Liyun; Zhang, Yanying; Lin, Xiancheng; Ahamad, Manzoor; Zhou, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus strain STW2, which was isolated from the rhizosphere of seagrass Enhalus acodoides. This study will facilitate future studies on the genetic pathways of marine microbes capable of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation and nitrate reduction. PMID:28232431

  20. The Regulatory Network Controlling Ethanol-Induced Expression of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in the Endophyte Azoarcus sp. Strain BH72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andrea; Julich, Henrike; Mankar, Manasee; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    The habitat of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is grass roots grown under waterlogged conditions that produce, under these conditions, ethanol. Strain BH72 is well equipped to metabolize ethanol, with eight alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), of which ExaA2 and ExaA3 are the most relevant ones. exaA2 and exaA3 cluster and are surrounded by genes encoding two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) termed ExaS-ExaR and ElmS-GacA. Functional genomic analyses revealed that i) expression of the corresponding genes was induced by ethanol, ii) the genes were also expressed in the rhizoplane or even inside of rice roots, iii) both TCSs were indispensable for growth on ethanol, and iv) they were important for competitiveness during rice root colonization. Both TCSs form a hierarchically organized ethanol-responsive signal transduction cascade with ExaS-ExaR as the highest level, essential for effective expression of the ethanol oxidation system based on ExaA2. Transcript and expression levels of exaA3 increased in tcs deletion mutants, suggesting no direct influence of both TCSs on its ethanol-induced expression. In conclusion, this underscores the importance of ethanol for the endophytic lifestyle of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 and indicates a tight regulation of the ethanol oxidation system during root colonization.

  1. Role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Khan, Aqib Hassan; Tanveer, Sundus; Anees, Mariam; Muhammad, Yousaf Shad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Yousaf, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including pH, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. The present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. Seven fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus FA3, Aspergillus niger FA5, Aspergillus terreus FA6, Penicillium chrysogenum FP4, Aspergillus terreus FP6, Aspergillus flavus FP10, and Candida sp. FG1) were used for hydrocarbon degradation under static conditions, in four combinations of nutrient media and illuminance for 45 days. Highest degradation was achieved by Aspergillus terreus FA6 and Candida sp. FG1 under both conditions of light and dark, with nutrient deprived HAF (Hydrocarbon adopted fungi) broth. Under HAF/Dark diesel oil degradation by FA6 and FG1 was 87.3% and 84.3% respectively, while under HAF/Light both FA6 and FG1 performed 84.3% biodegradation. The highest biomass was produced by Aspergillus flavus FP10 in PDB (Potato dextrose broth)/Dark (109.3 mg). Fungal degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was negatively affected by the presence of other simpler-to-degrade carbon sources in the medium. The biomass production was enhanced by improved nutrient availability and diminished by illuminance.

  2. Cable Bacteria and the Bioelectrochemical Snorkel: The Natural and Engineered Facets Playing a Role in Hydrocarbons Degradation in Marine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Matturro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition and metabolic traits of the microbial communities acting in an innovative bioelectrochemical system were here investigated. The system, known as Oil Spill Snorkel, was recently developed to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic marine sediments. Next Generation Sequencing was used to describe the microbiome of the bulk sediment and of the biofilm growing attached to the surface of the electrode. The analysis revealed that sulfur cycling primarily drives the microbial metabolic activities occurring in the bioelectrochemical system. In the anoxic zone of the contaminated marine sediment, petroleum hydrocarbon degradation occurred under sulfate-reducing conditions and was lead by different families of Desulfobacterales (46% of total OTUs. Remarkably, the occurrence of filamentous Desulfubulbaceae, known to be capable to vehicle electrons deriving from sulfide oxidation to oxygen serving as a spatially distant electron acceptor, was demonstrated. Differently from the sediment, which was mostly colonized by Deltaproteobacteria, the biofilm at the anode hosted, at high extent, members of Alphaproteobacteria (59% mostly affiliated to Rhodospirillaceae family (33% and including several known sulfur- and sulfide-oxidizing genera. Overall, we showed the occurrence in the system of a variety of electroactive microorganisms able to sustain the contaminant biodegradation alone or by means of an external conductive support through the establishment of a bioelectrochemical connection between two spatially separated redox zones and the preservation of an efficient sulfur cycling.

  3. Novel lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by hydrocarbon degrading and heavy metal tolerant bacterium Escherichia fergusonii KLU01 as a potential tool for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Gayathiri, Shanmugakani; Gnanaselvi, Ulaganathan; Jenifer, Paulraj Stanly; Mohan Raj, Subramanian; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2011-10-01

    Escherichia fergusonii KLU01, a propitious bacterial strain isolated from oil contaminated soil was identified to be hydrocarbon degrading, heavy metal tolerant and a potent producer of biosurfactant using diesel oil as the sole carbon and energy source. The biosurfactant produced by the strain was characterized to be a lipopeptide. The minimum active dose and critical micelle concentration of the biosurfactant were found as 0.165±0.08 μg and 36 mg/L, respectively. In spite of being an excellent emulsifier, the biosurfactant showed an incredible stability at extremes of temperature, pH and at various concentrations of NaCl, CaCl₂ and MgCl₂. Also the bacterium manifested tolerance towards Manganese, Iron, Lead, Nickel, Copper and Zinc. The strain emerges as a new class of biosurfactant producer with potential environmental and industrial applications, especially in hydrocarbon degradation and heavy metal bioremediation.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus Strain CNV2, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from the Noonmati Oil Refinery, Guwahati, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Chettri, Bobby; Langpoklakpam, James S; Singh, Arvind K; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti

    2016-05-12

    Here, we report the 2.6 Mb draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain CNV2, isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Guwahati, India. CNV2 contains 2,545 coding sequences and has a G+C content of 33.2%. This is the first report of the genome sequence of an S. saprophyticus adapted to an oil-contaminated environment.

  5. Impact of hydrocarbons, PCBs and heavy metals on bacterial communities in Lerma River, Salamanca, Mexico: Investigation of hydrocarbon degradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Elcia M S; De la Cruz Barrón, Magali; Caretta, César A; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Andrade, Leandro H; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João P M; Simon, Maryse; Guyoneaud, Remy

    2015-07-15

    Freshwater contamination usually comes from runoff water or direct wastewater discharges to the environment. This paper presents a case study which reveals the impact of these types of contamination on the sediment bacterial population. A small stretch of Lerma River Basin, heavily impacted by industrial activities and urban wastewater release, was studied. Due to industrial inputs, the sediments are characterized by strong hydrocarbon concentrations, ranging from 2 935 to 28 430μg·kg(-1) of total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These sediments are also impacted by heavy metals (e.g., 9.6μg·kg(-1) of Cd and 246μg·kg(-1) of Cu, about 8 times the maximum recommended values for environmental samples) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ranging from 54 to 123μg·kg(-1) of total PCBs). The bacterial diversity on 6 sediment samples, taken from upstream to downstream of the main industrial and urban contamination sources, was assessed through TRFLP. Even though the high PAH concentrations are hazardous to aquatic life, they are not the only factor driving bacterial community composition in this ecosystem. Urban discharges, leading to hypoxia and low pH, also strongly influenced bacterial community structure. The bacterial bioprospection of these samples, using PAH as unique carbon source, yielded 8 hydrocarbonoclastic strains. By sequencing the 16S rDNA gene, these were identified as similar to Mycobacterium goodii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas lundensis or Aeromonas veronii. These strains showed high capacity to degrade naphthalene (between 92 and 100% at 200mg·L(-1)), pyrene (up to 72% at 100mg·L(-1)) and/or fluoranthene (52% at 50mg·L(-1)) as their only carbon source on in vitro experiments. These hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were detected even in the samples upstream of the city of Salamanca, suggesting chronical contamination, already in place longer before. Such microorganisms are clearly potential candidates for hydrocarbon degradation in the

  6. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  7. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Kappell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including PAHs, were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH

  8. Synergistic action of rhizospheric fungi with Megathyrsus maximus root speeds up hydrocarbon degradation kinetics in oil polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemoloye, Michael Dare; Ahmad, Rafiq; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed at combining the potentials of plant and some rhizospheric fungal strains in remediation of crude-oil polluted soil. Four new rhizospheric fungi were identified from an aged crude-oil polluted site and used with Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass) for a 90 day synergistic remediation experiment. Cultures of these strains were first mixed with spent mushroom compost (SMC), the mixture was then applied to a sterilized crude oil polluted soil at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% potted in three replicates. Soil with plant alone (0%1) and soil with fungi-SMC alone (0%2) served as controls. The soil's initial and final pH, nutrient, 16 EPA PAHs and heavy metal contents were determined, degradation rate, half-life and percentage loss of the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) were also calculated. Finally, the remediated soils were further screened for seed germination supporting index. The fungal strains were identified and registered at NCBI as Aspergillus niger asemoA (KY473958.1), Talaromyces purpurogenus asemoF (KY488463.1), Trichoderma harzianum asemoJ (KY488466.1) and Aspergillus flavus asemoM (KY488467.1). We observed for the first time that the synergistic mechanism improved the soil nutrient, reduced the heavy metal concentration and sped up hydrocarbon degradation rate. Using the initial and final concentrations of the TPAH, we recorded highest biodegradation rates (K1) and half-life (t1/2) in 30 and 40% treatments over controls, these treatments also had highest seed germination supporting index. This work suggests that the set-up synergistic remediation could be used to remediate crude oil polluted soil and this could be used in large scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are

  10. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria eAntoniou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants (BS are green amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm biosurfactant producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on biosurfactant production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Results indicate that biosurfactant production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of biosurfactants that enables biodegradation of the crude oil. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of crude oil has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents.

  11. Metagenomic Analysis of Hot Springs in Central India Reveals Hydrocarbon Degrading Thermophiles and Pathways Essential for Survival in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rituja; Dhakan, Darshan B.; Mittal, Parul; Waiker, Prashant; Chowdhury, Anirban; Ghatak, Arundhuti; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme ecosystems such as hot springs are of great interest as a source of novel extremophilic species, enzymes, metabolic functions for survival and biotechnological products. India harbors hundreds of hot springs, the majority of which are not yet explored and require comprehensive studies to unravel their unknown and untapped phylogenetic and functional diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale metagenomic analysis of three major hot springs located in central India namely, Badi Anhoni, Chhoti Anhoni, and Tattapani at two geographically distinct regions (Anhoni and Tattapani), to uncover the resident microbial community and their metabolic traits. Samples were collected from seven distinct sites of the three hot spring locations with temperature ranging from 43.5 to 98°C. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3 hypervariable region and shotgun metagenome sequencing uncovered a unique taxonomic and metabolic diversity of the resident thermophilic microbial community in these hot springs. Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be abundant in the Anhoni hot springs (43.5–55°C), dominated by Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acidovorax sp., suggesting the presence of chemoorganotrophic thermophilic community with the ability to utilize complex hydrocarbons as a source of energy. A high abundance of genes belonging to methane metabolism pathway was observed at Chhoti Anhoni hot spring, where methane is reported to constitute >80% of all the emitted gases, which was marked by the high abundance of Methylococcus capsulatus. The Tattapani hot spring, with a high-temperature range (61.5–98°C), displayed a lower microbial diversity and was primarily dominated by a nitrate-reducing archaeal species Pyrobaculum aerophilum. A higher abundance of cell metabolism pathways essential for the microbial survival in extreme conditions was observed at Tattapani. Taken together

  12. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerun, S Khodijah; Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2004-09-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed the inside building and the outside building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  13. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaerun, S. Khodijah [Kanazawa Univ., Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa (Japan); Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji [Kanazawa Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa (Japan); Kogure, Kazuhiro [Tokyo Univ., Ocean Research Inst., Nakano, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon- degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed inside the building and outside the building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  14. Hydrocarbon degradation and plant colonization of selected bacterial strains isolated from the rhizsophere and plant interior of Italian ryegrass and Birdsfoot trefoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Y.; Andria, V.; Reichenauer, T. G.; Sessitsch, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading strains were isolated from the rhizosphere, root and shoot interior of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum var. Taurus), Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. Leo) grown in a soil contaminated with petroleum oil. Strains were tested regarding their phylogeny and their degradation efficiency. The most efficient strains were tested regarding their suitability to be applied for phytoremediation of diesel oils. Sterilized and non-sterilized agricultural soil, with and with out compost, were spiked with diesel and used for planting Italian ryegrass and birdsfoot trefoil. Four selected strains with high degradation activities, derived from the rhizosphere and plant interior, were selected for individual inoculation. Plants were harvested at flowering stage and plant biomass and hydrocarbon degradation was determined. Furthermore, it was investigated to which extent the inoculant strains were able to survive and colonize plants. Microbial community structures were analysed by 16S rRNA and alkB gene analysis. Results showed efficient colonization by the inoculant strains and improved degradation by the application of compost combined with inoculation as well as on microbial community structures will be presented.

  15. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and Paraffin from Polluted Seashores 9 Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill in the Sea of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pollution of petroleum hydrocarbons, in particular oil spills, has attracted much attention in the past and recent decades. Oil spills influence natural microbial community, and physical and chemical properties of the affected sites. The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms is one of the primary ways by which oil spill is eliminated from contaminated sites. One such spill was that of the Russian tanker the Nakhodka that spilled heavy oil into the Sea of Japan on January 2, 1997. The impact of the Nakhodka oil spill resulted in a viscous sticky fluid fouling the shores and affected natural ecosystems. This paper describes the weathering of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (genus Pseudomonas) and crystallized organic compounds from the Nakhodka oil spill-polluted seashores after nine years. The Nakhodka oil has hardened and formed crust of crystalline paraffin wax as shown by XRD analysis (0.422, 0.377, and 0.250 nm d-spacing) in association with graphite and calcite after 9years of bioremediation. Anaerobic reverse side of the oil crust contained numerous coccus typed bacteria associated with halite. The finding of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and paraffin wax in the oil crust may have a significant effect on the weathering processes of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year bioremediation.

  16. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  17. Hydrocarbon degradation potential and plant growth-promoting activity of culturable endophytic bacteria of Lotus corniculatus and Oenothera biennis from a long-term polluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Cania, Barbara; Thijs, Sofie; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-07-06

    Many endophytic bacteria exert beneficial effects on their host, but still little is known about the bacteria associated with plants growing in areas heavily polluted by hydrocarbons. The aim of the study was characterization of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading endophytic bacteria associated with Lotus corniculatus L. and Oenothera biennis L. collected in long-term petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted site using culture-dependent and molecular approaches. A total of 26 hydrocarbon-degrading endophytes from these plants were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses classified the isolates into the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The majority of strains belonged to the genera Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Rhodococcus. More than 90% of the isolates could grow on medium with diesel oil, approximately 20% could use n-hexadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR analysis revealed that 40% of the isolates possessed the P450 gene encoding for cytochrome P450-type alkane hydroxylase (CYP153). In in vitro tests, all endophytic strains demonstrated a wide range of plant growth-promoting traits such as production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and phosphate solubilization. More than 40% of the bacteria carried the gene encoding for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (acdS). Our study shows that the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in tested plants was different. The results revealed also that the investigated plants were colonized by endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting features and a clear potential to degrade hydrocarbons. The properties of isolated endophytes indicate that they have the high potential to improve phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils.

  18. Reassessment of the taxonomic structure of the diazotrophic genus Azoarcus sensu lato and description of three new genera and new species, Azovibrio restrictus gen. nov., sp. nov., Azospira oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Azonexus fungiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold-Hurek, B; Hurek, T

    2000-03-01

    The taxonomic structure of members of the genus Azoarcus sensu lato was reassessed in a polyphasic approach. Two species, Azoarcus communis and Azoarcus indigens, three unnamed species containing diazotrophs associated with Kallar grass roots (groups C, D) and a group of strains (E) isolated from fungi were analysed. They were compared by PAGE analyses of cellular proteins, genomic fingerprints, morphological and nutritional features to new isolates from rice roots. All strains within groups C, D and E containing 5-12 isolates showed group-specific cell and colony morphology and carbon source utilization patterns, with exception of the obligately microaerobic strain BS20-3, a member of group C. All strains, with this exception, also had almost indistinguishable electrophoretic protein patterns and genomic fingerprints generated with tDNA-directed primers, suggesting they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analyses of almost complete 16S rDNA sequences carried out with three different algorithms (neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood, parsimony) revealed that Azoarcus sensu lato is not monophyletic. Groups C, D and E formed three distinct lineages located between the Azoarcus/Thauera and the Rhodocyclus clusters. Phylogenetic distances between groups C, D and E were as large as between other genera (93-94% sequence similarity). This suggested they have the rank of three different genera. Since it was possible to differentiate them from each other and other related bacteria by phenotypic features, three new genera with one type species each are proposed: Azovibrio restrictus gen. nov., sp. nov., Azospira oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Azonexus fungiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov.

  19. Biogeographical distribution analysis of hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing genes suggests that near-equatorial biomes have higher abundance of genes with potential for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge S; Araújo, Wydemberg J; Figueiredo, Ricardo M; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; de Brito Guerra, Alaine; da Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla; Minnicelli, Carolina; Carlos, Aline Cardoso; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2017-07-27

    biogeographical distribution of hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing genes. Our principle results can be seen as an important step forward in the application of bioremediation techniques, by considering the biostimulation, optimization or manipulation of a starting microbial consortia from the areas with higher degradation and biosurfactant producing genetic diversity.

  20. Desulfosarcina widdelii sp. nov. and Desulfosarcina alkanivorans sp. nov., hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from marine sediment and emended description of the genus Desulfosarcina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miho; Higashioka, Yuriko; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2017-08-01

    In previous studies, two hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains PP31T and PL12T, were obtained from oil-polluted marine sediments of Shuaiba, Kuwait. They had been reported as organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of p-xylene and n-alkanes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PP31T showed 98.8 % sequence similarities to that of Desulfosarcina variabilis'Montpellier'T. Strains PL12T had 97.8 % of sequence similarity to Desulfosarcina ovata oXys1T. They both have been partially characterized, but not been validly published as new species of the genus Desulfosarcina. In this study, additional characterizations of these strains were made to describe them as two new species of the genus Desulfosarcina. Major cellular fatty acids of strain PP31T were C15 : 0 (25.9 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (22.3 %), whereas those of strain PL12T were C15 : 0 (21.3 %), C16 : 0 (17.8 %) and anteiso-15 : 0 (11.6 %). The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene revealed that these isolates should not be classified as any of the known species in the genus Desulfosarcina. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, these two sulfate reducers are proposed to form two novel species of the genus Desulfosarcina : Desulfosarcina widdelii sp. nov. (PP31T=JCM 31729T=DSM 103921T) and Desulfosarcina alkanivorans sp. nov. (PL12T=JCM 31728T=DSM 103901T). In addition, emended description of the genus Desulfosarcina is presented in this study.

  1. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and the Bacterial Community Response in Gulf of Mexico Beach Sands Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A.; Green, Stefan J.; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C.; Huettel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C8 to C40) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg−1 in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ∼10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 107 to 10.2 × 107 copies g−1) versus clean (0.024 × 107 to 1.4 × 107 copies g−1) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there. PMID:21948834

  2. Anthranoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase from Azoarcus evansii possesses both FMN and FAD in two distinct and independent active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Thomas; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Kreuzer, Katharina; Kowaliuk, Jakob; Plank, Markus; Runggatscher, Kathrin; Turrini, Nikolaus G; Zucol, Benjamin; Wallner, Silvia; Faber, Kurt; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Anthranoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase (ACMR) participates in an unusual pathway for the degradation of aromatic compounds in Azoarcus evansii. It catalyzes the monooxygenation of anthranoyl-CoA to 5-hydroxyl-2-aminobenzoyl-CoA and the subsequent reduction to the dearomatized product 2-amino-5-oxo-cyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA. The two reactions occur in separate domains, termed the monooxygenase and reductase domain. Both domains were reported to utilize FAD as a cofactor for hydroxylation and reduction, respectively. We have heterologously expressed ACMR in Escherichia coli BL21 and found that the monooxygenase domain contains FAD. However, the reductase domain utilizes FMN and not FAD for the reduction of the intermediate 5-hydroxyl-2-aminobenzoyl-CoA. A homology model for the reductase domain predicted a topology similar to the Old Yellow Enzyme family, which exclusively bind FMN, in accordance with our results. Binding studies with 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA (AbCoA) and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHB) as probes for the monooxygenase and reductase domain, respectively, indicated that two functionally distinct and independent active sites exist. Given the homodimeric quartenary structure of ACMR and the compact shape of the dimer as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering experiments we propose that the monooxygenase and reductase domain of opposite peptide chains are involved in the transformation of anthranoyl-CoA to 2-amino-5-oxo-cyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA.

  3. Considering the Specific Impact of Harsh Conditions and Oil Weathering on Diversity, Adaptation, and Activity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Strategies of Bioremediation of Harsh Oily-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfa Al Disi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weathering processes change properties and composition of spilled oil, representing the main reason of failure of bioaugmentation strategies. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic adaptation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at harsh conditions to be considered to overcome the limitations of bioaugmentation strategies at harsh conditions. Polluted soils, exposed for prolonged periods to weathered oil in harsh soils and weather conditions, were used. Two types of enrichment cultures were employed using 5% and 10% oil or diesel as sole carbon sources with varying the mineral nitrogen sources and C/N ratios. The most effective isolates were obtained based on growth, tolerance to toxicity, and removal efficiency of diesel hydrocarbons. Activities of the newly isolated bacteria, in relation to the microenvironment from where they were isoalted and their interaction with the weathered oil, showed individual specific ability to adapt when exposed to such factors, to acquire metabolic potentialities. Among 39 isolates, ten identified ones by 16S rDNA genes similarities, including special two Pseudomonas isolates and one Citrobacter isolate, showed particularity of shifting hydrocarbon-degrading ability from short chain n-alkanes (n-C12–n-C16 to longer chain n-alkanes (n-C21–n-C25 and vice versa by alternating nitrogen source compositions and C/N ratios. This is shown for the first time.

  4. Considering the Specific Impact of Harsh Conditions and Oil Weathering on Diversity, Adaptation, and Activity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Strategies of Bioremediation of Harsh Oily-Polluted Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Disi, Zulfa; Jaoua, Samir; Al-Thani, Dhabia; Al-Meer, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Weathering processes change properties and composition of spilled oil, representing the main reason of failure of bioaugmentation strategies. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic adaptation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at harsh conditions to be considered to overcome the limitations of bioaugmentation strategies at harsh conditions. Polluted soils, exposed for prolonged periods to weathered oil in harsh soils and weather conditions, were used. Two types of enrichment cultures were employed using 5% and 10% oil or diesel as sole carbon sources with varying the mineral nitrogen sources and C/N ratios. The most effective isolates were obtained based on growth, tolerance to toxicity, and removal efficiency of diesel hydrocarbons. Activities of the newly isolated bacteria, in relation to the microenvironment from where they were isoalted and their interaction with the weathered oil, showed individual specific ability to adapt when exposed to such factors, to acquire metabolic potentialities. Among 39 isolates, ten identified ones by 16S rDNA genes similarities, including special two Pseudomonas isolates and one Citrobacter isolate, showed particularity of shifting hydrocarbon-degrading ability from short chain n-alkanes (n-C12–n-C16) to longer chain n-alkanes (n-C21–n-C25) and vice versa by alternating nitrogen source compositions and C/N ratios. This is shown for the first time. PMID:28243605

  5. Arcobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Ivana; Zdolec, Nevijo; Benussi Skukan, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Bakterije roda Arcobacter pripadaju porodici Campylobacteriaceae, no od Campylobacter vrsta razlikuje se po sposobnosti rasta na 15 °C i u aerobnim uvjetima. Ove bakterije izolirane su iz oboljelih životinja, ljudi, ali i s trupova životinja nakon klaoničke obrade, te svježeg mesa, kao i vode. Farmske životinje, posebice perad, smatraju se rezervoarima bakterije. Razvijene su različite mikrobiološke metode za izolaciju Arcobacter spp., ali standardni protokol još uvijek ne postoji. Za brzu i ...

  6. Cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase from denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin, a novel member of the thiamine diphosphate enzyme family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Alma K; Fraas, Sonja; Harder, Jens; Tabbert, Anja; Brinkmann, Henner; Meyer, Axel; Ermler, Ulrich; Kroneck, Peter M H

    2011-12-01

    Alicyclic compounds with hydroxyl groups represent common structures in numerous natural compounds, such as terpenes and steroids. Their degradation by microorganisms in the absence of dioxygen may involve a C-C bond ring cleavage to form an aliphatic intermediate that can be further oxidized. The cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) (EC 3.7.1.11) from denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin, grown on cyclohexane-1,2-diol as a sole electron donor and carbon source, is the first thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme characterized to date that cleaves a cyclic aliphatic compound. The degradation of cyclohexane-1,2-dione (CDO) to 6-oxohexanoate comprises the cleavage of a C-C bond adjacent to a carbonyl group, a typical feature of reactions catalyzed by ThDP-dependent enzymes. In the subsequent NAD(+)-dependent reaction, 6-oxohexanoate is oxidized to adipate. CDH has been purified to homogeneity by the criteria of gel electrophoresis (a single band at ∼59 kDa; calculated molecular mass, 64.5 kDa); in solution, the enzyme is a homodimer (∼105 kDa; gel filtration). As isolated, CDH contains 0.8 ± 0.05 ThDP, 1.0 ± 0.02 Mg(2+), and 1.0 ± 0.015 flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) per monomer as a second organic cofactor, the role of which remains unclear. Strong reductants, Ti(III)-citrate, Na(+)-dithionite, and the photochemical 5-deazaflavin/oxalate system, led to a partial reduction of the FAD chromophore. The cleavage product of CDO, 6-oxohexanoate, was also a substrate; the corresponding cyclic 1,3- and 1,4-diones did not react with CDH, nor did the cis- and trans-cyclohexane diols. The enzymes acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pyruvate oxidase (POX) from Lactobacillus plantarum, benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida, and pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis were identified as the closest relatives of CDH by comparative amino acid sequence analysis, and a ThDP binding motif and a 2-fold Rossmann fold

  7. Transcriptional profiling of nitrogen fixation and the role of NifA in the diazotrophic endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Sarkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The model endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is known to contribute fixed nitrogen to its host Kallar grass and also expresses nitrogenase genes endophytically in rice seedlings. Availability of nitrogen is a signal regulating the transcription of nitrogenase genes. Therefore, we analysed global transcription in response to differences in the nitrogen source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A DNA microarray, comprising 70-mer oligonucleotides representing 3989 open reading frames of the genome of strain BH72, was used for transcriptome studies. Transcription profiles of cells grown microaerobically on N2 versus ammonium were compared. Expression of 7.2% of the genes was significantly up-regulated, and 5.8% down-regulated upon N2 fixation, respectively. A parallel genome-wide prediction of σ(54-type promoter elements mapped to the upstream region of 38 sequences of which 36 were modulated under the N2 response. In addition to modulation of genes related to N2 fixation, the expressions of gene clusters that might be related to plant-microbe interaction and of several transcription factors were significantly enhanced. While comparing under N2-fixation conditions the transcriptome of wild type with a nifLA(- insertion mutant, NifA being the essential transcriptional activator for nif genes, 24.5% of the genome was found to be affected in expression. A genome-wide prediction of 29 NifA binding sequences matched to 25 of the target genes whose expression was differential during microarray analysis, some of which were putatively negatively regulated by NifA. For selected genes, differential expression was corroborated by real time RT-PCR studies. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that life under conditions of nitrogen fixation is an important part of the lifestyle of strain BH72 in roots, as a wide range of genes far beyond the nif regulon is modulated. Moreover, the NifA regulon in strain BH72 appears to encompass a wider range of

  8. Genome analysis of crude oil degrading Franconibacter pulveris strain DJ34 revealed its genetic basis for hydrocarbon degradation and survival in oil contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Siddhartha; Kundu, Anirban; Banerjee, Tirtha Das; Mohapatra, Balaram; Roy, Ajoy; Manna, Riddha; Sar, Pinaki; Kazy, Sufia K

    2017-06-15

    Franconibacter pulveris strain DJ34, isolated from Duliajan oil fields, Assam, was characterized in terms of its taxonomic, metabolic and genomic properties. The bacterium showed utilization of diverse petroleum hydrocarbons and electron acceptors, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. The genome (4,856,096bp) of this strain contained different genes related to the degradation of various petroleum hydrocarbons, metal transport and resistance, dissimilatory nitrate, nitrite and sulfite reduction, chemotaxy, biosurfactant synthesis, etc. Genomic comparison with other Franconibacter spp. revealed higher abundance of genes for cell motility, lipid transport and metabolism, transcription and translation in DJ34 genome. Detailed COG analysis provides deeper insights into the genomic potential of this organism for degradation and survival in oil-contaminated complex habitat. This is the first report on ecophysiology and genomic inventory of Franconibacter sp. inhabiting crude oil rich environment, which might be useful for designing the strategy for bioremediation of oil contaminated environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-07-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra- or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A. salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A. salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish aquaculture.

  10. Hydrocarbons degrading yeasts from Cochin backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prabhakaran, N.; Sivadas, P.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Biol_Assoc_India_37_226.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Biol_Assoc_India_37_226.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel hydrocarbon-degrading Marinobacter sp.PY97S%一株石油烃降解菌新种Marinobacter sp.PY97S的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 崔志松; 赵爱芬; 高伟; 郑立

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为了对1株从黄海沉积物中分离到的石油烃降解菌新种PY97S进行分类学鉴定.[方法]采用16S rRNA基因序列同源性分析、生理生化指标测定、抗生素抗性实验,DNA G+C含量测定、全细胞脂肪酸组成测定、碳源利用实验、呼吸醒测定以及DNA杂交实验等多种方法对该菌株进行鉴定,并通过降解实验测定其对烷烃的利用情况.[结果]菌株PY97S为海杆菌(Marinobacter),革兰氏阴性,接触酶阳性,氧化酶阳性,主要呼吸醌为Q-9.在GenBank中与其16S rRNA基因序列相似度最高的模式株为Marinobacter koreensisDD-M3T(96.93%),两者DNA-DNA同源性仅为46.7%.菌株PY97S的温度生长范围为15℃-35℃(最适为30℃),NaCl浓度生长范围是0-10%(最适为0%),初始pH生长范围为pH 6.0-9.0(最适为初始pH7.0).该菌株可以利用多种糖类和有机酸类的碳源,并对氨苄青霉素、氧哌嗪青霉素等多种抗生素敏感.其DNA G+C含量为48.2 mol%.其主要脂肪酸组成为2-methyl C15∶0(29.97%)、C16∶1ω7c(27.22%)、C12∶0(22.22%)和C16∶1ω9c(5.73%).[结论]菌株PY97S是1株能够降解多种多环芳烃和烷烃的海洋石油烃降解菌新种,具有应用到溢油污染海洋环境生物修复的潜力.%[Objective]To identify and characterize a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from the sediment of the Yellow Sea.[Methods]We used 16S rRNA gene sequences based phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization, DNA G + C content assaying, determination of cellular fatty acids, testing of carbon sources and respiratory lipoquinone and experiment of DNA-DNA relatedness.Its capability of degrading aliphatic hydrocarbons in 0NR7a media supplemented with nine n-alkanes, separately, as sole source of carbon and energy was further determined.[Results]The Gram-negative isolate PY97S was a member of the genus Marinobacter, catalase-and oxidase-positive, and with Q-9 as its predominant respiratory lipoquinone

  13. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  14. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    BAI, YING; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  15. Kinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in soil and diversity of microbial community during composting%石油烃类污染物降解动力学和微生物群落多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄丽莎; 谷洁; 胡婷; 刘晨; 贾凤安; 吕睿

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨不同初始浓度石油污染土壤堆腐化修复机制,以石油降解菌剂和腐熟鸡粪为调理剂,研究了初始浓度分别为5000(T1)、10000(T2)和50000 mg/kg(T3)的石油污染土壤堆腐化修复过程石油烃类污染物降解动力学特征和微生物群落多样性。结果表明:堆腐化修复过程石油烃类污染物降解符合一级反应动力学,反应常数分别为0.012、0.094和0.050 d-1,半衰期分别为6.79、7.37和13.86 d。整个堆腐过程石油烃类污染物平均降解速率分别为112.08、230.05和887.93 mg/(kg·d)。3个处理的孔平均颜色变化率(average well color development)和碳源利用率(除芳香烃类化合物外)随堆腐进程的推进逐渐升高,在堆腐中、后期达到最大,T3处理显著高于T1、T2处理。多聚物类和糖类代谢群是堆腐体系中的优势菌群。主成分分析表明3个处理的微生物群落差异显著(除第9天外),起分异作用的碳源主要是糖类和羧酸类。微生物群落的丰富度指数和均一度指数随堆腐进程的推进逐渐升高并在堆腐后期达到最大,与T1处理相比, T3处理分别高了0.21%和17.64%,差异达到显著水平(P0.05)。堆肥结束时3个处理的种子发芽指数(seed germination index, SGI)分别比堆腐初期提高了18.26%、20.42%和36.41%。该研究结果为黄土高原不同程度石油污染土壤堆腐化修复的应用提供参考依据和理论基础。%In order to investigate the mechanism of bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by composting, an experiment was conducted with bacteria agent and mature chicken manure as amendment. We studied the kinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and the diversity of microbial community during the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by composting with different concentrations. The concentrations included 5 000 mg/kg (T1), 10 000 mg/kg (T2

  16. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  18. [Activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. rods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Doripenem, the newest carbapenem was approved in 2008 by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. Its spectrum of activity is similar to that of meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro activity of doripenem against nonfermentative Gram-negative rods. A total of 235 strains of Pseudomonas spp. (74.9%) and Acinetobacter spp. (25.1%) were included into the study. Strains were isolated in The Department of Clinical Microbiology of the University Hospital No 1 in Bydgoszcz and identified using ID GN tests (bioMérieux). To determine susceptibility to doripenem and other carbapenems disc-diffusion method was applied. Percentage of doripenem resistant strains reached 28.4% and 39.0% for Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp, respectively. All doripenem sensitive or intermediate Acinetobacter spp. strains were simultaneously sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. were represented by 60.9% and 56.5% strains, respectively. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains were represented by 12.0% and 18.0%, respectively. Occurence of one doripenem sensitive Pseudomonas spp. strain simultaneously resistant to imipenem and meropenem was observed.

  19. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  20. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  1. Determining the metabolic footprints of hydrocarbon degradation using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Renee J; Jeffries, Thomas C; Adetutu, Eric M; Fairweather, Peter G; Mitchell, James G

    2013-01-01

    The functional dynamics of microbial communities are largely responsible for the clean-up of hydrocarbons in the environment. However, knowledge of the distinguishing functional genes, known as the metabolic footprint, present in hydrocarbon-impacted sites is still scarcely understood. Here, we conducted several multivariate analyses to characterise the metabolic footprints present in a variety of hydrocarbon-impacted and non-impacted sediments. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) showed a clear distinction between the two groups. A high relative abundance of genes associated with cofactors, virulence, phages and fatty acids were present in the non-impacted sediments, accounting for 45.7% of the overall dissimilarity. In the hydrocarbon-impacted sites, a high relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy and sporulation, motility, metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell signalling were observed, accounting for 22.3% of the overall dissimilarity. These results suggest a major shift in functionality has occurred with pathways essential to the degradation of hydrocarbons becoming overrepresented at the expense of other, less essential metabolisms.

  2. Determining the metabolic footprints of hydrocarbon degradation using multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee J Smith

    Full Text Available The functional dynamics of microbial communities are largely responsible for the clean-up of hydrocarbons in the environment. However, knowledge of the distinguishing functional genes, known as the metabolic footprint, present in hydrocarbon-impacted sites is still scarcely understood. Here, we conducted several multivariate analyses to characterise the metabolic footprints present in a variety of hydrocarbon-impacted and non-impacted sediments. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP showed a clear distinction between the two groups. A high relative abundance of genes associated with cofactors, virulence, phages and fatty acids were present in the non-impacted sediments, accounting for 45.7% of the overall dissimilarity. In the hydrocarbon-impacted sites, a high relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy and sporulation, motility, metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell signalling were observed, accounting for 22.3% of the overall dissimilarity. These results suggest a major shift in functionality has occurred with pathways essential to the degradation of hydrocarbons becoming overrepresented at the expense of other, less essential metabolisms.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Manage. June 2017. Vol. ... highest and lowest bacterial counts in subsoil samples were found out to be 1.14 x 106 CFU/g and ... could lead to health hazards. ... A variety of technologies is currently available to ... A ten-fold serial dilution was.

  4. Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dockyu; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Seong-Ki; Kim, Si Wouk; Zylstra, Gerben J; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Eungbin

    2002-07-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 was isolated from soil and analyzed for the ability to grow on o-xylene as the sole carbon and energy source. Although DK17 cannot grow on m- and p-xylene, it is capable of growth on benzene, phenol, toluene, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, and other alkylbenzene isomers. One UV-generated mutant strain, DK176, simultaneously lost the ability to grow on o-xylene, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, toluene, and benzene, although it could still grow on phenol. The mutant strain was also unable to oxidize indole to indigo following growth in the presence of o-xylene. This observation suggests the loss of an oxygenase that is involved in the initial oxidation of the (alkyl)benzenes tested. Another mutant strain, DK180, isolated for the inability to grow on o-xylene, retained the ability to grow on benzene but was unable to grow on alkylbenzenes due to loss of a meta-cleavage dioxygenase needed for metabolism of methyl-substituted catechols. Further experiments showed that DK180 as well as the wild-type strain DK17 have an ortho-cleavage pathway which is specifically induced by benzene but not by o-xylene. These results indicate that DK17 possesses two different ring-cleavage pathways for the degradation of aromatic compounds, although the initial oxidation reactions may be catalyzed by a common oxygenase. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 300-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry clearly show that DK180 accumulates 3,4-dimethylcatechol from o-xylene and both 3- and 4-methylcatechol from toluene. This means that there are two initial routes of oxidation of toluene by the strain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated the presence of two large megaplasmids in the wild-type strain DK17, one of which (pDK2) was lost in the mutant strain DK176. Since several other independently derived mutant strains unable to grow on alkylbenzenes are also missing pDK2, the genes encoding the initial steps in alkylbenzene metabolism (but not phenol metabolism) appear to be present on this approximately 330-kb plasmid.

  5. [Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.--environmental studies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Siński, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and many other species of mammals. The aim of this article was to summarize the last twenty years of research on the environmental distribution of these parasites, with a particular emphasis on the natural reservoir of invasion and human infections in Poland. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has been studied in different groups of humans, in wildlife, pets and farm animals and in environmental samples. Current knowledge on the distribution of zoonotic and non-zoonotic species/genotypes in reservoir hosts and environmental samples has been summarized. The usefulness of different methods for the detection and identification of the parasites in different types of samples has been presented. Due to the wide distribution and high prevalence of both species in a range of hosts and possible vectors involved in mechanical transmission, the overall risk of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in Poland has been assessed as relatively high.

  6. APLICACIÓN DE SALES DE TETRAZOLIO DE NUEVA GENERACIÓN (XTT PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DE LA DENSIDAD DE MICROORGANISMOS DEGRADADORES DE HIDROCARBUROS EMPLEANDO LA TÉCNICA DEL NÚMERO MÁS PROBABLE Application of the New Generation Tetrazolium Salt (XTT for the Enumeration of Hydrocarbon Degrading Microorganisms Using the Most Probable Number Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTORIA EUGENIA VALLEJO

    Full Text Available El presente estudio evaluó el desempeño de dos sales de tetrazolio, una tradicional: INT y una de nueva generación: XTT, para estimar la densidad de microorganismos degradadores de hidrocarburos (HCs en suelos empleando la técnica del Número Más Probable (NMP. Se analizaron 96 muestras de suelo provenientes de la Ecorregión Cafetera de Colombia. Los microorganismos fueron recuperados en agar mínimo de sales en atmósfera saturada de HCs y la capacidad degradadora fue confirmada por repiques sucesivos utilizando diesel como fuente de carbono. No se observaron diferencias significativas en los recuentos de microorganismos degradadores obtenidos con las dos sales (t de Student, p The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two tetrazolium indicators: a traditional one: INT and a new generation one: XTT, for the estimation of hydrocarbon (HC degrading microorganism s density using the Most Probable Number Technique (MPN. Ninety six composite soil samples were taken and analyzed from Ecorregión Cafetera Colombiana. Degrading microorganisms were recovered in minimum salt medium with saturated HC atmosphere. Degrading HC capacity of the microorganisms was confirmed by successive subcultures in the same medium using diesel as only carbon source. Counts obtained with the two salts were not significantly different (Student t test, p < 0,05 but XTT allowed an easier visualization of positive wells due to product solubility of the reduce product. A greater percentage of isolates was obtained using XTT (67%, which suggests that salt type is relevant for recovering of these microorganisms. Additionally, cell detection limit, optimal conditions of XTT concentration and incubation times for detection of activity were evaluated. This evaluation was performed by means of microplate format for hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms using Acinetobacter sp. An inhibitory effect was observed in the recovering of cultivable cells when XTT

  7. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  8. [Mycoses and zoonoses: Cryptococcus spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F Javier

    2008-03-01

    The term "zoonosis" is difficult to delimit because different authors have various definitions for this term. Few mycoses are usually considered zoonoses. However, the role that animals play in the epidemiology of the main human mycoses is still not well known. Moreover, the environmental niches for these fungal agents have not yet been completely determined. This special issue of the "Revista Iberoamericana de Micología" deals with the talks and round table presented at the VIII Spanish Mycological Congress held in October 2006 in Barcelona, Spain on "Cryptococcus spp. and zoonoses".

  9. Genetic characterization of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to investigate the presence of bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. ... between river water and riverbed sediment isolates for Salmonella spp. and Shigella .... conditions, and the other was preserved in 1 mL of 15% glycerol.

  10. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Salmonella spp. from...

  11. Multiplex PCR for molecular screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Islay; Burri, Caroline; Noda, Angel A; Douet, Véronique; Gern, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Ticks transmit a great variety of pathogenic microorganisms to humans and animals. The detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBP) is mainly by molecular techniques based on polymerase chain reactions (PCR). To design and evaluate a multiplex PCR for the molecular screening of zoonotic TBP for exploratory studies. Control DNA from reference strains, DNA from experimentally-infected biological specimens, and from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from domestic and homeless dogs were used. A multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. was designed and optimized using primers previously reported for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma spp., while for Babesia spp. they were designed in silico. The multiplex PCR was evaluated on the DNA from biological samples. A new set of specific primers for Babesia spp. was designed. Adjustment of the master mix reactive concentrations and amplification conditions for the multiplex PCR allowed the successful amplification of the specific amplicons for each microbial group from the control DNA and experimentally-infected biological specimens. The efficiency of the multiplex PCR amplifying three DNA targets was confirmed. Individual and co-infection of Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. were detected in the R. sanguineus ticks from dogs. A multiplex PCR assay for the screening of three TBP is available. By using it, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. can be detected accurately in one PCR reaction.

  12. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmand-Høyer, E.; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... of a meal. CONCLUSIONS: SPP is a fermentable, highly concentrated soluble fibre source. Baking SPP did not interfere with the fermentable properties. Thus, SPP may be interesting as a fibre-supplement in fibre-poor diets. The change in oro-coecal transit time for SPP, depending on the composition...

  13. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  14. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kuzmanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the strains. Two duplex PCR methods were conducted with four different primer pairs. In all strains, presence of plasmid virD2 and virC pathogenicity genes was detected. Chromosomal pehA gene was determined in A. vitis strain. Pathogenicity was confirmed on carrot slices and young plants of tomato and sunflower. Strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis were pathogenic on all test plants, while strain of A. rhizogenes induced characteristic symptoms only on carrot slices. The tests used in this study provided reliable discrimination between the three species and confirmed their identity as tumorigenic (TiAgrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis, and rhizogenic (Ri A. rhizogenes.

  15. IMPORTANCE OF ARCOBACTER SPP. IN POULTRY MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ertaş, Necla

    2009-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, previously known as aerotolerant Campylobacters were isolated from aborted bovine and porcine fetuses. Arcobacter spp. differ from Campylobacter spp. by their ability to grow at lower temperatures and in air. The genus Arcobacter comprises six species. Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter halophilus and Arcobacter sulfidicus are environmental-related species. No association with human or animal infection has been reported. The other species, Arcobacter butzleri,Arcobacter...

  16. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...... of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes....

  17. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  18. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  19. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  1. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  2. Suppression of Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. during germination of tomato seeds in soilless growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; De Schutter, B; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    In the Flemish horticulture Pythium spp. is an important pathogen of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculenthum) in soilless growing media. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the damage caused by Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. In a tray with several growing media, a suspension of Trichoderma conidia (10(6)/ml growing medium) was applied two weeks before sowing. On some objects, a compost extract (Biostimulus) was added. The growing media used in the experiment were rockwool, recycled rockwool and recycled coconut fibre. After sowing, the trays were covered with perlite. Three isolates of Trichoderma spp.: T. asperellum (Biofungus), T. harzianum (Tri 003) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) and two isolates of Pythium spp.: P. ultimum (MUCL) en P. aphanidermatum (HRI, UK) were used. Propamocarb was used as a chemical standard. The use of coconut fibre growing medium resulted in a higher percentage (36%) of germination than the rockwool media when only Pythium spp. was used. The presence of the spontaneous developing microflora in the coconut fibre medium gave probably also a suppression of Pythium spp. For that reason the results of the suppression by Trichoderma spp. are not easy to explain and very variable on the different objects. Pythium ultimum was more suppressed than P. aphanidermatum on all the growing media and the application of all the Trichoderma isolates increased the germination percentage of tomato seeds. T. asperellum (Biofungus) gave on rockwool also a good result for the suppression of P. aphanidermatum (increasing of germination with 48%). This effect was comparable with the propamocarb treatment (48%). T. harzianum (Tri 003) gave a small suppression (22%) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) gave almost no suppression of P. aphanidermatum (7%). When less Trichoderma conidia were applied the germination percentage decreased. The adding of a compost extract (Biostimulus) had no influence on the results. This experiment

  3. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  4. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis,

  5. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  6. The case of Artemia spp. in nanoecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libralato, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  8. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  9. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-04-07

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean.

  10. Toward in vitro fertilization in Brachiaria spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusi, D.; Alves, E.R.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Falcao, R.; Valle, do C.B.; Carneiro, V.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Brachiaria are forage grasses widely cultivated in tropical areas. In vitro pollination was applied to accessions of Brachiaria spp. by placing pollen of non-dehiscent anthers on a solid medium near isolated ovaries. Viability and in vitro germination were tested in order to establish good condition

  11. Quantitative isolation of biocontrol agents Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes from soil with culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, S; Pastor, S; March, G J

    2009-01-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in the sustainability of agriculture systems and indicates the level of health of soil, especially when considering the richness of microorganisms that are involved in biological control of soilborne diseases. Cultural practices may produce changes in soil microflora, which can be quantified through the isolation of target microorganisms. Rhizosphere soil samples were taken from an assay with different crop rotations and tillage systems, and populations of Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes were quantified in order to select the general and selective culture media that better reflect the changes of these microbial populations in soil. The most efficient medium for the isolation of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. was potato dextrose agar modified by the addition of chloramphenicol, streptomycin and rose bengal, and for actinomycetes was Küster medium, with cycloheximide and sodium propionate.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents are devices...

  15. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices...

  17. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine H.S.F. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.Foram pesquisadas a presença de Vibrio spp. e de Salmonella spp. em caranguejos comercializados na Av. Bezerra de Menezes, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, no período entre fevereiro e maio de 2003. O número de indivíduos em cada, das quinze coletas realizadas, semanalmente, variava entre quatro e oito dependendo do tamanho dos animais, totalizando um número de 90 (noventa animais examinados. Foram identificadas sete cepas de Salmonella spp. provenientes de quatro coletas: cinco foram identificadas como sorovar S. Senftenberg e duas como S. Poona. Todas as cepas de Salmonella, isoladas das amostras de caranguejos, apresentaram sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção de tetraciclina e ácido nalidíxico para os quais elas apresentaram uma sensibilidade intermediária. Os NMPs

  18. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  19. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species.

  20. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.

  1. Easy storage strategies for Sporothrix spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Natalya Fechine; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Caetano, Érica Pacheco; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the maintenance of Sporothrix spp. (6 Sporothrix brasiliensis; 6 S. schenckii; 5 S. mexicana, and 3 S. globosa) in saline at 4°C, and in 10% glycerol plus either 10% lactose or 10% sucrose, at -20°C and -80°C. Viability was assessed after 3, 6, and 9 months of storage, through the recovery of strains on potato dextrose agar and analysis of macro- and micromorphological features. Conidium quantification was performed before and after storage, at 3, 6 and 9 months. 100% viability was observed, regardless of storage conditions or time period. Storage at 4°C and at -20°C did not alter the number of conidia, but lower conidium counts were observed at -80°C. This study shows that the combination of glycerol with lactose or sucrose is effective to maintain Sporothrix spp. at freezing temperatures.

  2. [Blastocystis spp.: Advances, controversies and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Molina, Nora B; Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A

    Blastocystis spp. is the most common protozoan detected in human stool samples. In developing countries, infection rates are higher than 20%. The presence of this parasite in the feces of several host species suggests its zoonotic potential. The clinical relevance and the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in the intestinal tract remain unclear. There are several clinical reports that recognize it as the etiologic agent of several intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis, although the pathogenicity of this parasite has not been proved yet. This wide range of clinical manifestations could be related to the genetic diversity exhibited by this parasite. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic otomycosis due to Malassezia Spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Latha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 31-year-old male presenting with complaints of mild pain in the right ear for three months and hypoacusis for 10 days. On otoscopic examination, a thin, papery, white material was extracted from his ear and sent for fungal identification. This material revealed presence of Malassezia spp - with characteristic "spaghetti and meat ball appearance". The patient was treated with 2% acetic acid, hydrocortisone and Clotrimazole powder for one week and he resolved completely.

  4. [Demodex spp in chronic blepharitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspina, Florentina; Samudio, Margarita; Arrúa, Martín; Sanabria, Rosa; Fariña, Norma; Carpinelli, Letizia; Cibils, Diógenes; Mino de Kaspar, Herminia

    2015-02-01

    Blepharitis is a very common disease in the ophthalmologic practice generally taking a chronic course with intermittent exacerbations. Several studies have linked the presence of Demodex folliculorum with chronic blepharitis, since the mite has the capacity to perpetuate the follicular inflammatory process. The prevalence of infection by Demodex spp. is variable depending on the population. In Paraguay, information on the frequency of the infestation in patients with chronic blepharitis is not available. To determine the frequency of Demodex spp, and the ocular microbiota in patients with chronic blepharitis attending the Department of Ophthalmology at the Teaching Hospital of the National University of Asuncion. Consecutively, 28 patients with chronic blepharitis, who agreed to participate in the study, were included. Eyes lashes from the upper and lower eyelids were extracted for immediate mite search by direct observation under a light microscope. Samples from eyelids were taken with Kimura spatula and then cultured on blood agar and in enrichment media and incubated in 5% CO2 at 35° C for 72 hours. Among participants, females were more frequent (64%), the age ranged from 17 to 87 years (mean: 38.0; SD: ± 13.5 years). The prevalence of Demodex sp was 54%. Bacteria were isolated 92.9% of cases, most frequently coagulase-negative staphylococci (75%). No association was found between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and the presence of Demodex sp. The observed high prevalence of infestation by Demodex spp in patients with chronic blepharitis is consistent with other studies.

  5. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  6. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species.

  7. A serological survey of Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. in Iberian fattening pigs reared in free-range systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Gómez-Laguna, J; Tarradas, C; Luque, I; García-Valverde, R; Reguillo, L; Astorga, R J

    2014-10-01

    Zoonotic agents such as Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp., all considered high-risk zoonotic pathogens by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), may cause no symptoms of infection in free-range pigs yet still have a significant public health impact. A serological survey was therefore performed to determine the history of occurrence of these pathogens in such pigs in southern Spain. A total of 709 serum samples were collected at abattoir from pigs from 79 farms and analysed for specific antibodies against the above pathogens using commercially available ELISA kits. Encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were also sought following the artificial digestion method of diaphragm pillar muscle. The results showed Salmonella spp. to be widely distributed among the sampled herds [73.42%, 95% confidence interval (CI95 ) 65.6-81.78] and Toxoplasma gondii to be present in over half (58.23%, CI95 47.33-69.07). The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was very low (3.8%, CI95 0.18-7.42), and antibodies against Trichinella spp. were not detected. No encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were microscopically detected.

  8. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and [i]Giardia[/i] spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] and [i]Giardia[/i] identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266 from [i]A. agrarius[/i],[i] A. flavicollis[/i] and [i]M. glareolus[/i], were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for [i]Giardia[/i] spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and [i]Giardia[/i] infection where[i] A. agrarius[/i] was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of [i]Giardia[/i] spp. and [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from [i]A. agrarius[/i] (from a semi-aquatic, urban area was identified as [i]C. parvum[/i] and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the [i]C. parvum[/i] zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of [i]C. ubiquitum[/i] from three small rodent species.

  9. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media.Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO.Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth.Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the EE® broth

  10. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella  spp. and Salmonella  spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media. Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO. Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth. Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the

  11. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Isolamento de Pasteurella spp. e Vibrio spp. em robalos (Dicentrarchus labrax: susceptibilidade a diferentes grupos de antibióticos Isolation of Pasteurella spp. and Vibrio spp. in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: susceptibility to different antibiotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Saavedra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent infectious diseases that affect fish are those of bacterial origin. In European sea bass fish farms (Dicentrarchus labrax are included Vibrio spp., Pasteurella piscicida and Myxobacter spp. In addition to these, it is also possible to find, although lesser frequently, other pathogenic agents such as Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococcus spp. and Enterobacter spp. The presence of these micro-organisms in fish farms contributes for a significant decrease in fish production and subsequent loss of profitability in these aquaculture units. The use of antibiotics may therefore be necessary as a prophylactic measure although their systematic utilization leads to the development of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bearing that in mind, a survey was conducted on the susceptibility of isolated strains of bacteria found in juvenile European sea bass. It was concluded that chloranphenicol and tetracycline are two important antibiotic alternatives for therapy against isolated bacterial agents.

  13. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-03-27

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity).

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Eel (Anguilla spp.) Mucus against Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Tomy Nurtamin; Resty Yulianita Nurman; Indria Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever has become one global health problem. Typhoid fever is caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Salmonella typhi. Eel (Anguilla spp.) is a fish which lives in the sea or in freshwater. Several previous studies have found that Anguilla spp. mucus has the ability as antibacterial against Gram-positive and negative. Although the antibacterial activity of Anguilla spp. against various pathogens had been reported, very little is known about its activity against Salmonella typ...

  15. Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cau...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  17. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Arizona and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these microorganisms. Arizona spp....

  19. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Serratia spp. are occasionally associated with...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Bordetella spp. cause whooping cough...

  1. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are among the most important causative agents of acute and chronic bacterial infections in humans as well as in animals. Treatment of Staphylococcus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. For this reason innovative antimicrobials with novel targets and modes of action are needed. Since the discovery that QS is used by Staphylococcus spp. to coordinate the expression of several genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and pathogenicity, QS inhibition has gained increasing attention as an alternative anti-pathogenic strategy. A major advantage compared with antibiotic therapy is that QSIs are used in concentrations that do not affect bacterial growth. For this reason, it is expected that these compounds would exert less pressure towards the development of resistance. However, some important points still need to be addressed. Although several inhibitors have proven to be active antipathogenic agents in vitro and in several in vivo models, it is still unknown whether these compounds will also be useful in humans. Furthermore, several fundamental mechanisms by which the different QS systems in Staphylococcus spp. exert their regulatory functions and how they are inhibited by QSIs are still poorly understood. In order to achieve real-life applications with QSIs, these challenges should be addressed and more research will be needed. In this article, we will discuss the different QS systems present in Staphylococcus spp., how they are used to control virulence and biofilm formation and how they can be blocked.

  2. The potential role of migratory birds in transmission cycles of Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Franke, Jan; Meier, Frank; Sachse, Svea; Dorn, Wolfram; Straube, Eberhard

    2010-06-01

    Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. are potentially emerging tick-borne pathogens, whereas many issues about their ecology, e.g. reservoir host specificity, are still unclear. In spring 2007, we collected 191 feeding Ixodes ricinus ticks from 99 birds of 11 different species on a German bird conservation island in the Baltic Sea. Babesia spp. were detected in 4.7% (9/191), A. phagocytophilum was present in 2.6% (5/191), and Rickettsia spp. were identified in 7.3% (14/191) of the investigated ticks. Further characterization of Babesia spp. infections resulted in B. divergens and B. microti. Among the Rickettsia spp. infections, we identified at least 2 different species: R. monacensis and R. helvetica. Furthermore, 2 ticks harboured mixed infections. Our study provides first interesting insights into the role of migratory birds in the distribution of several emerging tick-borne pathogens.

  3. Mysterious chronic urticaria caused by Blastocystis spp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyńska, Małgorzata; Chen, Wen-Chieh; Dzika, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Blastocystis, which are single-cell, intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and animals, remain mysterious, with unclear clinical and epidemiologic significance. In recent years, many researchers have suggested a possible connection between Blastocystis spp. infection and chronic urticaria. In the present article, we review the literature and discuss the possible associations between the clinical symptomatology and pathogenicity of this organism in terms of its subtypes, morphologic forms, genetic diversity, and interactions with other intestinal microbiota. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  5. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  6. Characterization of geographically distinct bacterial communities associated with coral mucus produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKew, B A; Dumbrell, A J; Daud, S D; Hepburn, L; Thorpe, E; Mogensen, L; Whitby, C

    2012-08-01

    Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H', 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H', 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which varied in relative abundance between coral genera and region. Distinct coral host-specific communities were also found; for example, Clostridiales were dominant on Acropora spp. (at Hoga and the Mexican Caribbean) compared to Porites spp. and seawater. Within the Gammproteobacteria, Halomonas spp. dominated sequence libraries from Porites spp. (49%) and Acropora spp. (5.6%) from the Mexican Caribbean, compared to the corresponding Indonesian coral libraries (<2%). Interestingly, with the exception of Porites spp. from the Mexican Caribbean, there was also a ubiquity of Psychrobacter spp., which dominated Acropora and Porites libraries from Indonesia and Acropora libraries from the Caribbean. In conclusion, there was a dominance of Halomonas spp. (associated with Acropora and Porites [Mexican Caribbean]), Firmicutes (associated with Acropora [Mexican Caribbean] and with Acropora and Porites [Hoga]), and Cyanobacteria (associated with Acropora and Porites [Hoga] and Porites [Sampela]). This is also the first report describing geographically distinct Psychrobacter spp. associated with coral mucus. In addition, the predominance of Clostridiales associated with Acropora spp. provided additional evidence for coral host-specific microorganisms.

  7. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses.

  8. Characterizing the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucas Nojosa; Casaletti, Luciana; Báo, Sônia Nair; Borges, Clayton Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Patrícia; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2016-10-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by thermo dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Although previous proteome analyses of Paracoccidioides spp. have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this pathogen has not been described. In this way, we aimed to characterize the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides species, in the yeast form. For that, yeast cells were disrupted and submitted to cell fractionation. The purity of the nuclear fraction was confirmed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 867 proteins. In order to support our enrichment method for nuclear proteins, bioinformatics analysis were applied that allowed the identification of 281 proteins with nuclear localization. The analysis revealed proteins related to DNA maintenance, gene expression, synthesis and processing of messenger and ribosomal RNAs, likewise proteins of nuclear-cytoplasmic traffic. It was also possible to detect some proteins that are poorly expressed, like transcription factors involved in important roles such as resistance to abiotic stress, sporulation, cellular growth and DNA and chromatin maintenance. This is the first descriptive nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp. that can be useful as an important platform base for fungi-specific nuclear processes.

  9. Distribution of pathogenic Naegleria spp in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewcharoen, S; Junnu, V

    2001-01-01

    Research concerning the distribution, isolation, viability, ultrastructure, morphology and immunogenicity of Naegleria fowleri has been increasing in Thailand during 1988-2000. The distribution of the organism was carried out from 1985 to 1987 in Si Sa Ket and Ubon Rachathani Provinces, after the first fatal case was reported in Si Sa Ket. Since then in a 1998 survey of N. fowleri in stagnant water around industrial areas was carried out in Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Lopburi provinces. The results showed that 10% of pathogenic Naegleria belonged to species fowleri as characterized by morphology and the occurrence of pathogenesis in mice after nasal inoculation. In the same year, Nacapunchai et al (1999) determined the prevalence of amebae in aquatic habitat of human environments in five parts of Thailand during the summer. Fourteen percent of free living Naegleria spp were found in both soil and water resources. Recent studies of the ultrastructure, factors affecting the viability and SDS-PAGE electrophoretic patterns of 3 Thai strains of pathogenic Naegleria spp indicated their similarities in morphological characteristics of pathogenic reference control, Naegleria fowleri CDC VO 3081. Additional study using a genetic approach to species criteria using allozyme electrophoresis had been conducted.

  10. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  11. Phylogenesis of relapsing fever Borrelia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, N M; Lascola, B; Postic, D; Cutler, S J; Rodhain, F; Baranton, G; Raoult, D

    1996-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 20 relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia spp. were estimated on the basis of the sequences of rrs genes. Complete sequences were aligned and compared with previously published sequences, and the similarity values were found to be 97.7 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the three neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, and maximum-likelihood methods. The results of the comparative phylogenetic analysis divided the RF Borrelia spp. into three major clusters. One cluster included Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia hispanica. Another cluster comprised tow main branches with Borrelia coriaceae, Borrelia lonestari, and Borrelia miyamotoi on one side and Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia turicatae, and Borrelia hermsii on the other side. Borrelia anserina constituted the third cluster. The phylogenetic position of Borrelia persica was more uncertain. These results suggested that the taxonomy of these spirochetes should be revised. To overcome the problems of culturing the spirochetes, RF Borrelia primers were defined. Following PCR amplification of the rrs gene, restriction length fragment polymorphism could be used to distinguish between RF Borrelia strains.

  12. Bioethanol production from the macroalgae Sargassum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borines, Myra G; de Leon, Rizalinda L; Cuello, Joel L

    2013-06-01

    Macroalgae, an abundant and carbon-neutral renewable resource, with several species rich in carbohydrates are suitable for bioethanol production. This study focused on the pretreatment, enzyme saccharification and fermentation of Sargassum spp., a brown macroalgae for bioethanol production. The optimal acid pretreatment condition achieved in terms of glucose and reducing sugar yields was 3.4-4.6% (w/v) H2SO4 concentration, 115°C and 1.50h. The pretreated biomass was hydrolyzed with cellulase enzyme system supplemented with β-glucosidase. After fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40°C, pH of 4.5 for 48 h, the ethanol conversion rate of the enzyme hydrolysate reached 89%, which was markedly higher than the theoretical yield of 51% based on glucose as substrate. Since all the glucose was consumed during fermentation, other sugar sources might be present in the hydrolysate. The macroalgae, Sargassum spp., showed significant potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp.) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs) living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44) were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% ...

  14. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  15. INK128 exhibits synergy with azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujuan Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a

  16. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani with Trichoderma Spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ From over 800 fungal strains of Trichoderma Spp. , 6 strains were found to greatly inhibit the growing of Rhizocotonia solani, the pathogen of rice sheath blight in dual culture. Among them, strain T3 was the best antagonist,which reduced the growing of the pathogen by 52.54% (Table 1). In field, both the pesticide Jinggangmycin and the mixture of T1 T6 could reduce the severity of rice sheath blight(Table 2), which resulted in the increases of seed setting rate and 1000 grain weight. Because the effect of the antagonists on the control of the pathogen could be partially realized in the watery environment, studies on the biocontrol mechanism of the fungi should be strengthened to help the establishment of a best way of antagonist utilization.

  17. Design Studies with DEMIRCI for SPP RFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Yasatekin, B; Alacakir, A; Unel, G

    2014-01-01

    To design a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is a onerous job which requires a good understanding of all the main parameters and the relevant calculations. Up to the present there are only a few software packages performing this task in a reliable way. These legacy software, though proven in time, could benefit from the modern software development tools like Object Oriented (OO) programming. In this note, a new RFQ design software, DEMIRCI is introduced. It is written entirely from scratch using C++ and based on CERN's OO ROOT library. It has a friendly graphical user interface and also a command line interface for batch calculations. It can also interact by file exchange with similar software in the field. After presenting the generic properties of DEMIRCI, its compatibility with similar software packages is discussed based on the results from the reference design parameters of SPP (SNRTC Project Prometheus), a demonstration accelerator at Ankara, Turkey.

  18. Rhabdochlamydia spp. in an Oregon raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy, Sophie J; Schlueter, Andrew H; Bildfell, Robert J; Rockey, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    PCR-based approach was used to examine the rate of Chlamydia positivity in raptors from wild bird rehabilitation centers in Oregon. Three of 82 birds were identified as positive for Chlamydia with this PCR. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA from 2 of these birds confirmed the presence of DNA from phylum Chlamydiae. One bird was positive for Chlamydia psittaci in both choanal and cloacal swabs. The second bird, a louse-infested red-tailed hawk, had evidence of choanal colonization by "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia" spp. Our study describes evidence of this Chlamydia-like organism in the United States. This survey also suggests that the carriage rate of C. psittaci is low in raptors in Oregon wild bird rehabilitation centers, and that care must be taken in the design of PCR primers for phylum Chlamydiae such that colonization by insect endosymbionts is not mistaken for an infection by known chlamydial pathogens.

  19. Helicobacter spp. other than H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2012-09-01

    Significant advances have been made over the last 12 months in the understanding of the biology of non-H. pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). Several studies have investigated the association between NHPH and human disease, including Crohn's disease, lithiasis, liver disease, coronary disease, gastritis, and pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers. Novel Helicobacter taxa were identified in new vertebrate hosts, and new methodologies in the fields of identification of Helicobacter spp. and evaluation of antibiotic resistance were described. The genome of the first human-derived gastric NHPH strain (Helicobacter bizzozeronii CIII-1) was sequenced, and several studies elucidated functions of different genes in NHPH. A number of important investigations regarding pathogenesis and immunopathobiology of NHPH infections have been published including the description of a new urease in Helicobacter mustelae. Finally, the effects of the gut microbiota and probiotics on NHPH infections were investigated.

  20. Trypanosoma spp. in Swedish game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Magnus; Nilsson, Kenneth; Påhlson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of Trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. Trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite DNA. Seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma IgG antibodies. The two isolated strains, one from roe dear and one from European elk, were determined to Trypanosoma theileri by partial DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal gene. In the seven boars, no Trypanosoma were detected, but four out of seven strongly positive serological samples came from this group. This is the first study in Scandinavia on the presence of Trypanosoma in game animals. The results indicate that trypanosomiasis is frequently occurring among Swedish game animals.

  1. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  2. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. associated with the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander Human

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences.

  3. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98, el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  4. Prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on Australian Beef Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-08-01

    The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) classified Arcobacter spp. as emerging pathogens in 2002. Arcobacter spp. have been isolated from numerous food products at retail and from animal carcasses and feces at slaughter. A survey was conducted to determine both the prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on pre-chill beef carcasses. Surface swab samples were collected from 130 beef carcasses at the end of processing, prior to chilling. The concentration of Arcobacter spp. was determined by a most-probable-number per square centimeter (3 by 3) method with a limit of detection of 0.12 CFU/cm(2). Of the 100 carcasses examined from export abattoirs, 20 (20.0%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 5 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.31 CFU/cm(2). Of the 30 carcasses examined at a pet food abattoir, 25 (83.3%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 10 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.95 CFU/cm(2). Three species of Arcobacter, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirowii, were identified by PCR. Each of the species was present in an approximately equal ratio from export abattoirs. This study demonstrates that slaughter practices at export abattoirs are sufficient to maintain both low prevalence and low levels of contamination of beef carcasses with Arcobacter spp.

  5. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp. Impact of herbicides on strains of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de microrganismos é uma alternativa para o controle de doenças em plantas. Todavia, é prudente verificar a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 x 6 x 4, com quatro repetições. O fator A correspondeu aos herbicidas pendimethalin, clomazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxadiazon, thiobencarb + propanil e byspiribac-sodium; o fator B, às doses dos herbicidas - 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200% da dose recomendada; e o fator C, aos isolados de Trichoderma spp. AJAM 18, CE 66, TRI 01 e TRI 02. O ensaio foi realizado em condições in vitro; avaliaram-se o crescimento micelial radial (CMR e a esporulação dos isolados após aplicação dos herbicidas. Observaram-se diferenças de sensibilidade dos isolados para o mesmo produto testado. O oxadiazon reduziu o CMR dos isolados AJAM 18 e TRI 01 em 66 e 35%, respectivamente. No entanto, reduziu apenas 16% do CMR do isolado TRI 02 e não alterou o CMR do isolado CE 66 mesmo em 200% da dose recomendada. Verificaram-se diferentes efeitos dos produtos em cada isolado. A mistura comercial de thiobencarb+propanil foi altamente tóxica aos isolados de Trichoderma spp., com reduções em torno de 85% no CMR e no número de esporos. Por outro lado, o byspiribac-sodium pouco afetou os isolados, apresentando reduções inferiores a 10% no CMR e na esporulação. O carfentrazone-ethyl e byspiribac-sodium demonstraram ser compatíveis com os isolados de Trichoderma spp. estudados.The use of microorganisms is an alternative for the control of plant diseases. However, one should verify its interaction with other methods of control used for a particular crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of herbicide fungitoxicity on the growth and

  6. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  7. Multiple Wavelength-Channels in SPP Waveguides for Optical Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-You; HUANG Peng; GUO Xiao-Wei; WANG Jing-Quan; FANG Lang; DU Jing-Lei; LUO Xian-Gang; DU Chun-Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Surface plasmon polaritons(SPPs)can be excited,meanwhile some peculiar optical phenomena will appear when light irradiates metal structures under some conditions.Based on photonic band gap theory,in this Letter we present a kind of SPP waveguide with multiple wavelength-channels.By using the Bragg effect and introducing some geometric defect layers into a quasi-periodic metal heterowaveguide,the multiple SPP forbidden bands(SPFBs)in a given waveband can be generated,and the multiple SPP pass bands(SPPBs)with narrow bandwidth in each SPFB can be realized.

  8. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  10. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K. Y.; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:28066390

  11. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  13. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reis, M.R; Leão, E.U; Santos, G.R; Sarmento-Brum, R.B.C; Gonçalves, C.G; Cardon, C.H; Silva, D.B

    2013-01-01

    ... a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp...

  14. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); De Ridder, C. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Biologie Marine

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these microorganisms. Diseases most often caused by Haemophilus spp. include pneumonia, pharyngitis,...

  16. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  17. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria vertoonde

  18. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet turtles and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Du-San; Shin, Gee-Wook; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Pet turtles are known as a source of Salmonella infection to humans when handled in captivity. Thirty four turtles purchased from pet shops and online markets in Korea were examined to determine whether the turtles and their environment were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 17 turtles. These isolates were identified as S. enterica through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the soil and water samples increased over time. We concluded that a high percentage of turtles being sold in pet shops were infected with Salmonella spp., and their environments tend to become contaminated over time unless they are maintained properly. These results indicate that pet turtles could be a potential risk of salmonellosis in Korea. PMID:27729933

  19. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  20. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  1. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  2. Sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Saari, Seppo; Mikkonen, Taina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Pellikka, Jani; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Lim, Chae W; Sukura, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Although human infections caused by Trichinella sp. have not been reported in Finland for several decades and Trichinella sp. infection in pork has become virtually extinct in the last decade, sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection is still highly prevalent in Finland. Muscle digestion of 2,483 carnivorous wild animals from 9 host species during 1999-2005 showed 617 positive animals (24.8%). Molecular identification from 328 larval isolates revealed 4 different endemic Trichinella species, i.e., T. nativa, T. spiralis, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Seven percent of the infected animals carried mixed infections. Trichinella nativa was the most common species (74%), but T. spiralis was identified in 12%, T. britovi in 6%, and T. pseudospiralis in 1% of the animals. Host species showed different sample prevalence and Trichinella species distribution. Geographical distribution also varied, with the southern part of the country having significantly higher percentages than the northern part. Infection density was dependent on both the infecting Trichinella species and the host species. Trichinella spiralis was discovered in areas with no known domestic infection cases, indicating that it can also occur in the sylvatic cycle. Raccoon dogs and red foxes are the most important reservoir animals for T. spiralis , as well as for the sylvatic Trichinella species in Finland.

  3. Helicobacter spp. other than Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Cinthia G; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2010-09-01

    Over the last 12 months, new insights into the association of non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters with a range of human diseases in children and adults, including hepatobiliary disease, Crohn's disease, sepsis, and gastric disease were published. Studies investigating the presence of non-H. pylori Helicobacters in domestic animals reinforce previous findings that cats and dogs harbor gastric Helicobacter species and thus may be an important source of these organisms in humans. The confounding effect of enterohepatic Helicobacters on the outcome of biomedical research was investigated in several studies and led to recommendations that animals should be screened prior to performing experiments. A number of important and novel investigations regarding pathogenic mechanisms and immune responses to enterohepatic Helicobacters were conducted. Genomic advances in non-H. pylori Helicobacters included description of the complete genome of Helicobacter canadensis, delineation of two Helicobacter bilis genomospecies, and identification of a novel cis-regulatory RNA. New insights concerning growth conditions, biochemical characterization, and the effect of certain dietary compounds on Helicobacter spp. have also been reported. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Aeromonas spp.: ubiquitous or specialized bugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises ubiquitous bacteria that are known to play several roles in the environment. These bacteria were first described as fish pathogens, but their presence was documented in other reservoirs, such as animals and humans. Today, these bacteria are described as emerging pathogens, but their effective role in human pathogenicity is still controversial. In addition, their taxonomy is heavily debated, as species distinction is often difficult to achieve. To study the interspecies relationships and to investigate their connection with the environment, a multilocus sequence typing scheme previously developed for Aeromonas spp. was applied to 258 strains, and the genetic data were analysed by population software. Sampling was a fundamental step, including several of the main sources of Aeromonas: fish, food products and human cases of disease. The objective was to characterize the isolates and to find potential associations among them according to the following: species, sharing of virulence factors, source and adaptation to a specific habitat. The strains were characterized and demonstrated exceptionally high nucleotide variability in the Aeromonas genus. Among the sampled sources, different species distributions were found, highlighting the occurrence of adaptation processes towards specific habitats.

  5. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Irene V; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees C. Arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either Campylobacter or Leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. Because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of Arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla), gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), rhea (Rhea americana), and aborted equine fetuses. Seven of these nine phenotypically identified isolates of Arcobacter were confirmed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The remaining two isolates were subsequently identified as Arcobacter skirrowii (Case 5) and Campylobacter jejuni (Case 6) by sequence analysis of a 527-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis.

  6. Antibodies to Leishmania spp. in domestic felines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoa in the genus Leishmania, typical of rural and peri-urban environments. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis is Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi and the main insect vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Dogs (Canis familiaris are important in the transmission of the disease, as a reservoir closely related to humans and an infection source for phlebotomine vectors. Since 1990, an increasing number of feline leishmaniasis cases have been reported, suggesting that domestic cats (Felis catus might be involved in the epidemiology of the disease. The present study analyzed the prevalence of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in naturally infected domestic cats from various neighborhoods in the municipality of Belém, Pará, Brazil, using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and the direct agglutination test (DAT. Among the 443 samples tested, 18 (4.06% presented positive reactions in the IFA. The observed titers were 40 IU in 4.97% of the samples and 80 IU in 0.90%. In the DAT test, positive results were found in 25 (5.64% of the samples. The observed titers were also 40 IU (4.97% and 80 IU (0.68%. The agreement rate between the two tests was considered low (Kappa coefficient = 0.10.

  7. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54...

  8. Epidemiology and Prevalence of Blastocystis spp. in North Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyer, Ayse; Karasartova, Djursun; Ruh, Emrah; Güreser, Ayse Semra; Turgal, Ebru; Imir, Turgut; Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul

    2017-05-01

    AbstractThis study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Blastocystis spp. and its subtypes (STs) in North Cyprus; and to evaluate the presence of this parasite and its STs with respect to demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms. Stool samples were collected from 230 volunteers. Each participant also filled out a questionnaire. The samples were examined microscopically by native-Lugol and trichrome methods and further tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Prevalence of Blastocystis spp. infection was found to be 10.5%, 10.5%, and 27.8%, by direct microscopy, trichrome method, and PCR, respectively. No other parasites were detected in the specimens except Giardia spp. (n = 2; 0.8%) and Entamoeba coli (n = 1; 0.4%). The most common Blastocystis STs were ST3 (20; 31.2%), ST2 (18; 28.2%), ST1 (8; 12.5%), and ST4 (7; 11%); whereas other STs were identified as ST6 (3; 4.7%), ST7 (2; 3.2%), and non-ST (6; 9.4%). Presence of Blastocystis spp. and its STs was not significantly related to any of the demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors. Furthermore, no significant association of Blastocystis spp. and its STs with gastrointestinal symptoms was found. This study is the first investigation of the epidemiology of Blastocystis spp. in North Cyprus. Distribution of Blastocystis spp. and its STs among demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors showed complete homogeneity. Presence of the parasite and its STs was not significantly related with the gastrointestinal symptoms among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. These findings suggest that Blastocystis spp. may be part of the intestinal flora in humans.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Non-flowering Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Jessup, R. W.; Whitmire, D. K.; Farrow, Z. L.; Burson, B. L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The goal of this study was to characterize recently identified, non-flowering, putative tetraploid Sorghum spp. hybrids utilizing bulked segregant analysis with SSRs and compare them to S. bicolor, S. halepense, and triploid putative Sorghum spp. hybrids. Confirmed species hybrids between S. bicolor and S. halepense would provide resources for investigating risks of invasiveness and transgene escape alongside potential for identifying novel perennial Sorghum feedstocks of value. Study d...

  10. POTENSI BEBERAPA ISOLAT PROBIOTIK SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    HASBIAH

    2015-01-01

    The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...

  11. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya; Ozlem Aycan Kaya; Umit Sertan Copoglu; Sibel Elmacioglu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are common ectoparasites found in humans and live on the pilosebaceous glands and hair follicles especially on the facial region. Chronic alcohol consumption can weaken immune system and cause more severe infections. Demodex spp is assumed to be more common in alcohol-dependent patients due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of Demodex spp. ectoparasite in alc...

  12. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season) applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the ...

  13. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  14. Cefotaxime resistance and outcome of Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M; Marco, F; Soriano, A; Almela, M; Martínez, J A; López, J; Pitart, C; Mensa, J

    2011-12-01

    We attempt to describe the epidemiology and outcome associated with cefotaxime-resistant (CTX-R) Klebsiella spp bacteraemia. Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection episodes prospectively collected through a blood culture surveillance programme from January 1991 to December 2008 in a single institution were analysed. A total of 910 monomicrobial episodes of Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were identified during the study period. The most important sources were from urinary tract infection, unknown sources, billiary focus and catheter related infection. There were 112 (12%) CTX-R isolates. Out of 112 isolates, 98 were CTX-R by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase production. Shock on presentation and mortality were significantly more frequent in CTX-R than in CTX susceptible isolates. Inappropriate empirical therapy was received in 50 (45%) cases in the CTX-R Klebsiella spp group (13 cases of death, 26%). Predictive factors associated with CTX-R Klebsiella spp isolate were: previous β-lactam therapy (OR = 4.16), nosocomial acquired bacteraemia (OR = 1.93), solid organ trasplantation (OR = 2.09) and shock (OR = 1.90). Independent risk factors associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were: age (OR = 1.03), liver cirrhosis (OR = 2.63), ultimately or rapidly fatal prognosis of underlying disease (OR = 2.44), shock (OR = 8.60), pneumonia (OR = 4.96) or intraabdominal (OR = 3.85) source of bacteraemia and CTX-R isolate (OR = 4.63). Klebsiella spp is an important cause of bloodstream infection. CTX-R isolates have been increasing since 2000. CTX-R is an independent factor associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia.

  15. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  16. Curcubitocin containing baits for Diabrotica spp. management/ Iscas contendo cucurbitacinas para o manejo de Diabrotica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ursi Ventura

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabrotica speciosa is a very important pest throughout Latin America, which management strategies are restrict to chemical control. We revise the usage of baits, containing semiochemicals, as management strategy for Diabrotica spp. Initially, we described the importance of baits for several orders of agricultural importance. The cucurbitacins are basic elements for Diabrotica spp. baits. These chemicals occur in some botanical families, especially Cucurbitaceae. The Carbamate insecticide Carbaril showed the best results for addition in the baits. Flowers volatile substances and pheromones also may be added to the baits to enhance attraction. Commercial baits are available for north-American species. For bait development is necessary to establish plant adherent formulations that promote the control during some weeks. We found in the literature that starch matrix may be suitable for this proposal.Diabrotica speciosa é praga de grande importância na América Latina, cujas estratégias de manejo restringem-se ao controle químico. A utilização de iscas, contendo semioquímicos como estratégia para manejo de Diabrotica spp. é revisada. Inicialmente, descreve-se a importância das iscas para diversas ordens de importância agrícola. As cucurbitacinas são elementos básicos das iscas para Diabrotica spp. Estas substâncias ocorrem em várias famílias botânicas, especialmente, Cucurbitaceae. O inseticida carbamato Carbaril apresenta os melhores resultados quando adicionado às iscas. Substâncias voláteis de flores e feromônios também podem ser adicionados às iscas e, desta forma, aumentar sua atratividade. Iscas comerciais existem para as espécies norte americanas. Para o desenvolvimento das iscas é necessário que se estabeleçam formulações aderentes às plantas que promovam o controle durante um tempo razoável no campo. Pelas informações da literatura, formulações contendo matrizes de amido podem ter estas características.

  17. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  18. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  19. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Carneiro da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44 were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. RESULTS: All of the samples were negative for the Flavivirus genome following the 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These negative results indicate that the analyzed animals were not infected with arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus and did not represent a risk for viral transmission through vectors during the period in which the samples were collected.

  20. Robust hydrocarbon degradation and dynamics of bacterial communities during nutrient-enhanced oil spill bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röling, Wilfred F M; Milner, Michael G; Jones, D Martin; Lee, Kenneth; Daniel, Fabien; Swannell, Richard J P; Head, Ian M

    2002-11-01

    Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil composition. Bacterial communities were compared by numerical analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Nutrient amendment over a wide range of concentrations significantly improved oil degradation, confirming that N and P limited degradation over the concentration range tested. However, the extent and rate of oil degradation were similar for all microcosms, indicating that, in this experiment, it was the addition of inorganic nutrients rather than the precise amount that was most important operationally. Very different microbial communities were selected in all of the microcosms. Similarities between DGGE profiles of replicate samples from a single microcosm were high (95% +/- 5%), but similarities between DGGE profiles from replicate microcosms receiving the same level of inorganic nutrients (68% +/- 5%) were not significantly higher than those between microcosms subjected to different nutrient amendments (63% +/- 7%). Therefore, it is apparent that the different communities selected cannot be attributed to the level of inorganic nutrients present in different microcosms. Bioremediation treatments dramatically reduced the diversity of the bacterial community. The decrease in diversity could be accounted for by a strong selection for bacteria belonging to the alkane-degrading Alcanivorax/Fundibacter group. On the basis of Shannon-Weaver indices, rapid recovery of the bacterial community diversity to preoiling levels of diversity occurred. However, although the overall diversity was similar, there were considerable qualitative differences in the community structure before and after the bioremediation treatments.

  1. Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential in Reference Soils and Soils Contaminated with Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    increases the rate of transformation of a compound as a result of prior exposure to the compound ( Spain and Van Veld 1983). The time needed for this...B21, 125-141. Cripe, C. R.; Walker, W. W.; Pritchard, P. H.; Bourquin, A. W. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 1987, 14, 239-251. Dragum, J...Canadian Journal of Aquatic Science. 1983, S2, 86-94. Lee, N0. D.: Thomas, J. M.; Borden, R. C.; Bedient, P. B.. Ward. C. H.; Wilson, J. T. CRC

  2. Kinetics of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Toxicity of Trichloroethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhuis, Roelof; Oedzes, Johannes Y.; Waarde, Jacob J. van der; Janssen, Dick B.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and seven other chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b were studied. All experiments were performed with cells grown under copper stress and thus expressing soluble methane monooxygenase. Compounds that were re

  3. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by heterogeneous reactions with N 2O 5 on atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, Richard M.; Guo, Jiazhen; Guo, Zhishi; McDow, Stephen R.

    The degradation of particulate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on atmospheric soot particles in the presence of gas phase dinitrogen pentoxide (N 2O 5) was explored. Dilute diesel and wood soot particles containing PAH were reacted with˜10ppm of N 2O 5 in a 200 ℓ continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). To provide a stable source of particles for reaction in the CSTR, diesel or wood soot particles were injected at night into a 25 m 3 Teflon outdoor chamber. The large chamber served as a reservoir for the feed aerosol, and the aerosol could then be introduced at a constant flow rate into the CSTR. PAH-N 2O 5 heterogeneous rate constants for wood soot at 15°C ranged from2 × 10 -18to5 × 10 -18 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1. For diesel soot the rate constants at 16°C were higher and ranged from5 × 10 -18to30 × 10 -18 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1. Comparisons with other studies suggest that sunlight is the most important factor which influences PAH decay. This is followed by ozone, NO 2, N 2O 5 and nitric acid. The rate constants of nitro-PAH formation from a parent PAH and N 2O 5 were of the order of1 × 10 -19-1 × 10 -18 molecules -1s -1. The uncertainty associated with all of these rate constants is± a factor of 3. Given, however, the small magnitude of the rate constants and the low levels of N 2O 5 present in the atmosphere, we concluded that PAH heterogeneous reactions with gas phase N 2O 5 degrade particle-bound PAH or to form nitro-PAH from PAH are not very important. (Direct application of the specific rate constants derived in this study to ambient atmospheres should not be undertaken unless the ambient particle size distributions and chemical composition of the particles are similar to the ones reported in this study.)

  4. Functional genes to assess nitrogen cycling and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: primers and processing matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ryan Penton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Targeting sequencing to genes involved in key environmental processes, i.e. ecofunctional genes, provides an opportunity to sample nature’s gene guilds to greater depth and help link community structure to process-level outcomes. Vastly different approaches have been implemented for sequence processing and, ultimately, for taxonomic placement of these gene reads. The overall quality of next generation sequence analysis of functional genes is dependent on multiple steps and assumptions of unknown diversity. To illustrate current issues surrounding amplicon read processing we provide examples for three ecofunctional gene groups. A combination of in-silico, environmental and cultured strain sequences was used to test new primers targeting the dioxin and dibenzofuran degrading genes dxnA1, dbfA1, and carAa. The majority of obtained environmental sequences were classified into novel sequence clusters, illustrating the discovery value of the approach. For the nitrite reductase step in denitrification, the well-known nirK primers exhibited deficiencies in reference database coverage, illustrating the need to refine primer-binding sites and/or to design multiple primers, while nirS primers exhibited bias against five phyla. Amino acid-based OTU clustering of these two N-cycle genes from soil samples yielded only 114 unique nirK and 45 unique nirS genus-level groupings, likely a reflection of constricted primer coverage. Finally, supervised and non-supervised OTU analysis methods were compared using the nifH gene of nitrogen fixation, with generally similar outcomes, but the clustering (non-supervised method yielded higher diversity estimates and stronger site-based differences. High throughput amplicon sequencing can provide inexpensive and rapid access to nature’s related sequences by circumventing the culturing barrier, but each unique gene requires individual considerations in terms of primer design and sequence processing and classification.

  5. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Stuart E.

    2002-06-01

    Several varieties of transgenic poplar containing cytochrome P-450 2E1 have been constructed and are undergoing tests. Strategies for improving public acceptance and safety of transgenic poplar for chlorinated hydrocarbon phytoremediation are being developed. We have discovered a unique rhizobium species that lives within the stems of poplar and we are investigating whether this bacterium contributes nitrogen fixed from the air to the plant and whether this endophyte could be used to introduce genes into poplar. Studies of the production of chloride ion from TCE have shown that our present P-450 constructs did not produce chloride more rapidly than wild type plants. Follow-up studies will determine if there are other rate limiting downstream steps in TCE metabolism in plants. Studies of the metabolism of carbon tetrachloride in poplar cells have provided evidence that the native plant metabolism is due to the activity of oxidative enzymes similar to the mammalian cytochrome P-450 2E1.

  6. Growth and biosurfactant synthesis by Nigerian hydrocarbon-degrading estuarine bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Adebusoye

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons is important for finding an environmentally-friendly method to restoring contaminated environmental matrices. Screening of hydrocarbon-utilizing and biosurfactant-producing abilities of organisms from an estuarine ecosystem in Nigeria, Africa, resulted in the isolation of five microbial strains identified as Corynebacterium sp. DDv1, Flavobacterium sp. DDv2, Micrococcus roseus DDv3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DDv4 and Saccharomyces cerevisae DDv5. These isolates grew readily on several hydrocarbons including hexadecane, dodecane, crude oil and petroleum fractions. Axenic cultures of the organisms utilized diesel oil (1.0 % v/v with generation times that ranged significantly (t-test, P La capacidad de los microorganismos para degradar hidrocarburos del petróleo es de gran importancia para hallar un método aceptable y ambientalmente amigable para la restauración de terrenos ambientalmente contaminados. Al investigar las capacidades de los organismos de un ecosistema de estuario que utilizan hidrocarburos y producen biosurfactantes, se produjo como resultado el aislamiento de cinco cepas microbianas identificadas como Corynebacterium sp. DDv1, Flavobacterium sp. DDv2, Micrococcus roseus DDv3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y DDv4 Saccharomyces cerevisiae DDv5. Estas cepas crecieron fácilmente en varios hidrocarburos incluyendo hexadecanos, dodecanos, petróleo crudo y fracciones de petróleo. Los cultivos axénicos de organismos utilizaron diesel (1.0% v/v con períodos por generación con ámbitos significativos (t-test, P <0.05 de entre 3.25 y 3.88 días, con la consiguiente producción de bio-surfactantes. La cinética del crecimiento indica que la síntesis de bio-surfactante se produjo principalmente durante la fase de crecimiento exponencial, lo que sugiere que las moléculas bioactivas son metabolitos primarios. Las cepas DDv1 y DDv4 fueron evidentemente las más metabólicamente activas en términos de utilización del sustrato y la síntesis de bio-surfactantes en comparación con otras cepas con índices respectivos de emulsificación de 63 y 78%. La caracterización bioquímica preliminar indica que los bio-surfactantes son heteropolímeros constituidos de fracciones de lípidos, proteínas y carbohidratos. Las propiedades catabólicas de los hidrocarburos, junto con las capacidades de producción de bio-surfactantes, es una ventaja que puede ser aprovechada para la limpieza de terrenos contaminados con petróleo y también en la industria alimentaria y cosmética.

  7. Prediction of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in spiked soils using cyclodextrin extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Ian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Semple, Kirk T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Lancaster University, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Hare, Rina [Alcontrol Laboratories, Chester CH5 3US (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [Alcontrol Laboratories, Chester CH5 3US (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2006-11-15

    In this study, an aqueous-based hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction technique was assessed for its capacity to determine the microbially degradable fraction of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in four dissimilar soils. A linear relationship (slope = 0.90; R {sup 2} = 0.89), approaching 1:1 between predicted and observed phenanthrene mineralization, was demonstrated for the cyclodextrin extraction; however, the water only extraction underestimated the microbially available fraction by a factor of three (slope = 3.35; R {sup 2} = 0.64). With respect to determining the mineralizable fraction of p-cresol in soils, the cyclodextrin extraction (slope = 0.94; R {sup 2} = 0.84) was more appropriate than the water extraction (slope = 1.50; R {sup 2} = 0.36). Collectively, these results suggested that the cyclodextrin extraction technique was suitable for the prediction of the mineralizable fraction of representative PAHs and phenols present in dissimilar soils following increasing soil-contaminant contact times. The assessment of the microbial availability of contaminants in soils is important for a more representative evaluation of soil contamination. - An aqueous-based HPCD extraction technique was more appropriate than the water extraction in prediction of the mineralizable fraction of phenanthrene and p-cresol present in a range of dissimilar soils.

  8. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirima, George Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus) to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection. PMID:27774456

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from aviation fuel spill site at Ibeno, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, R C; Essien, J P; Akpan, S B; Okpokwasili, G C

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were isolated from aviation fuel contaminated soil at Inua Eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria. PAH-degrading bacteria in the contaminated soil were isolated by enrichment culture technique. Isolates with high PAH degrading potential characterized by their extensive growth on PAH-supplemented minimal salt medium were screened for their naphthalene, phenanthrene and chrysene degradability. The screening medium which contained selected PAHs as the sole source of carbon and energy showed that Micrococcus varians AFS-2, Pseudomonas putida AFS-3 and Alcaligenes faecalis AFS-5 exhibited a concentration-dependent growth in all the PAH-compounds tested. There were visible changes in the color of growth medium suggesting the production of different metabolites. Their acclimation to different PAH substrates was also evident as A. faecalis AFS-5 isolated from chrysene grew well on other less complex aromatic compounds. The isolate exhibited best growth (0.44 OD(600)) when exposed to 10 ppm of chrysene for 5 days and could utilize up to 90 ppm of chrysene. This isolate and others with strong PAH-degrading potentials are recommended for bioremediation of PAHs in aviation fuel-contaminated sites in the tropics.

  10. Freezing and hungry? Hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities in Barents Sea sediments around Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Straaten, Nontje

    2017-04-01

    The Polar Regions are characterised by varying temperatures and changing ice coverage, so most of the primary production take place in the warmer season. Consequently, sedimentation rates and nutrient input are low. The diversity and metabolic potentials of the microbial communities inhabiting these sediments in the Northern Barents Sea are largely unknown. Recent reports on natural methane seeps as well as the increase in hydrocarbon exploration activities in the Arctic initiated our studies on the potential of indigenous microbial communities to degrade methane and higher hydrocarbons under in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Furthermore, the subseafloor geochemistry in these areas was studied, together with important microbial groups, like methanotrophs, methanogens, metal and sulfate reducers, which may drive seafloor ecosystems in the Northern Barents Sea. Sediment samples were collected in several areas around Svalbard in the years 2013-2016 ranging from shallow (200m) areas on the Svalbard shelf to deep sea areas on the eastern Yermak Plateau (3200m water depths). Shelf sediments showed the highest organic carbon content which decreased with increasing depths. Iron and manganese as potential electron acceptors were found in the porewater especially in the top 50 cm of the cores, while sulfate was always present in substantial amounts in porewater samples down to the end of the up to two metre long cores. Concentrations of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide were low. The potential of the indigenous microorganisms to degrade methane and higher hydrocarbons as well as different oils under in situ temperatures and pressures was widespread in surface sediments. Degradation rates were higher under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions, and decreased with increasing sediment as well as water depths. Similar pattern were found for other metabolic processes, including sulfate, Fe and Mn reduction as well as carbon dioxide and methane production rates. Ongoing molecular biological analyses of original sediments and enrichment cultures indicate the presence of diverse and varying microbial communities.

  11. Functional diversity of bacterial genes associated with aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gomes Germano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the catabolic gene diversity for the bacterial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE and their biochar (BC. Functional diversity analyses in ADE soils can provide information on how adaptive microorganisms may influence the fertility of soils and what is their involvement in biogeochemical cycles. For this, clone libraries containing the gene encoding for the alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (α-ARHD bacterial gene were constructed, totaling 800 clones. These libraries were prepared from samples of an ADE soil under two different land uses, located at the Caldeirão Experimental Station - secondary forest (SF and agriculture (AG -, and the biochar (SF_BC and AG_BC, respectively. Heterogeneity estimates indicated greater diversity in BC libraries; and Venn diagrams showed more unique operational protein clusters (OPC in the SF_BC library than the ADE soil, which indicates that specific metabolic processes may occur in biochar. Phylogenetic analysis showed unidentified dioxygenases in ADE soils. Libraries containing functional gene encoding for the alpha subunit of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD gene from biochar show higher diversity indices than those of ADE under secondary forest and agriculture.

  12. Untangling the multiple monooxygenases of Mycobacterium chubuense strain NBB4, a versatile hydrocarbon degrader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Nicholas V; Yau, Sheree; Wilson, Neil L; Nolan, Laura M; Migocki, Margaret D; Ly, Mai-Anh; Crossett, Ben; Holmes, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    Mycobacterium strain NBB4 was isolated on ethene as part of a bioprospecting study searching for novel monooxygenase (MO) enzymes of interest to biocatalysis and bioremediation. Previous work indicated that strain NBB4 contained an unprecedented diversity of MO genes, and we hypothesized that each MO type would support growth on a distinct hydrocarbon substrate. Here, we attempted to untangle the relationships between MO types and hydrocarbon substrates. Strain NBB4 was shown to grow on C2 -C4 alkenes and C2 -C16 alkanes. Complete gene clusters encoding six different monooxygenases were recovered from a fosmid library, including homologues of ethene MO (etnABCD), propene MO (pmoABCD), propane MO (smoABCD), butane MO (smoXYB1C1Z), cytochrome P450 (CYP153; fdx-cyp-fdr) and alkB (alkB-rubA1-rubA2). Catabolic enzymes involved in ethene assimilation (EtnA, EtnC, EtnD, EtnE) and alkane assimilation (alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases) were identified by proteomics, and we showed for the first time that stress response proteins (catalase/peroxidase, chaperonins) were induced by growth on C2 -C5 alkanes and ethene. Surprisingly, none of the identified MO genes could be specifically associated with oxidation of small alkanes, and thus the nature of the gaseous alkane MO in NBB4 remains mysterious.

  13. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Strand

    2004-09-27

    The research objectives for this report are: (1) Transform poplar and other tree species to extend and optimize chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) oxidative activities. (2) Determine the mechanisms of CHC oxidation in plants. (3) Isolate the genes responsible for CHC oxidation in plants. We have made significant progress toward an understanding of the biochemical mechanism of CHC transformation native to wild-type poplar. We have identified chloral, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid as products of TCE metabolism in poplar plants and in tissue cultures of poplar cells.(Newman et al. 1997; Newman et al. 1999) Use of radioactively labeled TCE showed that once taken up and transformed, most of the TCE was incorporated into plant tissue as a non-volatile, unextractable residue.(Shang et al. 2001; Shang and Gordon 2002) An assay for this transformation was developed and validated using TCE transformation by poplar suspension cells. Using this assay, it was shown that two different activities contribute to the fixation of TCE by poplar cells: one associated with cell walls and insoluble residues, the other associated with a high molecular weight, heat labile fraction of the cell extract, a fixation that was apparently catalyzed by plant enzymes.

  14. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation during Bioremediation of Heavily Creosote-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas, Marc; Sabaté, Jordi; Espuny, María José; Solanas, Anna M.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial community dynamics and biodegradation processes were examined in a highly creosote-contaminated soil undergoing a range of laboratory-based bioremediation treatments. The dynamics of the eubacterial community, the number of heterotrophs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders, and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and PAH concentrations were monitored during the bioremediation process. TPH and PAHs were significantly degraded in all treatments (72 to 79% and 83 to 87...

  15. Isolation and characterization of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria adapted to electrokinetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengmei; Guo, Shuhai; Hartog, Niels; Yuan, Ye; Yang, Xuelian

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria capable of growing under electrokinetic conditions were isolated using an adjusted acclimation and enrichment procedure based on soil contaminated with heavy PAHs in the presence of an electric field. Their ability to degrade heavy PAHs under an electric field was individually investigated in artificially contaminated soils. The results showed that strains PB4 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and FB6 (Kocuria sp.) were the most efficient heavy PAH degraders under electrokinetic conditions. They were re-inoculated into a polluted soil from an industrial site with a PAH concentration of 184.95 mg kg(-1). Compared to the experiments without an electric field, the degradation capability of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Kocuria sp. was enhanced in the industrially polluted soil under electrokinetic conditions. The degradation extents of total PAHs were increased by 15.4 and 14.0% in the electrokinetic PB4 and FB6 experiments (PB4 + EK and FB6 + EK) relative to the PB4 and FB6 experiments without electrokinetic conditions (PB4 and FB6), respectively. These results indicated that P. fluorescens and Kocuria sp. could efficiently degrade heavy PAHs under electrokinetic conditions and have the potential to be used for the electro-bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil, especially if the soil is contaminated with heavy PAHs.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  17. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Luiza L; Leite Deborah CA; Ferreira Edir M; Ferreira Lívia Q; Paula Geraldo R; Maguire Michael J; Hubert Casey RJ; Peixoto Raquel S; Domingues Regina MCP; Rosado Alexandre S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradati...

  18. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bello-Akinosho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH- polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates’ partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection.

  19. Identification and biodegradation potential of tropical aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillan, Frédéric; Le Flèche, Anne; Bury, Edith; Phantavong, Y-Hui; Grimont, Patrick; Saliot, Alain; Oudot, Jean

    2004-09-01

    Screening of aerobic culturable hydrocarbon (HC)-degrading microorganisms isolated from petroleum-polluted soils and cyanobacterial mats from Indonesia resulted in the collection of 33 distinct species. Eight bacteria, 21 fungi and 4 yeasts were identified to the specific level by molecular and phenotypic techniques. Bacterial strains belonged to the genera Gordonia, Brevibacterium, Aeromicrobium, Dietzia, Burkholderia and Mycobacterium. Four species are new and not yet described. Fungi belonged to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Amorphoteca, Neosartorya, Paecilomyces, Talaromyces and Graphium. Yeasts were Candida, Yarrowia and Pichia. All strains were cultivated axenically in synthetic liquid media with crude oil as sole carbon and energy source. After incubation, the detailed chemical composition of the residual oil was studied by gravimetric and gas-chromatographic techniques. Thirteen parameters for assessing the biodegradation potential were defined and computed for each strain. Maximum degradation was observed on the saturated HCs (n- and isoalkanes, isoprenoids), whereas aromatic HC degradation was lower and was related to the structural composition of the molecules. A principal components analysis (PCA) permitted grouping and classifying the strains as a function of their degradative capacities. It was shown that the most active strains produced polar metabolites which accumulated in the resins and asphaltene fractions. These fractions are highly resistant to microbial metabolism. No taxonomic trend could be defined between microbial phyla in terms of HC biodegradation activity.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, whic

  1. Substrate-bound Structures of Benzylsuccinate Synthase Reveal How Toluene Is Activated in Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Michael A.; Marsh, E. Neil G.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Various bacteria perform anaerobic degradation of small hydrocarbons as a source of energy and cellular carbon. To activate non-reactive hydrocarbons such as toluene, enzymes conjugate these molecules to fumarate in a radical-catalyzed, C—C bond-forming reaction. We have determined x-ray crystal structures of the glycyl radical enzyme that catalyzes the addition of toluene to fumarate, benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), in two oligomeric states with fumarate alone or with both substrates. We find that fumarate is secured at the bottom of a long active site cavity with toluene bound directly above it. The two substrates adopt orientations that appear ideal for radical-mediated C—C bond formation; the methyl group of toluene is positioned between fumarate and a cysteine that forms a thiyl radical during catalysis, which is in turn adjacent to the glycine that serves as a radical storage residue. Toluene is held in place by fumarate on one face and tight packing by hydrophobic residues on the other face and sides. These hydrophobic residues appear to become ordered, thus encapsulating toluene, only in the presence of BSSβ, a small protein subunit that forms a tight complex with BSSα, the catalytic subunit. Enzymes related to BSS are able to metabolize a wide range of hydrocarbons through attachment to fumarate. Using our structures as a guide, we have constructed homology models of several of these “X-succinate synthases” and determined conservation patterns that will be useful in understanding the basis for catalysis and specificity in this family of enzymes. PMID:26224635

  2. ASSESSMENT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON DEGRADATION FROM SOIL AND TARBALL BY FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Lotfinasabasl1, V. R.Gunale1, N. S. Rajurkar 1, 2

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Four fungi strains viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Rhizopus sp and Penicillium sp were isolated from soil and tarball samples collected from mangrove forest of Alibaug and Akshi coastal area, Maharashtra, India. These strains were assessed for their degradation capability of petroleum hydrocarbons measuring growth diameter in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA solid media for different concentrations of kerosene (5%- 20% (v/v. Rhizopus sp showed the highest growth diameter in 5% kerosene and Aspergillus niger showed the highest growth diameter in 20% kerosene while, penicillium sp showed the lowest growth diameter at all the concentrations of kerosene as compared to other three strains. The bioremediation of 20% oil contaminated soil by different fungi strains was found in the order Aspergillus niger> Rhizopus sp> Aspergillus terreus > Penicillium sp. In order to determine the effect of mixed fungal culture in contrast with single one, studies were carried out in 10% (v/v oil contaminated PDA media. It was observed that a mix culture consisting of penicillium sp, Rhizopus sp and Aspergillus terreus showed highest growth diameter.

  3. Total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by hybrid electrobiochemical reactor in oilfield produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ibrahim E

    2016-08-15

    The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1min and the energy consumption was 32.6mA/cm(2). However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of biosurfactant by hydrocarbon degrading Rhodococcus ruber and Rhodococcus erythropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicca Flávio Correa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There is world wide concern about the liberation of hydrocarbons in the environment, both from industrial activities and from accidental spills of oil and oilrelated compounds. Biosurfactants, which are natural emulsifiers of hydrocarbons, are produced by some bacteria, fungi and yeast. They are polymers, totally or partially extracellular, with an amphipathyc structure, which allows them to form micelles that accumulate at the interface between liquids of different polarities such as water and oil. This process is based upon the ability of biosurfactants to reduce surface tension, blocking the formation of hydrogen bridges and certain hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. The ability of biosurfactant production by five strains of Rhodococcus isolated from oil prospecting sites was evaluated. Surface tension measurement and emulsifying index were used to quantify biosurfactant production. The influence of environmental conditions was also investigated - pH, temperature, medium composition, and type of carbon source - on cell growth and biosurfactant production. Strain AC 239 was shown to be a potential producer, attaining 63% of emulsifying index for a Diesel-water binary system. It could be used, either directly on oil spills in contained environments, or for the biotechnological production of biosurfactant.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. IR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M. [Unidad de Biotecnologia del Petroleo, Centro de Biotecnologia, Fundacion Inst. de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA), Caracas (Venezuela); Synthesis and Biotics Div., Indian Oil Corp., Research and Development Center, Haryana (India); Leon, V.; Materano, A.D.S.; Ilzins, O.A.; Galindo-Castro, I.; Fuenmayor, S.L. [Unidad de Biotecnologia del Petroleo, Centro de Biotecnologia, Fundacion Inst. de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA), Caracas (Venezuela)

    2006-03-15

    We characterized a newly isolated bacterium, designated as IR1, with respect to its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to produce biosurfactants. Isolated IR1 was identified as Pseudomonas putida by analysis of 16S rRNA sequences (99.6% homology). It was capable of utilizing two-, three- and four-ring PAHs but not hexadecane and octadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR and DNA hybridization studies showed that enzymes involved in PAH metabolism were related to the naphthalene dioxygenase pathway. Observation of both tensio-active and emulsifying activities indicated that biosurfactants were produced by IR1 during growth on both water miscible and immiscible substrates. The biosurfactants lowered the surface tension of medium from 54.9 dN cm{sup -1} to 35.4 dN cm{sup -1} and formed a stable and compact emulsion with an emulsifying activity of 74% with diesel oil, when grown on dextrose. These findings indicate that this isolate may be useful for bioremediation of sites contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons. (orig.)

  6. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthra

  8. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  9. Alternations in the liver enzymatic activity of Common carp, Cyprinus carpio in response to parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastiannasab, Abulhasan; Afsharmanesh, Shiva; Rahimi, Ruhollah; Sharifian, Iman

    2016-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of parasites, monogenea, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. on some enzymatic and biochemical components of liver in healthy and infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio. For this purpose, 10 healthy and 10 infected fish were collected from farm. The blood samples were taken and after separation of serum, the values of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were measured. Based on obtained results, the values of AST, ALT enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were higher in the infected fish compared to non-infected fish. In conclusion; our results reveals that infection with external parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. can causes some dysfunctions in liver and kidney of common carp.

  10. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  11. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH2O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10(-3) ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Comparison of phylogeny analysis methods for rhizobia asolated from Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengqin; Zhang, Yongfa; Liu, Jie; Song, Andong; Liu, Quanjun; Chen, Wenxin

    2008-01-01

    Multilocus house-keeping gene sequence analysis is a hotspot of taxonomy and phylogeny of prokaryotes. In this research, we used atpD and gln II gene sequences to analyze the phylogeny of nine rhizobia strains of Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala and compared the results to that of 16S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence analysis of these three genes were congruent at the genera level. CCBAU43060 and CCBAU 61139 were located in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium. CCBAU51471, CCBAU35220, CCBAU51276 and CCBAU61158 belonged to the genera of Mesorhizobium. CCBAU35234, CCBAU61178 and CCBAU35085 were assigned to Bradyrhizobium. Differences were found for some strains, for example CCBAU 61158, CCBAU43060, CCBAU61178, at the species level. Insertion fragment and mosaic gene were also found in some isolates. These results indicated that there was recombination between species in the same genera. It is reliable to determine the taxonomy status at genera levels based on the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. If the relationships between strains belonging to the same genera were studied using the phylogeny methods, researches should be carried out with more than one house-keeping genes.

  13. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Regine H S F; Lima, Elenice Araújo de; Sousa, Dannielle Batista Rolim; Reis, Eliane Falavina dos; Costa, Renata Garcia; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres

    2004-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.

  14. ACIDENTES POR SERPENTE (BOTHROPS SPP. E CROTALLUS SPP. EM CRIANÇAS: RELATO DE DOIS CASOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ferreira Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes provocados por serpientes poseen importancia sanitaria debido a la frecuencia y gravedad. La estandarización de la atención es imprescindible para auxiliar a los equipos de salud en el diagnóstico precoz y en el tratamiento específico a las víctimas. Pero, la evolución clínica del caso presenta particularidades, principalmente en accidentes infantiles y en ancianos. El objetivo fue describir y analizar dos casos clínicos de accidentes infantiles con serpientes de los géneros Bothrops spp. y Crotallus spp., notificados a un centro de información y asistencia toxicológica del Noroeste del Paraná/Brasil. Se encontraron aspectos positivos en la atención, como precocidad del acceso a la unidad de salud, identificación de síntomas y seroterapia precoz, y no ocurrencia de reacciones adversas a la seroterapia antivenenosa, y como aspectos negativos, la ausencia de la solicitud de exámenes bioquímicos preconizados y alta hospitalaria precoz pos seroterapia, considerando la posibilidad de reacciones adversas.

  15. Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. are the preferred symbionts of Mimosa spp. in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, XiaoYun; Wei, Shuang; Wang, Fang; James, Euan K; Guo, XiaoYe; Zagar, Catherine; Xia, Liu Gui; Dong, Xin; Wang, Yi Peng

    2012-05-01

    Rhizobia were isolated from invasive Mimosa spp. (M. diplotricha and M. pudica) in Dehong district of the province of Yunnan in subtropical southern China. Almost all of the 98 isolates were β-rhizobia in the genera Burkholderia and Cupriavidus. These strains were analysed for their distribution characteristics together with strains from a previous study from Sishuangbanna. The proportion of nodules containing each β-rhizobial genus varied between Mimosa species, with Cupriavidus being predominant in M. diplotricha nodules (63.3% compared to 36.7% occupation with Burkholderia), but with M. pudica showing a slight preference for Burkholderia over Cupriavidus, with them occupying 56.5% and 43.5% of nodules, respectively. The symbiosis-essential genes nodA and nifH were present in all the Burkholderia and Cupriavidus strains tested, and their phylogenies indicated that these Mimosa symbionts share symbiotic genes with native South American rhizobia. The evolutionary discrepancies among 16S rRNA genes, nodA and nifH of Mimosa spp. symbionts, suggests that the nod and nif genes of β-rhizobia evolved independently. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gottlieb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  17. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  18. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis

  19. Alteration in cell surface properties of Burkholderia spp. during surfactant-aided biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Mukherji, Suparna [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering (CESE)

    2012-04-15

    Chemical surfactants may impact microbial cell surface properties, i.e., cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and cell surface charge, and may thus affect the uptake of components from non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). This work explored the impact of Triton X-100, Igepal CA 630, and Tween 80 (at twice the critical micelle concentration, CMC) on the cell surface characteristics of Burkholderia cultures, Burkholderia cepacia (ES1, aliphatic degrader) and Burkholderia multivorans (NG1, aromatic degrader), when grown on a six-component model NAPL. In the presence of Triton X-100, NAPL biodegradation was enhanced from 21% to 60% in B. cepacia and from 18% to 53% in B. multivorans. CSH based on water contact angle (50-52 ) was in the same range for both strains while zeta potential at neutral pH was -38 and -31 mV for B. cepacia and B. multivorans, respectively. In the presence of Triton X-100, their CSH increased to greater than 75 and the zeta potential decreased. This induced a change in the mode of uptake and initiated aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation by B. multivorans and increased the rate of aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation in B. cepacia. Igepal CA 630 and Tween 80 also altered the cell surface properties. For B. cepacia grown in the presence of Triton X-100 at two and five times its CMC, CSH increased significantly in the log growth phase. Growth in the presence of the chemical surfactants also affected the abundance of chemical functional groups on the cell surface. Cell surface changes had maximum impact on NAPL degradation in the presence of emulsifying surfactants, Triton X-100 and Igepal CA630.

  20. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  1. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in salad vegetables in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lay Ching; Robin, Tunung; Ragavan, Usha Menon; Gunsalam, Jurin Wolmon; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Radu, Son; Kumar, Malakar Pradeep

    2007-06-10

    The main aim of this study was to combine the techniques of most probable number (MPN) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantifying the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter spp. in ulam, a popular Malaysian salad dish, from a traditional wet market and two modern supermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 309 samples of raw vegetables which are used in ulam were examined in the study. The prevalences of campylobacters in raw vegetables were, for supermarket I, Campylobacter spp., 51.9%; Campylobacter jejuni, 40.7%; and Campylobacter coli, 35.2%: for supermarket II, Campylobacter spp., 67.7%; C. jejuni, 67.7%; and C. coli, 65.7%: and for the wet market, Campylobacter spp., 29.4%; C. jejuni, 25.5%; and C. coli, 22.6%. In addition Campylobacter fetus was detected in 1.9% of raw vegetables from supermarket I. The maximum numbers of Campylobacter spp. in raw vegetables from supermarkets and the wet market were >2400 and 460 MPN/g, respectively.

  2. Candida spp. in periodontal disease: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina C O; Duque, Cristiane; Mariano, Flávia S; Peixoto, Iza T A; Höfling, José F; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B

    2010-06-01

    Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. Such interactions are associated with the capacity of Candida spp. to invade gingival conjunctive tissue, and may be important in the microbial colonization that contributes to progression of oral alterations caused by diabetes mellitus, some medications, and immunosuppressive diseases such as AIDS. In addition, immune deficiency can result in proliferation of Candida spp. and germination of forms that are more virulent and have a higher capacity to adhere to and penetrate cells in host tissues. The virulence factors of Candida spp. increase host susceptibility to proliferation of these microorganisms and are likely to be important in the study of periodontal disease. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining to the role of Candida spp. in periodontal disease, and consider the main virulence factors, the host immune response to these microorganisms, and the effect of concomitant immunosuppressive conditions.

  3. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  4. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Moutailler, Sara; Féménia, Françoise; Raymond, Philippe; Croce, Olivier; La Scola, Bernard; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp. (B. doshiae, B. schoenbuchensis, and B. tribocorum). Genomic analysis of the isolated strains revealed differences from previously sequenced Bartonella strains. Our investigation identifed 3 novel Bartonella spp. strains with human pathogenic potential and showed that Bartonella spp. may be the cause of undifferentiated chronic illness in humans who have been bitten by ticks.

  6. Helminth fauna of Talpa spp. in the Palaearctic Realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2006-03-01

    The helminth fauna of the genus Talpa in the Palaearctic Realm is reviewed. Several helminth species reported in Talpa spp. by a number of authors are discussed, with reference to host specificity, parasite biology, and host ethology, ecology and phylogeny. Twelve species of cestodes were found, two of which exhibit stenoxenous specificity (Staphylocystis bacillaris and Multitesticulata filamentosa). Only three species of trematodes, Ityogonimus lorum, Ityogonimus ocreatus and Combesia macrobursata, are exclusive parasites of Talpa spp. The largest group are nematodes, with 37 species. Species of Tricholinstowia are parasites of holarctic talpids and several species of distinct genera, such as Capillaria, Soboliphyme and Trichuris, are found only in Talpa spp. Only acanthocephalans of the genus Moniliformis have been reported in moles of the genus Talpa. On the basis of these helminthological findings, the close phylogenetic relationship between moles (Talpidae) and shrews (Soricidae) supports the separation of the ordinal levels Soricomorpha and Erinaceomorpha.

  7. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  8. Small rodents and other mammals associated with mountain meadows as reservoirs of Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacha, R E; Clark, G W; Williams, E A; Carter, A M; Scheffelmaier, J J; Debusschere, P

    1987-07-01

    Sixty-five percent (469 of 722) of the fecal samples collected from small rodents in the central Washington Cascade mountains were positive for Giardia spp. Trapping studies showed that microtines of the genus Microtus were heavily infected with the parasite. Morphologically the cysts and trophozoites were of the Giardia duodenalis type. Small-rodent populations appear to maintain their infection throughout the year. Our data suggest that there is no difference in the percentage of positive animals in areas receiving a lot of human use as opposed to animals in those areas receiving very little or no human use. Giardia spp. were also found in elk and beaver fecal samples. Campylobacter spp. were recovered infrequently from the small rodents inhabiting alpine meadows. Of 551 specimens cultured, less than 1% were positive for the bacterium, and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter coli. Water voles were susceptible to a human isolate of Campylobacter jejuni and shed the bacterium for several weeks. C. jejuni was also isolated from a bear fecal sample collected from a protected watershed. Our studies indicate that microtines and possibly other small rodents inhabiting mountain meadows have a potential to act as a reservoir for both Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp. Because these animals may carry human pathogens, they should be included in animal surveys designed to assess the health risks associated with mountain watersheds.

  9. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene CABRINE-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8% and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%. The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001. The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%. The Ritchie’s method was more sensitive (92.8% when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%, with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92. In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed.

  11. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  13. Molecular Differentiation of Shigella Spp. from Enteroinvasive E. Coli

    OpenAIRE

    Løbersli, I.; Wester, A. L.; Kristiansen, Å.; Brandal, L. T.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, amplifying the genes encoding lactose permease (lacY) and invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH), was run on 121 isolates phenotypically classified as Shigella spp., enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), or EIEC O nontypable (ONT). The results were compared with data from a generic E. coli multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and a Shigella MLVA. The real-time PCR verified all Shigella spp. (n = 53) as Shigella (lacY n...

  14. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  15. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KUBOTA-AIZAWA, Sanae; OHNO, Koichi; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; NAKASHIMA, Ko; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James K.; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto [s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequen...

  16. Effects of chemical treatments on infestation of Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in correlation with technological wheat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Jovana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the time of infestation by fungi from genus Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. was investigated in different stages of wheat maturity (milk, waxy, and technological maturity; the effects of different fungicides on the yield, technological properties, and content of mycotoxin DON were studied also. The results showed that Alternaria spp. attacked spike and kernel in f lowering and end-f lowering stage, as it was already known for Fusarium species. Fungicide treatment increases the yield up to 20%, test weight by 3.7%, and thousand-kernel weight up to 19.1%. High content of mycotoxin DON, above tolerable limits, was detected only in the treatment with fungicide Caramba and in untreated control.

  17. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures.

  18. Prevalence of Staphylococcus spp and Candida spp in the oral cavity and periodontal pockets of periodontal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Alicia I; Jewtuchowicz, Virginia; Brusca, María I; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity can act as a reservoir of certain pathogens that can cause systemic infections. The periodontal pocket is an ecological niche appropriate for hosting microorganisms that could act as opportunistic pathogens. The ability of Staphylococcus spp and Candida spp to form a biofilm and live within certain niches allows them to develop mechanisms that increase persistence, such as the evasion of host defenses and antibiotic efficacy. These microorganisms can easily be or become resistant to antibiotics and lead to superinfection. The aims of this study were to assess the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus spp in biofilm in subgingival plaque and oral cavity of individuals with gingival-periodontal disease, to identify isolates and the relationship with Candida spp. The study included eighty-two patients, aged 18-70 years with periodontal disease and at least two sites with probing depth > or = 3 mm. Participants' data were evaluated individually. Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using Gracey curettes 7/8, after supragingival biofilm removal, and a sample from the oral cavity (buccal mucosa, tongue and cheek mucosa) by sterile swab. Of all the patients studied, 42.7% exhibited Staphylococcus spp in the periodontal pocket and 69.5% in the oral cavity while 25.6% exhibited Candida spp in the periodontal pocket and 42.7% in the oral cavity. However, 13.4% had both microorganisms in the periodontal pocket and 36.6% in the oral cavity. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 13.4% in the periodontal pocket and 15.8% in the oral cavity. Candida albicans was the most prevalent yeast in the periodontal pocket (76.2%) and in the oral cavity (63.0%).

  19. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  20. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. in domestic and stray cats from Madrid, Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Díaz-Regañón, David; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Ayllón, Tania; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Baneth, Gad; Calleja-Bueno, Lydia; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Agulla, Beatriz; Sainz, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain...

  1. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), Grain Mites (Acarus siro), and Flour Beetles (Tribolium spp.): 'Other Pests' Occasionally Found in Laboratory Animal Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2016-11-01

    Pests that infest stored food products are an important problem worldwide. In addition to causing loss and consumer rejection of products, these pests can elicit allergic reactions and perhaps spread disease-causing microorganisms. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), grain mites (Acarus siro), and flour beetles (Tribolium spp.) are common stored-product pests that have previously been identified in our laboratory animal facility. These pests traditionally are described as harmless to our animals, but their presence can be cause for concern in some cases. Here we discuss the biology of these species and their potential effects on human and animal health. Occupational health risks are covered, and common monitoring and control methods are summarized.

  2. Patella spp. as na alternative to Mytilus spp in marine pollution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used species for marine pollution studies is mussel, Mytilus spp., as it is a filter feeder, sessile, easy to get and present in most worldwide coasts. However, sometimes it is necessary to have an alternative for areas where mussels are scarce or even absent. Patella spp. could be a useful substitute to Mytilus as these organisms have already been used in some pollution studies (Bartolomé, 2011 and both groups have similar characteristics except for the feeding strategy that in limpets is based on grazing on the small algae that grow on the rocks where they live. For this study, four sampling sites where selected: two in Galicia (Ría de Arousa and Ría de Ferrol and two in the Bay of Biscay (Suances and Fuenterrabía. In the four sampling sites both mussels and limpets were collected and 12 parent PAHs were analysed by means of HPLC and fluorescence detector with programmable wavelength (Viñas 2002. The method is subject to a strict quality control that guarantees the quality of the data. Mussels always present a higher PAH content than limpets sampled in the same area. When comparing the value for the sum of PAHs, it is shown that the maximum value measured in limpets (26.0 µg/kg d.w. in Arousa is less than the minimum value measured in mussels (63.7 µg/kg d.w. in Fuenterrabía. However, the sites pointed as more polluted using limpets coincide with the ones that are pointed out using mussels and the other way around. The individual PAH distribution pattern also presents some differences in both species mainly due to the phenathrene proportion that is higher in limpets than in mussels and this is clearer in the Bay of Biscay area. The main conclusion of the study is that there is no direct conversion factor between the PAH burden in both species but it could be possible to estimate the pollution status of an area using limpets. To compare levels between species it would be necessary to do some more work including more

  3. In-vitro anti fungal activity of Propolis alcoholic extract on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diba K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Several studies have shown that propolis has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic activity. Furthermore propolis has been described to have medicinal usages in some fungal infections like Candidiasis. Our aim is to study the inhibitory effects of alcoholic extract of propolis on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. "n"n Methods: To determine inhibitory and fatality dose of propolis extract, we prepared serial dilution of the extract including 1/20, 1/40, 1/80, 1/160, 1/320 and 1/640 in 1 ml of liquid medium sabouraud broth. Given numbers of Candida yeasts in 1ml were added to above dilution tubes. Candida and Aspergillus cultures were incubated at 30°C and 25°C respectively for 24-72 hours."n"n Results: We obseved that the concentration of 0.25 g/dl of propolis extract showed an inhibitory and killing effect on more than 50% of the isolates. But there were no inhibitory and killing by the concentrations 0.0312 g/dl and 0.0625 g/dl on Candida isolates. Our findings showed that 0.0312 g/dl of the extract was partially active on Aspergillus fumigatus and dilution of 0.125 g/dl was active on Aspergillus. niger. In the agar dilution method, some changes were observed on morphological features

  4. Evaluation of the Vitek EPS enteric pathogen screen card for detecting Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Imperatrice, C A; Nachamkin, I

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the Vitek EPS card as a screen for the enteric pathogens Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Y. enterocolitica (125, 54, and 5 isolates, respectively) and 81 nonenteric pathogens that might be selected for screening from primary plates (non-lactose fermenters) were tested. The EPS card correctly identified 183 of 184 pathogens tested (sensitivity, 99.5%). Of 81 nonenteric pathogens screened with the EPS card, 8 were ide...

  5. Ultrastructural comparison of Bonamia spp (Haplosporidia) infecting ostreid oysters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Kroeck, M.A.; Villalba, A.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Burreson, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea ariakensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp. All appear conspecific with B. exitiosa. The Bonamia sp. from Chile had similarities to the type B. exit

  6. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as “bioactive”, which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects. PMID:27588420

  7. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  8. Fungi inhabiting healthy grapevine canes (Vitis spp. in some nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, conducted in the years 2000 - 2002, was to identify fungi species colonizing apparently healthy canes and to investigate whether canes storage modify the quantitative and qualitative composition of these fungi. The plant material was collected from 5 commercial plantations growing in various regions of Poland, taking into consideration 8 cultivars which were the most frequently cultivated. From each plantation and cultivar 20 apparently healthy canes were randomly sampled in two terms: before storage - November/December (term I and 3-4 months after storage - February/March (term II. The results showed that from asymptomatic canes 2746 isolates of fungi belonging to 23 species were obtained, but the majority of them origined from canes analysed after storage. It was found that P. viticola is able to live latently within grapevine tissue in Polish conditions because isolates of this fungus from visually healty canes the all studied plantations and terms were obtained. Among the other fungi species inhabiting grapevine canes Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. dominated. Moreover, both in term I and term II Botrytis cinerea, Phoma spp., Epicoccum purpurascens and Cladosporium cladosporioides were frequently isolated, whereas fungi from the genus Acremonium only in the term I. Each time isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. were also obtained. Inhabitation of grapevine canes by various fungi species shown in the present experiment indicate the danger of pathogens spread with propagation material on the new plantations.

  9. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of

  10. Detection, occurence, growth and inactivation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cronobacter consists of Gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, and was originally defined as one species “Enterobacter sakazakii” within the genus Enterobacter in 1980. Cronobacter spp. have been documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases

  11. A Novel Dimeric Eremophilane from Ligularia virgaurea spp. Oligocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Xiang WU; Xia LIU; Yan Ping SHI

    2005-01-01

    A novel dimeric eremophilane, ligulolide B, was isolated from the alcoholic extract of the whole plant of Ligularia virgaurea spp. oligocephala. The structure was elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including intensive 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, gHMQC,gHMBC and 1H-1H NOESY) and HR-ESI-MS.

  12. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  13. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  14. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716

  15. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I

    2016-10-20

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  16. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Demodex spp. are more common in alcohol-dependent patients due conditions of reduced self-care and immunosuppression. Demodex parasites should be considered in alcohol-dependent patients with skin lesions, especially on the face, and should to be treated if needed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 259-263

  17. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  18. Isolation of Acanthamoeba spp. from Different Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Motevalli Haghi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amebas found in a wide variety of natural habitats. The high percentage of Acanthamoeba in different environmental sources represents a sanitary risk for public health especially contact lens users and immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in different environments such as water, soil, dust and ophthalmology wards. Methods: From March to November 2007, 80 samples were collected from numerous localities in Tehran city including university campus, Laleh park and ophthalmology center. Sample types were water, soil, dust, cow faeces and medical in­strument. Each sample was filtered through nitrate membrane and cultured on 1% non-nutrient agar. These plates were fol­lowed up daily for 2 weeks. Monitoring continued for two months on a weekly basis.  Results: Overall, 46.25% of samples contained Acanthamoeba spp. All of the soil samples had shown positive culture in contrast to tap water. Of 61 dust samples, 28 were positive. Interestingly, we were able to isolate Acanthamoeba in treat­ment unit of an ophthalmology center in Tehran. It should be mentioned that two cow faeces showed positive culture as well.Conclusion: The widespread distribution of Acanthamoeba spp. across the environmental sources and increasing numbers of HIV+ patients and contact lens wearers, as well as its ability as a pathogen carrier for humans, demands  more awareness and knowledge for public as a risk for human health.

  19. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Imported Powered Infant Formula (PIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENIS MAÇI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella species are well-known long-standing foodborne human pathogen that demonstrate long-term survival in/on dry or low-water activity (aw in foods. Salmonellosis caused by ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula has been reported nationwide. In recent years, 8 reported outbreaks of Salmonella infection in infants have been linked to the consumption of powdered infant formula. Outbreaks of Salmonellosis due to contaminated PIF are likely to be under-reported nationwide even in Albania. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential existence of Salmonella spp. in canned powdered infant formula in Albania. During two years investigation Salmonella spp was on the focus and was detected in 1 out of 70 analysed samples (1.43%. The strain of Salmonella spp. was biochemically identified by the analytical profile index (API 20 E system and poly A, H, and Vi antiserum. Food safety criteria are laid down in EU regulation “EC No. 2073/2005” for Salmonella spp. in dried infant formula and dried dietary foods for special medical purposes intended for infants. These criterias are transposed to Albanian Legislation. A laboratory-based on food-borne disease surveillance systems is needed in terms of strethening control and reducing the risk of exposure.

  1. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; Røy, Hans; Kamp, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface.We ...... Beggiatoa accumulate high nitrate concentrations in internal vacuoles as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen....

  2. Asymptomatic presence of Nosema spp. in Spanish commercial apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José Manuel; Puerta, Francisco; Cousinou, Mercedes; Dios-Palomares, Rafaela; Campano, Francisco; Redondo, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Nosemosis is caused by intracellular parasites (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) that infect the midgut epithelial cells in adult honey bees. Recent studies relate N. ceranae to Colony Collapse Disorder and there is some suggestion that Nosema spp., especially N. ceranae, induces high mortality in honey bees, a fact that is considered as a serious threat for colony survival. 604 samples of adult honey bees for Nosema spp. analysis were collected from beekeeping colonies across Spain and were analysed using PCR with capillary electrophoresis. We also monitored 77 Andalusian apiaries for 2 years; the sampled hives were standard healthy colonies, without any special disease symptoms. We found 100% presence of Nosema spp. in some locations, indicating that this parasite was widespread throughout the country. The two year monitoring indicated that 87% of the hives with Nosema spp. remained viable, with normal honey production and biological development during this period of time. The results of these trials indicated that both N. ceranae and N. apis could be present in these beehives without causing disease symptom and that there is no evidence for the replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae, supporting the hypothesis that nosemosis is not the main reason of the collapse and death of beehives.

  3. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-06-03

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  4. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  5. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  6. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  7. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml gee

  8. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  9. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from Non-livestock Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms which grow in air at 25 deg C. Arcobacter spp. have been either detected and or isolated from livestock and have been incriminated in water-borne outbreaks, reflecting its adaptation to aquatic environments. Reports from non-livestock spe...

  10. First multilocus sequence typing scheme for Arcobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcobacter spp. are a common contaminant of food and water, and some species, primarily A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus, have been isolated increasingly from human diarrheal stool samples. Here, we describe a novel Arcobacter multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method suitable for typing A. butzleri,...

  11. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  12. Detection, occurence, growth and inactivation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cronobacter consists of Gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, and was originally defined as one species “Enterobacter sakazakii” within the genus Enterobacter in 1980. Cronobacter spp. have been documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases

  13. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of ta

  14. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  15. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of free-living Frankia spp. and of Frankia-Alnus symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis deals with the symbiosis of Frankia spp. and Alnus glutinosa. Frankia spp. are actinomycetes giving rise to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a number of non-leguminous plants. In these nodules Frankia spp. live within the plant cells and o

  16. Arcobacter spp. possess two very short flagellins of which FlaA is essential for motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Wösten, M.M.S.M.; van Asten, A.J.; Gaastra, W.

    2008-01-01

    Like Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp., Arcobacter spp. possess two flagellin genes (flaA and flaB) located adjacent to each other. The aim of this study was to characterize the flagellin proteins of Arcobacter spp., because these proteins are known virulence factors in the Epsilonproteobacteria,

  17. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  18. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.

  19. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. in grapevines from Uruguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo ABREO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms corresponding to esca and Petri diseases have been described in Uruguay as being associated with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. Isolates of Phaeoacremonium spp. recovered from diseased grapevines were characterized and identified. Additionally, specific primers developed for Pa. chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. were evaluated for direct detection of these fungi in asymptomatic grapevine tissues. The bark was removed, and the trunk underneath was surface-disinfected. Chips from symptomatic grapevines were plated on potato dextrose agar and incubated at 25°C. Isolates were identified morphologically and phylogenetically. Sequences of ITS rDNA, β-tubulin and actin genes made it possible to identify 52 isolates as Pa. chlamydospora, 33 as Pm. aleophilum, and one as Pm. australiense. The Pm. aleophilum isolates were divided into three groups by their growth pattern and their colony shape at 37°C: a white colonies with yellow or brown reverse; b brown colonies with clear margin and a dark center on the reverse; c brown colonies with dark-brown diffusible pigments and brown reverse. Further studies are required to explain these differences. Primers Pac1f/Pac2r specific for Phaeoacremonium spp., PalN1/Pal2 specific for Pm. aleophilum, F2bt/R1bt specific for Pm. aleophilum and ten other Phaeoacremonium species, and Pch1/Pch2 and Pmo1f/Pmo2r, both specific for Pa. chlamydospora were evaluated on the DNA of target fungi and some of other fungi frequently isolated from diseased vine tissues. F2bt/R1bt and Pmo1f/ Pmo2r were selected, and were used in a nested PCR to detect Phaeoacremonium spp. and Pa. chlamydospora in asymptomatic canes of nursery mother grapevines. Nine out of ten sampled grapevines tested positive for one of the fungi. Molecular diagnosis is potentially a useful method to assess the health of mother grapevines.

  20. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, D.M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  1. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  2. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  3. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by palmitic, stearic and oleic acid sophorolipids and thiamine dilauryl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of th...

  4. Between-year variation and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections in naturally infected rodent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, A

    2008-12-01

    Prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections were studied over the 8-year period in 3 species of rodents in N.E. Poland (bank vole Myodes glareolus-1523; yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis- 638; common vole Microtus arvalis- 419). Prevalence was 53.8, 28.1 and 62.3% respectively for Cryptosporidium spp. and 58.3, 24.4 and 74.2% respectively for Giardia spp. Prevalence and abundance of infection varied markedly across 8 years of the study with 1998 and 2002 being years of higher prevalence and abundance, following changes in the densities of host species. The distribution of intestinal protozoa in forest rodents did not vary in the 3 isolated sites during the 4-year study. In the case of Cryptosporidium, fewer older animals carried infection and infections of the oldest bank and common voles were relatively milder. In the case of Giardia in yellow-necked mice, infections were more common in older age classes (2 and 3). The two species showed significant co-occurrence and in animals carrying both species there was a strong significant positive correlation between abundance of infection with each. These data are discussed in relation to the parasite genotypes identified in this region and in respect of the role of various ecological factors in shaping of intestinal protozoa communities.

  5. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  6. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Lu , J., I. Struewing, E. Vereen, A.E. Kirby, K. Levy, C. Moe, and N. Ashbolt. Molecular detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system (Journal Article). JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA, 120(2): 509-521, (2016).

  7. Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) assembles with substrates and misfolded membrane proteins into distinct oligomeric complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrul, Bianca; Kapp, Katja; Sinning, Irmgard; Dobberstein, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    SPP (signal peptide peptidase) is an aspartyl intramembrane cleaving protease, which processes a subset of signal peptides, and is linked to the quality control of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) membrane proteins. We analysed SPP interactions with signal peptides and other membrane proteins by co-immunoprecipitation assays. We found that SPP interacts specifically and tightly with a large range of newly synthesized membrane proteins, including signal peptides, preproteins and misfolded membrane proteins, but not with all co-expressed type II membrane proteins. Signal peptides are trapped by the catalytically inactive SPP mutant SPPD/A. Preproteins and misfolded membrane proteins interact with both SPP and the SPPD/A mutant, and are not substrates for SPP-mediated intramembrane proteolysis. Proteins interacting with SPP are found in distinct complexes of different sizes. A signal peptide is mainly trapped in a 200 kDa SPP complex, whereas a preprotein is predominantly found in a 600 kDa SPP complex. A misfolded membrane protein is detected in 200, 400 and 600 kDa SPP complexes. We conclude that SPP not only processes signal peptides, but also collects preproteins and misfolded membrane proteins that are destined for disposal. PMID:20196774

  8. Corynebacterium spp. in dogs and cats with otitis externa and/or media: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneveld, Kerstin; Rosychuk, Rodney A W; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J; Hyatt, Doreene R; Zabel, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    The role of Corynebacterium spp. in the pathogenesis of canine and feline otitis externa/media and their appropriate antimicrobial therapy are unclear. The objectives of this study were to (1) better establish the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium spp. in otitis utilizing reported criteria and by assessing clinical response to antibiotic therapy and (2) to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Corynebacterium spp. associated with otitis. The study was retrospective, targeting cultures positive for Corynebacterium spp. Corynebacterium spp. were part of mixed microbial populations in 79/81 cultures. Corynebacterium spp. pathogenicity was highly questionable because of their almost invariable presence with other microbes and the observation that Corynebacterium spp. usually disappear from the ear with resolution of other infections, even when the Corynebacterium spp. are resistant to the prescribed antibiotic(s). However, 2/81 cultures came from two canine ears wherein Corynebacterium spp. may have been pathogenic. Antimicrobial sensitivities for Corynebacterium spp. were available for 54 isolates. Most isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (53/54), amikacin (50/54), tetracycline (50/54), gentamicin (46/54), and enrofloxacin (32/54). Among those antibiotics available in otic products, gentamicin and enrofloxacin would be rational choices for the empirical, topical therapy of Corynebacterium spp.

  9. STRUKTUR DAN PRODUKSI LEBAH Trigona spp. PADA SARANG BERBENTUK TABUNG DAN BOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ade Hinduari Putra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebah tanpa sengat (Trigona spp. dapat menghasilkan madu yang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui : (1 morfologi Trigona spp., (2 struktur internal sarang Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola, (3 volume sarang serta perkiraan produksi madu, beebread dan selanakan Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan November 2014. Sampel yang digunakan adalah koloni dan sarang Trigona spp. berbentuk tabung dan bola yang diambil di Desa Padang Tunggal,Kecamatan Selat, Kabupaten Karangasem, Bali. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa nama spesies dari sampel koloni Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola adalah Trigona laeviceps. Struktur internal sarang Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola mempunyai pola susunan yaitu pot madu, pot beebread dan pot sel anakan. Volume sarang besar memberikan perkiraan total jumlah produksi madu, beebread dan selanakan lebih banyak dibandingkan volume sarang kecil.

  10. Class 1 integrons and tetracycline resistance genes in Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from pigsties and manured soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Sandvang, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Arthrobacter spp., Alcaligenes spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Corynebacterium glutamicum. The 257 isolates were screened for in-1. Eighty-one of the gram-negative isolates were also screened for the Tc-r genes tet(A), tet(B), and tet(C), and all (n = 72) gram...

  11. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  12. Citrininotoxinogenicity of Penicillium spp. isolated from decaying apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepeljnjak Stjepan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of citrinin and citrinin production ability of Penicillium spp. isolated from decaying apples collected from households in Croatia was carried out. Among 100 samples of apples, 37 strains of Penicillium spp. were found, including P. expansum, P. roqueforti, P. implicatum and P. purpurogenum. Citrinin production in liquid yeast medium by 11 strains of P. expansum varied in a range of 0.07 to 9.00 mg.kg-1. Citrinin was isolated from 19% of apple samples in range of 0.05 to 0.24 mg.kg-1. Antimicrobial activity of isolated citrinin, evaluated through tests on Bacillus subtilis, presented inhibitory zones varying from 5 mm to 1 cm. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were 0.0072 µg.mL-1 for bacteriostatic effect, and 0.0144 µg.mL-1 for bactericidal effect.

  13. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  14. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840

  15. Cronobacter spp. in commercially available dried food in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kiribe, Nami; Fukuda, Noriko; Furukawa, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2014-01-01

    A total of 140 samples of dried food sold in Japan were surveyed and tested for the presence of viable bacteria, distribution of coliform bacteria, and contamination with Cronobacter spp. The samples were purchased from retail stores in Tokyo and Kanagawa Prefecture. Out of the 140 samples tested, viable bacteria were found in 135 samples and coliform bacteria were found in 23 samples. Qualitative and quantitative testing revealed the presence of Cronobacter spp. in 35 (25.0%) and 11 samples (7.9%), respectively. The most commonly found Cronobacter species were C. sakazakii, with the next most common, in order, being C. muytjensii and C. turicensis. The actual numbers of Cronobacter species in the tested dried foods were low, but the widespread contamination particularly in dried herbs and vegetables was confirmed.

  16. Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2011-11-01

    The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.

  17. Algal Meningoencephalitis due to Prototheca spp. in a Dog

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    Alexandre Le Roux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs.

  18. Adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic: XTT formazan determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawser, S

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion of synchronized yeast-phase Candida cells to tissue culture plastic was investigated using the tetrazolium salt, XTT. The procedure permits the direct enumeration of adherent yeasts following the metabolic conversion of the XTT tetrazolium salt, to its reduced formazan form, by mitochondrial dehydrogenases. Using this procedure, the formation of XTT formazan by Candida cells was typically related to the inoculum size. The adhesion of Candida yeast-phase cells from different Candida spp. to plastic was of the following order: C. krusei (n = 5) > C. albicans (n = 10) > C. glabrata (n = 6). Furthermore, preliminary experiments with several other species indicated that C. tropicalis (n = 2) may adhere as well as C. albicans and that one strain each of C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis appear to adhere to plastic in a similar fashion to C. glabrata. The data indicate the utility of the XTT tetrazolium based assay in enumerating the adhesion of different Candida spp. to plastic.

  19. Investigation of Chlamydophila spp. in dairy cows with reproductive disorders

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    Niskanen Rauni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports worldwide indicate high prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. infection in cattle. To assess the prevalence in Sweden, 525 cows in 70 dairy herds with reproductive disorders was investigated. Methods To detect antibodies two commercially available kits were used. Moreover, 107 specimens, including vaginal swabs, organ tissues and milk were analysed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results Two (0.4% cows were seropositive in the Pourquier Cp. abortus ELISA. The seroprevalence with the Chekit ELISA was 28% with no difference between cases and controls. Five specimens were positive in real-time PCR and further analysed by nested PCR. Cp. pecorum was confirmed by partial omp1 DNA sequencing of the nested PCR product of vaginal swabs from control cows. Conclusion The results suggest that Cp. abortus infection is absent or rare in Swedish cows whereas Cp. pecorum is probably more spread. They also suggest that Chlamydophila spp. are not related to reproduction disorders in Swedish cattle.

  20. Conjunctival swab PCR to detect Leishmania spp. in cats

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    Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira

    Full Text Available The relevance of the dog as a source of visceral leishmaniasis infection is known, but the role of cats as reservoir hosts for leishmaniasis is not yet fully clear. This study assessed the efficacy of conjunctival swab PCR (CS-PCR in the detection of cats infected by Leishmania spp. The results were seven (13.5% cats positive for Leishmania spp. in the PCR, in 52 cats tested from Pirassunuga-SP and Ilha Solteira-SP. From the city of Pirassununga – SP 28.6% (2/7 were positive and from the city of Ilha Solteira – SP 11.1% (5/45 were positive. The results showed that CS-PCR was capable of detecting cats infected by this protozoan. Conjunctival swab samples proved easier to perform in cats, which might facilitate studies on the frequency and distribution of feline leishmaniasis.

  1. Conjunctival swab PCR to detect Leishmania spp. in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Pereira, Vanessa Figueredo; Benvenga, Graziella Ulbricht; Martin, Maria Fernanda Alves; Benassi, Julia Cristina; da Silva, Diogo Tiago; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the dog as a source of visceral leishmaniasis infection is known, but the role of cats as reservoir hosts for leishmaniasis is not yet fully clear. This study assessed the efficacy of conjunctival swab PCR (CS-PCR) in the detection of cats infected by Leishmania spp. The results were seven (13.5%) cats positive for Leishmania spp. in the PCR, in 52 cats tested from Pirassunuga-SP and Ilha Solteira-SP. From the city of Pirassununga - SP 28.6% (2/7) were positive and from the city of Ilha Solteira - SP 11.1% (5/45) were positive. The results showed that CS-PCR was capable of detecting cats infected by this protozoan. Conjunctival swab samples proved easier to perform in cats, which might facilitate studies on the frequency and distribution of feline leishmaniasis.

  2. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  3. Aporphine alkaloids from Guatteria spp. with leishmanicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hector; Gutiérrez, Marcelino; Romero, Luz I; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Capson, Todd L; Rios, Luis Cubilla

    2003-07-01

    Fractionation of Guatteria amplifolia yielded the alkaloids xylopine (1), nornuciferine (4), lysicamine (6), and laudanosine (5). Fractionation of Guatteria dumetorum yielded the alkaloids cryptodorine (2) and nornantenine (3). Compounds 1-4 demonstrated significant activity against Leishmania mexicana and L. panamensis. Xylopine (1) was among the most active compounds (LD 50 = 3 microM) and showed a 37-fold higher toxicity towards L. mexicana than macrophages, the regular host cells of Leishmania spp.

  4. Molecular Diversity of Vaccine Candidates in Leptospira spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular diversity of OmpL1, LipL32, LipL41, LigA and LigB proteins and that of the genes that encode them using bioinformatic analysis in different pathogenic strains of Leptospira spp. based on the information available in databases. The amino acid sequences of OmpL1, LipL32, LipL41, LigA and LigB proteins were used, as well as the genes encoding them in strains of Leptospira spp. reported at The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. The analysis of proteins and genes were performed using the Protein, Nucleotide and Gene resources from the NCBI. The alignment of the consensus sequences was performed using the PSI-BLAST and BLASTn tools. The coverage percentage of the selected sequences of the ompL1, lipL32, lipL41, ligA and ligB genes in pathogenic strains of Leptospira spp. is 100% for ompL1, lipL32 and lipL41, 75% for ligA and 99% for ligB with identity percentages of 85, 98, 88, 90 and 80% respectively; the coverage percentage of the selected protein sequences is 100, 77, 99, 100 and 100% with identity percentages of 90, 99, 92, 63 and 60% respectively, indicating that genes and proteins, except LigA and LigB proteins, are highly conserved in various pathogenic serovars of Leptospira spp. According to these results, it is recommended that further analysis of these proteins be made in order to determine the feasibility of its use as vaccine candidates.

  5. Aeromonas spp.: evaluation of genomic diversity and biofilm forming ability

    OpenAIRE

    Craveiro, Sara Sofia Pereira, 1986-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Microbiologia Aplicada). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria widely distributed among aquatic environments. Their persistence in water distribution systems is related to their ability to form biofilms, even in the presence of residual chlorine. Once in distribution water systems, aeromonads can contaminate drinking water, food processing facilities and food products. Moreover, members of this genus are known...

  6. Bromopyrrole Alkaloids from Okinawan Marine Sponges Agelas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Kusama, Taishi; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2016-01-01

    In our continuing study for structurally and biogenetically interesting natural products from marine organisms, Okinawan marine sponges Agelas spp. were investigated, resulting in the isolation of 18 unique alkaloids including five dimeric bromopyrrole alkaloids (1-5), ten monomeric bromopyrrole alkaloids (6-15), and three conjugates of monomeric bromopyrrole alkaloid and hydroxykynurenine (16-18). In this mini-review, the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimicrobial activities of these alkaloids are summarized.

  7. Correlation between perkinsosis and growth in clams Ruditapes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cécile; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Binias, Cindy; Salvo, Flora; Caill-Milly, Nathalie; Bald, Juan; Soudant, Philippe

    2013-11-06

    Perkinsosis is one of the most widespread diseases affecting commercially important species of molluscs globally. We examined the impact of Perkinsus spp. on shell growth at the individual scale in 2 clam species: Ruditapes decussatus from Mundaka Estuary (Spain) and R. philippinarum from Arcachon Bay (France). At Arcachon, 2 contrasting sites in terms of environment and Perkinsus olseni presence were chosen: Arguin (disease-free) and Ile aux Oiseaux (infected site). We monitored the dynamics of perkinsosis over the course of the experiment at Mundaka and Ile aux Oiseaux. Prevalences were high (>70%), and intensities were around 105 cells g-1 wet gills at Ile aux Oiseaux, and 106 cells g-1 at Mundaka. No significant differences in prevalence or intensity were observed over time. A 2 yr field growth experiment of tagged-recaptured clams was performed to determine individual clam growth rate, condition index (CI), and Perkinsus spp. infection intensity. Clams were collected at Ile aux Oiseaux and transplanted to Arguin. The growth rate was always significantly and negatively correlated with Perkinsus spp. infection, and positively correlated with CI. CI and Perkinsus spp. infection explained 19% and 7% of the variability of the growth rate at Mundaka and Ile aux Oiseaux, respectively. In experimental clams at Arguin, P. olseni infection explained 26% of the variability of the growth rate at the lower tidal level. Our results suggest that at a concentration of between 105 and 106 cells g-1, perkinsosis affects the physiological functions of the clams, highlighted by its impact on the growth rate.

  8. Enterococcus spp. in a single blood culture: bacteremia or contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, R; Labalo, V; Sharma, M; Johnson, L B; Riederer, K

    2017-03-01

    We retrospectively evaluated adult cases with Enterococcus spp. in 1 blood culture (BC) (1/1/2010-12/31/2015; n=294) and stratified them into bacteremia or contamination. Contamination frequency was similar in community versus hospital-onset, E. faecalis versus E. faecium, and number of BC drawn per day. Contamination predictors were vancomycin-resistance, ampicillin-resistance, commensal organism copresence, and nonurinary/abdominal sources.

  9. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  10. UV-inducible DNA repair in the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, E.; Thiel, T

    1987-01-01

    Strains of the filamentous cyanobacteria Anabaena spp. were capable of very efficient photoreactivation of UV irradiation-induced damage to DNA. Cells were resistant to several hundred joules of UV irradiation per square meter under conditions that allowed photoreactivation, and they also photoreactivated UV-damaged cyanophage efficiently. Reactivation of UV-irradiated cyanophage (Weigle reactivation) also occurred; UV irradiation of host cells greatly enhanced the plaque-forming ability of i...

  11. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Casalinuovo; Lucia Ciambrone; Antonio Cacia; Paola Rippa

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the ly...

  12. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  13. Efficacy of moxidectin against multiple resistant Ostertagia spp. in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-06-01

    Moxidectin was demonstrated to have a high efficacy in lambs against Ostertagia spp. which were resistant to albendazole, levamisole and ivermectin in goats. Moxidectin reduced the number of eggs in faeces by 99.6% and the number of worms found at post-mortem dissection of the lambs by 99.9%. Of the adult worms found in abomasa, 91% were identified as Ostertagia circumcincta and 9% as Ostertagia trifurcata.

  14. Seroprevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pig batches at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

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    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  16. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; Almeida, André; González-Warleta, Marta; Correia Da Costa, José Manuel; Mezo, Mercedes

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the influent and final effluent of sixteen drinking water treatment plants located in a hydrographic basin in Galicia (NW Spain) - in which the principal river is recognised as a Site of Community Importance (SCI) - estimate the efficiency of treatment plants in removing these protozoans and determine the species and genotypes of the parasites by means of a molecular assay. All plant samples of influent and final effluent (50-100 l) were examined in the spring, summer, autumn and winter of 2007. A total of 128 samples were analysed by method 1623, developed by US Environmental Protection Agency for isolation and detection of both parasites. To identify the genotypes present the following genes were amplified and sequenced: 18S SSU rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp.) and b-giardina (G. duodenalis). The mean concentrations of parasites in the influent were 0.0-10.5 Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre and 1.0-12.8 of G. duodenalis cysts per litre. In the final treated effluent, the mean concentration of parasites ranged from 0.0-3.0 oocysts per litre and 0.5-4.0 cysts per litre. The distribution of results by season revealed that in all plants, the highest numbers of (oo)cysts were recorded in spring and summer. Cryptosporidium parvum, C. andersoni, C. hominis and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were detected. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were consistently found at high concentrations in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in the hydrographic basin under study, in Galicia (NW Spain). It is important that drinking water treatment authorities rethink the relevance of contamination levels of both parasites in drinking water and develop adequate countermeasures.

  17. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Hussein M. Migdadi

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal ...

  18. Isolation of Arcobacter spp from poultry carcasses, in Brazil

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    Oliveira Sérgio José de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourty eight isolates of Arcobacter spp were obtained from 37 poultry carcasses, from abattoir, among 80 carcasses examined. Attempts for culturing were made from the skin and muscle, resulting on 25 positive cultures from muscle and 23 from skin. Classification was achieved by phenotypic characterization and PCR and multiplex PCR, resulting 41 samples of Arcobacter butzleri and 07 Arcobacter sp. This is the first report on the occurrence of Arcobacter in animal carcasses in Brazil.

  19. Potential roles of Labyrinthula spp. in global seagrass population declines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sullivan, B.K.; Sherman, T.D.; Damare, V.S.; Lilje, O.; Gleason, F.H.

    ) isolated Labyrinthula spp. from lesions on the leaves of host species belonging to ten genera of seagrasses from around the world, including: Zostera, Heterozostera, Posidonia, Halodule, Cymodocea, Syringodium, Thalassodendron, Ruppia, Thalassia... and Halophila. During their investigations they found that the rapidly expanding, browneblack lesions associated with the disease (Muehlstein et al., 1991) were not always evident in hosts from which Labyrinthula had been isolated, suggesting that pathogen...

  20. Reports of Outbreaks and Isolation on Salmonella Spp. in Colombia

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    Claudia Constanza Pérez Rubiano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The foodborne diseases are currently one of the problems with great socio-economic impact in the world. According to the Pan American Health Organization, the foodborne diseases are within the five leading causes of death in children under five years in Latin America and the Caribbean. Among the etiologic agents most involved in outbreaks of foodborne diseases is Salmonella spp., this pathogen has often been associated with diarrheal diseases worldwide, caused by the consumption of contaminated food and causes the most prevalent zoonosis in developed countries. The numbers of records of these diseases in some countries, especially those in the developing world, are deficient because information systems as SIRVETA just recently have developed strategies to improve the detection of outbreaks and isolates of foodborne diseases. However, there are still some gaps in the registration and notification procedures. The present review covers general aspects of Salmonella spp., outbreaks and isolates, most frequently reported serotypes and distribution, and behavior of this microorganism to antimicrobial found in Colombia and indicates some control programs and monitoring of Salmonella spp. which have been implemented in the country.

  1. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae: exploratory patterns.

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    Talitha Mayumi Francisco

    Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  2. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

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    A.M. Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  3. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae): exploratory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Talitha Mayumi; Couto, Dayvid Rodrigues; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo; Silva, Ita de Oliveira; Boere, Vanner

    2014-01-01

    Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH) and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp.) and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  4. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54 strains) was the most common species isolated, followed by B. megaterium (13 strains), B. polymyxa (5 strains), B. pumilus (4 strains), B. subtilis (4 strains), B. circulans (3 strains), B. amyloliquefaciens (2 strains), B. licheniformis (1 strain), and Bacillus spp. (3 strains). Microdilution MIC susceptibility tests revealed all B. cereus strains to be susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. Non-B. cereus strains were most susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, LY146032, and ciprofloxacin. Disk susceptibility testing suggested that B. cereus was rarely susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, or cephalosporins with the exception of mezlocillin. In contrast, many non-B. cereus strains were susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, and cephalosporins, but marked variability was noted among species. PMID:3395100

  5. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  6. Detection of Listeria spp. using ACTERO listeria enrichment media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveau, David; Olishevskyy, Sergiy; Giuffre, Michael; Martinez, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media (ACTERO Listeria) is a selective medium developed for a single-step recovery and enrichment of Listeria spp. from environmental samples. Robustness testing of the ACTERO Listeria medium demonstrated good performance when minor changes were introduced to the incubation temperature and time. All 54 Listeria strains tested, representing the most frequently isolated Listeria species from food (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi), were successfully enriched in ACTERO Listeria. None of the 30 nontarget strains tested in the exclusivity study was recovered after incubation in ACTERO Listeria. Recovery of Listeria was consistent across three independently produced lots of the ACTERO Listeria, and the prepared medium was stable for 45 days when stored at 4 degrees C in the dark. Matrix studies performed with environmental sponge samples from plastic and stainless steel surfaces demonstrated similar recovery of Listeria spp. in a single-step enrichment using ACTERO Listeria from plastic, and significantly better recovery from stainless steel surfaces when compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference method. The results of this study prove that ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media can be effectively used in replacement of the two-step enrichment suggested by the reference method without affecting the recovery of Listeria spp. from environmental samples.

  7. Sulfur compounds identification and quantification from Allium spp. fresh leaves

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    Liliana Gîtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyruvic acid concentration is a critical factor in determining Allium spp. pungency. This study was initiated to accurately measure the background pyruvic acid levels in Romanian Allium spp. From the pungency point of view, all analyzed plant varieties in this study are considered low pungent cultivars based on the enzymatically produced pyruvate level (between 42 μmol/g and 222 μmol/g fresh wt. Chromatographic analysis was carried out for the different varieties of the most popular fresh leaves (Allium cepa var. “Diamant”, Allium cepa var. “Rubiniu”, and Allium ursinum L. in order to identify the sulfur compounds. The thin layer chromatography analysis led to the identification of allicin, with Rf = 0.377–0.47, as an important sulfur compound. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaves' extracts detected disulfides as the major sulfur compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the differences in plant composition. These studies suggest the potential good uses of the fresh leaves of Romanian Allium spp. as condiment, ingredient, or preservative in the food industry.

  8. Integrated food chain surveillance system for Salmonella spp. in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; Calva, Juan Jose; Estrada-Garcia, Maria Teresa; Leon, Veronica; Vazquez, Gabriela; Figueroa, Gloria; Lopez, Estela; Contreras, Jesus; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Tollefson, Linda

    2008-03-01

    Few developing countries have foodborne pathogen surveillance systems, and none of these integrates data from humans, food, and animals. We describe the implementation of a 4-state, integrated food chain surveillance system (IFCS) for Salmonella spp. in Mexico. Significant findings were 1) high rates of meat contamination (21.3%-36.4%), 2) high rates of ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhimurium in chicken, ill humans, and swine (77.3%, 66.3%, and 40.4% of S. Typhimurium T isolates, respectively), and 3) the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in S. Heidelberg (10.4%) and S. Typhimurium (1.7%) from swine. A strong association between Salmonella spp. contamination in beef and asymptomatic Salmonella spp. infection was only observed in the state with the lowest poverty level (Pearson r = 0.91, pclusters with 102 human, retail meat, and food-animal isolates with indistinguishable patterns. An IFCS is technically and economically feasible in developing countries and can effectively identify major public health priorities.

  9. Ecology of Anopheles spp. in Central Lombok Regency

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    Majematang Mading

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.

  10. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  11. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamioudis, Christos; Mastranesti, Parthena; Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Blilou, Ikram; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2013-05-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of the most abundant genera of the root microbiome. Here, by employing a germ-free experimental system, we demonstrate the ability of selected Pseudomonas spp. strains to promote plant growth and drive developmental plasticity in the roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. By studying cell type-specific developmental markers and employing genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate the crucial role of auxin signaling and transport in rhizobacteria-stimulated changes in the root system architecture of Arabidopsis. We further show that Pseudomonas spp.-elicited alterations in root morphology and rhizobacteria-mediated systemic immunity are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. This study sheds new light on the ability of soil-borne beneficial bacteria to interfere with postembryonic root developmental programs.

  12. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

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    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  13. Incidence, radioresistance, and behavior of Psychrobacter spp. in rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, José M; Patterson, Margaret F; García-López, Isabel; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2005-03-01

    The relative incidence of Psychrobacter spp. in rabbit meat, the radioresistance of these bacteria, and the growth of nonirradiated and irradiated psychrobacter isolates, alone and in coculture, during chilled storage of inoculated sterile rabbit meat was investigated. Psychrobacter spp. accounted for 4.2% of the storage psychrotrophic flora of 30 rabbit carcasses. The radiation D10-values of 10 Psychrobacter isolates, irradiated at 4 degrees C in minced rabbit meat, ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 kGy, with significant (P meat, but when the fastest growing strain was cocultured with Pseudomonas fluorescens and Brochothrix thermosphacta isolates, maximum cell densities and growth rates were significantly (P meat, surviving cells of both Psychrobacter strains decreased for a period of 5 to 7 days and then resumed multiplication that, at day 12, resulted in a similar increase (1.6 to 1.7 log CFU/g) over initial survivor numbers. When irradiated in combination with the spoilage bacteria, one of the strains required 12 days to reach initial numbers. In conclusion, Psychrobacter spp. are radioresistant nonsporeforming bacteria with a low relative incidence among the storage flora of rabbit meat, unable to compete with food spoilage bacteria in this ecosystem and apparently not a major contributor to the spoilage of rabbit meat after irradiation.

  14. Concurrent infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis spp. in naturally infected dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal specimens were collected directly at weekly and then monthly intervals from each of 30 dairy calves from birth to 24 months to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis assemblages, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and Blastocystis spp subtypes...

  15. 16S rRNA-targeted probes for specific detection of Thermoanaerobacterium spp., Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, and Caldicellulosiruptor spp. by fluorescent in situ hybridization in biohydrogen producing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Prasertsan, P.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2008-01-01

    spp. were detected with the probes designed with coverage of 75%, 100% and 93%, respectively. Thermophilic (60 °C) hydrogen producing reactors, one fed with sucrose and another, fed with palm oil mill effluent comprised of following major groups of hydrogen producers: Thermoanaerobacterium spp. (49...

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) in Barbados, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynd, Kamara J R; Leighton, Patrick A; Elcock, David A; Whitehall, Pamela J; Rycroft, Andrew; Macgregor, Shaheed K

    2014-12-01

    From April to July 2005, rectal swabs were collected from 48 free-ranging small Asian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) on the east and south coasts of Barbados and analyzed for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. Salmonella was recovered in 21.12% (7/33) of mongooses at the east-coast site and 26.67% (4/15) at the south-coast site. Four serotypes were isolated: Salmonella enterica serovar Rubislaw, Kentucky, Javiana, and Panama. One east-coast sample of 11 tested for Campylobacter was positive (9.09%). These results indicate that mongooses in Barbados are carriers and shedders of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and are a potential wildlife reservoir for these enteropathogens.

  17. Small rodents and other mammals associated with mountain meadows as reservoirs of Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Sixty-five percent (469 of 722) of the fecal samples collected from small rodents in the central Washington Cascade mountains were positive for Giardia spp. Trapping studies showed that microtines of the genus Microtus were heavily infected with the parasite. Morphologically the cysts and trophozoites were of the Giardia duodenalis type. Small-rodent populations appear to maintain their infection throughout the year. Our data suggest that there is no difference in the percentage of positive a...

  18. COLIFORMES FECAIS, ESTAFILOCOCOS COAGULASE POSITIVA (ECP, Salmonella SPP. E Campylobacter SPP. EM LINGÜIÇA FRESCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. L. CORTEZ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Lingüiça frescal faz parte dos alimentos expostos à contaminações e constitue um excelente meio para desenvolvimento e multiplicação de microrganismos. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a qualidade microbiológica de 106 amostras de lingüiça frescal de carne de frango, mista (carne bovina e suína e de carne suína, fabricadas artesanalmente e sob inspeção, no município de Jaboticabal – SP, Brasil. Determinou-se o número mais provável de coliformes fecais por grama (NMP/g do produto e a ocorrência de Escherichia coli, contagem de estafilococos coagulase-positiva (ECP, pesquisa de Salmonella spp. e Campylobacter spp.. Foram utilizados métodos microbiológicos convencionais a fim de detectar, isolar e identificar estas bactérias, comparando os resultados obtidos com os limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Das 106 amostras analisadas, 78 (73,6% demonstraram a presença de coliformes fecais, 41 (38,7% de Escherichia coli, 18 (17% de ECP e 8 (7,5% de Salmonella spp.. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para Campylobacter spp. Os testes da PCR multiplex rfb, stx1, stx2, eae O157, O113, O111 das amostras de E. coli foram negativos. Em decorrência dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que se faz necessária melhoria nas condições higiênico-sanitárias desse tipo de produto.

  19. Fast and discriminative CoSYPS detection system of viable Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in carcass swab samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Mahillon, Jacques; Dierick, Katelijne; Roosens, Nancy H

    2015-01-02

    In this study, the complete CoSYPS Path Food workflow including all steps, namely swab sample enrichment, SYBR®Green qPCR detection of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp., isolation and confirmation of the detected strain, was validated on beef carcass swabs. To perform the validation, the results of the complete workflow were compared, according to the ISO 16140:2003, with the ISO reference methods for detection, isolation and confirmation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. The results showed that the relative level of detection and the limit of detection of the complete workflow and ISO reference methods are in a range from 2 to 16 CFU/swab for both bacteria. The relative specificity, sensitivity and accuracy identified during this validation were all 100% since the results obtained with the complete CoSYPS Path Food workflow and the ISO reference methods were identical (Cohen's kappa index=1.00). In addition the complete CoSYPS Path Food workflow is able to provide detection results (negative or presumptive positive) in half the time needed as for the ISO reference methods. These results demonstrate that the performance of the complete CoSYPS Path Food workflow is not only comparable to the ISO reference methods but also provides a faster response for the verification of beef carcasses before commercial distribution.

  20. Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in Brazilian opossums (Didelphis spp.): Molecular investigation and in vitro isolation of Sarcocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Leane S Q; Jesus, Rogério F; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Silva, Jean C R; Siqueira, Daniel B; Marvulo, Maria F V; Aléssio, Felipe M; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Julião, Fred S; Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gondim, Luís F P

    2017-08-30

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp. from wild opossums for comparison with previously isolated strains. Carcasses of 39 opossums from Bahia state were available for molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. and N. caninum in their tissues, and for sporocyst detection by intestinal scraping. In addition, Sarcocystis-like sporocysts from nine additional opossums, obtained in São Paulo state, were tested. Sarcocystis DNA was found in 16 (41%) of the 39 opossums' carcasses; N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues from three opossums. The sporocysts from the nine additional opossums from São Paulo state were tested by bioassay and induced infection in nine budgerigars, but in none of the gamma-interferon knockout mice. In vitro isolation was successful using tissues from all nine budgerigars. The isolated strains were maintained in CV-1 and Vero cells. Three of nine isolates presented contamination in cell culture and were discarded. Analysis of six isolates based on five loci showed that these parasites were genetically different from each other and also distinct from S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. lindsayi, and S. speeri. In conclusion, opossums in the studied regions were infected with N. caninum and Sarcocystis spp. and represent a potential source of infection to other animals. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in tissues from black-eared opossum (D. aurita or D

  1. [Research advances in the effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of Aurelia spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Shan

    2012-11-01

    Aurelia spp. is a cosmopolitan coastal species, and also, one dominant species of large jellyfish in the coastal waters of China. In recent years, Aurelia spp. bloom events occur frequently in the world, causing severe damage to marine ecosystems, coastal economy, and society development. Aurelia spp. has a complicated life history comprising a benthic asexually-reproducing polyp generation and a sexually-reproducing medusa generation, and various vegetative reproduction (budding, strobilation, and podocyst production) and sexual reproduction. Surrounding physical and biological factors affect each growth stage of Aurelia spp., especially the juvenile stage of planktonic-benthic life cycle, which has major effect on the population dynamics of Aurelia spp. This paper reviewed the research advances in the effects of environmental factors on Aurelia spp. at its different growth and development stages, and discussed some problems worthy of further study, aimed to provide useful reference for the research of the key factors controlling the jellyfish blooms in coastal waters of China.

  2. PENGENDALIAN SERANGAN GANODERMA SPP. (60-80% PADA TANAMAN SENGON SEBAGAI PELINDUNG TANAMAN KOPI DAN KAKAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Nina Herliyana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic variation of Ganoderma spp. As a cause of rot disease on plantation crops is necessary for consideration in efforts to protect crops. Exploration of the use of biological agents, especially Trichoderma spp., For the control of Ganoderma on forestry crops is still limited to laboratory testing. Its effectiveness to control Trichoderma spp. To protect plants in the nursery sengon being carried out, as well as to determine its role in improving plant growth

  3. The Role of Mixing in the Mechanisms of Water Bloom by Microcystis spp.

    OpenAIRE

    SIHOTANG, CLEMENS; Okino, Tokio

    1985-01-01

    Studies on the role of water mixing in the mechanisms of water bloom by Microcystis spp., which were composed from the three species, M. aeruginosa, M. viridis and M. wesenbergii, were conducted during the summer of 1983. Microcystis spp. are a species of blue-green algae that appears regularly in the summer in Lake Suwa, Japan. Centrifugation was used in order to separate Microcystis spp. from other phytoplankton. Thus, the floating part of the centrifugal tube was occupied by Microcystis sp...

  4. THE USE OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI AS BIOPESTICIDE AGAINST DOWNY MILDEW PERONOSCLEROSPORA SPP. ON MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    AMIN, NUR; La Daha; Nasruddin, Andi; Junaed, M; Iqbal, Andi

    2013-01-01

    Downy mildew is a major disease of maize caused by the fungus Peronosclerospora spp., widely distributed in all corn production centers in Indonesia. The disease can cause considerable losses; even total losses have been reported occurring on susceptible varieties. The purpose of the research was to determine the effectiveness of some isolates of endophytic fungi for the control of downy mildew on maize. The study consisted of four isolate treatments: Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma spp, Beauv...

  5. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  6. LC-MS metabolomic analysis of environmental stressor impacts on the metabolite diversity in Nephthea spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedi Indra Januar; Endar Marraskuranto; Gintung Patantis; Ekowati Chasanah

    2012-01-01

    Context: The soft coral Nephthea spp. is a source of terpenoid class that potentially has pharmaceutical properties. However, metabolite diversity and cytotoxic activity of this species are varied among coral reefs from various sites. Aim: To analyze the water quality in Nephthea spp. environment as a possible factor causing a difference in its metabolite diversity. Settings and Design: Nephthea spp. from seven sites were taken in October 2010 at the Alor District of Marine Protected Area, In...

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  8. Arcobacter spp. possess two very short flagellins of which FlaA is essential for motility

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Wösten, M.M.S.M.; van Asten, A.J.; Gaastra, W

    2008-01-01

    Like Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp., Arcobacter spp. possess two flagellin genes (flaA and flaB) located adjacent to each other. The aim of this study was to characterize the flagellin proteins of Arcobacter spp., because these proteins are known virulence factors in the Epsilonproteobacteria, to which these three species belong. With the exception of Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter flagellins are almost half the size of those in other Epsilonproteobacteria. Arcobacter flagellin prot...

  9. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Evaluación de Cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. para Controlar Fusarium circinatum en Plántulas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraga-Suazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell causes pine pitch canker, an important disease for conifers worldwide. F. circinatum was first detected in Chile in 2001 and to date is present in nurseries and clonal hedges from Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins Region to Los Rios Region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains to control F. circinatum in Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings in the absence of other effective control methods. Eighty-one Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains were evaluated through in vitro assays to determine their ability to act as antagonists of F. circinatum and 21 strains were tested for their ability to reduce post-emergence mortality and increase P. radiata survival under greenhouse conditions. During in vitro experiments, 15 strains of Trichoderma inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen by more than 60% and one strain of Clonostachys showed parasitism of F. circinatum hyphae. Greenhouse experiments showed no control of the disease when the antagonists were added to substrate after the pathogen. However, when the antagonists were added before the pathogen, four strains (Clonostachys UDC-32 and UDC-222 and Trichoderma UDC-23 and UDC-408 reduced post-emergence mortality between 80 and 100%. Among these strains, only Clonostachys UDC-222 significantly increased the survival of P. radiata seedlings. These results showed that Clonostachys UDC-222 has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against F. circinatum in the production of P. radiata plants.Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell es el hongo que causa el cancro resinoso del pino, una enfermedad de importancia mundial en coníferas. En Chile, F. cicirnatum fue detectado por primera vez el año 2001 y a la fecha se encuentra presente en algunos viveros y huertos clonales desde la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins hasta la Región de Los R

  10. Duplex PCR for detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senachai, Pachara; Chomvarin, Chariya; Wongboot, Warawan; Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Tangkanakul, Waraluk

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella and Shigella spp are important causative agents of foodborne diseases. A sensitive, specific and rapid method is essential for detection of these pathogens. In this study, a duplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples and compared with the traditional culture method. Enrichment broths for Salmonella spp recovery were also compared. Sensitivity of the duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp from pure culture was 10(3) CFU/ml (40 CFU/PCR reaction), and that of sterile cockle samples spiked with these two pathogens was 1 CFU/10 g of cockle tissue after 9 hours enrichment [3 hours in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by 6 hours in Rappaport Vasiliadis (RV) broth or tetrathionate (TT) broth for Salmonella spp and 6 hours enrichment in Shigella broth (SB) for Shigella spp]. There was no significant difference in detection sensitivity between enrichment in RV and TT broths. Salmonella spp detected in cockles in Khon Kaen, Thailand by duplex PCR and culture method was 17% and 13%, respectively but Shigella spp was not detected. The duplex PCR technique developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples was highly sensitive, specific and rapid and could serve as a suitable method for food safety assessment.

  11. Differential Legionella spp. survival between intracellular and extracellular forms in thermal spring environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Po-Min; Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Hsu, Shih-Yung; Huang, Jen-Te; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-05-01

    Legionella are commonly found in natural and man-made aquatic environments and are able to inhabit various species of protozoa. The relationship between the occurrence of Legionella spp. within protozoa and human legionellosis has been demonstrated; however, the proportions of intracellular and extracellular Legionella spp. in the aquatic environment were rarely reported. In this study, we developed a new method to differentiate intracellular and extracellular Legionella spp. in the aquatic environment. Water samples from three thermal spring recreational areas in southeastern Taiwan were collected and analyzed. For each water sample, concurrent measurements were performed for Legionella spp. and their free-living amoebae hosts. The overall detection rate was 32 % (16/50) for intracellular Legionella spp. and 12 % (6/50) for extracellular Legionella spp. The most prevalent host of Legionella spp. was Hartmannella vermiformis. The identified Legionella spp. differed substantially between intracellular and extracellular forms. The results showed that it may be necessary to differentiate intracellular and extracellular forms of Legionella spp.

  12. Molecular tracking of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat chain: from slaughterhouse reception to end cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mariane Rezende; Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Bersot, Luciano Dos Santos; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Due to the importance of Salmonella spp. in poultry products, this study aimed to track its main contamination routes since slaughtering reception to processing of chicken end cuts. Samples from different steps of slaughtering and processing (n = 277) were collected from two chicken slaughterhouses (Sl1 and Sl2) located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and subjected to Salmonella spp. detection. The obtained isolates were subjected to serological identification and tested by PCR for specific Salmonella spp. genes (ompC and sifB). Also, Salmonella spp. isolates were subjected to XbaI macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty-eight samples were positive for Salmonella spp. and 172 isolates were obtained. Sl1 and Sl2 presented similar frequencies of Salmonella spp. positive samples during reception, slaughtering and processing (p > 0.05), except for higher frequencies in Sl1 for chicken carcasses after de-feathering and evisceration (p Salmonella spp. strains in Sl1. The results highlighted the relevance of the initial steps of chicken slaughtering for Salmonella spp. contamination, and the pre-chilling of carcasses as an important controlling tool. In addition, the presence of Salmonella spp. in chicken end cuts samples represents a public health concern.

  13. Dermatitis asociada a malassezia spp en un conejo criado como mascota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quevedo U., Miryam; Lescano G., Jesus; Fernandez A., Victor

    2013-01-01

    La enfermedad micotica mas comun en conejos es la dermatofitosis, la cual esta asociada principalmente a Trichophyton menthagrophytes y Microsporum canis, mientras que la dermatitis por Malassezia spp...

  14. Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission.

  15. Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained culti­vation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąka, Łukasz; Popowska, Magdalena

    This review summarizes current data on resistance among Salmonella spp. isolates of food origin from countries in different regions of the world. The mechanisms of resistance to different groups of antimicrobial compounds are also considered. Among strains resistant to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones the most prevalent mechanism is amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of genes gyrA, parC but mechanism of growing importance is plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) associated with genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS but frequency of their detection is different. Resistance to sulfonamides is mostly associated with genes sul1 and sul2, while resistance to trimethoprim is associated with various variants of dhfr ( dfr) genes. Taking into account Salmonella spp. strains isolated from food, resistance to β-lactams is commonly associated with β-lactamases encoding by blaTEM genes. However strains ESBL and AmpC – positive are also detected. Resistance to aminoglicosides is commonly result of enzymatic inactivation. Three types of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme are: acetyltransferases (AAC), adenyltransferases (ANT) and phosphotransferases (APH). Resistance to tetracyclines among Salmonella spp. isolated from food is most commonly associated with active efflux. Among numerous genetic determinants encoding efflux pumps tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE and tetG are reported predominatingly. One of the most common mechanisms of resistance against chloramphenicol is its inactivation by chloramphenicol acetyltrasferases (CATs), but resistance to this compound can be also mediated by chloramphenicol efflux pumps encoded by the genes cmlA and floR. It is important to monitor resistance of Salmonella isolated from food, because the globalization of trade, leading to the long-distance

  17. Human antibody recognition of Anisakidae and Trichinella spp. in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, L N; Krause, T Grove; Koch, A

    2007-01-01

    High levels of total IgE are observed among children in Greenland. To evaluate the extent to which Anisakidae and Trichinella spp. contribute to the high total IgE level, an ELISA and a western blot were developed for the detection of IgG antibodies to Anisakidae, based on excretory....../secretory antigens from Anisakidae larvae. Western blots with Anisakidae and Trichinella antigens discriminated between Anisakidae and Trichinella infections, enabling cross-reactivity between the two parasite infections to be eliminated. Serum samples from 1012 children in Greenland were analysed for specific...

  18. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses in South of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraveji, M; Hosseini, M H; Amrabadi, O; Rahimian, A; Namazi, F; Namavari, M

    2011-12-01

    Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of Neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. The aim of the present study is to determine serological prevalence of Neospora infection in horses in Iran. Blood samples were obtained from 200 horses and tested for serum antibodies against Neospora spp. by the Neospora modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT). Antibodies were found in 64 (32%) horses being tested with titers of 1:80. This is the first serological survey for Neospora antibodies performed on horses in Iran.

  19. Beneficios para la salud de los frutos de Opuntia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Obón De Castro, José María; Castellar Rodríguez, María Rosario Lourdes; Díaz García, Miriam Cristina; Lozano Berna, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    El género Opuntia spp. ofrece una gran variedad de frutos con un gran potencial en componentes bioactivos. Son muchos los beneficios para la salud que se han descrito en la medicina tradicional: tratamiento de la diabetes, reducción de los niveles de colesterol y la presión arterial,tratamiento de úlceras y quemaduras, ami-inflamatorio y mejora de dolores reumáticos, tratamiento del dolor y asma. Los principales componentes bioactivos de los frutos son betala[nas, carofenoides, polifeno...

  20. Competition in artifical plant growth media by Trichoderma spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarocco, Sabrina; Lübeck, Mette; Vannacci, Giovanni

    of the reason why more biocontrol agents are reaching the market place. A comparative evaluation of life strategies of both the pathogen and its antagonists is required to predict the fate of a biopesticide in agricultural systems.The objectives of this work have been: 1) to screen a collection of Trichoderma...... isolates in a natural pot mix in order to select potential fungal antagonists to be employed in the biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off of radish, and 2) to verify the hypothesis that competition for a food base plays a role in reducing pathogen activity. Fifteen Trichoderma spp., selected among...

  1. Adverse Effects of Larkspur (Delphinium spp. on Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Welch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous species of larkspur (Delphinium spp. in North America. Larkspurs are a major cause of cattle losses on western ranges in the USA, especially on foothill and mountain rangelands. The toxicity of larkspur species is due to various norditerpenoid alkaloids. In this article, we review the current knowledge regarding larkspur ecology and distribution, analytical technologies to study and quantify the toxins in larkspur, the toxicology of the larkspur plants and their individual toxins, known genetic variations in larkspur susceptibility, and current management recommendations to mitigate losses from larkspur poisoning.

  2. Trichinella spp. imported with live animals and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-09-30

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are widely distributed throughout the world in omnivorous and carnivorous animals (mammals, birds, and reptiles) and in incidental hosts. To prevent the transmission of these zoonotic parasites to humans, meat samples from Trichinella spp. susceptible animals are tested at the slaughterhouse or in game processing plants. The aim of the present review was to collect documented cases on Trichinella infected animals, meat, or meat derived products which reached the international trade or were illegally introduced from one to another country in personal baggage. In the course of the last 60 years in the international literature, there have been 43 reports of importation of Trichinella spp. infected animals or meat, most of which (60%, 26/43) related to live horses or their meat. Meat or meat derived products from pigs, wild boar and bears, account only for 18.6% (8/43), 4.7% (3/43), and 14.3% (6/43), respectively. However, only live horses or their meat intended for human consumption, meat from a single wild boar, and live polar bears caught in the wild for zoos, were imported through the international market; whereas, meat from pigs, wild boars and bears were illegally introduced in a country in personal baggage. Trichinella infected animals or meat which were officially or illegally introduced in a country were the source of 3443 Trichinella infections in humans in a 40-year period (1975-2014). Most of these infections (96.8%) have been linked to horsemeat consumption, whereas meat from pigs, wild boars and bears accounted only for 2.2%, 0.7% and 0.3% of cases, respectively. This review shows the Trichinella spp. risk in the international animal and meat trade has been linked mainly to horses and only one time to wild boar, if they carcasses are not adequately tested, whereas pigs and other wild animals or their derived products infected with Trichinella spp. are unlikely to reach the international market by the official animal and

  3. Infestazione sottocutanea da Dirofilaria spp.: descrizione di un caso clinico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Crespi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria spp. causes a common zoonotic filarial infection found in dogs and humans in the tropical, subtropical and temperate areas. After biological development in the mosquito, dogs and humans may be infected with the infective larvae when the mosquito takes a blood meal. In humans, the worms do not reach maturity, and no microfilariae can be detected.A number of species, such as D. tenuis, D. repens, D. immitis have been identified as causative agents of subcutaneous or conjunctival nodules in humans. Diagnosis is made by identifying the worm in biopsies or extracting the worm from the lesion. Surgical removal of the worms is the only known treatment.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC, THERMAL, AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CULTIVATED BAMBOO (GIGANTOCHLOA SPP.

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    Irshad ul Haq Bhat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spectroscopic, thermal, and morphological properties of two bamboo species viz. Gigantochloa brang and Gigantochloa wrayi. The nature of cell wall structure and distribution of vascular bundles in G. brang and G. wrayi were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Gigantochloa spp. at various positions and locations showed identical thermal stability and are stable up to 200 °C. The decomposition of cellulose and hemicelluloses component of the culm occurred between 220 °C and 390 °C, while the degradation of lignin takes place above 400 °C.

  5. Mitochondrial transcripts and associated heteroplasmies of Ancistrus spp. (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Moreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data-set complements our paper entitled “The use of transcriptomic next-generation sequencing data to assembly mitochondrial genomes of Ancistrus spp. (Loricariidae” [6]. Here, we present the nucleotide sequences of each transcript used for mitogenomes assembly, as well as tables presenting the location of each transcript in the mitogenomes; the frequency, location and codon position of the detected heteroplasmic sites; and the start/stop codons usage, UTR, CDS and poliA-tail length for each protein coding gene. Readers are referred to the paper cited above for data interpretation and discussion.

  6. Caracterización morfologica de accesiones de Capsicum spp

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Castro, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp., procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, Salvador) y representativas de 4 especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens), se utilizaron 21 descriptores (6 cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; 8 de caracteres vegetativos, 3 de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla) propuestos por el IPGRI (1983). La caracterización morfológica permitió confirmar la pr...

  7. Efeito prebiótico do mel sobre o crescimento e viabilidade de Bifidobacterium spp. e Lactobacillus spp. em leite Prebiotic effect of honey on growth and viability of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Nolasco Macedo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para ser considerado prebiótico, um microrganismo deve atender a uma série de requisitos, sendo a manutenção da viabilidade, um dos principais. Culturas probióticas de Lactobacillus spp. e Bifidobacterium spp. foram cultivadas em leite em pó desnatado reconstituído 12% adicionado de 3% (p/v de mel pasteurizado. Foram preparados controles sem mel. Todos os cultivos mantiveram-se viáveis por 46 dias a 7 °C atendendo o número mínimo exigido pela legislação. O maior número de células viáveis de L. casei-01 e L. casei Shirota (>9,0 log10 UFC.mL-1 foi observado nos cultivos contendo mel. A acidez titulável produzida por estas culturas foi de 1,44%. O número de células viáveis de L. acidophilus Sacco® aos 46 dias em cultivos com mel foi significativamente maior (p To be considered prebiotic, a microorganism must fulfill a series of requirements and the maintenance of viability is a major one. Probiotic cultures of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were cultured in 12% (w/v reconstituted nonfat dry milk containing 3% (w/v of pasteurized honey. Controls without honey were prepared. All cultures remained viable for up 46 days at 7 °C conforming to the regulation requirement. The higher cell number of L. casei-01 and L. casei Shirota (>9.0 log10 CFU.mL-1 were maintained in the presence of honey. The titratable acidity produced by these cultures was of 1.44%. On the 46th day of storage, the number of L. acidophilus Sacco® viable cells in the presence of honey was significantly higher (p < 0.05 compared to the control. Considering the overall storage period, honey exerted significant positive effect (p < 0,05 only on Bifidobacterium cultures. The lowest growth and acidity on the 46th day was observed with Bf. Lactis Bb12, being 7,63 log10 CFU.g-1 and 0,61% of acidity in the presence of honey and 6.11 log CFU.mL-1 and 0,30% of acidity in the control. Differently, Bf. lactis Sacco® cultures reached counts of 9,11 log10 CFU

  8. MALASSEZIA SPP ASSOCIATED DERMATITIS IN A PET RABBIT (ORYCTOLAGUS CUNICULUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, Miryam; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Lescano G., Jesús; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre; Fernández A., Víctor; Clínica de Animales Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.

    2014-01-01

    La enfermedad micótica más común en conejos es la dermatofitosis, la cual está asociada principalmente a Trichophyton menthagrophytes y Microsporum canis, mientras que la dermatitis por Malassezia spp ha sido raramente reportada en lagomorfos. El presente trabajo reporta el caso de un conejo Lop macho, de seis meses de edad que fue presentado a la consulta por un problema de dermatitis. El animal presentaba focos de alopecia, descamación de piel y fácil desprendimiento de pelo contiguo en tre...

  9. Tempat Perkembangbiakan Nyamuk Aedes spp. Di Pasar Wisata Pangandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Hendri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An observation of Aedes spp. breeding places in water container was carried out located at Pasar Wisata Pangandaran. The final results showed that larvae were found mostly in bucket (28,21 %, container with plastic based goods (87,18 % and container with blue colors (33,33%. The House Index (HI rate was 29,20 %, Container Index (CI rate was 9,30 %, Breteau Index (BI rate was 40,6. The research to, showed the barrels or drum was been most productive container with Pupae Index (PI rate was 25,42.

  10. Competition in artifical plant growth media by Trichoderma spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarocco, Sabrina; Lübeck, Mette; Vannacci, Giovanni

    of the reason why more biocontrol agents are reaching the market place. A comparative evaluation of life strategies of both the pathogen and its antagonists is required to predict the fate of a biopesticide in agricultural systems.The objectives of this work have been: 1) to screen a collection of Trichoderma...... isolates in a natural pot mix in order to select potential fungal antagonists to be employed in the biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off of radish, and 2) to verify the hypothesis that competition for a food base plays a role in reducing pathogen activity. Fifteen Trichoderma spp., selected among...

  11. Propriedades de saúde de Spirulina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ambrosi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Espécies de Spirulina têm sido utilizadas mundialmente na alimentação humana e animal, assim como na obtenção de aditivos utilizados em formas farmacêuticas e alimentos. Esta bactéria é uma fonte rica em proteínas, vitaminas, aminoácidos essenciais, minerais, ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e outros nutrientes, sendo seu principal uso como suplemento alimentar. As propriedades nutricionais de Spirulina spp. têm sido relacionadas com possíveis atividades terapêuticas, caracterizando o microrganismo no âmbito dos alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos. A ação de Spirulina spp. é comprovada a nível experimental ‘in vivo’ e ‘in vitro’, verificandose sua efetividade na inibição da replicação de alguns vírus, na ação citostática e citotóxica no tratamento de câncer, na diminuição dos lipídios e da glicose no sangue e da pressão sangüínea, na redução de peso em obesos, no aumento da população de microrganismos da flora intestinal, na melhoria da resposta imunológica, na proteção renal contra metais pesados e fármacos, além de apresentar atividade rádio - protetora e de ser eficiente na desnutrição, aumentando a absorção de minerais. Dados da literatura permitem concluir que biomassa de Spirulina spp., além de ser um excelente suplemento alimentar, é uma fonte potencial no tratamento de diversas enfermidades, constituindo uma alternativa eficiente para o desenvolvimento de produtos nutracêuticos. Palavras-chave: Spirulina spp.; nutracêutico; câncer; hiperlipidemia; diabetes; desnutrição.

  12. Resistencia antimicrobiana y a desinfectantes de Listeria spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Bolivar, Zulema; Poutou Piñales, Raúl Alberto; Carrascal Camacho, Ana Karina

    2008-01-01

    Listeria spp. es un género bacteriano que se adapta fácilmente a cambios ambientales y a condiciones químicas y físicas, por eso no es sorprendente la aparición de resistencia a desinfectantes de uso frecuente en las industrias de alimentos. La capacidad para adquirir genes de resistencia antimicrobiana a partir de otras especies bacterianas, hace que este género deba ser observado cuidadosamente desde el punto de vista epidemiológico. Aunque aún no se ha demostrado que el abuso de ...

  13. Phylogeny of Korean Opuntia spp. based on multiple DNA regions

    OpenAIRE

    SRIKANTH, KRISHNAMOORTHY; WHANG, SUNG SOO

    2015-01-01

    Although Opuntia species are of high agronomic value in Korea, the taxonomic position of Korean Opuntia species has never been investigated. The taxonomic position of Korean Opuntia spp. Within the tribe Opuntieae was examined based on DNA sequence analysis of matK, trnL-F, atpB-rbcl, and ITS regions. The total amplified sequence length was 2977 bp; only 18 parsimonious informative sites were present, even though they belonged to different species. A phylogenetic tree using both the maximum l...

  14. Serologic survey for Trichinella spp. in grizzly bears from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, R L; Gamble, R; Heckert, R A; Ver Hoef, J

    1997-07-01

    Blood was collected from 878 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in seven geographic areas of Alaska from 1973 to 1987. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure was used to test sera for evidence of exposure to Trichinella spp. Serum antibody prevalence ranged from 5% (10 positive of 196 tested) in the Southern Region of the state to 83% (355 of 430 tested) in the Northern Region. These major discrepancies may be a result of differing food habits of bears in the major geographic areas. Prevalence was higher in older age cohorts. Neither year-of-collection nor sex had a significant effect on prevalence.

  15. Salmonella spp. en niños hospitalizados por enfermedad diarreica: un estudios de casos y controles Salmonella spp. in hospitalized children with diarrheic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ludy Eunice Jaimes Vivas; Carlos Fernando Chinchilla Mejía; Carlos A. Bernal Parra

    1998-01-01

    Entre 1988 y 1995 se hicieron 1.468 coprocultivos a niños hospitalizados por enfermedades diarreicas en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín; se aisló Salmonella spp. en 324 (22.1%). El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar los factores asociados con la presencia de Salmonella spp. Para ello se compararon las características de los niños con coprocultivo positivo para Salmonella spp. Con las de aquéllos en quienes el resultado fue negativo, mediante la determinac...

  16. A molecular survey of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks from Thuringia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najm, Nour-Addeen; Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Herb, Ingrid; Fensterer, Veronika; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-06-01

    Wild canines which are closely related to dogs constitute a potential reservoir for haemoparasites by both hosting tick species that infest dogs and harbouring tick-transmitted canine haemoparasites. In this study, the prevalence of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. was investigated in German red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks. DNA extracts of 261 spleen samples and 1953 ticks included 4 tick species: Ixodes ricinus (n=870), I. canisuga (n=585), I. hexagonus (n=485), and Dermacentor reticulatus (n=13) were examined for the presence of Babesia/Theileria spp. by a conventional PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. One hundred twenty-one out of 261 foxes (46.4%) were PCR-positive. Out of them, 44 samples were sequenced, and all sequences had 100% similarity to Theileria annae. Similarly, sequencing was carried out for 65 out of 118 PCR-positive ticks. Theileria annae DNA was detected in 61.5% of the sequenced samples, Babesia microti DNA was found in 9.2%, and Babesia venatorum in 7.6% of the sequenced samples. The foxes were most positive in June and October, whereas the peak of tick positivity was in October. Furthermore, the positivity of the ticks was higher for I. canisuga in comparison to the other tick species and for nymphs in comparison to adults. The high prevalence of T. annae DNA in red foxes in this study suggests a reservoir function of those animals for T. annae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. annae in foxes from Germany as well as the first detection of T. annae and B. microti in the fox tick I. canisuga. Detection of DNA of T. annae and B. microti in three tick species collected from foxes adds new potential vectors for these two pathogens and suggests a potential role of the red fox in their natural endemic cycles.

  17. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and ixodid ticks from the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Pourhosseini, Moslem; Yaghfouri, Saeed; Rashidi, Ahmad; Seidabadi, Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Theilerioses and babesioses are important diseases in Iranian sheep. The present study was undertaken to identify and classify/specify Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and vector ticks. Investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. In total, 302 sheep originating from 60 different flocks were clinically examined and their blood collected. In addition, from the same flocks, ixodid ticks were sampled. Stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Theileria and Babesia organisms, and a semi-nested PCR was used for subsequent molecular specification. From the ticks, salivary glands and uterus were isolated and subsequently analyzed by semi-nested PCR. Piroplasm organisms were observed in 29% of the blood smears with low parasitemia, whereas 65% of the blood samples yielded positive PCR findings. The presence of Theileria ovis (55.6%), Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection with Theileria spp. and Babesia ovis were detected by semi-nested PCR in 0.3%, 5.6%, and 0.99%, respectively. In total, 429 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 376; 87.6% of the total), followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 30; 7.0%), Dermacentor raskemensis (n = 12; 2.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 7; 1.6%), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 2; 0.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 1; 0.2%), and Haemaphysalis sp. (n = 1; 0.2%). Of the positive R. turanicus samples, 5 (5.7%) were infected with T. ovis and 2 (2.9%) with T. lestoquardi. Neither Babesia ovis nor Babesia motasi infection was detected in salivary glands or uterine samples of the ticks. The results also suggest that R. turanicus could be the vector responsible for transmission of the 2 Theileria species.

  18. Efficacy and security of ivermectin given orally to rats naturally infected with Syphacia spp., Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletto, V R S; Vanz, F; Gazarini, L; Stern, C A J; Tonussi, C R

    2015-07-01

    The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48 mg/L) repeatedly for 72 h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water. This simple regimen should control pinworm infection (Syphacia muris), a problem that can be endemic in laboratory colonies. Experiments using healthy animals are likely to generate more consistent results, thereby requiring a reduced number of animals per group.

  19. Salmonella spp., importante agente patogênico veiculado em alimentos Salmonella spp., important pathogenic agent transmitted through foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Kazue Sakugawa Shinohara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTAs tem sido foco de discussões nos últimos anos, devido à preocupação mundial com estratégias que permitam seu controle e, conseqüentemente, garantam a colocação de produtos seguros no mercado consumidor. A Salmonella spp. é um dos microrganismos mais amplamente distribuídos na natureza, sendo o homem e os animais seus principais reservatórios naturais, com ocorrência de sorotipos regionais, reconhecidos como salmoneloses, e considerado como um dos principais agentes envolvidos em surtos de origem alimentar em países desenvolvidos. O aumento da incidência da salmonelose provocada por alimentos contaminados demonstra que, na atualidade, apesar dos avanços tecnológicos alcançados, este problema ainda ocorre mundialmente. As aves e bovinos são responsáveis pela maior disseminação desse agente patogênico. A ampla distribuição da Salmonella spp. entre os animais, a existência de portadores assintomáticos e sua permanência no ambiente e nos alimentos contribuem para que este microrganismo assuma um papel de grande relevância na saúde pública mundial e, portanto, programas permanentes de controle e erradicação devem ser adotados.The occurrence of foodborne diseases has been a matter of discussion over the last years due to the worldwide concern with strategies for their control and for ensuring that safe food products reach the consumer. Salmonella spp. is among the most widespread microorganisms in nature, having man and animals as main natural reservoirs. With occurrence of regional serotypes causing salmonellosis, this pathogen is considered one of the main agents responsible for outbreaks of foodborne disease in the developing countries. The increasing incidence of salmonellosis caused by contaminated food has shown that, despite the recent technological improvements, this problem still occurs in all countries. Cattle and poultry are the main responsible for

  20. Caracterização de Aeromonas spp isoladas de neonatos hospitalizados Characterization of Aeromonas spp isolates from newborns hospitalized

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Aeromonas spp é reconhecida como patogênica para o homem após o consumo de água e alimentos contaminados. Na presente investigação, foram avaliadas 2.323 amostras de swabs retais de neonatos hospitalizados no Rio de Janeiro objetivando o isolamento de Aeromonas. As amostras foram coletadas e enviadas ao Laboratório de Referência Nacional de Cólera e outras enteroinfecções bacterianas, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Os swabs foram submetidos ao enriquecimento em água peptonada ...

  1. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine.

  2. Gasterophilus spp. infections in horses from northern and central Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrayev, Baltabek; Lider, Lyudmila; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-15

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain current data on the gastrointestinal myiasis of horses in the provinces of Kostanay, Akmola and Karagandy, northern and central Kazakhstan. The stomach, small intestine and rectum of 148 slaughter horses were examined for Gasterophilus spp. larvae during a 26-month study period. All horses were infected with 2nd and 3rd stage larvae (mean intensity: 803±350), and 22% of them harboured >1000 Gasterophilus spp. larvae each. Four species were identified: G. intestinalis (prevalence: 100%; mean intensity: 361±240 larvae), G. haemorrhoidalis (100%; 353±191), G. nasalis (100%; 73±36) and G. pecorum (91.2%; 18±10). Horses aged<2 years were higher infected with Gasterophilus larvae than 2-4 years old animals. Both the prevalence and extremely high intensity of Gasterophilus infections of horses in these Kazakh regions suggest respective control measurements to improve the health and performance of the animals and to increase the economic income of horse owners.

  3. Nuclear DNA content and chromosome number in Brachiaria spp. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza de Oliveira Timbó

    Full Text Available Breeding programs for Brachiaria spp. use both intraspecies and interspecies crosses between sexual and apomictic plants in order to obtain new cultivars with the desired characteristics. As there are different ploidy levels both within and between species of this genus, it becomes necessary to evaluate the genotypes used in breeding programs, as a guide to breeders when adopting crossing strategies. In this work, DNA content and chromosome number were determined in order to characterise ploidy levels in Brachiaria spp. genotypes. In the analysis of 15 genotypes, DNA content varied with the ploidy levels (2x, 3x and 4x, and between species and/or taxon. The average DNA content was 1.74 pg (2x in B. ruziziensis, 3.74 pg (4x in B. decumbens and 3.52 pg (4x for B. brizantha. For the genotype 86, 2.57 pg of DNA was obtained and 2n = 3x = 27, indicating a triploid accession, probably a natural hybrid. The variation in the total DNA content allowed the differentiation of Brachiaria ruziziensis (2n = 2x = 18 from the tetraploid species Brachiaria Brizantha and Brachiaria decumbens (2n = 4x = 36, as well as the probable hybrid triploid (2n = 3x = 18 of these species.

  4. Amoebic forms of Blastocystis spp. - evidence for a pathogenic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanikam, Arutchelvan; Govind, Suresh Kumar

    2013-10-11

    Blastocystis spp. are one of the most prevalent parasites isolated from patients suffering from diarrhea, flatulence, constipation and vomiting. It's pathogenicity and pathophysiology remains controversial to date. Protease activity and amoebic forms have been reported previously in symptomatic isolates but there has been no conclusive evidence provided to correlate the protease activity and any specific life cycle stage of the parasite thus far. Symptomatic isolates with amoebic form were tested for protease activity and compared with symptomatic and asymptomatic isolates without amoebic form for 10 days culture period. The present study demonstrates an elevated protease activity in cultures having a higher percentage of amoebic forms seen in symptomatic isolates. The growth curve demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.05) higher average number of parasite counts in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic isolates. Symptomatic isolates showed amoebic forms with percentages ranging from 5% to 17%. Elevated protease activity was demonstrated in isolates that had higher percentages of amoebic forms with intense bands at higher molecular weight proteases (60 - 100 kDa). As days of culture proceeded, the protease quantification also showed a steady increase. This study elucidates a correlation between protease activity and percentage of amoebic forms. The finding implies that these forms could play a role in exacerbation of intestinal symptoms during Blastocystis spp. infection.

  5. Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gregori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom comprises some most popular edible mushrooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth and undemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety of agroforestry (by-products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymes and medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification. Many different techniques and substrates have been successfully utilized for mushroom cultivation and biomass production by means of solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. However, in contrast to submerged liquid fermentation, solid-state fermentation is not often used in large scale due to severe engineering problems. Various Pleurotus species have been shown to possess a number of medicinal properties, such as antitumour, immunomodulatory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet-aggregating, antihyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. These therapeutic activities are exhibited by extracts or isolated compounds from Pleurotus spp. fermentation broth, mycelia and fruiting bodies. In particular, polysaccharides appear to be potent antitumour and immuno-enhancing substances, besides possessing other beneficial activities. However, the biochemical mechanisms of these therapeutic activities still remain largely unknown. This review focuses on recent advances in the biotechnology of Pleurotus spp., with emphasis on the production of fruiting bodies, the production of mycelium and bioactive compounds by solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. The medicinal properties of this mushroom are also outlined.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolates from vegetable plantation soil

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    Isnaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Streptomyces isolates were isolated from soil in some different location on vegetable plantation at agriculture standard condition. The isolates were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB ATCC H37RV and mycobacterial which isolated from Dr. Soetomo Hospital patients in Surabaya. The International Streptomyces Project 4 (ISP4 and Middlebrook 7H9 (MB7H9 wwere used as growth or fermentation medium. The screening of inhibition activity was performed using turbidimetry and spot-test on agar medium. Results shown that 33.3% of the isolates (5 isolates have anti-mycobacterial activities. The first line anti tuberculosis drug rifampicin, (RIF, ethambutol (EMB, isoniazid (INH, and pyrazinamide (PZA were used as standards or positive controls with concentration 20 ppm. Optical density of crude fermentation broth concentrated from five isolates relatively lower than five anti-tuberculosis drug activity standard, although their activities against some microbial were similar to the standard at spot-test. The most efficient isolate shown anti-mycobacterial activity was Streptomyces B10 which identified as Streptomyces violaceousniger. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profile of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram of each isolates were studied and compared to Streptomyces spp. Keywords: Anti-mycobacterial, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomyces spp.

  7. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes; Infestacao de Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em genotipos de Carica spp. e Vasconcella spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C. [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: fancelli@cnpmf.embrapa.br; Morales, Cinara F.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (FEPAGRO), Ijui, RS (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  8. Cryptic Polyketide Synthase Genes in Non-Pathogenic Clostridium SPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnken, Swantje; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Modular type I polyketide synthases (PKS) produce a vast array of bacterial metabolites with highly diverse biological functions. Notably, all known polyketides were isolated from aerobic bacteria, and yet no example has been reported for strict anaerobes. In this study we explored the diversity and distribution of PKS genes in the genus Clostridium. In addition to comparative genomic analyses combined with predictions of modular type I polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters in sequenced genomes of Clostridium spp., a representative selection of other species inhabiting a variety of ecological niches was investigated by PCR screening for PKS genes. Our data reveal that all studied pathogenic Clostridium spp. are devoid of putative PKS genes. In stark contrast, cryptic PKS genes are widespread in genomes of non-pathogenic Clostridium species. According to phylogenetic analyses, the Clostridium PKS genes have unusual and diverse origins. However, reverse transcription quantitative PCR demonstrates that these genes are silent under standard cultivation conditions, explaining why the related metabolites have been overlooked until now. This study presents clostridia as a putative source for novel bioactive polyketides. PMID:22235310

  9. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  10. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in children from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olivia; González-Díaz, Mariana; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Cano, Manuel; Durazo, María; Bernal, Rosa M; Hernandez, Jesús; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie) and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa) were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries.

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in children from Mexico.

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    Olivia Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60 gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries.

  12. Molecular detection of Babesia spp. in ticks in northern Serbia

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    Mihaljica D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the prevalence rate of Babesia spp. in ticks collected from vegetation at seven localities in northern Serbia, tick samples were subjected to molecular analysis. A total of 132 unfed adult ticks of five different species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna and Haemaphysalis punctata, were examined by PCR for the presence of Babesia spp. Out of the analyzed ticks, 10.61% (14/132 were positive for babesial DNA. The presence of babesiae was found at the localities Pančevački Rit, Titov Gaj, Makiš, PKB and Kljajićevo. Prevalence in D. reticulatus ticks was 21.57% (11/51 and in H. concinna ticks, 8.57% (3/35. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed a clustering of the obtained sequences with those of B. canis from the GenBank database. These results add to the knowledge of the distribution of babesial pathogens and their vectors in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173006

  13. Sarcocystis spp. Infection in two Red Panda Cubs (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, W M; Needle, D B; French, S J; Lim, A; Bolin, S; Langohr, I; Agnew, D

    2015-01-01

    Two neonatal male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. One animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. Post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. To further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. IHC was negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, but was positive for a Sarcocystis spp. TEM of cardiac muscle and lung revealed numerous intracellular apicomplexan protozoa within parasitophorous vacuoles. PCR and nucleic acid sequencing of partial 18S rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region confirmed a Sarcocystis spp. that shared 99% sequence homology to Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis dasypi. This represents the first report of sarcocystosis in red pandas. The histopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural findings are supportive of vertical transmission resulting in fatal disseminated disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence and control of Chilodonella spp. in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis

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    J. Morato Fernandes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo relatar a ocorrência e controle de infecção parasitária por Chilodonella spp. em alevinos de peixe-rei (O. bonariensis. A Chilodonella spp. é um ciliado que parasita tegumento e brânquias de peixes, podendo ocasionar grande mortalidade. A infecção foi identificada a partir da observação comportamental de alevinos criados em caixas de polietileno com capacidade de 1000 litros, mantidas em circuito fechado com um biofiltro e alimentados com ração e zooplancton selvagem. A contaminação foi constatada devido à redução do apetite, perda do equilíbrio e alteração na coloração dos peixes, tendo como causa provável, a elevação dos níveis de amônia não ionizável, levando a uma diminuição da imunidade. Como tratamento foi utilizado uma concentração salina de 10g/L, durante 30 minutos, com êxito para o controle deste parasito.

  15. Genotypic Variations in Potassium Absorption and Utilization by Amaranthus spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of K+ absorption and the utilization of both applied K and K in a calcareous alluvisol with low available K by different genotypes of grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), an ancient pseudo-cereal that produces a large biomass and a rich source of healthy nutrients and mineral elements, were studied by means of ion depletion technique and pot experiments. Grain amaranth had a high affinity for K+ uptake in comparison with corn and cotton. However, there were differences among Amaranthus spp. in K absorption and utilization. Some cultivars such as R104, CX-4, Du001, Hy015 and Hr029 which had a higher rate of K absorption and stronger affinity for K+ were typical varieties with high K-use efficiency (KUE). The results showed that high KUE cultivars grew quickly, possessed stronger ability to take up soil slowly available K and mineral K, and did not respond to K fertilization in the soil with low available K. Correspondingly, grain amaranth cultivars CX-77, Cr024, Vd001, Re003 and Sn003 were relatively low in KUE. Compared with high KUE cultivars, they took up more soil available K and both of their dry matter accumulation and K uptake responded to K applied significantly.

  16. Type IV Secretion System of Brucella spp. and its Effectors

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    Yuehua eKe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. cause brucellosis in domestic and wild animals. They are intracellular bacterial pathogens and used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we will discuss roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and in more detail of all 15 identified effectors, which may be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells, suggesting that it plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. So, we listed some key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating functions of the effectors secreted will be crucial to clarifying mechanism of T4SS during infection. Studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms by which the bacteria hijack the host signaling pathways, which help us to develop better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  17. Infection with Capillaria spp. in cage reared peacocks (Pavus cristatus

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    Dodovski Aleksandar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period of July and August 2009 at the Veterinary Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Skopje clinical and laboratory investigations of two peacocks (Pavus Cristatus male and female old 2, 5 years were performed. Peacocks had history of disease in the previous 3-4 months with clinical signs consisting of white diarrhea, emaciation, apathy, with normal appetite. Peacocks were treated several times with antibiotics without any success. With parasitological examination of the feces with qualitative method of flotation with saturated solution of ZnSO4 (SpG 1.4., mass infestation with eggs of Capillaria spp was established. On the basis of laboratory results therapy with levamisole (Neositol 10% - FM Pharm of the peacocks and thorough disinfection of the holding were recommended. On the basis of laboratory investigations, especially parasitological investigations it can be conclude that this is the first case of isolation of Capillaria spp in peacocks in Republic of Macedonia. Repeated single shot therapy with levamisole has proven effective with no side effects.

  18. Deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. wood by xylophagous fungi

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    Luciana Ferreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to test the deteriorating ability of fungi isolated from Eucalyptus spp. wood and perform chemical analysis of wood deteriorated, to verify which components of wood suffered major changes in the light of the attack. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratório de Biodeterioração da Madeira, Departamento de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, ES, Brazil. A total of 12 fungi were used, and nine of these came from pure cultures isolated from fragments of stumps of eucalypt woods deteriorated, collected in three distinct locations, and three with recognized capacity of deterioration that were used as the standard of comparison. The Basidiomycetous fungi 1 and 2 showed high capacity of deterioration of Eucalyptus spp. The heartwood of eucalypt showed a greater natural resistance than the sapwood, but the fungi were able to degrade both them. In general, there were, an increase in the content of extractives in wood damaged (heartwood and sapwood, for Basidiomycetous 1 and Basidiomycetous 2. The heartwood of Eucalyptus grandis there was a decrease in extractives content for both Basidiomycetes. To the holocelulose (cellulose and hemicelluloses, there were small differences between the healthy and damaged wood (mean variations around 1 %. The Fungi, Basidiomycetous 2 caused a greater degradation of lignin as compared to the Basidiomycetous 1.

  19. Presence of microorganisms from isolated Megaselia spp. in foodservice establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Carla; Esteban, J Guillermo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la transmisión de patógenos por insectos es una creciente preocupación para la salud pública. Más concretamente, las moscas son conocidas por ser capaces de transmitir el agente infeccioso mecánicamente. Objetivo: el presente trabajo muestra un estudio en los servicios de restauración en los que se aisló por primera vez en la literatura Megaselia spp, detectándose la presencia de microorganismos en estas moscas. Método: se basa en análisis microbiológicos y entomológicos. Resultados: la presencia de aerobios mesófilos y Enterobacteriaceae se han encontrado en todas las muestras, superando los límites establecidos en el 41,7% (5/12) para las bacterias aerobias mesófilas y el 66,7% (8/12) para Enterobacteriaceae. Por otra parte, en el 25 y 66,7% de las moscas analizadas se detectó la presencia de Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Conclusiones: hay un binomio entre la presencia de microorganismos y Megaselia spp., lo que demuestra la importancia de mantener una vigilancia más estricta en las medidas higiénico-sanitarias en los servicios de restauración.

  20. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044) for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at -18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  1. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abdelazez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548 were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044 for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at −18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  2. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

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    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  3. Cytotoxic effect of acriflavine against clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Zubeyda Akin; Karakus, Gulderen

    2013-02-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a potentially devastating and sight-threatening infection of the cornea caused by the ubiquitous free-living amoebae, Acanthamoeba species. Its eradication is difficult because the amoebas encyst, making it highly resistant to anti-amoebic drugs. Acriflavine neutral (ACF) has been used for treatment of microbial infections for humans and fishes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the time-dependent cytotoxicities of ACF against Acanthamoeba spp. Trophozoites and cysts of three different strains (strain PAT06 Acanthamoeba castellanii, strain 2HH Acanthamoeba hatchetti, and strain 11DS A. hatchetti) of Acanthamoeba spp. were tested. All strains had been isolated from patients suffering from a severe AK. The effects of the ACF with the concentrations ranging from 15 to 500 mg mL(-1) on the cytotoxicity of Acanthamoeba strains were examined. ACF showed a time- and dose-dependent amebicidal action on the trophozoites and cysts. Pat06 (A. castellanii) was the most resistant, while strain 11DS (A. hatchetti) was the most sensitive. As a result, ACF could be concluded as a new agent for the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections. On the other hand, it still needs to be further evaluated by in vivo test systems to confirm the efficiency of its biological effect.

  4. Minimum inhibitory concentration distribution in environmental Legionella spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandalakis, Vassilios; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Goniotakis, Ioannis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-12-01

    In Greece standard tests are performed in the watering and cooling systems of hotels' units either as part of the surveillance scheme or following human infection. The purpose of this study was to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of environmental Legionella isolates for six antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of Legionella infections, by MIC-test methodology. Water samples were collected from 2004 to 2011 from 124 hotels from the four prefectures of Crete (Greece). Sixty-eight (68) Legionella isolates, comprising L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, L. anisa, L. rubrilucens, L. maceachernii, L. quinlivanii, L. oakridgensis, and L. taurinensis, were included in the study. MIC-tests were performed on buffered charcoal yeast extract with α-ketoglutarate, L-cysteine, and ferric pyrophosphate. The MICs were read after 2 days of incubation at 36 ± 1 °C at 2.5% CO2. A large distribution in MICs was recorded for each species and each antibiotic tested. Rifampicin proved to be the most potent antibiotic regardless of the Legionella spp.; tetracycline appeared to have the least activity on our environmental isolates. The MIC-test approach is an easy, although not so cost-effective, way to determine MICs in Legionella spp. These data should be kept in mind especially since these Legionella species may cause human disease.

  5. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

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    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  6. Mangrove Ecosystems: An Adopted Habitat for Pathogenic Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poharkar, Krupali V; Kerkar, Savita; D'Costa, Dilecta; Doijad, Swapnil; Barbuddhe, S B

    2016-03-01

    Mangroves are affected by industrial and anthropogenic factors. Although mangroves have been widely studied, investigations of pathogens that may affect public health significance are largely lacking even while incidences of diseases linked with the consumption of mangrove-associated food have increased. A total of 150 samples of water, sediment, and biota were collected from ten mangrove ecosystems in Goa, India. Total viable counts of pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria, Salmonella, and Vibrio spp. ranged from 1.25 to 3.9 × 10(3) cfu/ mL, which were above the relevant standards. Salmonella counts were the highest at 3.1 to 3.9 × 10(3)cfu/mL, with a prevalence of 40%. Considering its high prevalence, the virulence of Salmonella spp. was studied. The invA gene was detected in 35% of the Salmonella isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The findings suggested that pathogens adapt to this habitat, resulting in contamination of the indigenous fauna.

  7. Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, R E L; Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L

    2009-11-24

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from stems of Eucalyptus spp (Eucalyptus citriodora, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, E. pellita, and a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla) cultivated at two sites; they were characterized by RAPD and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Endophytic bacteria were more frequently isolated from E. grandis and E. pellita. The 76 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Erwinia/Pantoea (45%), Agrobacterium sp (21%), Curtobacterium sp (9%), Brevibacillus sp (8%), Pseudomonas sp (8%), Acinetobacter sp (4%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.6%), and Lactococcus lactis (2.6%). Genetic characterization of these endophytic bacteria isolates showed at least eight ARDRA haplotypes. The genetic diversity of 32 Erwinia/Pantoea and 16 Agrobacterium sp isolates was assessed with the RAPD technique. There was a high level of genetic polymorphism among all the isolates and there was positive correlation between the clusters and the geographic origin of the strains. These endophytic bacteria were further analyzed for in vitro interaction with endophytic fungi from Eucalyptus spp. We found that metabolites secreted by Erwinia/Pantoea and B. cepacia isolates had an inhibitory growth effect on some endophytic fungi, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in bacterial-fungal interactions inside the host plant. Apparently, these bacteria could have an important role in plant development; in the future they may be useful for biological control of diseases and plant growth promotion, as well as for the production of new metabolites and enzymes.

  8. Leuconostoc Spp. Bacteremia in a Patient with Sigmoid Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Avcikucuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leuconostoc species are opportunistic pathogens that rarely encountered as an infection agent. It has been reported that, this pathogen could cause infections especially in immunsupressive patients, after invasive procedures and antibiotic treatment. In this report, we aim to present a case with intrinsically vancomycin resistant Leuconostoc spp. that was isolated in blood culture. Fifty six years old male patient with type II diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had been operated for sigmoid colon cancer one a half years ago. He was taken radiotherapy and chemotherapy right after the operation. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of stenosis in colostomy opening. Empiricial treatment was started for high fever. Gram positive coccus was reported in the blood culture(Bactec 9050, Becton-Dickinson, USA. The isolate was identified as Leuconostoc spp. with API 20 Strep (BioMerieux, French kit. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by the disk diffusion method according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. The isolate was found susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristine, while it was resistant to penicilin, ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, vancomycin and teicoplanin by the disk diffusion method. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden.

  9. Efficacy of potato seeds disinfection products to control Erwinia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, B; Garcia, N; Boels, G

    2008-01-01

    Erwinia spp. provokes soft rot on potato tubers during storage. No disinfection products are available on the market in the European Union to control these bacteria. We tested 3 products presented as good candidates to cure potato tubers from bacterial diseases. First, Anthium 500 (Du Pont de Nemours) a product based on chlorine dioxyde, then Phostrol (Nufarm) with phosphoric acid as a.i. and finally Solucuivre (Proval), a copper based product. We firstly managed disinfection trials: high Erwinia contaminated potato seed samples were treated by immersion and were then incubated, we observed the percentage of tubers rotting. Secondly, we managed protection trials: protected healthy tubers were incubated during 23 days in contact with rotting tubers. We evaluated weight loss after symptoms development. No tested product was effective to control Erwinia spp. on seed tubers in our trials conditions. Furthermore, we observed more rot development after Phostrol and Solucuivre application. We suppose that the product couldn't reach the latent bacteria and weakened the tubers. No protection effect was observed.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Children from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olivia; González-Díaz, Mariana; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Cano, Manuel; Durazo, María; Bernal, Rosa M.; Hernandez, Jesús; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie) and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa) were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries. PMID:24755606

  11. Fermentation of Foc TR4-infected bananas and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, B; Liu, S W; Biswas, M K; Liu, S; Wei, Y R; Zuo, C W; Deng, G M; Kuang, R B; Hu, C H; Yi, G J; Li, C Y

    2016-10-17

    Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive banana diseases, and greatly hampers the global production of bananas. Consequently, it has been very detrimental to the Chinese banana industry. An infected plant is one of the major causes of the spread of Fusarium wilt to nearby regions. It is essential to develop an efficient and environmentally sustainable disease control method to restrict the spread of Fusarium wilt. We isolated Trichoderma spp from the rhizosphere soil, roots, and pseudostems of banana plants that showed Fusarium wilt symptoms in the infected areas. Their cellulase activities were measured by endoglucanase activity, β-glucosidase activity, and filter paper activity assays. Safety analyses of the Trichoderma isolates were conducted by inoculating them into banana plantlets. The antagonistic effects of the Trichoderma spp on the Fusarium pathogen Foc tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) were tested by the dual culture technique. Four isolates that had high cellulase activity, no observable pathogenicity to banana plants, and high antagonistic capability were identified. The isolates were used to biodegrade diseased banana plants infected with GFP-tagged Foc TR4, and the compost was tested for biological control of the infectious agent; the results showed that the fermentation suppressed the incidence of wilt and killed the pathogen. This study indicates that Trichoderma isolates have the potential to eliminate the transmission of Foc TR4, and may be developed into an environmentally sustainable treatment for controlling Fusarium wilt in banana plants.

  12. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. using (GTG)₅-PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Pavel; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Sedláček, Ivo; Nováková, Dana

    2010-12-01

    A group of 212 type and reference strains deposited in the Czech Collection of Microorganisms (Brno, Czech Republic) and covering 41 Staphylococcus species comprising 21 subspecies was characterised using rep-PCR fingerprinting with the (GTG)₅ primer in order to evaluate this method for identification of staphylococci. All strains were typeable using the (GTG)₅ primer and generated PCR products ranging from 200 to 4500 bp. Numerical analysis of the obtained fingerprints revealed (sub)species-specific clustering corresponding with the taxonomic position of analysed strains. Taxonomic position of selected strains representing the (sub)species that were distributed over multiple rep-PCR clusters was verified and confirmed by the partial rpoB gene sequencing. Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus revealed heterogeneous fingerprints and each (sub)species was distributed over several clusters. However, representatives of the remaining Staphylococcus spp. were clearly separated in single (sub)species-specific clusters. These results showed rep-PCR with the (GTG)₅ primer as a fast and reliable method applicable for differentiation and straightforward identification of majority of Staphylococcus spp.

  13. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  14. 3M™ Molecular detection system versus MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and molecular techniques for the identification of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella spp. &Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loff, Marché; Mare, Louise; de Kwaadsteniet, Michele; Khan, Wesaal

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare standard selective plating, conventional PCR (16S rRNA and species specific primers), MALDI-TOF MS and the 3M™ Molecular Detection System for the routine detection of the pathogens Listeria, Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in wastewater and river water samples. MALDI-TOF MS was able to positively identify 20/21 (95%) of the E. coli isolates obtained at genus and species level, while 16S rRNA sequencing only correctly identified 6/21 (28%) as E. coli strains. None of the presumptive positive Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. isolates obtained by culturing on selective media were positively identified by MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA analysis. The species-specific E. coli 0157:H7 PCR described in this present study, was not able to detect any E. coli 0157:H7 strains in the wastewater and river water samples analysed. However, E. coli strains, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were detected using species specific PCR. Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. were also sporadically detected throughout the sampling period in the wastewater and river water samples analysed by the 3M™ Molecular Detection System. MALDI-TOF MS, which is a simple, accurate and cost-effective detection method, efficiently identified the culturable organisms, while in the current study both species specific PCR (Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp.) and 3M™ Molecular Detection System could be utilised for the direct routine analysis of pathogens in water sources.

  15. Zoonosis in dogs and cats attended by the Birth Control Project: Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania spp. and Leptospira spp., serodiagnosis and epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloiza Teles Caldart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human-animal proximity has also increased risks of zoonotic disease transmission. This study measured the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii, anti-Leishmania spp. and anti-Leptospira spp. IgG antibodies in dogs and cats attended by the Birth Control Project (BCP from 2004 to 2012 to determine which environmental variables were significantly associated with infectious agents in the study population. Blood samples from 271 dogs and 415 cats were collected by jugular or cephalic venipuncture for serological analysis. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were used to detect anti-T. gondii and anti-Leishmania spp. IgG antibodies and microscopic serum-agglutination tests were used to detect anti- Leptospira spp. antibodies. Data tabulation and statistical analyses were performed using EpiInfo (3.4.3. Among canine sera samples, 20.6% (56/271, 1.3% (3/236, and 21.6% (51/236 were positive for T. gondii, Leishmania spp., and Leptospira spp., respectively. Higher T. gondii prevalence was found in dogs of unknown breeding history (p=0.0009, those fed raw or undercooked meat (p=0.0101, and those that did not receive the polyvalent vaccine (p=0.0147. There was no statistically significant association between leishmaniosis and leptospirosis and variables evaluated in the epidemiological questionnaire. Among feline sera samples, 20.9% (87/415 were positive for T. gondii. The highest prevalence rates were observed in felines that hunted rodents (p=0.0388 and that consumed untreated water (p=0.0294. These results confirmed that ingestion of raw or undercooked meat, drinking untreated water, and predation of rodents were important risk factors for T. gondii infection. A low Leishmania spp. serodiagnostic prevalence was observed. The most frequent Leptospira spp. serovars were Copenhageni, Canicola, and Butembo.

  16. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from tissue

  17. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from tissue

  18. 21 CFR 866.2410 - Culture medium for pathogenic Neisseria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Culture medium for pathogenic Neisseria spp. 866.2410 Section 866.2410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Culture medium for pathogenic Neisseria spp. (a) Identification. A culture medium for pathogenic Neisseria...

  19. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    .7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100...

  20. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes...

  1. Dispersion, distribution and movement of Lygus spp.(Hemiptera:Miridae)in trap-cropped organic strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a highly attractive plant host to Lygus spp. and is used as a trap crop in California organic strawberries to influence the dispersion and dispersal of these pests, particularly L. hesperus. The abundance and distribution of Lygus spp. nymphs between two trap crops s...

  2. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  3. SPP: Student Problem Package on the IBM-PC. User's Guide, Version 1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Delwyn L.; Romy, Neil

    This is a user's guide to the Student-Problem Package (SPP), a software package for the IBM-PC that provides three sub-programs for analyzing item response patterns. These analyses are based on student-problem (S-P) curve theory. The SPP User's Guide provides: (1) a brief introduction to response pattern analysis; (2) an overview of the…

  4. Aggregation with clay causes sedimentation of the buoyant cyanobacteria Microcystis spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, J.M.H.; Visser, P.M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the attachment of clay particles can result in sedimentation of the buoyant cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. For this purpose, we measured aggregation of clay to Microcystis spp. in field samples as well as in laboratory cultures of isolated strains. We focused on how

  5. Aggregation with clay causes sedimentation of the buoyant cyanobacteria Microcystis spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, J.M.H.; Visser, P.M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether the attachment of clay particles can result in sedimentation of the buoyant cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. For this purpose, we measured aggregation of clay to Microcystis spp. in field samples as well as in laboratory cultures of isolated strains. We focused on how the

  6. Advances in biocontrol mechanism and application of Trichoderma spp. for plant diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Caihong; YANG Qian

    2007-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. is a filamentous soil fungus known as an effective biocontrol agent of a range of important airborne and soilborne pathogens, it has universal distribution and economic importance. This article reviewed the researches on biocontrol mechanism for plant diseases and application of Trichoderma spp., especially Trichoderma harzianum in recent years.

  7. Characterization of Salmonella spp. from wastewater used for food production in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kusiluka, Lughano J M

    2017-01-01

    . A total of 123 Salmonella spp. isolates were isolated from 52 water and 21 fish intestinal samples. Genotyping of Salmonella spp. isolates was done by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) technique. A total...

  8. Identification of Brucella spp. in feral swine (Sus scrofa) at abattoirs in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine, and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally-inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swin...

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of 10 Microbacterium spp., with Emphasis on Heavy Metal-Contaminated Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corretto, Erika; Antonielli, Livio; Sessitsch, Angela; Kidd, Petra; Weyens, Nele; Brader, Günter

    2015-05-14

    Microbacterium spp. isolated from heavy metal (HM)-contaminated environments (soil and plants) can play a role in mobilization processes and in the phytoextraction of HM. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences and annotation of 10 Microbacterium spp. isolated from both HM-contaminated and -noncontaminated compartments. Copyright © 2015 Corretto et al.

  10. A rapid and direct real time PCR-based method for identification of Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, D.; Hernández, Marta; Esteve, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the validation of a rapid, real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan((R)) technology for the unequivocal identification of Salmonella spp. to be used directly on an agar-grown colony. A real-time PCR system targeting at the Salmonella spp. invA gene was optimized and validated ...

  11. MONITORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS SPP. USING SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to determine the sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 CCL. Three different Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae) were tested using membrane fi...

  12. Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from western Indian Ocean islands, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances.

  13. BIOSYNTHESIS OF AgNPs WITH THREE WIDESPREAD LOAM FUNGI VIA ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS, FUSARIUM SPP. RHIZOPUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SHIVAKUMAR SINGH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium spp. and Rhizopus spp. for the potential synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Methods: The standard techniques have been followed for the AgNPs synthesis characterizations. Spectral analysis of UV-visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. Results: The hurried decline of silver (Ag+ ions was monitored using a UV-visible spectrophotometer and showed the formation of silver nanoparticles within 28 minutes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are varied from 15-50 nm and have the varying in shapes like round, rod, uneven. Further, the XRD analysis confirms the nano-crystalline phase of the silver structure. FTIR examinations confirm the Silver particles. The present study, it reveals the increasing broth concentration increases the rate of reduction and decreases the particle size. Conclusion: The AgNPs were biologically synthesized using isolated fungal species biomass from the soil of loam. The cell filtrate of fungi was challenged with 1mm Silver nitrate, change of mixture from colorless to orange-brown indicates the synthesis of AgNPs in the reaction mixture. The isolated fungi are an important producer of Silver nanoparticles.

  14. The Effect of Co-Administration of Death Camas (Zigadenus spp.) and Low Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kevin D; Green, Benedict T; Gardner, Dale R; Stonecipher, Clinton A; Pfister, James A; Cook, Daniel

    2016-01-12

    In many rangeland settings, there is more than one potential poisonous plant. Two poisonous plants that are often found growing simultaneously in the same location in North American rangelands are death camas (Zigadenus spp.) and low larkspur (Delphinium spp.). The objective of this study was to determine if co-administration of death camas would exacerbate the toxicity of low larkspur in cattle. Cattle dosed with 2.0 g of death camas/kg BW showed slight frothing and lethargy, whereas cattle dosed with both death camas and low larkspur showed increased clinical signs of poisoning. Although qualitative differences in clinical signs of intoxication in cattle co-treated with death camas and low larkspur were observed, there were not any significant quantitative differences in heart rate or exercise-induced muscle fatigue. Co-treatment with death camas and low larkspur did not affect the serum zygacine kinetics, however, there was a difference in the larkspur alkaloid kinetics in the co-exposure group. Overall, the results from this study suggest that co-exposure to death camas and low larkspur is not significantly more toxic to cattle than exposure to the plants individually. The results from this study increase our knowledge and understanding regarding the acute toxicity of death camas and low larkspur in cattle.

  15. Effects of wheat bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) infestation in preharvest period on wheat technological quality and gluten composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbica, Aleksandra M; Mastilović, Jasna S; Pojić, Milica M; Kevrešan, Zarko S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75 kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing.

  16. Seroprevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii and fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and Toxocara cati in feral and pet domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Felicia B; Dubey, J P; Levine, Jay F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Ford, Richard B; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2004-11-01

    To compare seroprevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii and fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and Toxocara cati in feral and pet domestic cats. Prospective cross-sectional serologic and coprologic survey. 100 feral cats and 76 pet domestic cats from Randolph County, NC. Blood and fecal samples were collected and tested. Percentages of feral cats seropositive for antibodies against B. henselae and T. gondii (93% and 63%, respectively) were significantly higher than percentages of pet cats (75% and 34%). Percentages of feral and pet cats with Cryptosporidium spp (7% of feral cats; 6% of pet cats), Giardia spp (6% of feral cats; 5% of pet cats), and T. cati ova (21% of feral cats; 18% of pet cats) in their feces were not significantly different between populations. Results of CBCs and serum biochemical analyses were not significantly different between feral and pet cats, except that feral cats had a significantly lower median PCV and significantly higher median neutrophil count. Results suggested that feral and pet cats had similar baseline health status, as reflected by results of hematologic and serum biochemical testing and similar prevalences of infection with Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and T. cati. Feral cats did have higher seroprevalences of antibodies against B. henselae and T. gondii than did pet cats, but this likely was related to greater exposure to vectors of these organisms.

  17. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in Dried Foods, Fresh Vegetables and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shigeko

    2017-01-01

     The present study surveyed the occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in dried foods including milk powder, spices and herbs and others, and fresh vegetables commercially available in markets, and ground soil materials for the agriculture. Cronobacter spp. were isolated from 15% of 33 spice and herb samples and 3% of 36 taste foods, and these were C. turicensis, C. malonaticus, C. sakazakii and C. dubliensis. Cronobacter spp. from fresh vegetables were detected in 12% of field vegetables and 13% of hydroponic vegetables. C. turicensis was prevalent in field vegetables, and C. malonaticus was in hydroponic ones. And, Cronobacter spp. in shredded vegetables were detected from 44% of 9 samples, and these were C. dubliensis, C. turicensis and C. sakazakii. Also, Cronobacter spp. in soil from rice field, vegetable field and sandpits were predominantly C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus.

  18. Antibacterial activity of papain and bromelain on Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos, Márcia Maria; da Silva, Angela Aparecida; de Pascoli, Isabela Carolini; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; Machinski, Miguel; Peralta, Rosane Marina; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves

    2016-01-04

    Alicyclobacillus spp. are spore forming bacteria that are often related to the deterioration of acidic products such as beverages and citrus juices. After the process of industrial pasteurization, the spore produced by the bacteria can germinate and the microorganism can grow, causing sensory abnormalities in the product. Alternative biopreservatives, such as the antimicrobial compounds, are of considerable importance to the food industry. Papain and bromelain are proteolytic enzymes derived frompapaya and pineapple, respectively. These enzymes are widely used in medicine and in the pharmaceutical and food industries, but while some studies have described their antibacterial action, no studies of the Alicyclobacillus spp. exist. The aimof this studywas to analyze the antibacterial effect of papain and bromelain on Alicyclobacillus spp. through 1) determining minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC); 2) determining the death time curve of the micro-organism in the presence and absence of enzymes; and 3) investigating the enzymatic mechanism on the microorganism. The antibacterial activity of enzymes in combination with nisin was also evaluated. The results showed that for the Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris strain, the MIC of papain was 0.98 μg/mL and the MBC was 3.91 μg/mL, while theMIC of bromelain was 62.5 μg/mL and the MBCwas 250 μg/mL. The concentration of 4 ×MIC for both the enzymes was sufficient to eliminate 4 logs of the micro-organism after 24 h of incubation. Through the use of enzyme inhibitors specific for cysteine proteases, it was found that the antibacterial activity of papain and bromelain is not related to its proteolytic activity, butmay be related to other activities, such as amidse and esterase. The synergistic activity of the enzymes revealed a fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) level of 0.16. Combination with nisin revealed an FIC of 0.25 for papain and 0.19 for bromelain, indicating synergism between both

  19. Occurrence and species level diagnostics of Campylobacter spp., enteric Helicobacter spp. and Anaerobiospirillum spp. in healthy and diarrheic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Hänninen, M L; Revez, J; Hannula, M; Zanoni, R G

    2008-06-22

    In order to study the occurrence and co-infection of different species of Campylobacter, enteric Helicobacter and Anaerobiospirillum in dogs and cats and define a possible association between these microrganisms and gastrointestinal disorders, 190 dogs and 84 cats, either healthy or with diarrhea, were sampled between 2002 and 2003. Thirty-three C. upsaliensis, 17 C. jejuni, 2 C. helveticus, 1 C. lari isolates from dogs and 14 C. helveticus, 7 C. jejuni, 6 C. upsaliensis isolates from cats were identified using species-specific PCR and phenotypic tests. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests, PCR-RFLP of gyrB and a phylogenetic study of partial groEL and 16S rRNA sequences were used to identify 37 H. bilis, 22 H. canis and 14 H. cinaedi in dogs and 12 H. canis, 5 H. bilis and 2 H. cinaedi in cats. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests and species-specific PCR of 16S rRNA were used to identify 14 A. succiniciproducens, 12 A. thomasii isolates and one unidentified Anaerobiospirillum sp. isolate in dogs and 3 A. thomasii isolates in cats. Fifty-two animals (19%) were positive for the isolation of more than one genus. No significant statistical correlation was found between any isolates of Campylobacter, Helicobacter or Anaerobiospirillum spp. or the various co-infection rates, and the presence of diarrhea in either dogs or cats. Campylobacter isolates were also tested for antibiotic resistance using the agar dilution method.

  20. Colitis and Colon Cancer in WASP-Deficient Mice Require Helicobacter Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Deanna D.; Muthupalani, Suresh; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Eston, Michelle A.; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S.; McCabe, Amanda; Marin, Romela; Snapper, Scott B.; Fox, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP)-deficient patients and mice are immunodeficient and can develop inflammatory bowel disease. The intestinal microbiome is critical to the development of colitis in most animal models, in which, Helicobacter spp. have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. We sought to determine the role of Helicobacter spp. in colitis development in WASP-deficient (WKO) mice. Methods Feces from WKO mice raised under specific pathogen free conditions were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter spp., after which, a subset of mice were rederived in Helicobacter spp.-free conditions. Helicobacter spp.-free WKO animals were subsequently infected with Helicobacter bilis. Results Helicobacter spp. were detected in feces from WKO mice. After re-derivation in Helicobacter spp.-free conditions, WKO mice did not develop spontaneous colitis but were susceptible to radiation-induced colitis. Moreover, a T-cell transfer model of colitis dependent on WASP-deficient innate immune cells also required Helicobacter spp. colonization. Helicobacter bilis infection of rederived WKO mice led to typhlitis and colitis. Most notably, several H. bilis-infected animals developed dysplasia with 10% demonstrating colon carcinoma, which was not observed in uninfected controls. Conclusions Spontaneous and T-cell transfer, but not radiation-induced, colitis in WKO mice is dependent on the presence of Helicobacter spp. Furthermore, H. bilis infection is sufficient to induce typhlocolitis and colon cancer in Helicobacter spp.-free WKO mice. This animal model of a human immunodeficiency with chronic colitis and increased risk of colon cancer parallels what is seen in human colitis and implicates specific microbial constituents in promoting immune dysregulation in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:23820270

  1. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

  2. Bartonella spp. in a Puerto Rican bat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olival, Kevin J; Dittmar, Katharina; Bai, Ying; Rostal, Melinda K; Lei, Bonnie R; Daszak, Peter; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We captured and sampled 68 bats of six species from a shared roosting site in Puerto Rico in April 2012. Bats were screened for Bartonella spp. by culture and confirmed by PCR and sequencing for the gltA gene. Bartonella cultures were obtained from blood specimens of 9/51 (18%) individuals from three species (Artibeus jamaicensis, Brachyphylla cavernarum, and Monophyllus redmani). Phylogenetic analysis of the gltA sequences showed that M. redmani was infected with multiple, diverse Bartonella strains, and A. jamaicensis was infected with a strain related to a strain from a congeneric host. Ectoparasite load could possibly explain observed differences in Bartonella diversity and prevalence between bat species in this community, and we suggest future research to substantiate these preliminary findings.

  3. Severe whipworm (Trichuris spp.) infection in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwak, Dongmi; Kwon, Oh-Deog

    2014-03-01

    One adult (13-yr-old) and two young (3-4-yr-old) male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the Seoul Zoo displayed anorexia and chronic diarrhea for 2 wk. Direct fecal smear examination revealed Trichuris spp. infection. After confirmation of the infection, fenbendazole was orally administered as a suspension; this was repeated two times at 3-wk intervals. A high initial dose (20 mg/kg) was followed by administration at the recommended dose (10 mg/kg). Starting on the day following the first treatment, a large number of adult whipworms were discharged with the feces over a 3-day period. Two young male dromedary camels gradually recovered. However, the adult male dromedary camel developed continuous bloody mucoid diarrhea and died 2 days after treatment. Postmortem examination revealed that numerous whipworms were attached to the mucosa throughout the large intestine.

  4. [Canine peritoneal larval cestodosis caused by Mesocestoides spp. larval stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häußler, T C; Peppler, C; Schmitz, S; Bauer, C; Hirzmann, J; Kramer, M

    2016-01-01

    In a female dog with unspecific clinical symptoms, sonography detected a hyperechoic mass in the middle abdomen and blood analysis a middle grade systemic inflammatory reaction. Laparotomy revealed a peritoneal larval cestodosis (PLC). The diagnosis of an infection with tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides spp. was confirmed by parasitological examination and molecularbiological analysis. Reduction of the intra-abdominal parasitic load as well as a high dose administration of fenbendazole over 3 months led to a successful treatment which could be documented sonographically and by decreased concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). Seven months after discontinuation of fenbendazole administration, PLC recurred, pre-empted by an elevation of serum CRP values. According to the literature a life-long fenbendazole treatment was initiated. In cases of unclear chronic granulomatous inflammations in the abdominal cavity in dogs, PLC should be considered. CRP concentration and sonographic examinations are suitable to control for treatment success and a possibly occurring relapse.

  5. Genetic characteristics of vancomycin resistance gene cluster in Enterococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Chen; Xiaogang, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Vancomycin resistant enterococci has become an important nosocomial pathogen since it is discovered in late 1980s. The products, encoded by vancomycin resistant gene cluster in enterococci, catalyze the synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors with low affinity with glycopeptide antibiotics including vancomycin and teicoplanin and lead to resistance. These vancomycin resistant gene clusters are classified into nine types according to their gene sequences and organization, or D-Ala:D-Lac (VanA, VanB, VanD and VanM) and D-Ala:D-Ser (VanC, VanE, VanG, VanL and VanN) ligase gene clusters based on the differences of their encoded ligases. Moreover, these gene clusters are characterized by their different resistance levels and infection models. In this review, we summarize the classification, gene organization and infection model of vancomycin resistant gene cluster in Enterococcus spp.

  6. Characterization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. using saccharide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Xie, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-09-12

    Polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. and their adulterants were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, enzymatic (endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both 1,3-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosiduronic linkages were existed in Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense), and the similarity of polysaccharides from G. lucidum and G. sinense was high, which may contribute to rational use of Lingzhi. Different species of Ganoderma and their adulterants can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Ganoderma and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in Lingzhi.

  7. Ligninolytic enzymes from Ganoderma spp: current status and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan-Wei; Cong, Wei-Ran; Su, Kai-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2013-11-01

    White-rot fungal species belonging to Ganoderma have long been used as medicinal mushrooms in many Asian countries. In recent years, however, attention is not just being paid to their pharmacological properties, but to their other potentially valuable features as well, including their secretion of enzymes which decompose lignin. The current literature regarding lignin-modifying enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, their potential uses, and the components, structures and processes of lignocellulose degradation are discussed. The ligninolytic enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, as well as the number of additional enzymes that participate in lignin degradation, are summarized; further, the potential applications of these enzymes are analyzed and probed in this article. This review will provide insight on the valuable applications of Ganoderma spp. and will serve as a useful reference on the use of lignocellulose degradation as a means of environmental protection.

  8. Efficacy of Ficus spp. on renal injury induced by hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Nagwa E; Hamed, Manal A; Seida, Ahmed A; Elbatanony, Marwa M

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol and hexane extracts of Ficus microcarpa, Ficus religiosa and Ficus mysorensis leaves were evaluated against renal injury induced by hypercholesterolaemia. Phytochemical screening of the investigated plants was undertaken. For the in vivo study, all rats were orally given cholesterol (30 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, BW) and leaves extract (500 mg kg⁻¹ BW) five times per week for 9 weeks. Hypercholesterolaemic rats showed significant increases in urea nitrogen and creatinine while serum protein and albumin levels, nitric oxide (NO), Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase and phospholipids in kidney tissue were all decreased. Treatment with leaves extract improved kidney function indices (urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum protein and albumin), kidney disorder biochemical parameters (NO, Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase and phospholipids), haematological profile (haemoglobin, RBCs and WBCs) and kidney histopathology. In conclusion, Ficus spp. succeeded in improving renal injury induced by hypercholesterolaemia, with the most potent effects seen while using Ficus microcarpa hexane extract.

  9. Metabolic activities of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksekdag, Zehra Nur; Beyath, Yavuz; Aslim, Belma

    2004-06-01

    A total of 21 strains of Lactobacillus species were isolated from Turkish kefir samples, in order to select the most suitable strains according to their metabolic activities including probiotic properties. As a result of the identification tests, 21 Lactobacillus isolates were identified as L. acidophilus (4%), L. helveticus (9%), L. brevis (9%), L. bulgaricus (14%), L. plantarum (14%), L. casei (19%) and L. lactis (28%). The amount of produced lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, proteolytic activity, and acetaldehyde productions of Lactobacillus spp. were determined. Different amounts of lactic acid were produced by strains studies; however, lactic acid levels were 1.7-11.4 mg/mL. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide. L. bulgaricus Z14L strain showed no proteolytic activity, L. casei Z6L strain produced the maximum amount (0.16 mg/mL) of proteolytic activity. Acetaldehyde concentration produced in Lactobacillus strains ranged between 0.88-3.52 microg/mL.

  10. Validation of reference transcripts in strawberry (Fragaria spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Maureen A; Rosli, Hernan G; Chamala, Srikar; Barbazuk, W Brad; Civello, P Marcos; Folta, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary methods to assay gene expression depend on a stable set of reference transcripts for accurate quantitation. A lack of well-tested reference genes slows progress in characterizing gene expression in high-value specialty crops. In this study, a set of strawberry (Fragaria spp.) constitutively expressed reference genes has been identified by merging digital gene expression data with expression profiling. Constitutive reference candidates were validated using quantitative PCR and hybridization. Several transcripts have been identified that show improved stability across tissues relative to traditional reference transcripts. Results are similar between commercial octoploid strawberry and the diploid model. Our findings also show that while some never-before-used references are appropriate for most applications, even the most stable reference transcripts require careful assessment across the diverse tissues and fruit developmental states before being adopted as controls.

  11. Amino Acids Are an Ineffective Fertilizer for Dunaliella spp. Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Murphree

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autotrophic microalgae are a promising bioproducts platform. However, the fundamental requirements these organisms have for nitrogen fertilizer severely limit the impact and scale of their cultivation. As an alternative to inorganic fertilizers, we investigated the possibility of using amino acids from deconstructed biomass as a nitrogen source in the genus Dunaliella. We found that only four amino acids (glutamine, histidine, cysteine, and tryptophan rescue Dunaliella spp. growth in nitrogen depleted media, and that supplementation of these amino acids altered the metabolic profile of Dunaliella cells. Our investigations revealed that histidine is transported across the cell membrane, and that glutamine and cysteine are not transported. Rather, glutamine, cysteine, and tryptophan are degraded in solution by a set of oxidative chemical reactions, releasing ammonium that in turn supports growth. Utilization of biomass-derived amino acids is therefore not a suitable option unless additional amino acid nitrogen uptake is enabled through genetic modifications of these algae.

  12. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  13. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE A. GIRARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv. extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano, L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  14. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.

  15. UV-inducible DNA repair in the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, E.; Thiel, T.

    1987-09-01

    Strains of the filamentous cyanobacteria Anabaena spp. were capable of very efficient photoreactivation of UV irradiation-induced damage to DNA. Cells were resistant to several hundred joules of UV irradiation per square meter under conditions that allowed photoreactivation, and they also photoreactivated UV-damaged cyanophage efficiently. Reactivation of UV-irradiated cyanophage (Weigle reactivation) also occurred; UV irradiation of host cells greatly enhanced the plaque-forming ability of irradiated phage under nonphotoreactivating conditions. Postirradiation incubation of the host cells under conditions that allowed photoreactivation abolished the ability of the cells to perform Weigle reactivation of cyanophage N-1. Mitomycin C also induced Weigle reactivation of cyanophage N-1, but nalidixic acid did not. The inducible repair system (defined as the ability to perform Weigle reactivation of cyanophages) was relatively slow and inefficient compared with photoreactivation.

  16. Enterobacter spp.: A new evidence causing bacterial wilt on mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRAPHAT; Kawicha

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six pathogenetic bacterial strains were isolated from wilted mulberry plants in Hangzhou,Zhejiang province of China.The six representative strains were confirmed to be involved in more than one Enterobacter species by common bacteriological test,electron microscope observation,hypersensitive reaction,Koch’s postulates,physiological and biochemical test,biolog,fatty acid methyl esters analysis (FAMEs),enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR),16s rRNA sequences analysis,and comparative analysis with 7 type strains and 3 reference strains.This is the first report on mulberry disease caused by Enterobacter spp.in the world providing new evidence on induction of the plant disease in this genus.The results are not only important in the mulberry disease management but also have significant scientific value for further studies of opportunistic human pathogens and environmental strains in Enterobacter.

  17. Quantification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in broilers during meat processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Günter; Reich, Felix; Beckmann, Lutz; Atanassova, Viktoria

    2007-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of gastrointestinal illness. Since animal products, especially poultry meat, are an important source of human outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, tracing back to processing and initial production is of great interest. Samples were collected at a German poultry slaughterhouse for the estimation of the prevalence of Campylobacter at different processing steps. Quantification of Campylobacter in each of the samples was also performed. Out of 99 samples examined, 51 (51.5%) were positive for Campylobacter, with bacterial counts ranging from log(10) 6.5 cfu sample(-1) for carcasses to log 3.6 cfu ml(-1) for scalding water. The Campylobacter isolates (n = 51) were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using SmaI and KpnI restriction enzymes. Molecular typing showed a multitude of strains with different molecular patterns. Strains found in cloacal swabs before processing could also be isolated from carcasses at different processing steps.

  18. Gastric Helicobacter Spp. Infection in Captive Neotropical Brazilian Feline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz de Camargo, Pedro; Akemi Uenaka, Simone; Bette Motta, Maitê; Harumi Adania, Cristina; Yamasaki, Letícia; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach. PMID:24031634

  19. Occurrence of Trichinella spp. in wild animals in northwestern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hosni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were detected only in 4 (5.7% of the hedgehogs (Erinaceus algirus and 2 (10.5% of the red foxes (Vulpes vulpes. Larvae were found in the muscles of the diaphragm, abdomen, tongue, forelimb, hindlimb and intercostal muscles. Examination of tissue sections revealed the presence of numerous cysts within the muscle fibers containing one or more coiled or elongated larvae. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed around the cysts especially at their poles. Results indicated the importance of wild animals as reservoirs of Trichinella larvae and their role in the transmission of the disease to other wild and domestic animals as well as humans.

  20. [Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Machado, Erilane de Castro Lima

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonosis which can affect man and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, mainly immunodeficient individuals. The objective of this paper was reported the occurrence of a Cryptosporidium infection in Antillean manatee. After an unusual behavior of an Antillean manatee kept in captivity at the Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio--FMA, clinical examination and posterior fecal sampling was performed. Fecal samples were examined by the Kinyoun technique, Direct Immunofluorescence Test and also examined by 4',6'-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole (DAPI) staining. At the clinical examination, the animal showed signs of abdominal pain. The results obtained by light and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst in feces of this manatee.