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Sample records for hydrocarbon-containing feed stream

  1. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H

    1992-01-01

    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behal

  2. Feeding association between benthic and nektonic Neotropical stream fishes

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    Fabrício Barreto Teresa

    Full Text Available Following behaviour among Neotropical stream fishes have been scarcely reported. This type of feeding association was observed in a small stream in the upper rio Paraná system between the catfish, Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, acting as a nuclear species, and Knodus moenkhausii, Poecilia reticulata, and Astyanax altiparanae as follower species. Aspidoras fuscoguttatus individuals dug in the bottom during feeding, causing sediment suspension. Their followers picked food items in the "cloud" of suspended particles. Food items of sediment are no longer consumed by the catfish when in suspension, but are still available for K. moenkhausii, P. reticulata and A. altiparanae. Following behaviour is an alternative feeding tactic for these species, which reinforces the general idea of behavioural plasticity among follower species.

  3. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  4. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX; Uwechue, Uzo Philip [Houston, TX

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  5. Influence of shredder feeding and nutrients on fungal activity and community structure in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namil Chung; Keller. Suberkropp

    2008-01-01

    In stream detrital food webs, interactions occur between aquatic hyphomycetes associated with decomposing leaves and shredders consuming those leaves. However, few studies have examined how the feeding activity of shredders affects aquatic hyphomycetes. We examined the effect of shredder feeding on aquatic hyphomycete communities associated with submerged leaves in two...

  6. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-21

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  7. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  8. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Miller, David Scott

    2009-12-15

    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  9. Methods of removing a constituent from a feed stream using adsorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J.; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.; Herbst, Ronald S.

    2011-05-24

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  10. Feeding ecology of stream-dwelling fishes from a coastal stream in the Southeast of Brazil

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    Rosana Mazzoni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between ontogenetic variation of intestine length and feeding habits of five stream-dwelling fish species from the Ubatiba River were investigated. Analysed data were based on two size categories (juveniles and adults and two food categories (animal and vegetal. Diet composition of each size category revealed that Astyanax janeiroensis and Geophagus brasiliensis changed food preference throughout ontogeny and switched from omnivorous/carnivorous to omnivorous/herbivorous and from omnivorous/carnivorous to omnivorous, respectively. These changes were followed by ontogenetic changes in the Intestinal Coefficient (IC. No ontogenetic differences were registered for IC and food categories consumed by Hoplias malabaricus but significant differences in the size of consumed preys as well as positive correlation between fish size (predator and prey size was observed. Food items (within animal category consumed by the adult Pimelodella lateristriga were mainly based on allochthonous arthropods whereas juvenile individuals fed with the same intensity on allochthonous and autochthonous arthropods; both juveniles and adult individuals of Mimagoniates microlepis were mainly allochthonous feeders. Mean IC values of Pimelodella lateristriga and Mimagoniates microlepis did not change along body growth. Although changes in food category consumption were not common among all the studied species, changes in the resource exploitation strategy was a rule among them, except for Mimagoniates microlepis.Foi investigada a relação entre as variações ontogenéticas do comprimento do intestino e os hábitos alimentares de cinco espécies de peixes do rio Ubatiba, RJ. Os dados analisados foram baseados em duas categorias de tamanho (jovens e adultos de cada espécie e duas categorias de alimento (animal e vegetal. A composição da dieta de cada categoria de tamanho revelou que Astyanax janeiroensis e Geophagus brasiliensis mudaram a prefer

  11. Method for determining asphaltene stability of a hydrocarbon-containing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-02-05

    A method for determining asphaltene stability in a hydrocarbon-containing material having solvated asphaltenes therein is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, it involves the steps of: (a) precipitating an amount of the asphaltenes from a liquid sample of the hydrocarbon-containing material with an alkane mobile phase solvent in a column; (b) dissolving a first amount and a second amount of the precipitated asphaltenes by changing the alkane mobile phase solvent to a final mobile phase solvent having a solubility parameter that is higher than the alkane mobile phase solvent; (c) monitoring the concentration of eluted fractions from the column; (d) creating a solubility profile of the dissolved asphaltenes in the hydrocarbon-containing material; and (e) determining one or more asphaltene stability parameters of the hydrocarbon-containing material.

  12. Regional Stratification and Shear of the Various Streams Feeding the Philippine Straits - ESR Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Regional Stratification and Shear of the Various Streams Feeding the Philippine Straits – ESR Component Amy Ffield Earth & Space Research , 290...N0001406C0578 http://www.esr.org LONG-TERM GOALS To determine the impact of the regional oceanographic and atmospheric mean and variable ...Surface Temperature: Analysis of the OI Infrared Satellite SST reveals that the SST in the Philippine Archipelago region has significant variability

  13. Meso and microhabitat analysis and feeding habits of small nektonic characins (Teleostei: Characiformes in Neotropical streams

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    Mônica Ceneviva-Bastos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The habitat use and feeding habits of a set of nektonic fish species often found in small low-gradient streams in Brazil were investigated. The core species in the present study was Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903, the most abundant of five species in the nektonic guild. Records of the species in 22 streams indicate that K. moenkhausii is associated, on a mesohabitat scale, with runs, and on a microhabitat scale, with sandy bottoms, intermediate depth, and open sites without coverage or submerged vegetation. During snorkeling observations, two additional nektonic registered species showed spatial segregation from K. moenkhausii with respect to foraging microhabitats. Feeding habits of the observed nektonic species were significantly correlated with riparian vegetation. The six species studied appear to use different resources, as suggested by a non-metric ordination of diet, and sites with characteristic riparian vegetation. The studied species may be considered generalists with a tendency to insectivory, with K. moenkhausii feeding on the widest variety of resources. Such opportunism explains its ability to successfully occupy instream habitats with low complexity.

  14. Method for predicting fouling tendency of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-07-23

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock fouling tendency for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  15. Method for estimating processability of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock for hydroprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2014-01-14

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitates asphaltenes. Determined parameters and processabilities for a plurality of feedstocks can be used to generate a mathematical relationship between parameter and processability; this relationship can be used to estimate the processability for hydroprocessing for a feedstock of unknown processability.

  16. Longitudinal Distribution of the Functional Feeding Groups of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, L S; Juen, L; Batista, J D; Pavan, M G; Cabette, H S R

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that the distribution of the functional feeding groups of aquatic insects is related to hierarchical patch dynamics. Patches are sites with unique environmental and functional characteristics that are discontinuously distributed in time and space within a lotic system. This distribution predicts that the occurrence of species will be based predominantly on their environmental requirements. We sampled three streams within the same drainage basin in the Brazilian Cerrado savanna, focusing on waterfalls and associated habitats (upstream, downstream), representing different functional zones. We collected 2,636 specimens representing six functional feeding groups (FFGs): brushers, collector-gatherers, collector-filterers, shredders, predators, and scrapers. The frequency of occurrence of these groups varied significantly among environments. This variation appeared to be related to the distinct characteristics of the different habitat patches, which led us to infer that the hierarchical patch dynamics model can best explain the distribution of functional feeding groups in minor lotic environments, such as waterfalls.

  17. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Voshell, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO 4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17??-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000??g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R 2=0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R 2=0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO 4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R 2=0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO 4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO 4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Life Cycle and Secondary Production of Four Species from Functional Feeding Groups in a Tropical Stream of South India

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    Sankarappan Anbalagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on life strategies of species from functional feeding groups (FFGs found in a tropical stream of the Sirumalai hills, South India. We examined the life cycle and secondary production of species of shredders (Lepidostoma nuburagangai, scrapers (Baetis sp., collectors (Choroterpes alagarensis, and predators (Neoperla biseriata. In addition, we studied the assemblage structure of functional feeding groups. We found the collectors occupied the highest percentage, followed in turn by scrapers, predators, and shredders. The diversity of FFGs was higher at riffle areas and assemblage with stream substrates differing in each functional group. An asynchronous life cycle was observed for Baetis, C. alagarensis, and N. biseriata, while L. nuburagangai was found in four to five generations per year. We acquired data on secondary production of scraper species of Baetis, which reached the highest values among all investigated species. This observation stresses the importance of scrapers as playing a key role in converting coarse particulate organic matter to fine particulate organic matter with low or high abundances of shredder population and maintaining the food chain in tropical streams.

  19. Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bernard; Hale, Arthur Herman; Miller, David Scott; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2009-12-22

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation may include providing heat to a first hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a first heater located in an opening in the formation. The opening and the first heater may have a horizontal or inclined portion located in the first hydrocarbon layer and at least one connecting portion extending between the horizontal or inclined portion and the surface. Isolation material is placed in the opening such that the isolation material partially isolates the layer in which the horizontal or inclined portion of the first heater is located. An additional horizontal or inclined opening portion that extends from at least one of the connecting portions of the opening is formed in a second hydrocarbon layer. A second heater to provide heat the second hydrocarbon formation is placed in the additional substantially horizontal opening portion.

  20. Spatial distribution and functional feeding groups of aquatic insects in a stream of Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

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    Barman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic insects play important role in ecosystem functioning viz. nutrient cycling, primary production, decomposition and material translocation. The functional feeding group (FFG approach is an attempt to classify organisms, especially insects, according to their role in the processing of organic matter. An investigation during 2011–2013 was carried out on aquatic insects in different stretches of a stream of Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary located in western Assam, North East India which is designated as Key Biodiversity Area (KBA by IUCN. Physico-chemical properties of water of the stream like water temperature, dissolved oxygen, free-carbondioxide, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity, phosphate and nitrate were estimated to correlate the aquatic insects of specific functional feeding groups with water quality. A total of seventeen species was recorded during the study period. Record of nine species in first year and fourteen species in second year under different functional feeding groups (FFG showed altitudinal variation. Highest percentage of predators was found in upstream. Collectors were recorded in upstream and downstream and shredders were recorded in midstream.

  1. Instability of Supersonic Cold Streams Feeding Galaxies I: Linear Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability with Body Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Nir; Padnos, Dan; Dekel, Avishai; Birnboim, Yuval; Burkert, Andreas; Krumholz, Mark R.; Steinberg, Elad

    2016-09-01

    Massive galaxies at high redshift are predicted to be fed from the cosmic web by narrow, dense streams of cold gas that penetrate through the hot medium encompassed by a stable shock near the virial radius of the dark-matter halo. Our long-term goal is to explore the heating and dissipation rate of the streams and their fragmentation and possible breakup, in order to understand how galaxies are fed, and how this affects their star-formation rate and morphology. We present here the first step, where we analyze the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) of a cold, dense slab or cylinder in 3D flowing supersonically through a hot, dilute medium. The current analysis is limited to the adiabatic case with no gravity. By analytically solving the linear dispersion relation, we find a transition from a dominance of the familiar rapidly growing surface modes in the subsonic regime to more slowly growing body modes in the supersonic regime. The system is parametrized by three parameters: the density contrast between stream and medium, the Mach number of stream velocity with respect to the medium, and the stream width with respect to the halo virial radius. A realistic choice for these parameters places the streams near the mode transition, with the KHI exponential-growth time in the range 0.01-10 virial crossing times for a perturbation wavelength comparable to the stream width. We confirm our analytic predictions with idealized hydrodynamical simulations. Our linear estimates thus indicate that KHI may be effective in the evolution of streams before they reach the galaxy. More definite conclusions await the extension of the analysis to the nonlinear regime and the inclusion of cooling, thermal conduction, the halo potential well, self-gravity and magnetic fields.

  2. Instability of supersonic cold streams feeding galaxies - I. Linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with body modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Nir; Padnos, Dan; Dekel, Avishai; Birnboim, Yuval; Burkert, Andreas; Krumholz, Mark R.; Steinberg, Elad

    2016-12-01

    Massive galaxies at high redshift are predicted to be fed from the cosmic web by narrow, dense streams of cold gas that penetrate through the hot medium encompassed by a stable shock near the virial radius of the dark-matter halo. Our long-term goal is to explore the heating and dissipation rate of the streams and their fragmentation and possible breakup, in order to understand how galaxies are fed, and how this affects their star formation rate and morphology. We present here the first step, where we analyse the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) of a cold, dense slab or cylinder in 3D flowing supersonically through a hot, dilute medium. The current analysis is limited to the adiabatic case with no gravity. By analytically solving the linear dispersion relation, we find a transition from a dominance of the familiar rapidly growing surface modes in the subsonic regime to more slowly growing body modes in the supersonic regime. The system is parametrized by three parameters: the density contrast between stream and medium, the Mach number of stream velocity with respect to the medium and the stream width with respect to the halo virial radius. A realistic choice for these parameters places the streams near the mode transition, with the KHI exponential-growth time in the range 0.01-10 virial crossing times for a perturbation wavelength comparable to the stream width. We confirm our analytic predictions with idealized hydrodynamical simulations. Our linear estimates thus indicate that KHI may be effective in the evolution of streams before they reach the galaxy. More definite conclusions await the extension of the analysis to the non-linear regime and the inclusion of cooling, thermal conduction, the halo potential well, self-gravity and magnetic fields.

  3. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...

  4. Instability of Supersonic Cold Streams Feeding Galaxies I: Linear Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability with Body Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelker, Nir; Dekel, Avishai; Birnboim, Yuval; Burkert, Andreas; Krumholz, Mark R; Steinberg, Elad

    2016-01-01

    Massive galaxies at high redshift are predicted to be fed from the cosmic web by narrow, dense, cold streams. These streams penetrate supersonically through the hot medium encompassed by a stable shock near the virial radius of the dark-matter halo. Our long-term goal is to explore the heating and dissipation rate of the streams and their fragmentation and possible breakup, in order to understand how galaxies are fed, and how this affects their star-formation rate and morphology. We present here the first step, where we analyze the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) of a cold, dense slab or cylinder flowing through a hot, dilute medium in the transonic regime. The current analysis is limited to the adiabatic case with no gravity and assuming equal pressure in the stream and the medium. By analytically solving the linear dispersion relation, we find a transition from a dominance of the familiar rapidly growing surface modes in the subsonic regime to more slowly growing body modes in the supersonic regim...

  5. Feeding habits of the alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and the native brown trout Salmo trutta in Czech mountain streams

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    Horká Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying patterns of prey resource use is fundamental to identify mechanisms enabling the coexistence of related fish species. Trophic interactions between the native brown trout, Salmo trutta, and the introduced brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were studied monthly from May to October in three mountain streams in Central Europe (Czech Republic. To evaluate whether the feeding habits differ between separated and coexisting populations of these species, one locality where both species coexist, and two allopatric populations of either species were studied. Across the study period, the mean stomach fullness of fish varied, being highest in spring and declining through autumn. The diet overlap (Schoener's overlap index between the species increased through the studied season (from 54.5% in July to 81.5% in October. In allopatry, both species had nearly the same feeding habits. However, in sympatry, brook trout consumed higher proportion of terrestrial invertebrates, while brown trout showed no changes either in the proportions of aquatic and terrestrial prey utilized or in the selectivity for prey categories in comparison to allopatric conditions. The dietary shift observed for brook trout, but not for brown trout, suggests that brown trout is a stronger competitor in the studied sympatric locality, leading the brook trout to change its feeding habits to reduce interspecific competition.

  6. Selective feeding by shredders on leaf-colonizing stream fungi: comparison of macroinvertebrate taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuffi, T L; Suberkropp, K

    1989-04-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of fungal species composition of leaf detritus on the feeding of distantly related macroinvertebrate shredders. Preferences of shredders representing three orders of insects (Diptera: Tipulidae; Plecoptera: Pteronarcidae; Trichoptera: Limnephilidae and Calamatoceridae) and one each of gastropods (Basommatophora: Planorbidae) and crustaceans (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) were compared. Shredder preferences were based on consumption of leaves separately colonized by one of eight species of aquatic hyphomycetes. The feeding patterns of the invertebrates ranged from lack of feeding to heavy consumption of fungal-colonized leaves. Where consumption occurred, rank orders of preference and degree of selectivity differed among invertebrate shredders. Differences in preferences together with relationships between degree of selectivity and the relative mobility and digestive specializations exhibited by shredders suggest that the exploitation of fungal-colonized leaf detritus by different taxa is affected by phylogenetic constraints. Our results suggest that fungal species composition affects the feeding of a variety of shredders and that fungal species composition may be as important as degree of conditioning in determining food selection by shredders.

  7. Feeding the Milky Way: Properties of the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream

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    Antwi-Danso, Jacqueline; Fox, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Leading Arm is a tidally formed gaseous structure spearheading the Magellanic Cloud galaxies on their trajectory through the Milky Way’s halo. Its morphology shows evidence of interaction with the Galactic disk. Thus, this gas stream presents a first-hand opportunity to study direct fueling of our Galaxy with star-forming material. Using HST/COS spectra of two QSO targets, we measure the column densities of UV metal lines in two directions with HI 21 cm detections, and use these to constrain the Leading Arm’s metallicity. This allows us to put constraints on its origin and formation.

  8. [Litter decomposition and associated macro-invertebrate functional feeding groups in a third-order stream of northern Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling; Zhao, Ying; Han, Cui-xiang; Tong, Xiao-li

    2007-11-01

    By placing 5 mm- and 0.1 mm mesh bags with Dracontomelon duperreanum (Anacardiaceae) and Syzygium jambos (Myrtaceae) litters in the Hengshishui Stream, a third-order stream in northern Guangdong of China, this paper studied the decomposition of the litters and the colonization of macro-invertebrates over a 101-day period. The results showed that the decomposition rate of D. duperreanum litter in 5 mm- and 0.1 mm mesh bags was 0.0247 d(-1) and 0.0151 d(-1), while that of S. jambos litter was 0.0108 d(-1) and 0.0095 d(-1), respectively, indicating that D. duperreanum litter decomposed faster than S. jambos litter, and the decomposition rates of these two kinds of litters were higher in coarse mesh bag than in fine mesh bag. Among the colonized macro-invertebrate functional feeding groups, scraper occupied the highest proportion (36%), followed by collector (33%), predator (25%), and shredder (6%). At the middle and late stages of the experiment, the total number of individuals and the numbers and densities of dominant groups of macroinvertebrates on D. duperreanum litter were significantly higher than those on S. jambos litter. It was suggested that in the subtropical medium-size streams where shredders are few or absent, scrapers play an important role in the breakdown of litter. The low decomposition rate of S. jambos litter was mainly due to its high content of polyphenols which inhibits microbial activity and makes the litter less eatable to the macro-invertebrates.

  9. Feeding ecology of stream-dwelling Characidae (Osteichthyes: Characiformes from the upper Tocantins River, Brazil

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    Maíra Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we studied the trophic ecology of four Characidae species from the Cavalo Stream, upper Tocantins River, considering diet overlap and trophic niche breadth. The diet of the four species was composed of adult and immature insects, both autochthonous and allochthonous in origin. Autochthonous items dominated the diet of Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858, Bryconamericus sp., and Creagrutus atrisignum Myers, 1917. By contrast, allochthonous items were dominant in the diet of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758. Trophic niche breadth varied among species, with the highest value recorded for M. dichroura (0.48, followed by Bryconamericus sp. (0.39, A. bimaculatus (0.33 and C. atrisignum (0.29. Similarity analysis revealed two groups with different patterns of food preference. The first group was composed of insectivorous and the second by omnivorous species. The overlap in food items consumed by the four species studied was high. We suggest that resources are not limited in this stream and that competition might not be regulating these populations. This is one more case corroborating the general pattern registered for Tropical environments, where resource partitioning and specialization are responsible by the organization of fish communities.

  10. Relative importance of bacteria and fungi in a tropical headwater stream: leaf decomposition and invertebrate feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M S; Covich, A P

    2005-05-01

    Bacteria and fungi provide critical links between leaf detritus and higher trophic levels in forested headwater food webs, but these links in tropical streams are not well understood. We compared the roles of bacteria and fungi in the leaf decomposition process and determining feeding preference for two species of freshwater shrimp found in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using experimental microcosms. We first tested the effects of four treatments on decomposition rates for leaves from two common riparian species, Cecropia scheberiana (Moraceae) and Dacryodes excelsa (Burseraceae), in laboratory microcosms. Treatments were designed to alter the microbial community by minimizing the presence of bacteria or fungi. The fastest decay rate was the control treatment for D. excelsa where both bacteria and fungi were present (k = -0.0073 day(-1)) compared to the next fastest rate of k = -0.0063 day(-1) for the bacterial-conditioned D. excelsa leaves. The fastest decay rate for C. scheberiana was also the control treatment (k = -0.0035 day(-1)), while the next fastest rate was for fungal-conditioned leaves (k = -0.0029 day(-1)). The nonadditive effect for leaf decomposition rates observed in the control treatments where both fungi and bacteria were present indicate that bacteria and fungi perform different functions in processing leaf litter. Additionally, leaf types differed in microbial colonization patterns. We next tested feeding preference for leaf type and microbe treatment in microcosms using two species of freshwater shrimp: Xiphocaris elongata, a shredder, and Atya lanipes, a scraper/filterer. To estimate feeding preferences of individual shrimp, we measured change in leaf surface area and the amount of particles generated during 5-day trials in 16 different two-choice combinations. X. elongata preferred D. excelsa over C. scheberiana, and leaves with microbial conditioning over leaves without conditioning. There was no clear preference for fungal

  11. TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT USAGE OF HYDROCARBON-CONTAINING WASTE IN PRODUCTION OF MULTI-COMPONENT SOLID FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers modern approaches to usage of hydrocarbon-containing waste as energy resources and presents description of investigations, statistic materials, analysis results on formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste in the Republic of Belarus. Main problems pertaining to usage of waste as a fuel and technologies for their application have been given in the paper. The paper describes main results of the investigations and a method for efficient application of viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste as an energy-packed component and a binding material while producing a solid fuel. A technological scheme, a prototype industrial unit which are necessary to realize a method for obtaining multi-component solid fuel are represented in the paper. A paper also provides a model of technological process with efficient sequence of technological operations and parameters of optimum component composition. Main factors exerting significant structure-formation influence in creation of structural composition of multi-component solid fuel have been presented in the paper. The paper gives a graphical representation of the principle for selection of mixture particles of various coarseness to form a solid fuel while using a briquetting method and comprising viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste. A dependence of dimensionless concentration g of emissions into atmosphere during burning of two-component solid fuel has been described in the paper. The paper analyzes an influence of the developed methodology for emission calculation of multi-component solid fuels and reveals a possibility to optimize the component composition in accordance with ecological function and individual peculiar features of fuel-burning equipment. Special features concerning storage and transportation, advantages and disadvantages, comparative characteristics, practical applicability of the developed multi-component solid fuel have been considered and presented in the paper. The paper

  12. [Feeding habits of immature individuals of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera from middle reaches of a tropical mountain stream].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Soto, Cristian José; Tamarís-Turizo, Cesar Enrique

    2014-04-01

    Morphological and behavioral aspects of insects allow their grouping in trophic guilds and represent their dependence on food resources. We determined the feeding habits of immature organisms of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) from the middle reaches of Gaira stream (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia), using gut content analysis. We identified 13 EPT genera, but only ten were analyzed for a total of 100 organisms. We describe six food items: animal parts (AP), vascular plant tissue (VPT), microalgae (M), fungi (F), coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) and fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). Baetodes was determined to be a collector-scraper, since FPOM represented 46.6% of food content, followed by F (38.4%). Chimarra, Leptohyphes, Lachlania, and Thraulodes were categorized as collectors with average proportions of FPOM 86.8%, 93.1%, 93.1% and 93.7%, respectively. Phylloicus, Smicridea and Leptonema were main consumers of VPT and CPOM with proportions of 76.3%, 54.6%, and 62.4%, respectively; while ratios of FPOM were 22.3%, 38.8%, and 32.9%, respectively. While all are detritivores, Phylloicus is functionally classified as shredders and Smicridea and Leptonema as collectors. Atopsyche and Anacroneuria were the only taxa in which AP were observed in high proportions, 57.9% and 58.2%, respectively, for that reason they were classified as predators. The organisms examined consume a wide variability of resources.

  13. Feeding of two sympatric species of Characidium, C. lanei and C. pterostictum (Characidiinae in a coastal stream of Atlantic Forest (Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranha José Marcelo R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding strategy of Characidium lanei and C. pterostictum was studied in the "Cabral" stream, a coastal stream of the Atlantic Forest, in southern Brazil. The samples were taken using electric fishing between March/95 and February/96. We studied about 15 stomach contents for each species in each season of the year. The stomach contents of the studied species were composed of 39 different food items, 28 in C. lanei and 24 in C. pterostictum. Chironomidae larvae and Ephemeroptera nymph were the most important items for C. lanei, except in the summer when Acarina and not identified Arthropoda were the most important items. Chironomidae and Simulidae larvae were the most important items in C. pterostictum. These results indicated an insectivorous habits and opportunist feeding strategy to C. lanei and C. pterostictum with several items rare or not very frequent.

  14. Formation of positive ions in hydrocarbon containing dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Ilarion; Pohoata, Valentin; Jijie, Roxana; Nastuta, Andrei Vasile; Rusu, Ioana Alexandra; Topala, Ionut

    2016-12-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices are suitable experimental solutions to generate transitory molecular environments with various applications. In this study we present experimental results regarding the plasma chemistry of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) in helium - hydrogen (0.1%) - hydrocarbons (1.2%) mixtures. Four types of hydrocarbon gases were studied: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), and butane (C4H10). Discharge diagnosis and monitoring was assured by electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. Molecular beam mass spectrometry is engaged to sample positive ions populations from two different plasma sources. Dissociation and generation of higher-chain and cyclic (aromatic) hydrocarbons were discussed as a function of feed gas and discharge geometry. We found a strong influence of these parameters on both molecular mass distribution and recombination processes in the plasma volume.

  15. Liquid-phase membrane extraction of targeted pesticides from manufacturing wastewaters in a hollow fibre contactor with feed-stream recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Jelena; Vladisavljević, Goran T; Trtić-Petrović, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    A two-phase membrane extraction in a hollow fibre contactor with feed-stream recycle was applied to remove selected pesticides (tebufenozide, linuron, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and dimethoate) from their mixed aqueous solutions. The contactor consisted of 50 polypropylene hollow fibres impregnated with 5% tri-n-octylphosphine oxide in di-n-hexyl ether. For low-polar pesticides with log P ≥ 2 (tebufenozide and linuron), the maximum removal efficiency increased linearly from 85% to 96% with increasing the feed flow rate. The maximum removal efficiencies of more polar pesticides were significantly higher under feed recirculation (86%) than in a continuous single-pass operation (30%). It was found from the Wilson's plot that the mass transfer resistance of the liquid membrane can be neglected for low-polar pesticides. The pesticide removals from commercial formulations were similar to those from pure pesticide solutions, indicating that built-in adjuvants did not affect the extraction process.

  16. Feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 in a costal stream from Southeast Brazil/Ecologia trofica de Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes, 1840 de um riacho costeiro do sudeste do Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazzoni, R; Rezende, C.F; Manna, L.R

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to compare the feeding ecology of Hypostomus punctatus from a coastal stream from Southeast Brazil with data previously published for the same study site before environmental changes...

  17. Longitudinal use of feeding resources and distribution of fish trophic guilds in a coastal Atlantic stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    Full Text Available This study described the use of food resources and the distribution of fish trophic guilds along the longitudinal gradient of a coastal Atlantic stream, southern Brazil. Allochthonous resources (terrestrial insects predominated in the headwaters, whereas autochthonous food items (algae, fish and detritus predominated in the mouth section. Detritivorous, aquaticinvertivorous, and terrestrial- and aquatic-insectivorous species occurred throughout the gradient, while omnivorous and piscivorous in the headwaters and middle stretches, respectively, and herbivorous in the middle and mouth. Detritivores and aquatic-insectivores were significantly more specialized than the other guilds, however, there was no evidence of a longitudinal increase in trophic specialization. Density and biomass of aquatic-invertivores and aquatic-insectivores decreased, whereas that of detritivores increased longitudinally. The distribution of trophic guilds was significantly associated with the stream section, where aquatic and terrestrial insectivorous were more frequent in rocky and flowed stretches from the headwater and detritivores in deeper environments with finer particles of substrate from the mouth. This suggests that fish assemblages in coastal streams with a steep longitudinal gradient may follow patterns in the use of food resources according with the food availability along the river, as predicted by the River Continuum Concept.

  18. Analysis of feed stream acid gas concentration effects on the transport properties and separation performance of polymeric membranes for natural gas sweetening: A comparison between a glassy and rubbery polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Vaughn, Justin T.

    2014-09-01

    A 6FDA based polyamide-imide, 6F-PAI-1, is compared to Pebax®, a commercially available rubbery polyether/polyamide block copolymer, for the simultaneous separation of CO2 and H2S from CH4. Feed streams of 20/20/60 and 5/45/50H2S/CO2/CH4 were used to compare the effect of acid gas concentration on the separation efficiency of 6F-PAI-1 and Pebax® under industrially relevant conditions. 6F-PAI-1 showed CO2/CH4 selectivities at 850psia total feed pressure of 30 and 40 for the 20/20/60 and 5/45/50 feed streams, respectively, while selectivity for H2S/CH4 was approximately 20 for both feeds. Pebax® showed selectivities of 40 and 10 for H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH4, respectively. Both selectivities were mostly independent of acid gas concentration in the feed, an unsurprising trend considering the non-glassy nature of this material. The selectivities in 6F-PAI-1 translated to less than 6% CH4 lost in the permeate stream for both feeds, while for the 5/45/50 feed, CH4 fraction in the permeate at 850psia was less than 4%. These promising results suggest that glassy polymers possessing favorable intrinsic plasticization resistance, such as 6F-PAI-1, may be appropriate for the typical case of natural gas sweetening where CO2 concentration in the feed is higher than it is for H2S. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.

  20. Assessing the influence of migration barriers and feeding ecology on total mercury concentrations in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) from a glaciated and non-glaciated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Andrew; Sergeant, Christopher J; Lopez, Juan Andres; O'Hara, Todd

    2017-02-15

    Assimilation of mercury (Hg) into food webs is directly influenced by ecological factors such as local habitat characteristics, species feeding behavior, and movement patterns. Total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in biota from Subarctic latitudes are driven both by broad spatial processes such as long-range atmospheric transport and more local influences such as biovectors and geology. Thus, even relatively pristine protected lands such as national parks are experiencing Hg accumulation. We analyzed [THg] and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in 104 Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) collected from two rivers in southeastern Alaska, upstream and downstream of apparent anadromous migration barriers in watersheds with and without glacial coverage. To assess the potential magnitude of marine-derived THg returning to freshwater, we analyzed [THg] in ten adult pink salmon from each study system. There were no differences in Dolly Varden mean [THg] between sites after the data were standardized for fork length, but unadjusted [THg] varied relative to fish size and δ(15)N values. While previous studies generally show that [THg] increases with higher δ(15)N values, we found that Dolly Varden below migration barriers and foraging on salmon eggs had the highest δ(15)N values among all sampled individuals, but the lowest [THg]. Dolly Varden residing below anadromous barriers had δ(13)C values consistent with marine influence. Since salmon eggs typically have low [Hg], our results suggest that abundant salmon populations and the dietary subsidy they provide may reduce the annual exposure to [Hg] in egg-eating stream fishes such as Dolly Varden. In addition to identifying a suitable species for freshwater Hg monitoring in southeastern Alaska, our study more broadly implies that river characteristics, location within a river, fish size, and feeding ecology are important factors influencing Hg accumulation.

  1. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.Para obter informações básicas para o manejo de Salminus sp. no sopé andino ocidental da Venezuela, se estudaram aspectos sobre sua ecologia e aproveitamento. Nos rios do sopé da montanha efetuaram-se capturas de peixes com variados tamanhos de malha, assim como observações subaquáticas e terrestres para estimar abundâncias e eventos de alimentação. Aplicaramse

  2. Atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures. Pt. 3. Fuels for combustion engines; Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische. T. 3. Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzer, H.G. [Esso AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    The justification paper atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures, part 3 - ``fuels for combustion engines`` (gasolines, diesel fuel and kerosene) is currently in preparation. This third part gives information on industrial hygiene regarding the different fuels and describes the application of atmospheric limiting values for fuels. The article offers information on industrial hygiene regarding Otto engine fuel and aviation fuel, which needs to be taken into account in discussions concerning the laying down of atmospheric limiting values. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Das Begruendungspapier Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische Teil 3 `Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren` (Gasoline, Dieselkraftstoff und Kerosin) ist z.Z. in Vorbereitung. In diesem dritten Teil werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu den verschiedenen Kraftstoffen gegeben und die Anwendung der Luftgrenzwerte fuer Kraftstoffe beschrieben. Im folgenden werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu Ottokraftstoff und Avgas gegeben, die es bei den Ueberlegungen hinsichtlich der Festlegung eines Luftgrenzwertes zu beruecksichtigen gilt. (orig./ABI)

  3. The many streams of the Magellanic Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Stanimirovic, Snezana; Heiles, Carl; Douglas, Kevin A; Putman, Mary; Peek, Joshua E G

    2008-01-01

    We present results from neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of the tip of the Magellanic Stream (MS), obtained with the Arecibo telescope as a part of the on-going survey by the Consortium for Galactic studies with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array. We find four large-scale, coherent HI streams, extending continously over a length of 20 degrees, each stream possessing different morphology and velocity gradients. The newly discovered streams provide strong support for the tidal model of the MS formation by Connors et al. (2006), which suggested a spatial and kinematic bifurcation of the MS. The observed morphology and kinematics suggest that three of these streams could be interpreted as a 3-way splitting of the main MS filament, while the fourth stream appears much younger and may have originated from the Magellanic Bridge. We find an extensive population of HI clouds at the tip of the MS. Two thirds of clouds have an angular size in the range 3.5'--10'. We interpret this as being due to thermal instability, which...

  4. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  5. 流加比对双流加糖蜜酒精连续发酵的影响%Effect of Feeding Rate on Dual Stream Alcoholic Fermentation of Molasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衡; 陆美艳; 甘美慢; 黄仁; 王文坚

    2014-01-01

    糖蜜酒精发酵目前多采用双流加连续发酵工艺,其高低浓糖蜜稀释的流加比例对糖蜜连续发酵有重要影响。本文通过糖蜜发酵试验的方式,对不同流加比的投料方式进行简单分析,总结不同流加方式对糖蜜酒精连续发酵的影响。结果表明在相同的平均锤度下,低浓的比例越大时,发酵的时间也越短,出酒率也相对越高。%Continuous dual stream alcoholic fermentation processes are widely used on molasses currently. During this procedure, the proportion of the high and low molasses diluent is important. This article on the alcoholic fermentation processes of molasses, will serve to analyze and summarize different feeding methods and the effect of continuous dual stream alcohol fermentation. Results indicate that under the same average Brix, low concentration ratio results in shorter fermentation times. The rate of wine is also relatively higher.

  6. Catalytic Behaviour of CuO-CeO2 Systems Prepared by Different Synthetic Methodologies in the CO-PROX Reaction under CO2-H2O Feed Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Cecilia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available CuO-CeO2 catalysts, with 6 wt % of Cu, have been synthesised by different preparation methods (calcination of nitrate precursors, thermal urea-nitrate combustion, freeze-drying method, using polymethyl metacrylate PMMA microspheres as template and precipitation using NaOH or the decomposition of urea as precipitating agents. The obtained materials have been characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption at −196 °C, H2 thermoprogrammed reduction (H2-TPR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The catalysts displayed high dispersion of copper oxide, obtaining CO conversion values of 90–100% at 115 °C in the CO preferential oxidation in excess of hydrogen (CO-PROX and maintaining this activity even after 48 h of time on stream. The incorporation of CO2 and H2O in the feed stream (simulating a PROX unit caused a decrease in the CO conversion, except for the catalyst synthesised using PMMA microspheres as a template which maintained a CO conversion of 95% at 115 °C. This catalyst exhibits an excellent catalytic performance, also under real operating conditions, thanks to many and concomitant factors, such as the very small CeO2 particle size (5.6 nm, the surface being rich in copper (atomic ratio Cu/Ce = 0.35 that is easily reducible, and the peculiar morphology and porosity of the material.

  7. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  8. Stream Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Kummel, Miro; Bruder, Andrea; Powell, Jim; Kohler, Brynja; Lewis, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Dead leaves, ping-pong balls or plastic golf balls are floated down a small stream. The number of leaves/balls passing recording stations along the stream are tallied. Students are then challenged to develop a transport model for the resulting data. From this exercise students gain greater understanding of PDE modeling, conservation laws, parameter estimation as well as mass and momentum transport processes.

  9. stream-stream: Stellar and dark-matter streams interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo

    2017-02-01

    Stream-stream analyzes the interaction between a stellar stream and a disrupting dark-matter halo. It requires galpy (ascl:1411.008), NEMO (ascl:1010.051), and the usual common scientific Python packages.

  10. Sediment yields of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Flint, R.F.

    1970-01-01

    Sediment in Wisconsin streams causes economic and engineering problems in water management and reduces the value of water for nearly all uses. Sediment produces problems such as reduced reservoir capacity, navigation hazards, increased cost of water treatment, property damage, temporary loss of farmland, destruction of feeding and nesting grounds of fish, and destruction of wildlife habitat. Sediment in water also reduces the aesthetic value of surface waters and is detrimental to the State's tourist and recreation industry.

  11. Estrutura populacional, aspectos da reprodução e alimentação dos Cyprinodontiformes (Osteichthyes de um riacho do sudeste do Brasil Population structure, reproductive aspects and feeding of Cyprinodontiformes fishes (Osteichthyes from a coastal stream in southeastcrn Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Rocha Aranha

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The population structure, reproductive aspects and feeding of Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868, Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider (1801, Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel, 1868 e Jenynsia lineata (Jenyns, 1842 were studied in five sampling stations in the Ubatiba stream, municipality of Maricá (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In relation to the population structure, P. caudimaculatus was more representative upstream; P. vivipara mid-stream and downstream; P. januarius and J. lineata downstream. The species presented preponderance of females, except in the intermediate length classes. The occurence of imatures and females with young pointed out a long reproductive period and favoured areas for reproduction of the four species. The young forms of P. caudimaculatus were more abundant in station 1 (upstream, P. vivipara in station 4 (downstream and P. januarius and J. lineata in station 5 (Maricá coastal lagoon. The higher occurences of females with young belong to P. caudimaculatus, in station 1 (upstream and P. vivipara and P. januarius in station 5 (Maricá lagoon. The four studied species presented herbivorous diet and the differences found in the feeding may reflect the differences in the food availability in the microhabitats used by the species. So, we concluded that the studied species presented evident segregation in several levels of the different available resources in the environment.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  13. Waste Receiving and Processing, Module 2A, feed specification: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, O.L.; Sheriff, M.L.

    1994-11-14

    Detailed descriptions of the various mixed low-level waste feed streams that will be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 2A (WRAP 2A) are provided. Feed stream descriptions are based on available reports, the solid waste information tracking system database, and the 1993 solid waste forecast data. Available chemical and physical attributes, radionuclide data, waste codes, and packaging information are shown for 15 feed streams. The information sources and methodology for obtaining projections for WRAP 2A expected feed stream volumes also are described.

  14. Oportunismo alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: uma espécie abundante em riachos do noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Feeding opportunism of Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: an abundant species in streams of the northwestern in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Ceneviva-Bastos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a biologia alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 em riachos do Alto rio Paraná no Estado de São Paulo. Em oito riachos (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii se alimentou de 18 itens, dos quais algas, ninfas de efemerópteros e larvas de dípteros foram os itens autóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes; fragmentos de insetos terrestres, himenópteros e aranhas foram os itens alóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes. No riacho R2, K. moenkhausii apresentou dieta distinta dos demais riachos, principalmente em função da profundidade, tipo de substrato e da presença de vegetação ripária. No riacho R9, amostrado mensalmente durante um ano, foram identificados 15 itens, dos quais insetos terrestres predominaram ao longo do ano; larvas de dípteros e algas foram pouco expressivas nos períodos de dezembro-janeiro (período mais quente e chuvoso e junho-julho (período mais frio e seco. No riacho R9 foram realizadas observações subaquáticas durante mergulho livre, onde observamos a cata de itens na coluna d'água junto do substrato, da vegetação submersa e na superfície da água. A elevada variedade de itens consumidos - condicionada às variações do hábitat e sazonais - e a prática de diversas táticas nos permitem considerar K. moenkhausii uma espécie oportunista quanto ao uso dos recursos alimentares. Este oportunismo aparentemente se reflete na abundância da espécie, demonstrando boa capacidade em alocar parte significativa de sua energia à reprodução, mesmo em ambientes fisicamente impactados por ação antrópica.In the present investigation we studied the feeding biology of Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 in streams of the Upper Paraná river system in the state of São Paulo. In eight streams (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii consumed 18 items, of which algae, ephemeropteran nymphs, and dipteran larvae were the most frequent and dominant autochthonous items, as were

  15. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  16. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  17. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  18. Querying JSON Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Bo, Yang

    2010-01-01

    A data stream management system (DSMS) is similar to a database management system (DBMS) but can search data directly in on-line streams. Using its mediator-wrapper approach, the extensible database system, Amos II, allows different kinds of distributed data resource to be queried. It has been extended with a stream datatype to query possibly infinite streams, which provides DSMS functionality. Nowadays, more and more web applications start to offer their services in JSON format which is a te...

  19. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  20. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  1. Persistent Temporal Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, David; Ramachandran, Umakishore

    Distributed continuous live stream analysis applications are increasingly common. Video-based surveillance, emergency response, disaster recovery, and critical infrastructure protection are all examples of such applications. They are characterized by a variety of high- and low-bandwidth streams as well as a need for analyzing both live and archived streams. We present a system called Persistent Temporal Streams (PTS) that supports a higher-level, domain-targeted programming abstraction for such applications. PTS provides a simple but expressive stream abstraction encompassing transport, manipulation and storage of streaming data. In this paper, we present a system architecture for implementing PTS. We provide an experimental evaluation which shows the system-level primitives can be implemented in a lightweight and high-performance manner, and an application-based evaluation designed to show that a representative high-bandwidth stream analysis application can be implemented relatively simply and with good performance.

  2. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  3. The Puzzling Ophiuchus Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies or globular clusters orbiting the Milky Way can be pulled apart by tidal forces, leaving behind a trail of stars known as a stellar stream. One such trail, the Ophiuchus stream, has posed a serious dynamical puzzle since its discovery. But a recent study has identified four stars that might help resolve this streams mystery.Conflicting TimescalesThe stellar stream Ophiuchus was discovered around our galaxy in 2014. Based on its length, which appears to be 1.6 kpc, we can calculate the time that has passed since its progenitor was disrupted and the stream was created: ~250 Myr. But the stars within it are ~12 Gyr old, and the stream orbits the galaxy with a period of ~350 Myr.Given these numbers, we can assume that Ophiuchuss progenitor completed many orbits of the Milky Way in its lifetime. So why would it only have been disrupted 250 million years ago?Fanning StreamLed by Branimir Sesar (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy), a team of scientists has proposed an idea that might help solve this puzzle. If the Ophiuchus stellar stream is on a chaotic orbit common in triaxial potentials, which the Milky Ways may be then the stream ends can fan out, with stars spreading in position and velocity.The fanned part of the stream, however, would be difficult to detect because of its low surface brightness. As a result, the Ophiuchus stellar stream could actually be longer than originally measured, implying that it was disrupted longer ago than was believed.Search for Fan StarsTo test this idea, Sesar and collaborators performed a search around the ends of the stream, looking for stars thatare of the right type to match the stream,are at the predicted distance of the stream,are located near the stream ends, andhave velocities that match the stream and dont match the background halo stars.Histogram of the heliocentric velocities of the 43 target stars. Six stars have velocities matching the stream velocity. Two of these are located in the main stream; the other

  4. A Stellar Stream Surrounds the Whale Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The -cold dark matter cosmological model predicts that galaxies are assembled through the disruption and absorption of small satellite dwarf galaxies by their larger hosts. A recent study argues that NGC 4631, otherwise known as the Whale galaxy, shows evidence of such a recent merger in the form of an enormous stellar stream extending from it.Stream SignaturesAccording to the -CDM model, stellar tidal streams should be a ubiquitous feature among galaxies. When satellite dwarf galaxies are torn apart, they spread out into such streams before ultimately feeding the host galaxy. Unfortunately, these streams are very faint, so were only recently starting to detect these features.Stellar tidal streams have been discovered around the Milky Way and Andromeda, providing evidence of these galaxies growth via recent (within the last 8 Gyr) mergers. But discovering stellar streams around other Milky Way-like galaxies would help us to determine if the model of hierarchical galaxy assembly applies generally.To this end, the Stellar Tidal Stream Survey, led by PI David Martnez-Delgado (Center for Astronomy of Heidelberg University), is carrying out the first systematic survey of stellar tidal streams. In a recent study, Martnez-Delgado and collaborators present their detection of a giant (85 kpc long!) stellar tidal stream extending into the halo of NGC 4631, the Whale galaxy.Modeling a SatelliteThe top image is a snapshot from an N-body simulation of a single dwarf satellite, 3.5 Gyr after it started interacting with the Whale galaxy. The satellite has been torn apart and spread into a stream that reproduces observations, which are shown in the lower image (scale is not the same). [Martnez-Delgado et al. 2015]The Whale galaxy is a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with a second spiral, NGC 4656. But the authors dont believe that the Whale galaxys giant tidal stellar stream is caused by its interactions with NGC 4656. Instead, based on their observations, they believe

  5. The Andromeda Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, G F; Ferguson, A M N; Ibata, R A; Irwin, M J; McConnachie, A W; Tanvir, N

    2004-01-01

    The existence of a stream of tidally stripped stars from the Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy demonstrates that the Milky Way is still in the process of accreting mass. More recently, an extensive stream of stars has been uncovered in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), revealing that it too is cannibalizing a small companion. This paper reports the recent observations of this stream, determining it spatial and kinematic properties, and tracing its three-dimensional structure, as well as describing future observations and what we may learn about the Andromeda galaxy from this giant tidal stream.

  6. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  7. The case against streaming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia Mironova

    2014-01-01

    .... Cassidy, the safety coordinator at the Airline Pilots Association, says Levine and others advocating for live data streaming are oversimplifying the issue and overlooking the logistical concerns...

  8. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column.

  9. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  10. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  11. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  12. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  13. Spatial distribution and functional feeding groups of aquatic insect communities in Serra da Bocaina streams, southeastern Brazil Distribuição espacial e categorização funcional trófica de comunidades de insetos aquáticos em rios na Serra da Bocaina, Sudeste Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Henriques de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the spatial distribution and functional feeding structure of aquatic insect communities of 18 streams at different altitudes in Mambucaba River Basin, Serra da Bocaina, Southeastern Brazil; METHODS: Samples were collected in two consecutive dry periods (August of 2003 and 2004 being sampled four substrate types in each stream: litter from riffles, litter from pools, rocks and gravel; RESULTS: We identified 75,581 aquatic insect individuals belonging to 201 taxa. Most of the fauna was found in litter substrates (64%, and riffle litter substrate had the majority of the specimens (32,572 individuals. Gravel was the substrate with highest values of richness (29.84 taxa expected for 187 individuals; rarefaction method and Shannon's diversity (H' = 2.370. Rock substrate showed the lowest richness (20.24 taxa. Distribution of taxa across substrates shows that only 28 taxa are restricted to a single substrate, while 78 taxa occurred in all substrates. The indicator analysis showed that 20 taxa were characteristic of pool litter, 25 of riffle litter, 22 of gravel and only nine to rock. In relation to organic and inorganic substrates, 29 taxa were characteristic of litter, and 17 of inorganic substrates. Cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index and UPGMA linkage method showed that aquatic insects were distributed according to substrate and food resource. In all substrates, the main functional feeding group was collector-gatherer (40.64%, and the least representative was shredder (6.67%. ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests showed that collector-gatherers and shredders were predominant in pool substrates, collector-filters in riffle substrate and scrapers in hard substrates; CONCLUSION: Ours results show that independently of stream or altitude, substrate of the same type have similar faunal assemblages. The abundance and relative proportion of the functional feeding group showed variation across habitats

  14. Air flow exploration of abrasive feed tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijin; Li, Xiaohong; Gu, Yilei

    2009-12-01

    An abrasive water-jet cutting process is one in which water pressure is raised to a very high pressure and forced through a very small orifice to form a very thin high speed jet beam. This thin jet beam is then directed through a chamber and then fed into a secondary nozzle, or mixing tube. During this process, a vacuum is generated in the chamber, and garnet abrasives and air are pulled into the chamber, through an abrasive feed tube, and mixes with this high speed stream of water. Because of the restrictions introduced by the abrasive feed tube geometry, a vacuum gradient is generated along the tube. Although this phenomenon has been recognized and utilized as a way to monitor nozzle condition and abrasive flowing conditions, yet, until now, conditions inside the abrasive feed line have not been completely understood. A possible reason is that conditions inside the abrasive feed line are complicated. Not only compressible flow but also multi-phase, multi-component flow has been involved in inside of abrasive feed tube. This paper explored various aspects of the vacuum creation process in both the mixing chamber and the abrasive feed tube. Based on an experimental exploration, an analytical framework is presented to allow theoretical calculations of vacuum conditions in the abrasive feed tube.

  15. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  16. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  17. Dynamically Scaling Apache Storm for the Analysis of Streaming Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.S. van der; Waaij, B.D. van der; Lazovik, E.; Wijbrandi, W.E.; Meijer, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Stream processing platforms allow applications to analyse incoming data continuously. Several use cases exist that make use of these capabilities, ranging from monitoring of physical infrastructures to pre selecting video surveillance feeds for human inspection. It is difficult to predict how much

  18. Dynamically Scaling Apache Storm for the Analysis of Streaming Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.S. van der; Waaij, B.D. van der; Lazovik, E.; Wijbrandi, W.E.; Meijer, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Stream processing platforms allow applications to analyse incoming data continuously. Several use cases exist that make use of these capabilities, ranging from monitoring of physical infrastructures to pre selecting video surveillance feeds for human inspection. It is difficult to predict how much c

  19. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan;

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...... in Europe. We report on a survey of the use of streaming media in the academic community in Europe, an open source content delivery network, and a portal for announcing live streaming events to the global academic community....

  20. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  1. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  2. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  3. Streaming media bible

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mack, Steve

    2002-01-01

    This book "tells you everything you need to know to produce professional-quality streaming media for the Internet, from an overview of the available systems and tools to high-end techniques for top quality results...

  4. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  5. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  6. DNR 24K Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:24,000 scale streams captured from USGS seven and one-half minute quadrangle maps, with perennial vs. intermittent classification, and connectivity through lakes,...

  7. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  8. Streaming Virtual Reality Content

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ganainy, Tarek; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The recent rise of interest in Virtual Reality (VR) came with the availability of commodity commercial VR prod- ucts, such as the Head Mounted Displays (HMD) created by Oculus and other vendors. To accelerate the user adoption of VR headsets, content providers should focus on producing high quality immersive content for these devices. Similarly, multimedia streaming service providers should enable the means to stream 360 VR content on their platforms. In this study, we try to cover different ...

  9. Reincarnation of Streaming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2009-1033 REINCARNATION OF STREAMING APPLICATIONS Saman Amarsinghe, Robert Miller, and Michael Ernst Massachusetts...2007 – 31 December 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REINCARNATION OF STREAMING APPLICATIONS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-07-C-7737 5c...Program Reincarnation , using a simple prototype. A Program Reincarnation tool will assist the programmer in replacing the program’s code (the body

  10. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer. PMID:24957495

  11. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Weeks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer.

  12. Gulf stream separation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  13. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  14. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, N.

    2006-01-01

    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  15. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  16. Ultrasonic treatment to improve anaerobic digestibility of dairy waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmowski, L; Simons, L; Brooks, R

    2006-01-01

    The dairy-processing industry generates various types of organic wastes, which are utilised as stock feed, for anaerobic digestion, spread on land or alternatively land-filled at high costs. Owing to the generation of renewable energy, anaerobic digestion is an attractive option for many factories. To enhance the biological degradation process, a mechanical disintegration of various waste dairy streams was undertaken. While the successful application of ultrasonic treatment has been reported for various municipal waste streams, limited information was available for dairy industry applications. The results of this study showed that ultrasonic treatment can improve the digestibility of the more problematic dairy waste streams, such as sludges, by breaking down micro-organisms' cell walls and releasing soluble cell compounds. For more soluble streams, such as dairy factory effluent, an increased gas production was observed and attributed to the reduced particle size of the fat globules.

  17. Feed Variability and Bulk Vitrification Glass Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-01-10

    The supplemental treatment (ST) bulk vitrification process will obtain its feed, consisting of low-activity waste (LAW), from more than one source. One purpose of this letter report is to describe the compositional variability of the feed to ST. The other is to support the M-62-08 decision by providing a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of bulk vitrification (BV), the process that has been selected to perform supplemental treatment, in handling the ST feed envelope. Roughly nine-tenths of the ST LAW feed will come from the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment. This processed waste is expected to combine (1) a portion of the same LAW feed sent to the WTP melters and (2) a dilute stream that is the product of the condensate from the submerged-bed scrubber (SBS) and the drainage from the electrostatic precipitator (WESP), both of which are part of the LAW off-gas system. The manner in which the off-gas-product stream is concentrated to reduce its volume, and the way in which the excess LAW and off-gas product streams are combined, are part of the interface between WTP and ST and have not been determined. This letter report considers only one possible arrangement, in which half of the total LAW is added to the off-gas product stream, giving an estimated ST feed stream from WTP. (Total LAW equals that portion of LAW sent to the WTP LAW vitrification plant (WTP LAW) plus the LAW not currently treatable in the LAW vitrification plant due to capacity limitations (excess)).

  18. Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document. ...

  20. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  1. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  2. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  3. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child. These guidelines on breastfeeding and bottle feeding can help you make the decision that's right ... formula is a nutritious alternative to breast milk. Bottle feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for moms, ...

  4. Don't Cross the (Tidal) Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    In a tidal disruption event (TDE), an unfortunate star passes too close to a dormant supermassive black hole (BH) and gets torn apart by tidal forces, feeding the BH for a short time. Oddly, were not finding nearly as many TDEs typically detected due to their distinctive observational signatures as theory says we should. A recent study suggests that we might be missing many of these events, due to the way the streams of shredded stars fall onto the BHs.Signatures of ShreddingWhen a BH tears a star apart, the stars material is stretched out into whats known as a tidal stream. That stream continues on a trajectory around the BH, with roughly half the material eventually falling back on the BH, whipping around it in a series of orbits. Where those orbits intersect each other, the material smashes together and circularizes, forming a disk that then accretes onto the BH.What does a TDE look like? We dont observe anything until after the tidal streams collide and the material begins to accrete onto the BH. At that point we observe a sudden peak in luminosity, which then gradually decreases (scaling roughly as time-5/3) as the tail end of whats left of the star accretes and the BHs food source eventually runs out.So why have we only been observing about a tenth as many TDEs as theory predicts we should see? By studying the structure of tidal streams in TDEs, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz (UC Santa Cruz) have found a potential reason and the culprit is general relativity.Dark YearsThe authors run a series of simulations of TDEs around black holes of varying masses and spins to see what form the resulting tidal streams take over time. They find that precession of the tidal stream due to the BHs gravitational effects changes how the stream interacts with itself, and therefore what we observe. Some cases behave like what we expect for whats currently considered a typical TDE but some dont.Example from simulations of a

  5. Introduction to Tidal Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Heidi Jo

    Dwarf galaxies that come too close to larger galaxies suffer tidal disruption; the differential gravitational force between one side of the galaxy and the other serves to rip the stars from the dwarf galaxy so that they instead orbit the larger galaxy. This process produces "tidal streams" of stars, which can be found in the stellar halo of the Milky Way, as well as in halos of other galaxies. This chapter provides a general introduction to tidal streams, including the mechanism through which the streams are created, the history of how they were discovered, and the observational techniques by which they can be detected. In addition, their use in unraveling galaxy formation histories and the distribution of dark matter in galaxies is discussed, as is the interaction between these dwarf galaxy satellites and the disk of the larger galaxy.

  6. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring ... babies who are born prematurely, as are many twins and higher order multiples. Breast milk is easier ...

  7. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  8. Preliminary low-level waste feed definition guidance - LLW pretreatment interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, J.W.; Connor, J.M.; Hendrickson, D.W.; Powell, W.J.; Watrous, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    The document describes limits for key constituents in the LLW feed, and the bases for these limits. The potential variability in the stream is then estimated and compared to the limits. Approaches for accomodating uncertainty in feed inventory, processing strategies, and process design (melter and disposal system) are discussed. Finally, regulatory constraints are briefly addressed.

  9. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Schoeling, Lanny Gene

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  10. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative...

  11. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...

  12. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis...

  13. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  14. Stream Automata Are Coalgebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancia, V.; Venema, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Stream automata (also called ω-automata) and ω-regular languages are of paramount importance in Computer Science and Logic. A coalgebraic treatment of these structures has not been given yet. We study a simple two-sorted setting where deterministic Muller automata can be cast as coalgebras, so that

  15. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  16. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  17. Streaming-video produktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, Poul

    2004-01-01

     E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele produktionsf...... E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele...... produktionsforløbet: fra ide til færdigt produkt, forskellige typer af præsentationer, dramaturgiske overvejelser samt en konceptskitse. Streaming-video teknologien er nu så udviklet med et så tilfredsstillende audiovisuelt udtryk at vi kan begynde at fokusere på, hvilket indhold der er velegnet til at blive gjort...... tilgængeligt uafhængigt af tid og sted. Afslutningsvis er der en række kildehenvisninger, blandt andet en oversigt over de streaming-video produktioner, som denne artikel bygger på....

  18. On Meteoroid Streams Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    1999-01-01

    Criterion for the membership of individual meteors to meteoroid streams presented by Valsecchi {\\it et. al.} (1999) and Jopek {\\it et. al.} (1999) is discussed. The authors characterize and use their criterion as a distance function. However, it is not a distance function. Some practical aspects are also discussed. Correct criterion is presented.

  19. Acid-stress effects on stream biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J. (Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Sciences); Degerman, E. (Inst. of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm (Sweden)); Gerhardt, A. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology); Johansson, Catarina (Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden)); Lingdell, P.E. (Gunilbo, Skinnskatteberg (Sweden)); Muniz, I. (Norvegian Inst. for Nature Research (NINA), Oslo (Norway))

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports and discusses the results of Swedish freshwater acidification research, for the period 1988.1993 and earlier. Changed biotic patterns are exemplified by increased occurrence of those green algae that indicate an increase in nutrients, reduced species richness of invertebrates, a general shift in proportion from invertebrate grazers towards shredders, decreasing populations of fish. Impact on birds appears less validated. The mechanisms for the changes in individual, population and community levels include elevated hydrogen, aluminium and cadmium concentrations that affect ion balance and respiration in fish and invertebrates, but also various behavior patterns, and development stages. Al can ameliorate low pH temporarily but does not biomagnify along food chains, and neither predatory insects nor flycatchers seem to accumulate Al. Iron precipitation can affect feeding ability and respiration of mayfly nymphs. That humic substances may mitigate metals still seems uncertain for fish and invertebrates. Generally, most changes in the biotic patterns of streams seem to be related to abiotic impact routes. Relevant and sufficient knowledge seems to be lacking in three research fields of acidification impact on streams; viz. increasing occurrence of green algae in acidified streams; role of invertebrates in decomposition of leaves in acid waters; and recovery processes of fish and invertebrates after liming. (94 refs., 4 figs.)

  20. Lightweight query authentication on streams

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We consider a stream outsourcing setting, where a data owner delegates the management of a set of disjoint data streams to an untrusted server. The owner authenticates his streams via signatures. The server processes continuous queries on the union of the streams for clients trusted by the owner. Along with the results, the server sends proofs of result correctness derived from the owner's signatures, which are easily verifiable by the clients. We design novel constructions for a collection o...

  1. Feeding periodicity, diet composition, and food consumption of subyearling rainbow trout in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Although winter is a critically important period for stream salmonids, aspects of the ecology of several species are poorly understood. Consequently, we examined the diel feeding ecology of subyearling rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during winter in a central New York stream. Rainbow trout diet was significantly different during each 4-h interval and also differed from the drift and benthos. Feeding was significantly greater during darkness (i.e. 20:00 h – 04:00 h) than during daylight hours (i.e. 08:00 h – 16:00 h), peaking at 20:00 h. Daily food consumption (1.9 mg) and daily ration (3.4 %) during winter were substantially lower than previously reported for subyearling rainbow trout in the same stream during summer. These findings provide important new insights into the winter feeding ecology of juvenile rainbow trout in streams.

  2. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion in small stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jin; Jun, Kye-Won [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju(Korea)

    2001-10-31

    This study is the analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion reach by numerical model test. Through it we can provide the basis data in flood, and in grasping stream flow characteristics. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics in Seoknam stream were implemented by using computer model HEC-RAS(one-dimensional model) and RMA2(two-dimensional finite element model). As a result we became to know that RMA2 to simulate left, main channel, right in stream is more effective method in analysing flow in channel bends, steep slope, complex bed form effect stream flow characteristics, than HEC-RAS. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  4. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  5. Post-pyloric feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Niv; Zvi Fireman; Nachum Vaisman

    2009-01-01

    Postpyloric feeding is an important and promising alternative to parenteral nutrition. The indications for this kind of feeding are increasing and include a variety of clinical conditions, such as gastroparesis, acute pancreatitis, gastric outlet stenosis, hyperemesis (including gravida), recurrent aspiration, tracheoesophageal fistula and stenosis in gastroenterostomy. This review discusses the differences between pre- and postpyloric feeding, indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, and provides an overview of the techniques of placement of various postpyloric devices.

  6. An Introduction to Recording, Editing, and Streaming Picture-in-Picture Ultrasound Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Hall, Mederic M; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the process by which high-definition resolution (up to 1920 × 1080 pixels) ultrasound video can be captured in conjunction with high-definition video of the transducer position (picture-in-picture). In addition, we describe how to edit the recorded video feeds to combine both feeds, and to crop, resize, split, stitch, cut, annotate videos, and also change the frame rate, insert pictures, edit the audio feed, and use chroma keying. We also describe how to stream a picture-in-picture ultrasound feed during a videoconference. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Meteor Stream Membership Criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2000-01-01

    Criteria for the membership of individual meteors in meteor streams are discussed from the point of view of their mathematical and also physical properties. Discussion is also devoted to the motivation. It is shown that standardly used criteria (mainly D-criterion of Southworth and Hawkins, 1963) have unusual mathematical properties in the sense of a term ``distance'', between points in a phase space, and, physical motivation and realization for the purpose of obtaining their final form is not natural and correct, and, moreover, they lead also to at least surprising astrophysical results. General properties of possible criteria are discussed. A new criterion for the membership in meteor streams is suggested. It is based on probability theory. Finally, a problem of meteor orbit determination for known parent body is discussed.

  8. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  9. Danger of zooplankton feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, H.; Colin, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly and ther......Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly...

  10. The LHCb Turbo stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, A.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015-2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  11. Gas stream cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Gas stream cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. The LHCb Turbo stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, A., E-mail: albert.puig@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015–2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  14. Streaming-video produktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Grønkjær

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 3: Internet Video: Teknik og pædagogik mødes på nettet, april - juni 2004, red. Jens Dørup. ISSN 1603-5518.

    E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele produktionsforløbet: fra ide til færdigt produkt, forskellige typer af præsentationer, dramaturgiske overvejelser samt en konceptskitse. Streaming-video teknologien er nu så udviklet med et så tilfredsstillende audiovisuelt udtryk at vi kan begynde at fokusere på, hvilket indhold der er velegnet til at blive gjort tilgængeligt uafhængigt af tid og sted. Afslutningsvis er der en række kildehenvisninger, blandt andet en oversigt over de streaming-video produktioner, som denne artikel bygger på.

  15. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  16. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  17. Feeding biology of Cerambycids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    There are more than 36,000 species of Cerambycidae recognized throughout the world (see Chapter 1), occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Linsley 1959). Given such numbers, it is not surprising that cerambycids display great diversity in their feeding habits. Both adults and larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous. Some adults appear not to feed at all,...

  18. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Common illnesses ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Family health & safety ') ...

  20. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  1. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  2. The California stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Egler, Amanda L.; May, Jason T.

    2017-03-06

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project is assessing stream quality in coastal California, United States. The USGS California Stream Quality Assessment (CSQA) will sample streams over most of the Central California Foothills and Coastal Mountains ecoregion (modified from Griffith and others, 2016), where rapid urban growth and intensive agriculture in the larger river valleys are raising concerns that stream health is being degraded. Findings will provide the public and policy-makers with information regarding which human and natural factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region.

  3. The Southeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. The goal of the Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA) is to characterize multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life—contaminants, nutrients, sediment, and streamflow alteration—and the relation of these stressors to ecological conditions in streams throughout the region. Findings will provide communities and policymakers with information on which human and environmental factors are the most critical in controlling stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve stream quality. The SESQA study will be the second regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment conducted in 2013 (Van Metre and others, 2012).

  4. The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Document Server

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 wi...

  5. The LHCb Turbo Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Sean; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Williams, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction and discarding the raw event. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissi...

  6. The LHCb Turbo Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  7. Mining developer communication data streams

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Andy M.; Jacqui Finlay; Russel Pears

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the concepts of modelling a sof tware development project as a process that results in the creation of a continuous stream of d ata. In terms of the Jazz repository used in this research, one aspect of that stream of data would b e developer communication. Such data can be used to create an evolving social network charac terized by a range of metrics. This paper presents the application of data stream mining tech ni...

  8. Acoustic streaming with heat exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, A. A.; Pyatkova, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Acoustic streaming in a cylindrical cavity with heat exchange is numerically investigated. The cavity is filled with air. The boundaries of the cavity are maintained at constant temperature. The features of acoustic streaming manifesting with the decrease in the frequency of vibration in comparison with the resonant frequency are determined. The influence of the nonlinearity of process on acoustic streaming is shown. The nonlinearity is caused by the increase of the vibration amplitude.

  9. The Phoenix Stream: A Cold Stream in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinot, E.; Yanny, B.; Li, T. S.; Santiago, B.; Marshall, J. L.; Finley, D. A.; Pieres, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age τ = 11.5 ± 0.5 Gyr and [Fe/H] < -1.6, located 17.5 ± 0.9 kpc from the Sun, gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8.°1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of ˜54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster (GC) is a probable progenitor. There is no known GC within 5 kpc that is compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities (ODs) along the stream, however, no obvious counterpart-bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find ODs along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed—consistent with the epicyclic OD scenario for the formation of cold streams—as well as a misalignment between the northern and southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe OD.

  10. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  11. Data streams algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Muthukrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Data stream algorithms as an active research agenda emerged only over the past few years, even though the concept of making few passes over the data for performing computations has been around since the early days of Automata Theory. The data stream agenda now pervades many branches of Computer Science including databases, networking, knowledge discovery and data mining, and hardware systems. Industry is in synch too, with Data Stream Management Systems (DSMSs) and special hardware to deal with data speeds. Even beyond Computer Science, data stream concerns are emerging in physics, atmospheric

  12. Stream Productivity by Outermost Termination

    CERN Document Server

    Zantema, Hans; 10.4204/EPTCS.15.7

    2010-01-01

    Streams are infinite sequences over a given data type. A stream specification is a set of equations intended to define a stream. A core property is productivity: unfolding the equations produces the intended stream in the limit. In this paper we show that productivity is equivalent to termination with respect to the balanced outermost strategy of a TRS obtained by adding an additional rule. For specifications not involving branching symbols balancedness is obtained for free, by which tools for proving outermost termination can be used to prove productivity fully automatically.

  13. Stream Productivity by Outermost Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Zantema

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams are infinite sequences over a given data type. A stream specification is a set of equations intended to define a stream. A core property is productivity: unfolding the equations produces the intended stream in the limit. In this paper we show that productivity is equivalent to termination with respect to the balanced outermost strategy of a TRS obtained by adding an additional rule. For specifications not involving branching symbols balancedness is obtained for free, by which tools for proving outermost termination can be used to prove productivity fully automatically.

  14. Towards the development of a high-sensitivity cryogenic phased array feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshi, D. A.; Warnick, K. F.; Brandt, J.; Fisher, J. R.; Ford, P.; Jeffs, B. D.; Marganian, P.; McLeod, M.; Mello, M.; Morgan, M.; Norrod, R.; Shillue, W.; Simon, R.; White, S.

    2014-08-01

    A cryogenic phased array feed operating at L-band is in development for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The feed consists of electrically small feed elements optimized for active impedance matching to cooled front end low noise amplifiers (LNAs), down-converters, a real-time streaming data acquisition system, and beamforming algorithms applied in post-processing. A prototype cryogenic array feed was recently tested on the GBT. This results will be an important step towards the development of a new receiver instrument, the focal L-band array for the GBT (FLAG).

  15. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  16. mVideoCast: Mobile, real time ROI detection and streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Scott; Adcock, John

    2010-01-01

    A variety of applications are emerging to support streaming video from mobile devices. However, many tasks can benefit from streaming specific content rather than the full video feed which may include irrelevant, private, or distracting content. We describe a system that allows users to capture and stream targeted video content captured with a mobile device. The application incorporates a variety of automatic and interactive techniques to identify and segment desired content in the camera view, allowing the user to publish a more focused video.

  17. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; NIKAIDO, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  18. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; NIKAIDO, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is ... and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  6. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  7. ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  8. Escape of protists in predator-generated feeding currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate Strobilidium sp. and 2 flagellates, Chrysochromulina simplex and Gymnodinium sp., were exposed to predator-generated feeding currents, and their escape responses were quantified using 2- and 3-dimensional video techniques. All 3 studied organisms responded by escaping at a defined...... of Strobilidium sp. to the copepod Temora longicornis. The predicted reaction distance fit closely that measured, When the flagellates were exposed to the flow field of the ciliate Uronema filificum, they both responded up-stream to the feeding current. From the distance at which the flagellates responded...

  9. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.M.

    2000-10-30

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  10. A Multiplexing Algorithm of Multiple Elementary Streams Based on Virtual Buffer Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Zhixiong; ZOU Xuecheng; LIU Weizhong; CHEN Weibing

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a prototype of virtual decoder of the transport stream's system target decoder (T-STD).By connecting the coding model and decoding model, and feeding the overflow of decoding buffer back to control coding, we have got a self-adaptive coding model, and propose an algorithm of multiplexing multiple elementary streams to a transport stream based on the principle of virtual buffer controlling strategy. The transport stream (TS) which uses this method passes the test of software unzipping and set-top-box (STB) playing, and all of the analyzing parameters which are detected by code analyzer accord with the standard of MPEG-2. Some problems that playing time becomes longer and mu-tiple TS streaming can not be fit for all the players are also analyzed.

  11. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  12. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  13. Breast feeding in IMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A; Depondt, E; Evans, S; Daly, A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani A, A; Saudubray, J-M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs on diet) identified breast feeding experience in IMD. Successful, demand breast feeding (in combination with an infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids) was reported in 17 infants with MSUD, 14 with tyrosinaemia type I, and 5 with homocystinuria. Eighty-nine per cent were still breast fed at 16 weeks. Fewer infants with organic acidaemias were demand breast fed (7 with propionic acidaemia; 6 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 13 with isovaleric acidaemia) (usually preceded by complementary feeds of a protein-free infant formula or infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids). Only 12 infants with urea cycle disorders were given demand breast feeds, but this was unsuccessful beyond 8 days in CPS deficiency. Further work is needed in developing guidelines for feeding and for clinical and biochemical monitoring for breast-fed infants with IMDs.

  14. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system.

  15. The mass of the Geminid meteoroid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabova, G. O.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a method for calculation of the mass of a meteoroid stream. The idea of the proposed method is simple: comparing observed meteor showers of the stream with their model. If we have a mathematical model for the stream, we know the total number of particles in the model stream and the number of particles registered at the Earth. We also know the mass distributions in the model stream and the model shower. Assuming that relations for the model stream are valid for the real stream, we calculate the real stream mass. The Geminid stream mass estimated on radar and visual observations is found to be 1016-1018 g.

  16. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  17. Save Our Streams and Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Protection of existing water supplies is critical to ensuring good health for people and animals alike. This program is aligned with the Izaak Walton League of American's Save Our Streams program which is based on the concept that students can greatly improve the quality of a nearby stream, pond, or river by regular visits and monitoring. The…

  18. We All Stream for Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    More than ever, teachers are using digital video to enhance their lessons. In fact, the number of schools using video streaming increased from 30 percent to 45 percent between 2004 and 2006, according to Market Data Retrieval. Why the popularity? For starters, video-streaming products are easy to use. They allow teachers to punctuate lessons with…

  19. Stream Deniable-Encryption Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Moldovyan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for stream deniable encryption of secret message is proposed, which is computationally indistinguishable from the probabilistic encryption of some fake message. The method uses generation of two key streams with some secure block cipher. One of the key streams is generated depending on the secret key and the other one is generated depending on the fake key. The key streams are mixed with the secret and fake data streams so that the output ciphertext looks like the ciphertext produced by some probabilistic encryption algorithm applied to the fake message, while using the fake key. When the receiver or/and sender of the ciphertext are coerced to open the encryption key and the source message, they open the fake key and the fake message. To disclose their lie the coercer should demonstrate possibility of the alternative decryption of the ciphertext, however this is a computationally hard problem.

  20. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, John T.

    1973-01-01

    The generally regular three-dimensional geometry of drainage networks is the basis for a simple method of terrain analysis providing clues to bedrock conditions and other factors that determine topographic forms. On a reach of any stream, a gradient-index value can be obtained which allows meaningful comparisons of channel slope on streams of different sizes. The index is believed to reflect stream power or competence and is simply the product of the channel slope at a point and channel length measured along the longest stream above the pointwhere the calculation is made. In an adjusted topography, changes in gradient-index values along a stream generally correspond to differences in bedrock or introduced load. In any landscape the gradient index of a stream is related to total relief and stream regimen. Thus, climate, tectonic events, and geomorphic history must be considered in using the gradient index. Gradient-index values can be obtained quickly by simple measurements on topographic maps, or they can be obtained by more sophisticated photogrammetric measurements that involve simple computer calculations from x, y, z coordinates.

  1. The Phoenix stream: a cold stream in the Southern hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Balbinot, E; Li, T S; Santiago, B; Marshall, J L; Finley, D A; Pieres, A; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Estrada, J; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; March, M; Martini, P; Miquel, R; Nichol, R C; Ogando, R; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Walker, A R

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its residing constellation. Through the subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age $\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$ Gyr and ${\\rm [Fe/H]}<-1.6$ located 17.5$\\pm$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$^{\\circ}$.1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $\\sim$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along...

  2. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double......-lumen duodenal perfusion/aspiration techniques over 6 hours. Subjects were assigned to no feeding (n = 7), duodenal feeding with a polymeric diet (n = 7) or low-fat elemental diet (n = 6), mid-distal jejunal feeding (n = 11), or intravenous feeding (n = 5). All diets provided 40 kcal/kg ideal body weight/d and 1...

  3. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  4. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  5. Major Kansas Perennial Streams : 1961 and 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of major perennial streams in Kansas for the years 1961 and 2009. The map shows a decrease in streams regarded as perennial in 1961, compared to stream regarded...

  6. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  7. Combining taxonomy and function in the study of stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Cummins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifty years, research on freshwater macroinvertebrates has been driven largely by the state of the taxonomy of these animals. In the great majority of studies conducted during the 2000s macroinvertebrates have been operationally defined by investigators as invertebrates retained by a 250 μ mesh in field sampling devices. Significant advances have been and continue to be made in developing ever more refined keys to macroinvertebrate groups. The analysis by function is a viable alternative when advances in macroinvertebrate ecological research is restricted by the level of detail in identifications. Focus on function, namely adaptations of macroinvertebrates to habitats and the utilization of food resources, has facilitated ecological evaluation of freshwater ecosystems (Functional feeding groups; FFG. As the great stream ecologist Noel Hynes observed, aquatic insects around the world exhibit similar morphologies and behaviors, even though they are in very different taxonomic groups. This is the basis for the FFG analysis that was initially developed in the early 1970s. FFG analysis applies taxonomy only to the level of detail that allows assignment to one of six FFG categories: scrapers adapted to feed on periphyton, detrital shredders adapted to feed on coarse (CPOM riparian-derived plant litter that has been colonized by microbes, herbivore shredders that feed on live, rooted aquatic vascular plants, filtering collectors adapted to remove fine particle detritus (FPOM from the water column, gathering collectors adapted to feed on FPOM where it is deposited on surfaces or in crevices in the sediments, and predators that capture live prey. The interacting roles of these FFGs in stream ecosystems were originally depicted in a conceptual model. Thus, there are a limited number of adaptations exhibited by stream macroinvertebrates that exploit these habitats and food resources. This accounts for the wide range of macroinvertebrate taxa

  8. A study on attenuation of a Nd:YAG laser power by co-axial and off-axial nozzle powder stream during cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ya, W.; Hernández-Sánchez, J.F.; Pathiraj, B.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of powder stream when using different feeding nozzles on the attenuation of the laser power were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The powder streams were recorded with a high speed camera. The average velocity of the particles was obtained using standard Particle Image Velo

  9. Streaming patterns in Faraday waves

    CERN Document Server

    Périnet, Nicolas; Urra, Héctor; Mujica, Nicolás; Gordillo, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Waves patterns in the Faraday instability have been studied for decades. Besides the rich dynamics that can be observed on the waves at the interface, Faraday waves hide beneath them an elusive range of flow patterns --or streaming patterns-- which have not been studied in detail until now. The streaming patterns are responsible for a net circulation in the flow which are reminiscent of convection cells. In this article, we analyse these streaming flows by conducting experiments in a Faraday-wave setup. To visualize the flows, tracers are used to generate both trajectory maps and to probe the streaming velocity field via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). We identify three types of patterns and experimentally show that identical Faraday waves can mask streaming patterns that are qualitatively very different. Next we propose a three-dimensional model that explains streaming flows in quasi-inviscid fluids. We show that the streaming inside the fluid arises from a complex coupling between the bulk and the boundar...

  10. Leaf Degradation, Macroinvertebrate Shredders & Energy Flow in Streams: A Laboratory-Based Exercise Examining Ecosystem Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Timothy C.; Mills, Colleen M.; Volesky, Lisa; Talkington, Jennifer; Brooke, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-based exercise that demonstrates mechanisms underlying leaf degradation in streams. Students examine the effects of "leaf conditioning" on the feeding behavior of invertebrate shredders. The exercise is completed in two sessions and can be adapted to both high school and college levels.

  11. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  12. CodedStream: live media streaming with overlay coded multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Zhu, Ying; Li, Baochun

    2003-12-01

    Multicasting is a natural paradigm for streaming live multimedia to multiple end receivers. Since IP multicast is not widely deployed, many application-layer multicast protocols have been proposed. However, all of these schemes focus on the construction of multicast trees, where a relatively small number of links carry the multicast streaming load, while the capacity of most of the other links in the overlay network remain unused. In this paper, we propose CodedStream, a high-bandwidth live media distribution system based on end-system overlay multicast. In CodedStream, we construct a k-redundant multicast graph (a directed acyclic graph) as the multicast topology, on which network coding is applied to work around bottlenecks. Simulation results have shown that the combination of k-redundant multicast graph and network coding may indeed bring significant benefits with respect to improving the quality of live media at the end receivers.

  13. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream environments reflect, in part, the hydrologic integration of upstream landscapes. Characterizing upstream landscape features is critical for effectively understanding, managing, and conserving riverine ecosystems. However, watershed delineation is a major challenge if hund...

  14. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; KITZINGER, Jenny; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  15. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  16. Rivers and streams: Ecosystem dynamics and integrating paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, K.W.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full understanding of running waters requires an ecosystem perspective, which encompasses the physical and chemical setting in interaction with dependent biological communities. Several conceptual models or paradigms of river and stream ecosystems that capture critical components of lotic ecosystems have been developed, including the ‘river continuum concept’, to describe fluxes of matter and energy within the stream or river channel together with exchanges between the channel and its terrestrial setting. A complete ecosystem perspective includes consideration of hierarchical spatial scales in a temporal context. Flow of energy in lotic ecosystems is driven by two alternative energy sources: sunlight regulating in-stream photosynthesis and plant litter derived from the stream-side riparian corridor or floodplain. Energy transfers within the ecosystem pass through micro- and macroproducers (algae and vascular hydrophytes) and micro- and macroconsumers (microorganisms, invertebrates, and vertebrates). Material fluxes encompass the cycling of key nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and the transport, storage, and metabolism of dissolved (DOM) and particulate (POM) organic matter (OM). Growth of lotic periphyton (algae and associated microbes, microzoans, and detritus) and coarse (CPOM) and fine (FPOM) particulate organic matter constitute the food resources of nonpredaceous running-water invertebrates (e.g., shredders that consume CPOM and collectors that feed on FPOM and associated microbes of both).

  17. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  18. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  19. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  20. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  1. [History of complementary feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  3. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  5. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  6. vysmaw: Fast visibility stream muncher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Martin; Law, Casey J.

    2017-10-01

    The vysmaw client library facilitates the development of code for processes to tap into the fast visibility stream on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array correlator back-end InfiniBand network.

  7. Stream Mitigation Protocol Compendium - 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended as a reference in order to select, adapt, or devise stream assessment methods appropriate for impact assessment and mitigation of fluvial resources in the CWA Section 404 Program.

  8. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  9. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming.

  10. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  11. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  12. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed intake is ... apportionment of consumed energy towards protein and ..... alia, genetic potential for protein deposition and its ... The content and dietary balance of feed nutrients, such as ...

  13. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  14. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal’s production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by­products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken. PMID:28507415

  15. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  16. Unique Challenges to (Federal) Enterprise Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Enterprise streaming has different parameters than consumer Streaming. The government enterprise has some differences on top of that. I'd like to highlight some issues shared by the Federal government as a whole, with a closer look at streaming within NASA. Then we'll look at NASA's strategy for streaming.

  17. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly distributed diurnal feeding patterns. However, differences in feeding patterns resulting from feed presentation did not persist after 8 wk of age, when all calves were fed a mixed ration. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  19. Live feeds in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, Ph.; Sorgeloos, P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two decades intensive larviculture of several fish and shellfish species has expanded into a multimillion dollar industry. Although much progress has been made in identifying the dietary requirements of the larvae of various aquaculture species, the mass culture of their early larval stages still requires the use of live feeds. Selected either through trial and error approaches or because of their convenience in mass production and use, hatcheries are relying today on three grou...

  20. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  1. Residual Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  2. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk, vi...

  3. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network....

  4. Food Safety Information RSS feed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...

  5. Multiple part feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design/methodology/approach - Th......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design....../methodology/approach - The necessary AIMM technologies exist at a mature level - the reason that no mobile manipulators have yet been implemented in industrial environments, is that research in the right applications have not been carried out. We propose a pragmatic approach consisting of: a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile...... manipulator system design ("Little Helper"), a suitable and comprehensive industrial application (multiple part feeding), and a general implementation concept for industrial environments (the "Bartender Concept"). Findings - Results from the three days of real-world demonstration show that "Little Helper...

  6. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  7. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  8. The catalytic combustion of natural gas in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neomagus, H.W.J.P.; Saracco, G.; Wessel, H.F.W.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental and modelling analysis of the performance of a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants for the combustion of methane. In this reactor concept methane and air streams are fed at opposite sides of a Pt/γ-Al2O3-activated porous membrane which hosts their

  9. The catalytic combustion of natural gas in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neomagus, H.W.J.P.; Saracco, G.; Wessel, H.F.W.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental and modelling analysis of the performance of a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants for the combustion of methane. In this reactor concept methane and air streams are fed at opposite sides of a Pt/γ-Al2O3-activated porous membrane which hosts their rea

  10. The catalytic combustion of natural gas in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neomagus, H.W.J.P.; Saracco, G.; Wessel, H.F.W.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an experimental and modelling analysis of the performance of a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants for the combustion of methane. In this reactor concept methane and air streams are fed at opposite sides of a Pt/γ-Al2O3-activated porous membrane which hosts their rea

  11. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  12. Mining Developer Communication Data Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Connor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the concepts of modelling a sof tware development project as a process that results in the creation of a continuous stream of d ata. In terms of the Jazz repository used in this research, one aspect of that stream of data would b e developer communication. Such data can be used to create an evolving social network charac terized by a range of metrics. This paper presents the application of data stream mining tech niques to identify the most useful metrics for predicting build outcomes. Results are presented fr om applying the Hoeffding Tree classification method used in conjunction with the Adaptive Sliding Window (ADWIN method for detecting concept drift. The results indicate t hat only a small number of the available metrics considered have any significance for predicting the outcome of a build.

  13. Dynamic visualization of data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak Chung; Foote, Harlan P.; Adams, Daniel R.; Cowley, Wendy E.; Thomas, James J.

    2009-07-07

    One embodiment of the present invention includes a data communication subsystem to receive a data stream, and a data processing subsystem responsive to the data communication subsystem to generate a visualization output based on a group of data vectors corresponding to a first portion of the data stream. The processing subsystem is further responsive to a change in rate of receipt of the data to modify the visualization output with one or more other data vectors corresponding to a second portion of the data stream as a function of eigenspace defined with the group of data vectors. The system further includes a display device responsive to the visualization output to provide a corresponding visualization.

  14. A Robust Streaming Media System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youwei, Zhang

    Presently, application layer multicast protocols (ALM) are proposed as substitute for IP multicast and have made extraordinary achievements. Integrated with Multi-data-stream mode such as Multiple Description Coding (MDC), ALM becomes more scalable and robust in high-dynamic Internet environment compared with single data stream. Although MDC can provide a flexible data transmission style, the synchronization of different descriptions encoded from one video source is proved to be difficult due to different delay on diverse transmission paths. In this paper, an ALM system called HMDC is proposed to improve accepted video quality of streaming media, hosts can join the separate overlay trees in different layers simultaneously, then the maximum synchronized descriptions of the same layer are worked out to acquire the best video quality. Simulations implemented on Internet-like topology indicate that HMDC achieves better video quality, lower link stress, higher robustness and comparable latency compared with traditional ALM protocols.

  15. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  16. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  17. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  18. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child.

  19. Salamander occupancy in headwater stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.H.C.; Green, L.E.; Lowe, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Stream ecosystems exhibit a highly consistent dendritic geometry in which linear habitat units intersect to create a hierarchical network of connected branches. 2. Ecological and life history traits of species living in streams, such as the potential for overland movement, may interact with this architecture to shape patterns of occupancy and response to disturbance. Specifically, large-scale habitat alteration that fragments stream networks and reduces connectivity may reduce the probability a stream is occupied by sensitive species, such as stream salamanders. 3. We collected habitat occupancy data on four species of stream salamanders in first-order (i.e. headwater) streams in undeveloped and urbanised regions of the eastern U.S.A. We then used an information-theoretic approach to test alternative models of salamander occupancy based on a priori predictions of the effects of network configuration, region and salamander life history. 4. Across all four species, we found that streams connected to other first-order streams had higher occupancy than those flowing directly into larger streams and rivers. For three of the four species, occupancy was lower in the urbanised region than in the undeveloped region. 5. These results demonstrate that the spatial configuration of stream networks within protected areas affects the occurrences of stream salamander species. We strongly encourage preservation of network connections between first-order streams in conservation planning and management decisions that may affect stream species.

  20. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children What are ... children with feeding and swallowing disorders ? What are feeding and swallowing disorders? Feeding disorders include problems gathering ...

  1. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  2. Fish assemblages in stream stretches occupied by cattail (Typhaceae, Angiospermae stands in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Carla da Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a major component of lentic and lotic aquatic ecosystems. As consequences of environmental degradation, species of cattail (genus Typha may become dominant along streams. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure and feeding of fish assemblages in stream stretches under influence of Typha sp., also addressing the influences of temporal variation on composition, abundance, biomass, diversity, species richness, and feeding of fish. Six streams (labelled S1-S6 in the upper rio Turvo basin, southeast Brazil, with dense stands of Typha sp. in the instream and riparian habitat, were studied in six campaigns during three central months in both of the dry and wet periods, by using a standardized collection effort. Thirty-seven fish species were registered, totaling 4,228 individuals and 3.9 kg of biomass. Abundance, biomass, diversity, and species richness was higher in the wet period, but only the temporal variation in the species richness revealed to be statistically significant. Cluster analyses with composition and abundance showed little temporal similarity, but indicated two groups of streams (S1-S2-S5 and S3-S4-S6, that were corroborated along the axis 1 of the ordination analysis. Resident species was represented by six species, most of them considered tolerant and generalists. Chironomidae aquatic larvae and detritus were the most important items in the fish diet. These results suggest that the fish populations are opportunistic in exploring stream stretches occupied by cattail.

  3. Re-feeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadaba, A; Paine, J; Adlard, R; Dilkes, M

    2001-09-01

    The effect of a therapeutically administered high calorie diet in a severely malnourished patient is discussed in this case report. In patients with advanced head and neck cancer prolonged periods of malnutrition prior to admission are frequently encountered. This case report highlights the need to constantly monitor the electrolyte and vitamin levels during the early stages of instituting enteral or parenteral nutrition. By vigilant monitoring and a high index of suspicion re-feeding syndrome or severe hypophosphataemia and its associated complications can be avoided.

  4. Feeding the Beast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Anders; Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of fear, we argue, this predisposes people to vote for anti-immigration parties. Our analysis highlights the position of anti-immigration parties; hence, the Sweden Democrats (SD) in Sweden and the Danish People’s Party (DPP) in Denmark. We use frame analysis to detect recurrent frames in the media debate...... as such plays a similar role and provides the DPP with an identity. We conclude that we are confronted with a two-faced beast that feeds on perceptions of the people as ultimately afraid of what are not recognized as native goods....

  5. Food and feed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  6. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  7. Pattern Matching in Multiple Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Clifford, Raphael; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the problem of deterministic pattern matching in multiple streams. In this model, one symbol arrives at a time and is associated with one of s streaming texts. The task at each time step is to report if there is a new match between a fixed pattern of length m and a newly updated stream. As is usual in the streaming context, the goal is to use as little space as possible while still reporting matches quickly. We give almost matching upper and lower space bounds for three distinct pattern matching problems. For exact matching we show that the problem can be solved in constant time per arriving symbol and O(m+s) words of space. For the k-mismatch and k-differences problems we give O(k) time solutions that require O(m+ks) words of space. In all three cases we also give space lower bounds which show our methods are optimal up to a single logarithmic factor. Finally we set out a number of open problems related to this new model for pattern matching.

  8. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  9. Streaming Algorithms for Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abam, Mohammad; de Berg, Mark; Hachenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    this problem in a streaming setting, where we only have a limited amount of storage, so that we cannot store all the points. We analyze the competitive ratio of our algorithms, allowing resource augmentation: we let our algorithm maintain a simplification with 2k (internal) points and compare the error of our...

  10. Efficient architectures for streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerard J.M.; Kokkeler, André B.J.; Wolkotte, Pascal T.; Burgwal, van de Marcel D.; Heysters, Paul M.; Athanas, P.; Becker, J.; Brebner, G.; Teich, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will focus on algorithms and reconfigurable tiled architectures for streaming DSP applications. The tile concept will not only be applied on chip level but also on board-level and system-level. The tile concept has a number of advantages: (1) depending on the requirements more or l

  11. Analysis of streaming media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia services have been popping up at tremendous speed in recent years. A large number of these multimedia streaming systems are introduced to the consumer market. Internet Service Providers, Telecommunications Operators, Service/Content Providers, and end users are interested in the mechanism

  12. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  13. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple distribu......A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  14. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimated Perennial Streams in Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Perennial streams in Idaho have been modeled using regression equations for 7-day, 2-year low flows (7Q2) described in Wood and others (2009, U.S. Geological Survey...

  16. SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND STREAM POWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih Ted YANG

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a step-by-step derivation of the sediment transport functions by Engelund and Hansen (1967) and by Ackers and White (1973). The theoretical derivations demonstrate that these two functions are closely related to Bagnold's (1966) stream power and efficiency concepts.

  17. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  18. INFORMATION STREAMS OF LOGISTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Zhivitskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of formalisation and practical realisation of information streams of logistical systems, as the basic component of a separate kind of systems the logistical information systems having the features and properties that allows to investigate them by means of methods, applicable to information systems is considered.

  19. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  20. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  1. An efficient petiole-feeding bioassay for introducing aqueous solutions into dicotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Meng-Han; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2011-01-01

    Introducing bioactive molecules into plants helps establish their roles in plant growth and development. Here we describe a simple and effective petiole-feeding protocol to introduce aqueous solutions into the vascular stream and apoplast of dicotyledonous plants. This 'intravenous feeding' procedure has wide applicability to plant physiology, specifically with regard to the analysis of source-sink allocations, long-distance signaling, hormone biology and overall plant development. In comparison with existing methods, this technique allows the continuous feeding of aqueous solutions into plants without the need for constant monitoring. Findings are provided from experiments using soybean plants fed with a range of aqueous solutions containing tracer dyes, small metabolites, radiolabeled chemicals and biologically active plant extracts controlling nodulation. Typically, feeding experiments consist of (i) generating samples to feed (extracts, solutions and so on); (ii) growing recipient plants; (iii) setting up the feeding apparatus; and (iv) feeding sample solutions into the recipient plants. When the plants are ready, the feeding procedure can take 1-3 h to set up depending on the size of experiment (not including preparation of materials). The petiole-feeding technique also works with other plant species, including tomato, chili pepper and cabbage plants, as demonstrated here.

  2. Dynamical Modelling of Meteoroid Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David; Wiegert, P. A.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate simulations of meteoroid streams permit the prediction of stream interaction with Earth, and provide a measure of risk to Earth satellites and interplanetary spacecraft. Current cometary ejecta and meteoroid stream models have been somewhat successful in predicting some stream observations, but have required questionable assumptions and significant simplifications. Extending on the approach of Vaubaillon et al. (2005)1, we model dust ejection from the cometary nucleus, and generate sample particles representing bins of distinct dynamical evolution-regulating characteristics (size, density, direction, albedo). Ephemerides of the sample particles are integrated and recorded for later assignment of frequency based on model parameter changes. To assist in model analysis we are developing interactive software to permit the “turning of knobs” of model parameters, allowing for near-real-time 3D visualization of resulting stream structure. With this tool, we will revisit prior assumptions made, and will observe the impact of introducing non-uniform cometary surface attributes and temporal activity. The software uses a single model definition and implementation throughout model verification, sample particle bin generation and integration, and analysis. It supports the adjustment with feedback of both independent and independent model values, with the intent of providing an interface supporting multivariate analysis. Propagations of measurement uncertainties and model parameter precisions are tracked rigorously throughout. We maintain a separation of the model itself from the abstract concepts of model definition, parameter manipulation, and real-time analysis and visualization. Therefore we are able to quickly adapt to fundamental model changes. It is hoped the tool will also be of use in other solar system dynamics problems. 1 Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Jorda, L. (2005) A new method to predict meteor showers. I. Description of the model. Astronomy and

  3. Multiple-Morphs Adaptive Stream Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Wen; Nan Wu; Hai-Yan Li; Chun-Yuan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    In modern VLSI technology, hundreds of thousands of arithmetic units fit on a 1cm2 chip. The challenge is supplying them with instructions and data. Stream architecture is able to solve the problem well. However, the applications suited for typical stream architecture are limited. This paper presents the definition of regular stream and irregular stream,and then describes MASA (Multiple-morphs Adaptive Stream Architecture) prototype system which supports different execution models according to applications' stream characteristics. This paper first discusses MASA architecture and stream model, and then explores the features and advantages of MASA through mapping stream applications to hardware.Finally MASA is evaluated by ten benchmarks. The result is encouraging.

  4. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  5. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  6. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  7. Using Stream Features for Instant Document Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how event processing technologies can be employed for real-time text stream processing and information filtering in the context of the TREC 2012 microblog task. After introducing basic characteristics of stream and event processing, the technical architecture of our text stream analysis engine is presented. Employing well-known term weighting schemes from document-centric text retrieval for temporally dynamic text streams is discussed next, giving details of the ESPE...

  8. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  9. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  10. Generating breakthrough new product ideas feeding the innovation funnel

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Senior executives are experiencing a shortage of game-changing ideas that drive growth. This book explains how to feed the innovation funnel with a steady stream of breakthrough new product ideas, providing numerous examples of the methods, approaches and techniques used by leading companies such as Motorola and Procter & Gamble. Learn more about the impact you can make by leveraging an innovation strategy, voice-of-customer research, external ideas via open innovation, employees? creative talent and fundamental research. Establish a proactive Discovery Stage that focuses on the drivers of innovation performance to transform your organization into an innovation machine.

  11. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate......Many traditional bio-processes are operated in semi-batch mode, in which, a feed stream containing substrate and or nutrients is fed into the reactor during the course of the reaction. One key advantage of a semi-batch operation is that regulation of the substrate concentration has been found...

  12. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  13. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  14. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  15. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  16. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  17. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  18. Land Use Influences Niche Size and the Assimilation of Resources by Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Tropical Headwater Streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marcel Parreira de Castro

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that assemblage structure of stream macroinvertebrates changes with alterations in catchment or local land use. Our objective was to understand how the trophic ecology of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages responds to land use changes in tropical streams. We used the isotope methodology to assess how energy flow and trophic relations among macroinvertebrates were affected in environments affected by different land uses (natural cover, pasture, sugar cane plantation. Macroinvertebrates were sampled and categorized into functional feeding groups, and available trophic resources were sampled and evaluated for the isotopic composition of 13C and 15N along streams located in the Cerrado (neotropical savanna. Streams altered by pasture or sugar cane had wider and more overlapped trophic niches, which corresponded to more generalist feeding habits. In contrast, trophic groups in streams with native vegetation had narrower trophic niches with smaller overlaps, suggesting greater specialization. Pasture sites had greater ranges of resources exploited, indicating higher trophic diversity than sites with natural cover and sugar cane plantation. We conclude that agricultural land uses appears to alter the food base and shift macroinvertebrate assemblages towards more generalist feeding behaviors and greater overlap of the trophic niches.

  19. Land Use Influences Niche Size and the Assimilation of Resources by Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Tropical Headwater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira de Castro, Diego Marcel; Reis de Carvalho, Débora; Pompeu, Paulo dos Santos; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld; Callisto, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that assemblage structure of stream macroinvertebrates changes with alterations in catchment or local land use. Our objective was to understand how the trophic ecology of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages responds to land use changes in tropical streams. We used the isotope methodology to assess how energy flow and trophic relations among macroinvertebrates were affected in environments affected by different land uses (natural cover, pasture, sugar cane plantation). Macroinvertebrates were sampled and categorized into functional feeding groups, and available trophic resources were sampled and evaluated for the isotopic composition of 13C and 15N along streams located in the Cerrado (neotropical savanna). Streams altered by pasture or sugar cane had wider and more overlapped trophic niches, which corresponded to more generalist feeding habits. In contrast, trophic groups in streams with native vegetation had narrower trophic niches with smaller overlaps, suggesting greater specialization. Pasture sites had greater ranges of resources exploited, indicating higher trophic diversity than sites with natural cover and sugar cane plantation. We conclude that agricultural land uses appears to alter the food base and shift macroinvertebrate assemblages towards more generalist feeding behaviors and greater overlap of the trophic niches. PMID:26934113

  20. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati...

  1. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and secondary production in three wood-poor, second-growth, headwater streams in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, S. A.; Rosi-Marshall, E. J.; Tank, J. L.; Lamberti, G. A.

    2005-05-01

    Benthic organic matter (BOM) is retained by in-stream wood in forested streams and is often the primary food resource for aquatic macroinvertebrates. We sampled BOM and macroinvertebrates in three, forested headwater streams within the same watershed and predicted that BOM standing stocks would be high and, therefore, macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups would be dominated by shredders and gatherers. However, all streams had low annual average standing stocks of BOM (75 to 166 gAFDM m-2), and low shredder biomass (bryophytes for food and habitat. We conclude that macroinvertebrate communities in these streams are limited by BOM that was not retained in-stream because of reduced wood inputs from past logging.

  2. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    challenging for larval rearing. After the start of exogenous feeding, another intense and likely critical period of change occurs in the early life stages of fish. This stage is the metamorphosis, during which the larvae transform organs and body morphology to become juveniles. Compared to other teleosts...... metamorphosis in flatfish species is often unsuccessful, resulting in different types of abnormal development. The objective of this thesis was to analyse the feeding behaviour of the flatfish species turbot (Psetta maxima L.) larvae during the two crucial life periods, 1) first feeding and 2) metamorphosis....... To analyse whether these two periods are critical for the correct development and survival of turbot, feeding behaviours of larvae during the period of first feeding and during the first stages of metamorphosis was studied using video recordings. This provided qualitative and quantitative descriptions...

  3. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  4. Matisse: A Visual Analytics System for Exploring Emotion Trends in Social Media Text Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Drouhard, Margaret MEG G [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Pyle, Joshua M [ORNL; BogenII, Paul L. [Google Inc.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamically mining textual information streams to gain real-time situational awareness is especially challenging with social media systems where throughput and velocity properties push the limits of a static analytical approach. In this paper, we describe an interactive visual analytics system, called Matisse, that aids with the discovery and investigation of trends in streaming text. Matisse addresses the challenges inherent to text stream mining through the following technical contributions: (1) robust stream data management, (2) automated sentiment/emotion analytics, (3) interactive coordinated visualizations, and (4) a flexible drill-down interaction scheme that accesses multiple levels of detail. In addition to positive/negative sentiment prediction, Matisse provides fine-grained emotion classification based on Valence, Arousal, and Dominance dimensions and a novel machine learning process. Information from the sentiment/emotion analytics are fused with raw data and summary information to feed temporal, geospatial, term frequency, and scatterplot visualizations using a multi-scale, coordinated interaction model. After describing these techniques, we conclude with a practical case study focused on analyzing the Twitter sample stream during the week of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. The case study demonstrates the effectiveness of Matisse at providing guided situational awareness of significant trends in social media streams by orchestrating computational power and human cognition.

  5. Structural and functional responses of benthic invertebrates to imidacloprid in outdoor stream mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, J.L.T., E-mail: jpestana@ua.p [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Environment Canada at Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 10 Bailey Drive, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Alexander, A.C., E-mail: alexa.alexander@unb.c [Environment Canada at Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 10 Bailey Drive, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Culp, J.M., E-mail: jculp@unb.c [Environment Canada at Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 10 Bailey Drive, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Baird, D.J., E-mail: djbaird@unb.c [Environment Canada at Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, 10 Bailey Drive, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Cessna, A.J., E-mail: asoares@ua.p [Environment Canada, National Hydrology Research Centre, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Soares, A.M.V.M., E-mail: asoares@ua.p [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    Structural and functional responses of a benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage to pulses of the insecticide imidacloprid were assessed in outdoor stream mesocosms. Imidacloprid pulses reduced invertebrate abundance and community diversity in imidacloprid-dosed streams compared to control streams. These results correlated well with effects of imidacloprid on leaf litter decomposition and feeding rates of Pteronarcys comstocki, a stonefly, in artificial streams. Reductions in oxygen consumption of stoneflies exposed to imidacloprid were also observed in laboratory experiments. Our findings suggest that leaf litter degradation and single species responses can be sensitive ecotoxicological endpoints that can be used as early warning indicators and biomonitoring tools for pesticide contamination. The data generated illustrates the value of mesocosm experiments in environmental assessment and how the consideration of functional and structural endpoints of natural communities together with in situ single species bioassays can improve the evaluation and prediction of pesticide effects on stream ecosystems. - Combining organism-level responses with community-level processes for the evaluation and prediction of pesticide effects on stream ecosystems.

  6. Methylmercury bioaccumulation in stream food webs declines with increasing primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David; D.F. Raikow,; C.R. Hammerschmidt,; M.G. Mehling,; A. Kovach,; J.T. Oris,

    2015-01-01

    Opposing hypotheses posit that increasing primary productivity should result in either greater or lesser contaminant accumulation in stream food webs. We conducted an experiment to evaluate primary productivity effects on MeHg accumulation in stream consumers. We varied light for 16 artificial streams creating a productivity gradient (oxygen production =0.048–0.71 mg O2 L–1 d–1) among streams. Two-level food webs were established consisting of phytoplankton/filter feeding clam, periphyton/grazing snail, and leaves/shredding amphipod (Hyalella azteca). Phytoplankton and periphyton biomass, along with MeHg removal from the water column, increased significantly with productivity, but MeHg concentrations in these primary producers declined. Methylmercury concentrations in clams and snails also declined with productivity, and consumer concentrations were strongly correlated with MeHg concentrations in primary producers. Heterotroph biomass on leaves, MeHg in leaves, and MeHg in Hyalella were unrelated to stream productivity. Our results support the hypothesis that contaminant bioaccumulation declines with stream primary production via the mechanism of bloom dilution (MeHg burden per cell decreases in algal blooms), extending patterns of contaminant accumulation documented in lakes to lotic systems.

  7. Deep desulfurization of full range and low boiling diesel streams from Kuwait Lower Fars heavy crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, A.; Al-Hindi, A.; Stanislaus, A. [Petroleum and Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2007-09-15

    Information on feed quality and, in particular, various types of sulfur compounds present in the diesel (gas oil) fractions produced form different crudes and their HDS reactivities under different operating conditions are of a great value for the optimization and economics of the deep HDS process. This paper deals with deep desulfurization of gas oils obtained from a new heavy Kuwaiti crude, namely, Lower Fars (LF) which will be processed in the future at Kuwaiti refineries. Comparative studies were carried out to examine the extent of deep HDS, and the quality of diesel product using two gas oil feeds with different boiling ranges. The results revealed that the full range diesel feed stream produced from the LF crude was very difficult to desulfurize due to its low quality caused by high aromatics content (low feed saturation) together with the presence of high concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds and sterically hindered alkyl DBTs. The low-boiling range gas oil showed better desulfurization compared with the full range gas oil, however, deep desulfurization to 50 ppm sulfur was not achieved even at a temperature as high as 380 C for both feeds. The desulfurized diesel product from the low-boiling gas-oil feed was better in quality with respect to the S, N and PNA contents and cetane index than the full-range gas-oil feed. (author)

  8. Thermal loading of natural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Streaming Instabilities in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Youdin, A N; Youdin, Andrew N.; Goodman, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Interpenetrating streams of solids and gas in a Keplerian disk produce a local, linear instability. The two components mutually interact via aerodynamic drag, which generates radial drift and triggers unstable modes. The secular instability does not require self-gravity, yet it generates growing particle density perturbations that could seed planetesimal formation. Growth rates are slower than dynamical, but faster than radial drift, timescales. Growth rates, like streaming velocities, are maximized for marginal coupling (stopping times comparable dynamical times). Fastest growth occurs when the solid to gas density ratio is order unity and feedback is strongest. Curiously, growth is strongly suppressed when the densities are too nearly equal. The relation between background drift and wave properties is explained by analogy with Howard's semicircle theorem. The three-dimensional, two-fluid equations describe a sixth order (in the complex frequency) dispersion relation. A terminal velocity approximation allows...

  10. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  11. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2016-12-09

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately.

  12. Animal models for auditory streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya; Klump, Georg M

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons' response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  13. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  14. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Booth, Derek B.; Capps, Krista A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Urban streams commonly express degraded physical, chemical, and biological conditions that have been collectively termed the “urban stream syndrome”. The description of the syndrome highlights the broad similarities among these streams relative to their less-impaired counterparts. Awareness of these commonalities has fostered rapid improvements in the management of urban stormwater for the protection of downstream watercourses, but the focus on the similarities among urban streams has obscured meaningful differences among them. Key drivers of stream responses to urbanization can vary greatly among climatological and physiographic regions of the globe, and the differences can be manifested in individual stream channels even through the homogenizing veneer of urban development. We provide examples of differences in natural hydrologic and geologic settings (within similar regions) that can result in different mechanisms of stream ecosystem response to urbanization and, as such, should lead to different management approaches. The idea that all urban streams can be cured using the same treatment is simplistic, but overemphasizing the tremendous differences among natural (or human-altered) systems also can paralyze management. Thoughtful integration of work that recognizes the commonalities of the urban stream syndrome across the globe has benefitted urban stream management. Now we call for a more nuanced understanding of the regional, subregional, and local attributes of any given urban stream and its watershed to advance the physical, chemical, and ecological recovery of these systems.

  15. A Caching Strategy for Streaming Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭劲; 余胜生; 周敬利

    2004-01-01

    It is expected that by 2003 continuous media will account for more than 50% of the data available on origin servers, this will provoke a significant change in Internet workload. Due to the high bandwidth requirements and the long-lived nature of digital video, streaming server loads and network bandwidths are proven to be major limiting factors. Aiming at the characteristics of broadband network in residential areas, this paper proposes a popularity-based server-proxy caching strategy for streaming media. According to a streaming media popularity on streaming server and proxy, this strategy caches the content of the streaming media partially or completely. The paper also proposes two formulas that calculate the popularity coefficient of a streaming media on server and proxy, and caching replacement policy. As expected, this strategy decreases the server load, reduces the traffic from streaming server to proxy, and improves client start-up latency.

  16. Effects of environmental factors on community structure of Leptophlebiidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Cerrado streams, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Brasil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of environmental factors on abundance, species richness, and functional group richness of Leptophlebiidae in 16 sampling points along four Cerrado streams. Across three periods of 2005, we collected 5,492 larvae from 14 species in stream bed substrate. These species belong to three functional feeding groups: scrapers, filtering collectors and shredders. The abundance and species richness were not affected by water quality, but habitat quality related to presence of riparian vegetation had positive effects on the abundance of shredders. Our results add important information on the natural history of the species and functional groups of aquatic insects and also provide relevant data for the monitoring and conservation of streams in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  17. The physics of the relativistic counter-streaming instability that drives mass inflation inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Andrew J S

    2008-01-01

    If you fall into a real astronomical black hole (choosing a supermassive black hole, to make sure that the tidal forces don't get you first), then you will probably meet your fate not at a central singularity, but rather in the exponentially growing, relativistic counter-streaming instability at the inner horizon first pointed out by Poisson & Israel (1990), who called it mass inflation. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear exposition of the physical cause and consequence of inflation in spherical, charged black holes. Inflation acts like a particle accelerator in that it accelerates cold ingoing and outgoing streams through each other to prodigiously high energies. Inflation feeds on itself: the acceleration is powered by the gravity produced by the streaming energy.

  18. Arsenic in stream waters is bioaccumulated but neither biomagnified through food webs nor biodispersed to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Luiz U; Pratas, João A M S; Graça, Manuel A S

    2017-05-01

    Human activities such as mining have contributed substantially to the increase of metals in aquatic environments worldwide. These metals are bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and can be biomagnified along trophic webs. The dispersal of contaminants from water to land has been little investigated, even though most aquatic invertebrates in streams have aerial stages. We used field and laboratory approaches to investigate the effects of arsenic pollution on stream invertebrate assemblages, and its bioaccumulation, biomagnification and trophic transfer from aquatic to terrestrial environments by emergent insects. We conducted the study in an arsenic-impacted stream (40μgL(-1) As at the most polluted site) and a reference stream (0.3μgL(-1) As). Invertebrate abundance and richness were lowest at the most impacted site. Arsenic in biofilm and in invertebrates increased with the arsenic content in the water. The highest arsenic accumulators were bryophytes (1760μgg(-1)), followed by the biofilm (449μgg(-1)) and shredder invertebrates (313μgg(-1)); predators had the lowest arsenic concentration. Insects emerging from water and spiders along streambanks sampled from the reference and the impacted stream did not differ in their body arsenic concentrations. In the laboratory, the shredder Sericostoma vittatum had reduced feeding rates when exposed to water from the impacted stream in comparison with the reference stream (15.6 vs. 19.0mg leaves mg body mass(-1) day(-1); pfood, not through contact with water. We concluded that although arsenic is bioaccumulated, mainly by food ingestion, it is not biomagnified through food webs and is not transported from the aquatic to terrestrial environment when insects leave the stream water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Combustion of dense streams of coal particles. Final report, August 29, 1990--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, K.; Gopalakrishnan, C.; Du, X.

    1994-05-01

    The USA consumes almost 94 quads of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} BTU or 1.05 {times} 10{sup 15} KJ). The utilities account for about 30 quads of fossil energy where coal is predominantly used as energy source. The coal is ground to finer size and fired into the boiler as dense suspension. Under dense conditions, the particles burn at slower rate due to deficient oxygen within the interparticle spacing. Thus interactions exist amongst the particles for dense clouds. While the earlier literature dealt with combustion processes of isolated particles, the recent research focusses upon the interactive combustion. The interactive combustion studies include arrays consisting of a finite number of particles, and streams and clouds of a large number of particles. Particularly stream combustion models assume cylindrical geometry and predict the ignition and combustion characteristics. The models show that the ignition starts homogeneously for dense streams of coal particles and the ignition time show a minimum as the stream denseness is increased, and during combustion, there appears to be an inner flame within the stream and an outer flame outside the stream for a short period of time. The present experimental investigation is an attempt to verify the model predictions. The set-up consists of a flat flame burner for producing hot vitiated gases, a locally fluidizing feeder system for feeding coal particles, a particle collection probe for collecting particles and an image processing system for analyzing the flame structure. The particles are introduced as a stream into the hot gases and subsequently they ignite and burn. The ash % of fired and collected particles are determined and used to estimate the gasification efficiency or burnt fraction. The parametric studies include gas temperature, oxygen % in gases, residence time, and A:F ratio of the stream.

  20. Implications of Transgenic Corn Cultivation on the Ecology of Agricultural Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantull, L.; Swan, C.

    2005-05-01

    Corn has been genetically-modified by introducing a gene that codes for a toxic protein from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), into corn DNA. Genetically-modified crops provide internal resistance to herbivorous pests like the European Corn Borer (Ostrina nubilalis). With the use of transgenic crops on the rise, research is being done to consider its environmental effects on non-target taxa and ecosystems. Stream ecosystems occupy topographic low points in the landscape and thus are affected by agricultural land use. In many temperate streams, the main energy source is from terrestrial organic detritus, mostly in the form of dead leaves and wood, delivered via wind or natural leaf fall. Stream insects consume this material, contributing to organic matter breakdown and creating biomass for predators. With the heightened practice of no-till agriculture, crop detritus remaining on fields as a by-product of harvesting has been documented to enter adjacent streams. Given insect larvae are critical to the transformation of energy from detritus to higher trophic levels, we explored the implications of detritus containing Bt on both insect performance and litter decay in six streams. The presence of Bt in senesced corn leaf litter resulted in significant reductions in both insect feeding rate and organic matter breakdown. Furthermore, colonization of corn litter containing Bt by detritivorous insects was significantly reduced when compared to non-Bt isoline litter controls. We conclude that detritus generated from harvesting transgenic corn negatively impacts insect feeding behavior and colonization dynamics, and may contribute substantially to the reduction of organic matter breakdown rates in agricultural streams.

  1. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of cost-effective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products.

  2. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure... additives, and feed supplements in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. ...

  3. Method and apparatus for producing synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, John William; Bonnell, Leo; Robinson, Earl T.

    2010-03-03

    A method and apparatus for reacting a hydrocarbon containing feed stream by steam methane reforming reactions to form a synthesis gas. The hydrocarbon containing feed is reacted within a reactor having stages in which the final stage from which a synthesis gas is discharged incorporates expensive high temperature materials such as oxide dispersed strengthened metals while upstream stages operate at a lower temperature allowing the use of more conventional high temperature alloys. Each of the reactor stages incorporate reactor elements having one or more separation zones to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing feed to support combustion of a fuel within adjacent combustion zones, thereby to generate heat to support the endothermic steam methane reforming reactions.

  4. Schistosome feeding and regurgitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Skelly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect >200 million people worldwide, causing the chronic, debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Unusual among parasitic helminths, the long-lived adult worms, continuously bathed in blood, take up nutrients directly across the body surface and also by ingestion of blood into the gut. Recent proteomic analyses of the body surface revealed the presence of hydrolytic enzymes, solute, and ion transporters, thus emphasising its metabolic credentials. Furthermore, definition of the molecular mechanisms for the uptake of selected metabolites (glucose, certain amino acids, and water establishes it as a vital site of nutrient acquisition. Nevertheless, the amount of blood ingested into the gut per day is considerable: for males ∼100 nl; for the more actively feeding females ∼900 nl, >4 times body volume. Ingested erythrocytes are lysed as they pass through the specialized esophagus, while leucocytes become tethered and disabled there. Proteomics and transcriptomics have revealed, in addition to gut proteases, an amino acid transporter in gut tissue and other hydrolases, ion, and lipid transporters in the lumen, implicating the gut as the site for acquisition of essential lipids and inorganic ions. The surface is the principal entry route for glucose, whereas the gut dominates amino acid acquisition, especially in females. Heme, a potentially toxic hemoglobin degradation product, accumulates in the gut and, since schistosomes lack an anus, must be expelled by the poorly understood process of regurgitation. Here we place the new observations on the proteome of body surface and gut, and the entry of different nutrient classes into schistosomes, into the context of older studies on worm composition and metabolism. We suggest that the balance between surface and gut in nutrition is determined by the constraints of solute diffusion imposed by differences in male and female worm morphology. Our conclusions have

  5. Simulation Data as Data Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulla, G; Arrighi, W; Critchlow, T

    2003-11-18

    Computational or scientific simulations are increasingly being applied to solve a variety of scientific problems. Domains such as astrophysics, engineering, chemistry, biology, and environmental studies are benefiting from this important capability. Simulations, however, produce enormous amounts of data that need to be analyzed and understood. In this overview paper, we describe scientific simulation data, its characteristics, and the way scientists generate and use the data. We then compare and contrast simulation data to data streams. Finally, we describe our approach to analyzing simulation data, present the AQSim (Ad-hoc Queries for Simulation data) system, and discuss some of the challenges that result from handling this kind of data.

  6. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal’s past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.

  7. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  8. Network Characteristics of Video Streaming Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Ashwin; Barakat, Chadi; Legout, Arnaud; Towsley, Don; Dabbous, Walid

    2011-01-01

    Video streaming represents a large fraction of Internet traffic. Surprisingly, little is known about the network characteristics of this traffic. In this paper, we study the network characteristics of the two most popular video streaming services, Netflix and YouTube. We show that the streaming strategies vary with the type of the application (Web browser or native mobile application), and the type of container (Silverlight, Flash, or HTML5) used for video streaming. In particular, we identify three different streaming strategies that produce traffic patterns from non-ack clocked ON-OFF cycles to bulk TCP transfer. We then present an analytical model to study the potential impact of these streaming strategies on the aggregate traffic and make recommendations accordingly.

  9. CLUSTERING ANALYSIS OF DEBRIS-FLOW STREAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Fan TSAI; Huai-Kuang TSAI; Cheng-Yan KAO

    2004-01-01

    The Chi-Chi earthquake in 1999 caused disastrous landslides, which triggered numerous debris flows and killed hundreds of people. A critical rainfall intensity line for each debris-flow stream is studied to prevent such a disaster. However, setting rainfall lines from incomplete data is difficult, so this study considered eight critical factors to group streams, such that streams within a cluster have similar rainfall lines. A genetic algorithm is applied to group 377 debris-flow streams selected from the center of an area affected by the Chi-Chi earthquake. These streams are grouped into seven clusters with different characteristics. The results reveal that the proposed method effectively groups debris-flow streams.

  10. Sentiment Knowledge Discovery in Twitter Streaming Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifet, Albert; Frank, Eibe

    Micro-blogs are a challenging new source of information for data mining techniques. Twitter is a micro-blogging service built to discover what is happening at any moment in time, anywhere in the world. Twitter messages are short, and generated constantly, and well suited for knowledge discovery using data stream mining. We briefly discuss the challenges that Twitter data streams pose, focusing on classification problems, and then consider these streams for opinion mining and sentiment analysis. To deal with streaming unbalanced classes, we propose a sliding window Kappa statistic for evaluation in time-changing data streams. Using this statistic we perform a study on Twitter data using learning algorithms for data streams.

  11. Stellar Tidal Streams in External Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Jeffrey L; Martinez-Delgado, David; Gabany, R Jay

    2016-01-01

    To place the highly substructured stellar halos of the Milky Way and M31 in a larger context of hierarchical galaxy formation, it is necessary to understand the prevalence and properties of tidal substructure around external galaxies. This chapter details the current state of our observational knowledge of streams in galaxies in and beyond the Local Group, which are studied both in resolved stellar populations and in integrated light. Modeling of individual streams in extragalactic systems is hampered by our inability to obtain resolved stellar kinematics in the streams, though many streams contain alternate luminous kinematic tracers, such as globular clusters or planetary nebulae. We compare the observed structures to the predictions of models of galactic halo formation, which provide insight in the number and properties of streams expected around Milky Way like galaxies. More specifically, we discuss the inferences that can be made about stream progenitors based only on observed morphologies. We expand our...

  12. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  13. Feeding profiles of tame moose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the feeding profiles of tame moose. 3 moose were observed for 99 hours while in natural range, each bite plant species, browse conditions and size...

  14. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    While there has been extensive research on the global scale to quantify the fluxes and reservoirs of carbon for predictive climate change models, comparably little attention has been focused on carbon cycles in the built environment. The current management of urban carbon cycles presents a major irony: while cities produce tremendous fluxes of organic carbon waste, their populations are dependent on imported carbon because most urban have limited access to locally sourced carbon. The persistence of outdated management schemes is in part due to the fact that reimagining the handling of urban carbon waste streams requires a transdisciplinary approach. Since the end of the 19th century, U.S. cities have generally relied on the same three options for managing organic carbon waste streams: burn it, bury it, or dilute it. These options still underpin the framework for today's design and management strategies for handling urban carbon waste. We contend that urban carbon management systems for the 21st century need to be scalable, must acknowledge how climate modulates the biogeochemical cycling of urban carbon, and should carefully factor local political and cultural values. Urban waste carbon is a complex matrix ranging from wastewater biosolids to municipal compost. Our first goal in designing targeted and efficient urban carbon management schemes has been examining approaches for categorizing and geochemically fingerprinting these matrices. To date we have used a combination of major and trace element ratio analysis and bulk matrix characteristics, such as pH, density, and loss on ignition, to feed multivariable statistical analysis in order to identify variables that are effective tracers for each waste stream. This approach was initially developed for Boston, MA, US, in the context of identifying components of municipal compost streams that were responsible for increasing the lead inventory in the final product to concentrations that no longer permitted its use in

  15. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2003-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  16. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2003-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  17. A 19 element cryogenic phased array feed for the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshi, D. Anish; Warnick, Karl F.; Brandt, Joe; Fisher, J. Richard; Ford, Pam; Jeffs, Brian D.; Marganian, Paul; McLeod, Morgan; Mello, Melinda; Morgan, Matthew; Norrod, Roger; Shillue, William; Simon, Robert; White, Steven

    2015-10-01

    A low-noise cryogenic phased array feed (PAF) is in development for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The feed consists of electrically small elements tuned to operate near 1.4 GHz and optimized for active impedance matching to cooled front end low noise amplifiers (LNAs). A prototype cryogenic PAF with analog fiber link, down-converters and streaming data acquisition system was recently tested on the GBT. Preliminary results are presented. These efforts form an important step towards the development of a new receiver system, the focal L-band array for the GBT (FLAG).

  18. LHCb : The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  19. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  20. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  1. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  2. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  3. Dynamic Clustering Of High Speed Data Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chandrika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of clustering data streams. A data stream can roughly be thought of as a transient, continuously increasing sequence of time-stamped data. In order to maintain an up-to-date clustering structure, it is necessary to analyze the incoming data in an online manner, tolerating but a constant time delay. The purpose of this study is to analyze the working of popular algorithms on clustering data streams and make a comparative analysis.

  4. Parikh Matching in the Streaming Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Lap-Kei; Lewenstein, Moshe; Zhang, Qin

    2012-01-01

    |-length count vector. In the streaming model one seeks space-efficient algorithms for problems in which there is one pass over the data. We consider Parikh matching in the streaming model. To make this viable we search for substrings whose Parikh-mappings approximately match the input vector. In this paper we...... present upper and lower bounds on the problem of approximate Parikh matching in the streaming model....

  5. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  6. The Overview and Appliance of some Streaming Video software solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic streaming media technology, the streaming media system structure, principles of streaming media technology; streaming media file formats and so on. After that, it discusses the use streaming media in distance education, broadband video on demand, Internet broadcasting, video conferences and a more detailed exposition in streaming media. As the existing technology has been unable to satisfy the increasing needs of the Internet users, the streaming media technol...

  7. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2007-01-01

    supports the requirements of today’s real time enterprises much better. A comparison with the STREAM CQL language shows that our approach is more flexible and powerful for high-level OLAP queries, as well as far more compact and concise. Classification: Real-time OLAP, Streaming data, Real-time decision......Abstract. Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. However, the query languages have mostly been SQL-based and aimed for low-level analysis of base data; therefore, there has been little work on supporting OLAP-like queries that provide real...... support Submission Category: Regular paper...

  8. Pair Triplet Association Rule Generation in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Thool

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many applications involve the generation and analysis of a new kind of data, called stream data, where data flows in and out of an observation platform or window dynamically. Such data streams have the unique features such as huge or possibly infinite volume, dynamically changing, flowing in or out in a fixed order, allowing only one or a small number of scans. An important problem in data stream mining is that of finding frequent items in the stream. This problem finds application across several domains such as financial systems, web traffic monitoring, internet advertising, retail and e-business. This raises new issues that need to be considered when developing association rule mining technique for stream data. The Space-Saving algorithm reports both frequent and top-k elements with tight guarantees on errors. We also develop the notion of association rules in streams of elements. The Streaming-Rules algorithm is integrated with Space-Saving algorithm to report 1-1 association rules with tight guarantees on errors, using minimal space, and limited processing per element and we are using Apriori algorithm for static datasets and generation of association rules and implement Streaming-Rules algorithm for pair, triplet association rules. We compare the top- rules of static datasets with output of stream datasets and find percentage of error.

  9. Stream Station video server system; Video saba sochi `Stream station`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A video server system Stream Station is developed for delivering moving images to the client on the VOD (video on demand) basis. In this system, video data compressed using the MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) technique are stored in a RAID (redundant arrays of independent disks) system, and is outputted as analog video data after expansion in a decoder provided at the output stage. The server system easily realizes a VOD system using the existing in-house cable TV facilities for instance for hotel rooms. The data for this purpose may be either in the MPEG1 or MPEG2 format, pictures may be simultaneously transmitted via as many as 32 channels at the maximum, and the storage holds 256 gigabytes at the maximum. It incorporates a video server architecture developed by Toshiba Corporation, and the data transfer rate from data readout to transmission is totally warranted. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter, and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents.

  11. High performance liquid chromatographic method fo pyrantel tartrate in swine feeds and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goras, J T

    1981-11-01

    A new method for the determination of pyrantel tartrate in swine feed an supplements has been developed because the current official AOAC method is not applicable to feeds co-medicated with tylosin. The new method involves: (a) leaching of drug from feed with methanolic NaCl solution, (b) removal of interfering substances by ion pair liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography, and (c) quantitation of pyrantel tartrate by monitoring the ultraviolet absorption of the effluent stream at 313nm. The method of standard addition is used to compensate for the effect of the feed matrix on drug recovery. No interference is encountered from tylosin, carbadox, lincomycin, non-drug components of feeds and supplements, or potential degradation products of pyrantel tartrate, i.e., cis isomer of pyrantel tartrate and (E)-N-(3-methylaminopropyl)-2-thiopheneacrylamide. Results for the assay of 3 lots each of feeds and supplements containing 0.0106 and 0.106% pyrantel tartrate, respectively, were within +/-4% of label claim. Coefficients of variation ranged from 1.6 to 1.8% for feeds and from 1.9 to 3.9% for supplements.

  12. DASH in Twitch: Adaptive Bitrate Streaming in Live Game Streaming Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Karine; Simon, Gwendal

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Live game streaming platforms such as Twitch allow gamers to broadcast their gameplay over the Internet. The popularity of these platforms boosts the market of eSport but poses new delivery problems. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of adaptive bitrate streaming in massive live game streaming platforms. Based on three months of real data traces from Twitch, we motivate the need for an adoption of adaptive bitrate streaming in this platform to reduce the de...

  13. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  14. Predation Risk versus Pesticide Exposure: Consequences of Fear and Loathing in the Life of Stream Shredders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, J. T.; Baird, D. J.; Soares, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Stream invertebrates are exposed to complex stressor regimes including both biotic and abiotic factors. Species living in streams in agricultural landscapes are often subjected to episodic or continuous exposures to low levels of agrochemicals, which may approach or exceed specific substance guidelines. Sublethal effects of pesticides may result in direct effects on organisms (e.g. reduced physiological performance), which may in turn contribute to indirect effects relating to survival (e.g. increased predation risk). Here, we investigate the possibility that predator-release kairomones can act additively with low-level pesticide exposure to reduce physiological performance and survival of stream invertebrates in previously unforeseen ways. Feeding, metabolic and behavioural responses of two shredder insects, the North American stonefly Pteronarcys comstockii and the European caddisfly Sericostoma vittatum were measured under exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid at different levels of indirect predation stress using predator-release kairomones from Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Pteronarcys feeding was measured in terms of mass of naturally conditioned alder leaf discs consumed over a 6-day and 10 -day period in animals held in cages in stream mesocosms. Pteronarcys feeding was impaired at 1 ppb in the 6-day trial and at 0,5 ppb in the 10-day trial relatively to unexposed controls. Metabolic rate was measured in the lab in terms of oxygen consumption of Pteronarcys. Animals exposed to 0.5 and 1 ppb imidacloprid showed elevated respiratory rates compared to controls. Laboratory experiments with Sericostoma, currently in progress, are examining the separate and combined effects of imidacloprid and predator kairomone on similar endpoints. These preliminary results are discussed in relation to the development of the Mechanistic Unifying Stressor Effects (MUSE) model which can be used to predict combined ecological effects of multiple stressors at the population level.

  15. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  16. Gulf Stream Ring Coalescence with the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D R; Olson, D B

    1978-12-01

    A cyclonic ring, which had separated from the Gulf Stream 7 months earlier and traveled 500 kilometers westward, collided with the stream in September 1977. Within 3 days the ring and stream joined to form a sharp S-shaped meander. Shipboard expendable temperature probes and four bottom-moored inverted echo sounders were used to obtain synoptic descriptions of the rejoining process.

  17. Effects of Riverbed Conductance on Stream Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, G.; Neupauer, R. M.; Pitlick, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the western United States and other regions of the world where growing population and changing climates are threatening water supplies, accurate modeling of potential human impacts on water resources is becoming more important. Stream depletion, the reduction of surface water flow due to the extraction of groundwater from a hydraulically connected aquifer, is one of the more direct ways that development can alter water availability, degrade water quality and endanger aquatic habitats. These factors have made the accurate modeling of stream depletion an important step in the process of installing groundwater wells in regions that are susceptible to this phenomenon. Proper estimation of stream depletion requires appropriate parameterization of aquifer and streambed hydraulic properties. Although many studies have conducted numerical investigations to determine stream depletion at specific sites, they typically do not measure streambed hydraulic conductivity (Kr), but rather assume a representative value. In this work, we establish a hypothetical model aquifer that is 2000 m by 1600 m and has a meandering stream running through its center. The Kr of the model stream is varied from 1.0x10-9 m s-1 to 1.0x10-2 m s-1 in order to determine the sensitivity of the stream depletion calculations to this parameter. It was found that when Kr is in the lower part of this range, slight changes in K¬r lead to significant impacts on the calculated stream depletion values. We vary Kr along the stream channel according to naturally occurring patterns and demonstrate that alterations of the parameter over a few orders of magnitude can affect the estimated stream depletion caused by a well at a specified location. The numerical simulations show that the mean value of Kr and its spatial variability along the channel should be realistic to develop an accurate model of stream depletion.

  18. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Robust design of countercurrent adsorption separation processes. 4: Desorbent in the feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzotti, M. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Storti, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali; Morbidelli, M. [ETH Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Technische Chemie

    1997-01-01

    In many instances of practical interest, countercurrent adsorption separations operate on feed streams containing not only the components to be separated but also some desorbent. Criteria for the optimal and robust design and operation of these units are developed by extending previous treatments developed for desorbent-free feedstreams. The effect of the presence of some desorbent (weak, intermediate, or strong) on the location and robustness of the region of complete separation in the operating parameter space is discussed.

  20. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  1. Fauna of an acid stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, M.E.

    1922-01-01

    The hydrogen-ion concentration of the water of the big muddy river was found to vary between pH 5.8 and pH 6.8 to 7.2, the higher acidity occurring during the winter. The bottom fauna was characterized by the abundance of clams and shrimp, and by the absence of branchiate snails and ephemerid nymphs. Fish fry and fingerlings were found in large numbers during the summer in weakly acid water, pH 6.8. Observations on our acid streams, continued over a considerable period of time, would tell us much concerning the adaptability of various species to different hydrogen-ion concentrations and are greatly needed in the interpretation of experimental data.

  2. Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, S.A.; Merrill, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Densley, P.J. [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation.

  3. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... same time, (2) properly designed facilities for feeding and watering the livestock, (3) reasonably...

  4. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including stereoty

  5. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  6. Evidence for the assimilation of ancient glacier organic carbon in a proglacial stream food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Jason; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter A.; Hudson, J.H.; Bozeman, Maura; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.

    2015-01-01

    We used natural abundance δ13C, δ15N, and Δ14C to compare trophic linkages between potential carbon sources (leaf litter, epilithic biofilm, and particulate organic matter) and consumers (aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish) in a nonglacial stream and two reaches of the heavily glaciated Herbert River. We tested the hypothesis that proglacial stream food webs are sustained by organic carbon released from glacial ecosystems. Carbon sources and consumers in the nonglacial stream had carbon isotope values that ranged from -30‰ to -25‰ for δ13C and from -14‰ to 53‰ for Δ14C reflecting a food web sustained mainly on contemporary primary production. In contrast, biofilm in the two glacial stream sites was highly Δ14C-depleted (-215‰ to 175‰) relative to the nonglacial stream consistent with the assimilation of ancient glacier organic carbon. IsoSource modeling showed that in upper Herbert River, macroinvertebrates (Δ14C = -171‰ to 22‰) and juvenile salmonids (Δ14C = −102‰ to 17‰) reflected a feeding history of both biofilm (~ 56%) and leaf litter (~ 40%). We estimate that in upper Herbert River on average 36% of the carbon incorporated into consumer biomass is derived from the glacier ecosystem. Thus, 14C-depleted glacial organic carbon was likely transferred to higher trophic levels through a feeding history of bacterial uptake of dissolved organic carbon and subsequent consumption of 14C-depleted biofilm by invertebrates and ultimately fish. Our findings show that the metazoan food web is sustained in part by glacial organic carbon such that future changes in glacial runoff could influence the stability and trophic structure of proglacial aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Formulation and preparation on Hanford Waste Treatment Plan direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  8. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  9. A meteor stream study of 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentjeva, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    3600 individual photographic orbits of meteor bodies and about 2000 visual meteor radiants with corresponding velocities were compiled and carefully studied in detail. 154 minor meteor streams were detected in the Solar System, their basic orbital and other data are given. Firstly some remarkable shower and stream properties are established: examples of the large elliptic radiation areas with semi-major axes perpendicular to the Ecliptic; the existence of the Northern (N) , Southern (S) and Ecliptical (Q) branches of some streams; stream-antipodes and radiant-antipodes (symmetrically arranged relatively to the Ecliptic) with angular distances from the Ecliptic to 40-80°; a number of short-perihelion streams (q 0.05-0.07 A.U.); some meteor streams perpendicular to the Ecliptic's plane. There are also some unique meteor bodies with their orbits enclosed within the limits of the Earth's one, or having the clockwise and anticlockwise direction in two similar orbits. Hyperbolic photographic velocities vh = 57-88 km /sec are treated as real ones according to the best radar and visual observations. A "bunch" of ecliptical streams, discovered in the USSR in 1950, is a complex of orbits of the mostly massive meteor particles of the Zodiacal Cloud. The stream evolution rate is comparatively high. The total complex of sporadic meteor bodies is not totally chaotic and accidental.

  10. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Agriculturally Impaired Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Pliuraite

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This work presents research into the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities in streams that are under the influence of agricultural pollution A total of 67 macroinvertebrate taxa (including 61 identified species belonging to 40 families have been identified in the explored streams. The greatest species richness is recorded for the Trichoptera (18 species/1 taxa and Mollusca (12 species. The molluscs Gyraulus albus, amphipods Gammarus pulex, caddisflies Hydropsyche pellucidula and oligochaetes are detected in all examined streams. There, the number of total benthic macroinvertebrate taxa is highly variable, ranging from 16 to 40. Results show that the examined streams depending on the benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and predominance of seperate macroinvertebrate groups undergo different pollution. Intolerant to pollution taxa such as Plecoptera, which are the most sensitive to pollution insects, have been found only in 5 of 12 examined streams and in low abundances. The richness and diversity of macrozoobenthos in some streams appear to respond to the water quality deterioration. The present study has found out that in the stream where the total macroinvertebrate taxa, EPT taxa richness are the lowest and a relative abundance of gatherers is the highest, the values of NH4-N, NO3-N, total N, PO4-P and total P in the stream water are the highest, too.

  11. Round-Robin Streaming with Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yao; Vingelmann, Peter; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2012-01-01

    We consider three types of application layer coding for streaming over lossy links: random linear coding, systematic random linear coding, and structured coding. The file being streamed is divided into sub-blocks (generations). Code symbols are formed by combining data belonging to the same...

  12. Acoustic streaming enhanced electrodeposition of nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl; Møller, Per

    2003-01-01

    surface was observed. A theory based on mechanical interaction between organic additives adhering to the cathode surface and ultrasonically induced streaming- phenomena is presented here to account for the observed uniform filling behaviour. The present study further indicates a correlation between fringe......-patterns on the surface of the deposit and near-boundary acoustic streaming....

  13. The Gulf Stream and Density of Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstrom, Erich

    2006-01-01

    A few kilometers from the shores of Palm Beach County, Florida, is the Gulf Stream current--a remarkable "river" within an ocean. The current's journey across the Atlantic Ocean connects southeast Florida and southwest Great Britain as it streams steadily north at speeds of 97 km a day; moving 100 times as much water as all the rivers on Earth.…

  14. The Gulf Stream: Inertia and friction

    OpenAIRE

    ASSAF, GAD

    2011-01-01

    The inertial theory of the Gulf Stream (Charney, 1955) is extended to include vertical friction in the cyclonic shear zone (the western side) of the stream. The vertical friction is assumed to be controlled by local Froude conditions.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1977.tb00717.x

  15. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  16. Neotropical Amphibian Declines Affect Stream Ecosystem Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, S.; Pringle, C. M.; Bixby, R. J.; Whiles, M. R.; Lips, K. R.; Brenes, R.; Colon-Gaud, J. C.; Kilham, S.; Hunte-Brown, M.

    2005-05-01

    Global declines of amphibians are well documented, yet effects of these dramatic losses on ecosystem structure and function are poorly understood. As part of a larger collaborative project, we compared two upland Panamanian streams. Both streams are biologically and geologically similar; however, one stream (Fortuna) has recently experienced almost complete extirpation of stream-dwelling frogs, while the other (Cope) still has intact populations. We experimentally excluded tadpoles from localized areas in each stream. We then compared chlorophyll a, algal community composition, ash-free dry mass (AFDM), inorganic matter, and insect assemblages in control and exclusion areas. Additionally, we sampled the natural substrate of both streams monthly for chlorophyll a, algal community composition, AFDM, and inorganic matter. At Cope, chlorophyll a, AFDM, and inorganic matter were greater in areas where tadpoles were excluded than in their presence. Numbers of dominant algal species (e.g., Nupela praecipua and Eunotia siolii) were greater in the exclusion versus control treatments. Monthly sampling of natural substrate indicated higher chlorophyll a and AFDM at Cope compared to Fortuna. Our data suggest that stream-dwelling anuran larvae have significant impacts on algal communities. These results also have implications for predicting the relevance of short-term experimental manipulations to long-term, whole-stream processes.

  17. Supersonic collisions between two gas streams

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H M; Ryu, D; Lee, Hyung Mok; Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    1995-01-01

    A star around a massive black hole can be disrupted tidally by the gravity of the black hole. Then, its debris may form a precessing stream which may even collide with itself. In order to understand the dynamical effects of the stream-stream collision on the eventual accretion of the stellar debris onto the black hole, we have studied how gas flow behaves when the outgoing stream collides supersonically with the incoming stream. We have investigated the problem analytically with one-dimensional plane-parallel streams and numerically with more realistic three-dimensional streams. A shock formed around the contact surface converts the bulk of the orbital streaming kinetic energy into thermal energy. In three-dimensional simulations, the accumulated hot post-shock gas then expands adiabatically and drives another shock into the low density ambient region. Through this expansion, thermal energy is converted back to the kinetic energy associated with the expanding motion. Thus, in the end, only a small fraction of...

  18. Flooding in ephemeral streams: incorporating transmission losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream flow in semiarid lands commonly occurs as a form of flash floods in dry ephemeral stream beds. The goal of this research is to couple hydrological and hydraulic models treats channel transmission losses and test the methodology in the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). For h...

  19. Streaming nested data parallelism on multicores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederik Meisner; Filinski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    the available computation resources. To allow for an accurate space-cost model in such cases, we have previously proposed the Streaming NESL language, a refinement of NESL with a high-level notion of streamable sequences. In this paper, we report on experience with a prototype implementation of Streaming NESL...

  20. Streaming for Mathematics in Victorian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Streaming (or ability grouping) for mathematics learning is a contentious issue. It can also be considered an issue of equity or social justice as some students may be adversely affected by the practice. Currently, the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) does not appear to have clear guidelines on streaming.…

  1. Conundrum of the Large Scale Streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Malm, T M

    1999-01-01

    The etiology of the large scale peculiar velocity (large scale streaming motion) of clusters would increasingly seem more tenuous, within the context of the gravitational instability hypothesis. Are there any alternative testable models possibly accounting for such large scale streaming of clusters?

  2. COHO SALMON DEPENDENCE ON INTERMITTENT STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February 2006, the US Supreme Court heard cases that may affect whether intermittent streams are jurisdictional waters under the Clean Water Act. In June 2006, however, the cases were remanded to the circuit court, leaving the status of intermittent streams uncertain once agai...

  3. Determination of virginiamycin in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, H S; Black, L J; Waisner, D L

    1979-05-01

    Virginiamycin was extracted from the feed by ethanol-pH 2.5 phosphate buffer (1 + 1). The pH during extraction was adjusted (when necessary) to between 4 and 5. Sample dilutions and the standard dose response line were prepared to contain ethanol pH 6 phosphate buffer (2 + 8), and the test organism was Sarcina lutea. Three feeds (a poultry ration, a swine finishing ration, and a swine starter ration) showed virginiamycin recovery of 88.8--108.9% when standard solutions were added at concentrations of 4.54--90.8 g/ton. The coefficient of variation (4--20%) was larger for low potency feeds (10 g/ton) compared to the higher feeds (100 g/ton). Similarly, excellent recovery was obtained when the swine starter feed was fortified by a commercial premix. Amprolium, roxarsone, and monensin can be present at 20 times the concentration of virginiamycin with little or no interference in the antibiotic determination. Lasalocid at 10 times the concentration of virginiamycin caused a slightly positive bias (recovery, 107.4%).

  4. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  5. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages and functional feeding groups in Neotropical Savanna headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of ...

  6. Riparian and in-stream controls on nutrient concentrations along a headwater forested stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams have a strong capacity to transform and retain nutrients, and thus, a longitudinal decrease in stream nutrient concentrations would be expected from in-stream nutrient removal alone. Yet, a number of other factors within the catchment, including biogeochemical processing within the riparian zone and export to streams, can contribute to stream nutrient concentration, which may overcome the effect of in-stream biogeochemical processing. To explore this idea, we analyzed the longitudinal patterns of stream and riparian groundwater concentrations for chloride (Cl−, nitrate (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+, and phosphate (PO43− along a 3.7 km reach at an annual scale. The reach showed a gradual increase in stream and riparian width, riparian tree basal area, and abundance of riparian N2-fixing tree species. Concentrations of Cl− indicated a~strong hydrological connection at the riparian-stream edge. However, stream and riparian groundwater nutrient concentrations showed a moderate to null correlation, suggesting high biogeochemical processing at the riparian-stream edge and within the stream. A mass balance approach along the reach indicated that, on average, in-stream net nutrient uptake prevailed over release for NH4+ and PO43−, but not for NO3−. On an annual basis, in-stream processes contributed to change stream input fluxes by 11%, 26%, and 29% for NO3−, NH4+, and PO43−, respectively. Yet, longitudinal trends in concentration were not consistent with the prevailing in-stream biogeochem ical processes. During the riparian dormant period, stream concentration decreased along the reach for NO3−, but increased for NH4+ and PO43−. During the riparian vegetative period, NO3− and PO43− increased along the reach while NH4+ showed no clear pattern. These longitudinal trends were partially related to riparian forest features and groundwater inputs, especially for NO3− and PO43−. Our study

  7. The ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina; Bengtsson, Mia M; Romani, Anna M; Packmann, Aaron I

    2016-04-01

    Streams and rivers form dense networks, shape the Earth's surface and, in their sediments, provide an immensely large surface area for microbial growth. Biofilms dominate microbial life in streams and rivers, drive crucial ecosystem processes and contribute substantially to global biogeochemical fluxes. In turn, water flow and related deliveries of nutrients and organic matter to biofilms constitute major constraints on microbial life. In this Review, we describe the ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms and highlight the influence of physical and ecological processes on their structure and function. Recent advances in the study of biofilm ecology may pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the effects of climate and environmental change on stream biofilms and the biogeochemistry of stream ecosystems.

  8. Overview of streaming-data algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Madhulatha, T Soni

    2012-01-01

    Due to recent advances in data collection techniques, massive amounts of data are being collected at an extremely fast pace. Also, these data are potentially unbounded. Boundless streams of data collected from sensors, equipments, and other data sources are referred to as data streams. Various data mining tasks can be performed on data streams in search of interesting patterns. This paper studies a particular data mining task, clustering, which can be used as the first step in many knowledge discovery processes. By grouping data streams into homogeneous clusters, data miners can learn about data characteristics which can then be developed into classification models for new data or predictive models for unknown events. Recent research addresses the problem of data-stream mining to deal with applications that require processing huge amounts of data such as sensor data analysis and financial applications. For such analysis, single-pass algorithms that consume a small amount of memory are critical.

  9. Overview Of Streaming-Data Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Soni Madhulatha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent advances in data collection techniques, massive amounts of data are being collected at anextremely fast pace. Also, these data are potentially unbounded. Boundless streams of data collected fromsensors, equipments, and other data sources are referred to as data streams. Various data mining taskscan be performed on data streams in search of interesting patterns. This paper studies a particular datamining task, clustering, which can be used as the first step in many knowledge discovery processes. Bygrouping data streams into homogeneous clusters, data miners can learn about data characteristicswhich can then be developed into classification models for new data or predictive models for unknownevents. Recent research addresses the problem of data-stream mining to deal with applications thatrequire processing huge amounts of data such as sensor data analysis and financial applications. Forsuch analysis, single-pass algorithms that consume a small amount of memory are critical.

  10. Implementation of Video Streaming in Urban VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakanmani Nandakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Streaming applications will rapidly develop and contribute a significant amount of traffic in the near future. A problem, scarcely addressed so far, is how to distribute video streaming traffic from one source to all nodes in an urban vehicular network. This problem significantly differs from previous work on broadcast and multicast in ad hoc networks because of the highly dynamic topology of vehicular networks and the strict delay requirements of streaming applications. We present a solution for inter vehicular communications, called Streaming Urban Video (SUV. The advantages of using SUV are: 1 Fully distributed and dynamically adapts to topology changes, and 2 leverages the characteristics of streaming applications to yield a highly efficient, cross-layer solution.

  11. China's Feed Companies Eye Safety Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's feed companies in China are looking to strengthen safety control substantially according to the highest international standard.The first step will be improving the feed safety control in the pre-mixture and compound feed production.The next step will be extending this control to the whole feed supply chain, covering feed ingredients and services like transport and storage.Besides, a joint program will be defined in cooperation with GMP+ International.

  12. IMPACT OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION MELT RATE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-04-26

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential impacts of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) streams - particularly the addition of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) - on the melt rate of simulated feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Additional MST was added to account for contributions from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) was used to evaluate four melter feed compositions: two with simulated SCIX and SWPF material and two without. The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was then used to compare two different feeds: one with and one without bounding concentrations of simulated SCIX and SWPF material. Analyses of the melter feed materials confirmed that they met their targeted compositions. Four feeds were tested in triplicate in the MRF. The linear melt rates were determined by using X-ray computed tomography to measure the height of the glass formed along the bottom of the beakers. The addition of the SCIX and SWPF material reduced the average measured melt rate by about 10% in MRF testing, although there was significant scatter in the data. Two feeds were tested in the SMRF. It was noted that the ground CST alone (ground CST with liquid in a bucket) was extremely difficult to resuspend during preparation of the feed with material from SCIX and SWPF. This feed was also more difficult to pump than the material without MST and CST due to settling occurring in the melter feed line, although the yield stress of both feeds was high relative to the DWPF design basis. Steady state feeding conditions were maintained for about five hours for each feed. There was a reduction in the feed and pour rates of approximately 15% when CST and MST were added to the feed, although there was significant scatter in the data. Analysis of samples collected from the SMRF pour stream showed that the composition of the glass changed as expected when MST and

  13. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T; Stanley, Emily H; Spawn, Seth A; Finlay, Jacques C; Loken, Luke C; Striegl, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr(-1) ; over 6400 km(2) ) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  14. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  15. Introduction to stream: An Extensible Framework for Data Stream Clustering Research with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hahsler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, data streams have become an increasingly important area of research for the computer science, database and statistics communities. Data streams are ordered and potentially unbounded sequences of data points created by a typically non-stationary data generating process. Common data mining tasks associated with data streams include clustering, classification and frequent pattern mining. New algorithms for these types of data are proposed regularly and it is important to evaluate them thoroughly under standardized conditions. In this paper we introduce stream, a research tool that includes modeling and simulating data streams as well as an extensible framework for implementing, interfacing and experimenting with algorithms for various data stream mining tasks. The main advantage of stream is that it seamlessly integrates with the large existing infrastructure provided by R. In addition to data handling, plotting and easy scripting capabilities, R also provides many existing algorithms and enables users to interface code written in many programming languages popular among data mining researchers (e.g., C/C++, Java and Python. In this paper we describe the architecture of stream and focus on its use for data stream clustering research. stream was implemented with extensibility in mind and will be extended in the future to cover additional data stream mining tasks like classification and frequent pattern mining.

  16. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Yu, Han

    2017-02-13

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heatmap. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  17. Analytical solution based on stream-aquifer interactions in partially penetrating streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution of drawdown caused by pumping is developed in an aquifer hydraulically connected to a finite-width stream on the condition of two streams. The proposed analytical solution modified Hunt’s analytical solution and not only considers the effect of stream width on drawdown, but also takes the distribution of drawdown on the interaction of two streams into account. Advantages of the solution include its simple structure, consisting of the Theis well function, parameters of aquifer and streambed semipervious material. The calculated results show that the proposed analytical solution agrees well with the previous solution and the errors between the two solutions are equal to zero on the condition of a stream without considering the effect of stream width. Also, deviations between the two analytical solutions increase with the increase of stream width. Furthermore, four cases are studied to discuss the effect of two streams on drawdown. It assumes that some parameters are changeable, and other parameters are constant, such as stream width, the distance between stream and pumping well, stream recharge rate, and the leakance coefficient of streambed semipervious material, etc. The analytical solution may provide estimates for parameters of aquifer and streambed semipervious material using the Type Curve Method through the data of field test.

  18. Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.

  19. Some thoughts about infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickse, R G

    1983-12-01

    This article summarizes the nutritional considerations, impact on infection and immunity, and psychosocial aspects of the breast versus bottle feeding debate and concludes with guidelines for reorganizing government health services to promote breastfeeding. Its aim is to encourage reappraisal on the part of physicians of the direct implications of infant feeding for the health and well-being of people in all societies, but especially in developing countries. As a result of widespread abandonment of breastfeeding in developing countries, marasmus and infant diarrhea have increased. Although the biologic advatages of breast over bottle feeding are indisputable, the social and economic advantages are more difficult to quantify. Many Third World women curtail breastfeeding to meet the conditions of employment; however, the economic advantages of artificial feeding diminish as one descends down the pay scale. The counterproductive trend toward bottle feeding has been compounded by adoption of this method on the part of the educated elite in Third World countries, including medical and nursing professionals, thus conferring on it as status associated with progress and affluence. The present trend can be reversed only if communities are convinced of the advantages of breastfeeding and make adjustments to facilitate this practice. Preparation for motherhood must be viewed as an integral function of the health care system, with emphasis placed on the nutrition of pregnant and lactating women, preparation for breastfeeding, and the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Obstetric units must actively discourage the removal of infants from their mothers or routine artificial feeding. In addition, facilities must be provided at workplaces for breastfeeding, the working day should be modified to allow brestfeeding, maternity leaves should be extended, and appropriate payments should be made to nursing mothers. The nutrition needs of infants must be viewed as a shared

  20. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  1. Floral arrangements and hummingbird feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, F Reed; Mercier, Theresa; Wolf, Larry L

    1983-05-01

    The influence of simulated inflorescence design on feeding behavior of 3 male Eugenes fulgens (Rivoli's hummingbird) and one female Lampornis clemenciae (Bluethroated hummingbird) was studied in the laboratory using artificial flowers. Five two-dimensional and three three-dimensional arrangements provided constant rewards per artificial flower. Visits to two-dimensional arrangements had more flower visits per feeding bout, proportionally more flower revisits, and shorter time between flowers than visits to three-dimensional arrangements. This suggests inflorescence design may influence pollen movement by hummingbirds.

  2. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  3. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  4. Stream Temperature Estimation From Thermal Infrared Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, R. N.; Kay, J. E.; Gillespie, A.; Naveh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Burges, S. J.; Booth, D. B.

    2001-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important water quality indicator in the Pacific Northwest where endangered fish populations are sensitive to elevated water temperature. Cold water refugia are essential for the survival of threatened salmon when events such as the removal of riparian vegetation result in elevated stream temperatures. Regional assessment of stream temperatures is limited by sparse sampling of temperatures in both space and time. If critical watersheds are to be properly managed it is necessary to have spatially extensive temperature measurements of known accuracy. Remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) imagery can be used to derive spatially distributed estimates of the skin temperature (top 100 nm) of streams. TIR imagery has long been used to estimate skin temperatures of the ocean, where split-window techniques have been used to compensate for atmospheric affects. Streams are a more complex environment because 1) most are unresolved in typical TIR images, and 2) the near-bank environment of stream corridors may consist of tall trees or hot rocks and soils that irradiate the stream surface. As well as compensating for atmospheric effects, key problems to solve in estimating stream temperatures include both subpixel unmixing and multiple scattering. Additionally, fine resolution characteristics of the stream surface such as evaporative cooling due to wind, and water surface roughness, will effect measurements of radiant skin temperatures with TIR devices. We apply these corrections across the Green River and Yakima River watersheds in Washington State to assess the accuracy of remotely sensed stream surface temperature estimates made using fine resolution TIR imagery from a ground-based sensor (FLIR), medium resolution data from the airborne MASTER sensor, and coarse-resolution data from the Terra-ASTER satellite. We use linear spectral mixture analysis to isolate the fraction of land-leaving radiance originating from unresolved streams. To compensate the

  5. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: implications for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Göthe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  6. Microhabitat and biology of Sphaerium striatinum in a central New York stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Dawn E.; Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.

    2017-01-01

    In many lotic systems, drastic declines in freshwater bivalve populations, including fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), have created concerns about biodiversity and future ecosystem services. We examined the local occurrence of the historically common fingernail clam, Sphaerium striatinum, in a central New York stream. We sampled the density of sphaeriids and measured the associated habitat variables (substrate, depth, water flow) to test within-stream multivariate benthic microhabitat association. Size distribution, density, and diel feeding periodicity were measured as focal aspects of fingernail clam biology and ecology. S. striatinum tended to be found in microhabitats that had harder substrates and faster flow. The Labrador Creek fingernail clam local population had positive indicators (size distribution, density). There was significant diel periodicity in feeding behavior. The clams fed most actively during the 0400–0800 h periods. This kind of behavioral periodicity can indicate a significant ecological interaction between predators and bivalve prey. Increased understanding of the behavioral ecology of small native freshwater bivalves in an unimpacted headwater stream is a fundamental building block for development of overall ecological conservation goals for freshwater bivalves and their lotic habitats.

  7. Functional trophic composition of the ichthyofauna of forest streams in eastern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lourenco Brejao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the functional organization of the ichthyofauna of forest streams from northeastern Pará State, Brazil, based on behavioral observation of species' feeding tactics. Seven streams were sampled between June and November, 2010, during snorkeling sessions, totaling 91h 51min of visual censuses at day, dusk, and night periods. Seventy three species distributed in six orders, 26 families and 63 genera were observed, with dominance of Characiformes, followed by Siluriformes. From information gathered by ad libitum observations, each species was included in one of 18 functional trophic groups (FTGs, according to two main characteristics: (1 its most frequently observed feeding tactic; and (2 its spatial distribution in the stream environment, considering their horizontal (margins or main channel and vertical (water column dimensions. The most frequent FTGs observed were Nocturnal invertebrate pickers (9 species, Diurnal channel drift feeders (8 spp., Diurnal surface pickers (7 spp., and Ambush and stalking predators (6 spp.. The FTGs herein defined enable a comparative analysis of the structure and composition of ichthyofauna in different basins and environmental conditions, which presents an alternative approach to the use of taxonomic structure in ecological studies. The ichthyofauna classification based in FTGs proposed in this study is compared to three other classifications, proposed by Sazima (1986, Sabino & Zuanon (1998 and Casatti et al. (2001.

  8. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  9. Acoustofluidics 14: Applications of acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Martin; Green, Roy; Ohlin, Mathias

    2012-07-21

    In part 14 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics--exploiting ultrasonic standing wave forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation", we provide a qualitative description of acoustic streaming and review its applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. The paper covers boundary layer driven streaming, including Schlichting and Rayleigh streaming, Eckart streaming in the bulk fluid, cavitation microstreaming and surface-acoustic-wave-driven streaming.

  10. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Halo Star Streams in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Kepley, Amanda A; Helmi, Amina; Kinman, T D; Van Duyne, Jeffrey; Martin, John C; Harding, Paul; Norris, John E; Freeman, Kenneth C

    2007-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of halo stars in the solar neighborhood to look for halo substructure in velocity and angular momentum space. Our sample includes red giants, RR Lyrae, and red horizontal branch stars within 2.5 kpc of the Sun with [Fe/H] less than -1.0. It was chosen to include stars with accurate distances, space velocities, and metallicities as well as well-quantified errors. We confirm the existence of the streams found by Helmi and coworkers, which we refer to as the H99 streams. These streams have a double-peaked velocity distribution in the z direction. We use the results of modeling of the H99 streams by Helmi and collaborators to test how one might use v_z velocity information and radial velocity information to detect kinematic substructure in the halo. We find that detecting the H99 streams with radial velocities alone would require a large sample. We use the velocity distribution of the H99 streams to estimate their age. From our model of the progenitor of the H99 streams, we determine th...

  12. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit

    2016-11-02

    Programmable switches make it easier to perform flexible network monitoring queries at line rate, and scalable stream processors make it possible to fuse data streams to answer more sophisticated queries about the network in real-time. Unfortunately, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have network monitoring in the context of streaming; yet, previous work has not closed the loop in a way that allows network operators to perform streaming analytics for network monitoring applications at scale. To achieve this objective, Sonata allows operators to express a network monitoring query by considering each packet as a tuple and efficiently partitioning each query between the switches and the stream processor through iterative refinement. Sonata extracts only the traffic that pertains to each query, ensuring that the stream processor can scale traffic rates of several terabits per second. We show with a simple example query involving DNS reflection attacks and traffic traces from one of the world\\'s largest IXPs that Sonata can capture 95% of all traffic pertaining to the query, while reducing the overall data rate by a factor of about 400 and the number of required counters by four orders of magnitude. Copyright 2016 ACM.

  13. The Fornax-Leo-Sculptor stream revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Steven R.

    1994-08-01

    Lynden-Bell first demonstrated that the satellites of the Milky Way appear situated along two great 'streams' in the sky: the 'Magellanic stream' and the 'Fornax-Leo-Sculptor (FLS) stream.' Further exploration of the three-dimensional distribution of Galactic satellites reveals that the recently discovered Sextans and Phoenix dwarf spheroidal galaxies also lie near the plane defined by the FLS galaxies, and therefore strengthens the evidence in favor of the FLS stream. Moreover, a specific group of globular clusters -- those exhibiting the reddest horizontal branches (HBs) among those identified as 'young halo' by Zinn -- appear to populate the FLS stream. As previously demonstrated by Zinn, the spatial distribution of old halo globulars appears to be flattened toward the Galactic plane, and therefore the old halo clusters are typically anti-correlated to the nearly orthogonal FLS stream. A scenario is postulated wherein the Galactic satellites of the FLS stream and the red HB, young halo globular clusters share a common origin in the accretion of a formerly larger, parent satellite galaxy or Searle & Zinn 'fragment.'

  14. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish

    2014-07-01

    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  15. Wetting Resistance of Commercial Membrane Distillation Membranes in Waste Streams Containing Surfactants and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management is becoming increasingly challenging and several technologies, including membrane distillation (MD are emerging. This technology is less affected by salinity compared to reverse osmosis and is able to treat brines up to saturation. The focus of MD research recently shifted from seawater desalination to industrial applications out of the scope of reverse osmosis. In many of these applications, surfactants or oil traces are present in the feed stream, lowering the surface tension and increasing the risk for membrane wetting. In this study, the technological boundaries of MD in the presence of surfactants are investigated using surface tension, contact angle and liquid entry pressure measurements together with lab-scale MD experiments to predict the wetting resistance of different membranes. Synthetic NaCl solutions mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS were used as feed solution. The limiting surfactant concentration was found to be dependent on the surface chemistry of the membrane, and increased with increasing hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Additionally, a hexadecane/SDS emulsion was prepared with a composition simulating produced water, a waste stream in the oil and gas sector. When hexadecane is present in the emulsion, oleophobic membranes are able to resist wetting, whereas polytetrafluoretheen (PTFE is gradually wetted by the feed liquid.

  16. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Programming is recognized as one of seven grand challenges in computing education. Decades of research have shown that the major problems novices experience are composition-based—they may know what the individual programming language constructs are, but they do not know how to put them together. ...... at our universities for the past three years and the results are very encouraging. We report on a small, preliminary study evaluating the learning outcome of teaching STREAM. The study indicates a positive effect on the development of students’ process competences.......Programming is recognized as one of seven grand challenges in computing education. Decades of research have shown that the major problems novices experience are composition-based—they may know what the individual programming language constructs are, but they do not know how to put them together....... Despite this fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming education research hardly address the issue of teaching the skills needed for systematic development of programs. We provide a conceptual framework for incremental program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which unifies best...

  17. Visual analysis of stream data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Michael; Livny, Miron; Ramakrishnan, Raghu

    1995-04-01

    We present the DEVise (data exploration via visualization environment) toolkit designed for visual exploration of stream data. Data of this type are collected continuously from sources such as remote sensors, program traces, and the stock market. A typical application involves looking for correlations, which may not be precisely defined, by experimenting with graphical representations. This includes selectively comparing data from multiple sources, selective viewing by zooming and scrolling at various resolutions, and querying the underlying data from the graphics. DEVise is designed to provide greater support than packages such as AVS or Khoros for this type of application. First, by abandoning the network flow model of AVS and Khoros in favor of a database query model, we are able to incorporate many performance improvements for visualizing large amounts of data. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to eliminate data size limitations in a visualization package. Second, by structuring the stand-alone graphics module of most existing tools into user accessible components, users can quickly create, destroy, or interconnect the components to generate new visualizations. This flexibility greatly increases the ease with which users can browse their data. Finally, through limited programming, users can query the underlying data through the graphical representation for more information about the records used to generate the graphical representation.

  18. Fly larvae as sustainable bioconverters of waste for feed in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Aabo, Søren

    2014-01-01

    in the in search ofobtaining sufficient food.Traditional food production creates large amount of organic waste streams which are dumped or used forbiogas production. Although some of these waste categories have large potential for upcycling to feed foranimals or food for humans, then drivers for change have been......How to provide enough food and feed for the growing population is a major challenge for the nextgeneration. Improved economy in many developing countries increases the demand for protein from meator fish. This may lead to depletion of the seas and overexploitation of agricultural land...... hampered by low human perception, pooreconomy and regulations. This has delayed the biological and technological developments in the area.Insects are natural converters of waste and have great potential for upcycling low value byproducts orwaste materials as animal manure. They have much higher feed...

  19. Minimum amount of extracting solvent of AB/BC countercurrent extraction separation using organic feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程福祥; 吴声; 张玻; 刘艳; 王嵩龄; 廖春生; 严纯华

    2014-01-01

    For an AB/BC countercurrent extraction separation using organic feed, the conditions to have minimum amount of ex-tracting solvent (Smin) and minimum amount of scrubbing agent solution (Wmin) were discussed, and the formulae of bothSmin and Wmin were deduced. It was shown that only when the ratio of flowrate of central component B leaving aqueous outlet to that leaving organic outlet took a certain optimal value, the AB/BC separation could have Smin as well asWmin, and this optimal ratio was decided by the separation factors between the three components but independent of feed composition.Smin was only relative to the separation factor of A/C pair but regardless of the separation factors of other pairs as well as feed composition, whereasWmin was determined by the separation factors between the components together with feed composition. Meanwhile it was also found that the organic stream out of feed stage was same composition as the initial organic feed when the separation system was given by the two minimum amounts and its steady state was achieved. Finally the results above were used to design a LuYb/YbTm separation case and the stage-wise compositions of each component in both the organic and the aqueous phase at steady state were given by computer simulation.

  20. Local feed resources for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  1. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  2. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  3. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  4. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  5. Stream-subsurface nutrient dynamics in a groundwater-fed stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Niederkorn, A.; Parsons, C. T.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2015-12-01

    The stream-riparian-aquifer interface plays a major role in the regional flow of nutrients and contaminants due to a strong physical-chemical gradient that promotes the transformation, retention, elimination or release of biogenic elements. To better understand the effect of the near-stream zones on stream biogeochemistry, we conducted a field study on a groundwater-fed stream located in the rare Charitable Research Reserve, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. This study focused on monitoring the spatial and temporal distributions of nutrient elements within the riparian and hyporheic zones of the stream. Several piezometer nests and a series of passive (diffusion) water samplers, known as peepers, were installed along longitudinal and lateral transects centered on the stream to obtain data on the groundwater chemistry. Groundwater upwelling along the stream resulted in distinctly different groundwater types and associated nitrate concentrations between small distances in the riparian zone (water, concentrations of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, SO42- and carbon) did not significantly change before the downstream outlet. Although reduction of nitrate and sulphate were found in the riparian zone of the stream, this did not significantly influence the chemistry of the adjacent stream water. Also, minimal retention in the hyporheic zones limited reduction of reactive compounds (NO3- and SO42-) within the stream channel. The results showed that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and residence time of water in the hyporheic zone and in surface water limited denitrification.

  6. Time-Based Data Streams: Fundamental Concepts for a Data Resource for Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beth A. Plale

    2009-10-10

    Real time data, which we call data streams, are readings from instruments, environmental, bodily or building sensors that are generated at regular intervals and often, due to their volume, need to be processed in real time. Often a single pass is all that can be made on the data, and a decision to discard or keep the instance is made on the spot. Too, the stream is for all practical purposes indefinite, so decisions must be made on incomplete knowledge. This notion of data streams has a different set of issues from a file, for instance, that is byte streamed to a reader. The file is finite, so the byte stream is becomes a processing convenience more than a fundamentally different kind of data. Through the duration of the project we examined three aspects of streaming data: the first, techniques to handle streaming data in a distributed system organized as a collection of web services, the second, the notion of the dashboard and real time controllable analysis constructs in the context of the Fermi Tevatron Beam Position Monitor, and third and finally, we examined provenance collection of stream processing such as might occur as raw observational data flows from the source and undergoes correction, cleaning, and quality control. The impact of this work is severalfold. We were one of the first to advocate that streams had little value unless aggregated, and that notion is now gaining general acceptance. We were one of the first groups to grapple with the notion of provenance of stream data also.

  7. EPHEMEROPTERA (INSECTA LIMNOFAUNA OF SULTANSUYU STREAM (MALATYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner AYDINLI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1838 nymph samples from 7 localities in Sultansuyu Stream (Malatya were collectedbetween July-2006 and August-2007 and investigated to determine Ephemeroptera (Insectalimnofauna of the stream. 10 taxa in the species level and 4 taxa in the genus level belonging to 10genera in 6 families were determined (Baetis buceratus, B. lutheri, B. rhodani, B. vernus, Caenismacrura, Cloeon dipterum, C. simile, Ecdyonurus sp., Electrogena sp., Epeorus sp., Ephemera vulgata,Ephemerella ignita, Potamanthus luteus and Rhitrogena sp.. All determined taxa in the genus andspecies level has been new record for Sultansuyu Stream.

  8. Streaming instability in negative ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajith; Mathew, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The streaming instability in an unmagnetized negative ion plasma has been studied by computational and theoretical methods. A one dimensional electrostatic Particle In Cell Simulation and fluid dynamical description of negative ion plasma showed that, if the positive ions are having a relative streaming velocity, four different wave modes corresponding to Langmuir wave, fast and slow ion waves and ion acoustic waves are produced. Below a critical wave number, instead of two distinct fast and slow ion waves, we observed a coupled wave mode. The value of the critical wave number is strongly determined by the ion streaming velocity. The thermal velocities of electrons and ions influence the growth rate of instability.

  9. CRITICAL UNIT STREAM POWER FOR SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Yang's (1996) sediment transport theory based on unit stream power is one of the most accurate theories, but in his equations the use of product of slope and critical velocity instead for critical unit stream power is not suitable. Dimensionless critical unit stream power required at incipient motion can be derived from the principle of conservation of power as a function of dimensionless particle diameter and relative roughness. Based on a lot of data sets, this new criterion was developed. By use of this new criteria, Yang's (1973) sand transport formula and his 1984 gravel transport formula could be improved when sediment concentration is less than about 100 ppm by weight.

  10. Diet of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1959 in streams from Paraná River basin: influence of the urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Zaia Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the diet of Poecilia reticulata in rural (RS and urban stream (US and under seasonal influence. We hypothesized that rainfall have a strong negative impact on the diet of the species in the US, due to its abrupt effect on food resources; in RS this effect is less apparent. Both streams belong to Pirapó River sub-basin, Paraná River basin. Fishes were sampled bimonthly, between July 2007 and June 2008 in three sample sites along the longitudinal gradient of the streams, using electrofishing. According to the Feeding Index, in both streams the population consumed almost exclusively detritus associated with aquatic organisms (>95%, regardless of the hydrological period. The main taxa explored by fish were Simuliidae in RS and Chironomidae in US. The diet was significantly different between streams; however, the seasonal factor was not significant, showing that the results were partially consistent with the suggested proposal. In US stream the diet of the fish followed an ordinarily pattern found in urban environments. Thus, P. reticulata can be used as a tool to assess environmental conditions due to its ability to reach bioindicator organisms, such as Chironomidae species.

  11. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on methylmercury bioavailability across Minnesota stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Martin Tsz Ki; Finlay, Jacques C

    2011-07-15

    Stream ecosystems are widely contaminated by mercury (Hg) via atmospheric transport and deposition in watersheds. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is well-known to be the dominant ligand for aqueous methylmercury (MeHg), the bioaccumulative form of Hg in aquatic food webs. However, it is less clear if and how the concentration and character (e.g., aromaticity) of DOC influences the availability of dissolved MeHg to stream food webs. In this work, we analyzed total-Hg and/or MeHg concentrations in water, seston, and macroinvertebrates (filter-feeding hydropsychid caddisflies), and other physiochemical properties in 30 streams along a south-north geographic gradient in eastern Minnesota that corresponds to substantial changes in dominant land cover (i.e., agriculture, urban, wetland, and forest). In general, MeHg concentrations in seston and hydropsychids were higher in watersheds with more forest and wetland coverage, and increased with dissolved MeHg concentration. However, we found that the efficiency of MeHg incorporation into the stream food webs (i.e., bioconcentration factors of MeHg in both seston and hydropsychids, BCF(MeHg) = solid MeHg ÷ dissolved MeHg) decreased significantly with DOC concentration and aromaticity, suggesting that MeHg bioavailability to the base of food webs was attenuated at higher levels of terrestrial DOC. Therefore, our findings suggest that there is a dual role of DOC on MeHg cycling in streams: terrestrial DOC acts as the primary carrier ligand of dissolved MeHg for transport into surface waters, yet this aromatic DOC also attenuates dissolved MeHg uptake by aquatic food webs. Thus, consideration of MeHg bioavailability and its environmental regulation could help improve predictive models of MeHg bioaccumulation in stream ecosystems.

  12. An Ecological Study on the Introduction of the Banded Sculpin Into a Coal Flyash Impacted Stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrico, B.A.; Ryon, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    A number of banded sculpins [Cottus carolinae (Gill)] were obtained from a population in a reference stream, marked with subcutaneous acrylic paint injections, and introduced into McCoy Branch, a small second-order stream located on the Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee, which was inhabited by only a few banded sculpins prior to the study. McCoy Branch had received deposits of coal ash slurry for a prolonged period, however, there were some indications of recovery in the macroinvertebrate community due to improvements in water quality. Stream habitat characteristics and water chemistry parameters were monitored in McCoy Branch and a reference stream for a three-year period. Feeding patterns and reproductive activities of the banded sculpins were also monitored during the study. Sculpin population parameters including density, condition factor, and young-of-year (YOY) abundance and survival were studied. The results of the study show that the introduced fish have survived and appear to be in good condition. The sculpins have maintained a density of approximately 0.12 fish per square meter of stream, a figure similar to that found in other headwater streams located in the region. Colonization rates and sculpin densities in McCoy Branch were lower than expected, perhaps due to physical habitat degradation and reduced macroinvertebrate abundance. Evidence of sculpin reproduction in McCoy Branch was seen in the presence of gravid female sculpins (1994 and 1995) and YOY fish (1993 through 1995 year classes). This study indicates that McCoy Branch continues to recover from past perturbations to the point where it can now support a viable population of banded sculpins.

  13. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  14. [Current views on breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, R

    1983-07-01

    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  15. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  16. Stream thermal heterogeneity prolongs aquatic-terrestrial subsidy and enhances riparian spider growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects from streams are important food sources for riparian predators, yet their availability is seasonally limited. Spatial heterogeneity in stream water temperature was found to spatially desynchronize the emergence timing of aquatic insects, and prolong their flight period, potentially enhancing consumer growth. While a mayfly Ephemerella maculata emergence lasted for 12-22 d in local sites along a river, mayflies emerged 19 days earlier from warmer than cooler sites. Therefore, the overall emergence of E. maculata from the river lasted for 37 d, and adult swarms were observed over that same period in an adjacent reproductive habitat. A feeding experiment with the riparian spider Tetragnatha versicolor showed that a prolonged subsidy, as would occur in a heterogeneous river, led to higher juvenile growth than a synchronous pulsed subsidy of equal total biomass, as would typify a more homogeneous river. Since larger female adult spiders produce more eggs, spiders that received prolonged subsidy as juveniles should achieve higher fecundity. Restoring spatial heterogeneity in streams may benefit not only stream communities but also riparian predators.

  17. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  18. Change does not happen overnight: a case study on stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guareschi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of day/night conditions on individual animal/plant species has been widely studied, but diel cycle studies of the entire stream macroinvertebrate community are extremely rare. This study explored potential dissimilarities between daytime and nighttime macroinvertebrate assemblages by extensive fieldwork conducted in the Lemme stream, a natural water course of NW Italy. Here numerous structural and functional metrics (richness, abundance, biomass, indicator taxa, composition, biomonitoring values and feeding groups were evaluated at the family level. Small-scale environmental variables were investigated to understand possible differences between macroinvertebrate assemblages in the daytime/nighttime. After collecting and identifying 21 459 organisms of 50 taxa, Chironomidae (Diptera was the most abundant under both day and night conditions. Our findings stressed that similar results and biological information on daytime/nighttime data were obtained. No marked differences could be related to various factors: heterotrophic condition of small-order streams, presence of aquatic predators under night and day conditions, absence of taxa with a specific phototaxis. Of all the environmental variables, velocity was always the most important in both situations, with some differences detected in the importance of the second variable (riverbed substrate diameter. This research, and future studies on different conditions and geographic areas, will contribute knowledge on stream macroinvertebrate diel activity, and provide useful information about efficient sampling strategies.

  19. Prompt Radiation and Mass Outflows from the Stream-Stream Collisions of Tidal Disruption Events

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Stream-stream collisions play an important role for the circularization of highly eccentric streams resulting from tidal disruption events (TDEs). We perform three dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations to show that stream collisions can contribute significant optical and ultraviolet light to the flares produced by TDEs, and can sometimes explain the majority of the observed emission. Our simulations focus on the region near the radiation pressure dominated shock produced by a collision and track how the kinetic energy of the stream is dissipated by the associated shock. When the mass flow rate of the stream $\\dot{M}$ is a significant fraction of the Eddington accretion rate, $\\gtrsim2\\%$ of the initial kinetic energy is converted to radiation directly as a result of the collision. In this regime, the collision redistributes the specific kinetic energy into the downstream gas and more than $16\\%$ of the mass can become unbound. The fraction of unbound gas decreases rapidly as $\\dot{M}$ drops significa...

  20. Environmental persistence of porcine coronaviruses in feed and feed ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E.; Shurson, Gerald C.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV), and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample) into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days) for PEDV (P < 0.06) as compared with all other ingredients. High delta values (P < 0.001) were observed in soybean meal for PDCoV (42.04 days) and TGEV (42.00 days). There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01) and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02). There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients. PMID:28542235

  1. WATSTORE Stream Flow Basin Characteristics File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Stream Flow Basin Characteristics file contains information about the drainage basins of selected USGS gaging stations. Data elements of this file were converted...

  2. Allocation and Admission Policies for Service Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucco, Michele; Fisher, Mike; McKee, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A service provisioning system is examined, where a number of servers are used to offer different types of services to paying customers. A customer is charged for the execution of a stream of jobs; the number of jobs in the stream and the rate of their submission is specified. On the other hand, the provider promises a certain quality of service (QoS), measured by the average waiting time of the jobs in the stream. A penalty is paid if the agreed QoS requirement is not met. The objective is to maximize the total average revenue per unit time. Dynamic policies for making server allocation and stream admission decisions are introduced and evaluated. The results of several simulations are described.

  3. Frequency-dependent streaming potentials: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Jouniaux, Laurence; 10.1155/2012/648781

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of seismoelectric observations involves the dynamic electrokinetic coupling, which is related to the streaming potential coefficient. We describe the different models of the frequency-dependent streaming potential, mainly the Packard's and the Pride's model. We compare the transition frequency separating low-frequency viscous flow and high-frequency inertial flow, for dynamic permeability and dynamic streaming potential. We show that the transition frequency, on a various collection of samples for which both formation factor and permeability are measured, is predicted to depend on the permeability as inversely proportional to the permeability. We review the experimental setups built to be able to perform dynamic measurements. And we present some measurements and calculations of the dynamic streaming potential.

  4. Authentication for Propulsion Test Streaming Video Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An application was developed that could enforce two-factor authentication for NASA access to the Propulsion Test Streaming Video System.  To gain access to the...

  5. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, W.R.; Conger, D.H.; Gebert, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 269 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years. Annual flood peaks for the period of record for each gaged site are included.

  6. Stream Centerline for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  7. A dynamically reconfigurable data stream processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J.M.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a component-based framework for data stream processing that allows for configuration, tailoring, and runtime system reconfiguration. The system's architecture is based on a pipes and filters pattern, where data is passed through routes between components. A network of pipes and filters can be dynamically reconfigured in response to a preplanned sequence of processing steps, operator intervention, or a change in one or more data streams. This framework provides several mechanisms supporting dynamic reconfiguration and can be used to build static data stream processing applications such as monitoring or data acquisition systems, as well as self-adjusting systems that can adapt their processing algorithm, presentation layer, or data persistency layer in response to changes in input data streams.

  8. Can dust coagulation trigger streaming instability?

    CERN Document Server

    Drazkowska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Streaming instability can be a very efficient way of overcoming growth and drift barriers to planetesimal formation. However, it was shown that strong clumping, which leads to planetesimal formation, requires a considerable number of large grains. State-of-the-art streaming instability models do not take into account realistic size distributions resulting from the collisional evolution of dust. We investigate whether a sufficient quantity of large aggregates can be produced by sticking and what the interplay of dust coagulation and planetesimal formation is. We develop a semi-analytical prescription of planetesimal formation by streaming instability and implement it in our dust coagulation code based on the Monte Carlo algorithm with the representative particles approach. We find that planetesimal formation by streaming instability may preferentially work outside the snow line, where sticky icy aggregates are present. The efficiency of the process depends strongly on local dust abundance and radial pressure g...

  9. Hand Recognition in Live-Streaming Video

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Belov

    2011-01-01

    The article describes the algorithmic component of the pattern recognition method for extracting hand patterns from a video stream. Methods removing excess information from frames, localizing fragments with a hand and extracting hand contours to classify them are described.

  10. Climate change and alpine stream biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotaling, Scott; Finn, Debra S.; Joseph Giersch, J.

    2017-01-01

    In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources......, and threatening the very existence of some habitats and biota. Alpine streams harbour substantial species and genetic diversity due to significant habitat insularity and environmental heterogeneity. Climate change is expected to affect alpine stream biodiversity across many levels of biological resolution from...... micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities. Herein, we describe the current state of alpine stream biology from an organism-focused perspective. We begin by reviewing seven standard and emerging approaches that combine to form the current state of the discipline. We follow with a call...

  11. 1981 stream survey and summary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Stream surveys of the major salmon "runs" on Adak were conducted on a regular basis beginning in 1977. Their completion was dependent on time constraints and...

  12. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  13. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  14. He'eia Stream Contaminants Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Potential risk to ecological receptors in He’eia Stream and Wetland was characterized through the use of a food-web model to predict effects to the Hawaiian stilt,...

  15. EPHEMEROPTERA (INSECTA) LIMNOFAUNA OF SULTANSUYU STREAM (MALATYA)

    OpenAIRE

    Caner AYDINLI

    2013-01-01

    A total of 1838 nymph samples from 7 localities in Sultansuyu Stream (Malatya) were collectedbetween July-2006 and August-2007 and investigated to determine Ephemeroptera (Insecta)limnofauna of the stream. 10 taxa in the species level and 4 taxa in the genus level belonging to 10genera in 6 families were determined (Baetis buceratus, B. lutheri, B. rhodani, B. vernus, Caenismacrura, Cloeon dipterum, C. simile, Ecdyonurus sp., Electrogena sp., Epeorus sp., Ephemera vulgata,Ephemerella ignita, ...

  16. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...... is measured. A method for predicting the Manning's n as a function of the discharge conditions is suggested, and also a working hypothesis for predictions of the effect of channel cutting is presented....

  17. Efficient Complex Event Processing over RFID Streams

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    RFID events are a large volume of stream data that continuously come out for tracking and monitoring objects. Many studies have been done to detect a complex event in the RFID stream. However, the existing studies have many problems which increase unnecessary operations when complex events do not satisfy minimum conditions. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to detect complex events when the minimum conditions are satisfied to remove unnecessary operations. To check the minimum conditions...

  18. Better Video - Streaming Lessons among Palestinian Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali H. AbuSaada; Soon Fook Fong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of redundant information in video streaming of ICDL course for Palestinian trainee-teachers. Two modes of video streaming were used, namely video and narration (VN) mode, and video and narration cum text (VTN) mode of ICDL course. The sample consisted of 203 trainee-teachers in the National Institute for Training (NIT) in Gaza. The results showed that redundancy in the VTN mode increases cognitive overload and split attentions; hence inhibiting the ...

  19. Brugeroplevelse af streaming-tjenesten Netflix

    OpenAIRE

    Leifer, Anders; Frydendahl, Erik Pouret; Nedergaard, Mads Kresten

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to describe and understand the use of the video streaming service Netflix among younger single females, with the further aim to understand the success of streaming in general and Netflix’s offer as an experience economy based offering in particular. After introducing Netflix through a review of its history and its competitive environment, and establishing the epistemological and methodological framework, the paper presents its empiric part, a qualitative semi-structured int...

  20. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  1. Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp

    Kleenex, a language for expressing high-performance streaming string processing programs as regular grammars with embedded semantic actions, and its compilation to streaming string transducers with worst-case linear-time performance. Its underlying theory is based on transducer decomposition into oracle...... is based on a bottom-up tabulation algorithm reformulated using least fixed points and evaluated using an instance of the chaotic iteration scheme by Cousot and Cousot....

  2. Mercury bioaccumulation in a stream network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Martin Tsz Ki; Finlay, Jacques C; Nater, Edward A

    2009-09-15

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is common in stream and river ecosystems, but factors mediating Hg cycling in the flowing waters are much less understood than inthe lakes and wetlands. In this study, we examined the spatial patterns of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the dominant groups of aquatic insect larvae across a network of streams (drainage area ranging from 0.5 to 150 km2) in northern California during summer baseflow conditions. We found that, with the exception of water striders, all invertebrate groups showed significant (p South Fork Eel River, had the highest aqueous MeHg concentration (unfiltered: 0.13-0.17 ng L(-1)) while most of the upstream tributaries had aqueous MeHg concentrations close to or below the established detection limits (0.02 ng L(-1)). A filamentous alga abundant in South Fork Eel River (Cladophora glomerata) had an exceptionally high fraction of total-Hg as MeHg (i.e., %MeHg from 50-100%). Since other potential hotspots of in-stream Hg methylation (e.g., surface sediment and deep pools) had %MeHg lower than or similar to surface water (approximately 14%), we hypothesize that Cladophora and possibly other autotrophs may serve as hotspots of in-stream MeHg production in this bedrock-dominated stream. Recent studies in other regions concluded that wetland abundance in the watershed is the predominant factor in governing Hg concentrations of stream biota. However, our results show that in the absence of wetlands, substantial spatial variation of Hg bioaccumulation can arise in stream networks due to the influence of in-stream processes.

  3. C-Stream: A coroutune-based elastic stream processing engine

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Stream processing is a computational paradigm for on-the-fly processing of live data. This paradigm lends itself to implementations that can provide high throughput and low latency, by taking advantage of various forms of parallelism that is naturally captured by the stream processing model of computation, such as pipeline, task, and data parallelism. In this thesis, we describe the design and implementation of C-Stream, which is an ela...

  4. The ecology of chalk-stream invertebrates studied in a recirculating stream

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    To study and qualify the factors influencing interactions between various trophic levels in natural hard-water streams, a recirculating artificial stream channel was constructed. This structure has enabled patterns of population change of stream fauna to be observed under partially controlled physical and chemical conditions. Initial colonization of the substratum by invertebrates and subsequent succession was studied along with depth distribution and growth and production studies of inverteb...

  5. Spatial and taxonomic variation in trace element bioaccumulation in two herbivores from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; Vaun McArthur, J

    2014-03-01

    Dissimilarities in habitat use, feeding habits, life histories, and physiology can result in syntopic aquatic taxa of similar trophic position bioaccumulating trace elements in vastly different patterns. We compared bioaccumulation in a clam, Corbicula fluminea and mayfly nymph Maccaffertium modestum from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Collection sites differed in distance to contaminant sources, incision, floodplain activity, and sources of flood event water and organic matter. Contaminants variably accumulated in both sediment and biofilm. Bioaccumulation differed between species and sites with C. fluminea accumulating higher concentrations of Hg, Cs, Sr, Se, As, Be, and Cu, but M. modestum higher Pb and V. Stable isotope analyses suggested both spatial and taxonomic differences in resource use with greater variability and overlap between species in the more physically disturbed site. The complex but essential interactions between organismal biology, divergence in resource use, and bioaccumulation as related to stream habitat requires further studies essential to understand impacts of metal pollution on stream systems.

  6. Advanced Illness: Feeding Tubes and Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the feedings may be difficult. There is some debate, for example, about whether feeding tubes actually extend ... pneumonia cannot, but people can now get a vaccination to prevent many kinds of viral pneumonia. Aspiration ...

  7. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  8. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  9. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  10. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  11. Role of streams in myxobacteria aggregate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskowski, Maria A.; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

    2004-10-01

    Cell contact, movement and directionality are important factors in biological development (morphogenesis), and myxobacteria are a model system for studying cell-cell interaction and cell organization preceding differentiation. When starved, thousands of myxobacteria cells align, stream and form aggregates which later develop into round, non-motile spores. Canonically, cell aggregation has been attributed to attractive chemotaxis, a long range interaction, but there is growing evidence that myxobacteria organization depends on contact-mediated cell-cell communication. We present a discrete stochastic model based on contact-mediated signaling that suggests an explanation for the initialization of early aggregates, aggregation dynamics and final aggregate distribution. Our model qualitatively reproduces the unique structures of myxobacteria aggregates and detailed stages which occur during myxobacteria aggregation: first, aggregates initialize in random positions and cells join aggregates by random walk; second, cells redistribute by moving within transient streams connecting aggregates. Streams play a critical role in final aggregate size distribution by redistributing cells among fewer, larger aggregates. The mechanism by which streams redistribute cells depends on aggregate sizes and is enhanced by noise. Our model predicts that with increased internal noise, more streams would form and streams would last longer. Simulation results suggest a series of new experiments.

  12. On meteor stream spatial structure theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, G. V.

    1987-01-01

    The classical spatial representation of meteor streams is an elliptical torus with variable cross section. The position of this torus in space is determined by the mean orbit elements that may be obtained directly from observations of individual meteor stream particles when crossed by the Earth. Since the orbits of individual particles of a stream differ from each other, the distance between them on a plane normal to the mean orbit of elliptical torus forms some area, i.e., a cross section. The size and form of these cross sections change with the change of the direction among the mean orbit and are completely defined by the dispersion values of the orbit elements in a stream. An attempt was made to create an analytical method that would permit description of the spatial and time parameters of meteor streams, i.e., the form and size of their cross section, density of incident flux and their variations along the mean orbit and in time. In this case, the stream is considered as a continuous flux rather than a set of individual particles.

  13. Localized Multistreams for P2P Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Alhaisoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Streaming video over the Internet, including cellular networks, has now become a commonplace. Network operators typically use multicasting or variants of multiple unicasting to deliver streams to the user terminal in a controlled fashion. P2P streaming is an emerging alternative, which is theoretically more scalable but suffers from other issues arising from the dynamic nature of the system. Users' terminals become streaming nodes but they are not constantly connected. Another issue is that they are based on logical overlays, which are not optimized for the physical underlay infrastructure. An important proposition is to find effective ways to increase the resilience of the overlay whilst at the same time not conflicting with the network. In this article we look at the combination of two techniques, redundant streaming and locality awareness, in the context of both live and video-on-demand streaming. We introduce a new technique and assess it via a comparative, simulation-based study. We find that redundancy affects network utilization only marginally if traffic is kept at the edges via localization techniques.

  14. The Magellanic Stream: Circumnavigating the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onghia, Elena; Fox, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are surrounded by an extended network of gaseous structures. Chief among these is the Magellanic Stream, an interwoven tail of filaments trailing the Clouds in their orbit around the Milky Way. When considered in tandem with its Leading Arm, the Stream stretches over 200° on the sky. The Stream is thought to represent the result of tidal interactions between the Clouds and ram-pressure forces exerted by the Galactic corona, and its kinematic properties reflect the dynamical history of the pair of dwarf galaxies closest to the Milky Way. The Stream is a benchmark for hydrodynamical simulations of accreting gas and cloud/corona interactions. If the Stream survives these interactions and arrives safely in the Galactic disk, its cargo of over a billion solar masses of gas has the potential to maintain or elevate the Galactic star-formation rate. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge of the Stream, including its chemical composition, physical conditions, origin, and fate. We also review the dynamics of the Magellanic System, including the proper motions and orbital history of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the first-passage and second-passage scenarios, and the evidence for a Magellanic Group of galaxies.

  15. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  16. Controlling the acoustic streaming by pulsed ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    We propose a technique based on pulsed ultrasounds for controlling, reducing to a minimum observable value the acoustic streaming in closed ultrasonic standing wave fluidic resonators. By modifying the number of pulses and the repetition time it is possible to reduce the velocity of the acoustic streaming with respect to the velocity generated by the continuous ultrasound mode of operation. The acoustic streaming is observed at the nodal plane where a suspension of 800nm latex particles was focused by primary radiation force. A mixture of 800nm and 15μm latex particles has been also used for showing that the acoustic streaming is hardly reduced while primary and secondary forces continue to operate. The parameter we call "pulse mode factor" i.e. the time of applied ultrasound divided by the duty cycle, is found to be the adequate parameter that controls the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulsed ultrasound is more efficient for controlling the acoustic streaming than the variation of the amplitude of the standing waves.

  17. Information Behavior on Social Live Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheibe, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs. Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them. We conducted two quantitative investigations, namely an online survey with YouNow users (N = 123 and observations of live streams on YouNow (N = 434. YouNow is a service with video streams mostly made by adolescents for adolescents. YouNow users like to watch streams, to chat while watching, and to reward performers by using emoticons. While broadcasting, there is no anonymity (as in nearly all other WWW services. Synchronous SNSs remind us of the film The Truman Show, as anyone has the chance to consciously broadcast his or her own life real-time.

  18. PROXY-BASED PATCHING STREAM TRANSMISSION STRATEGY IN MOBILE STREAMING MEDIA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Jianxin; Lei Zhengxiong; Ma Xutao; Zhu Xiaomin

    2006-01-01

    A mobile transmission strategy, PMPatching (Proxy-based Mobile Patching) transmission strategy is proposed, it applies to the proxy-based mobile streaming media system in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) network. Performance of the whole system can be improved by using patching stream to transmit anterior part of the suffix that had been played back, and by batching all the demands for the suffix arrived in prefix period and patching stream transmission threshold period. Experimental results show that this strategy can efficiently reduce average network transmission cost and number of channels consumed in central streaming media server.

  19. Analytical solution based on stream-aquifer interactions in partially penetrating streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong HUANG; Zhi-fang ZHOU; Zhong-bo YU

    2010-01-01

    An analytical solution of drawdown caused by pumping was developed for an aquifer partially penetrated by two streams.The proposed analytical solution modifies Hunt's analytical solution and considers the effects of stream width and the interaction of two streams on drawdown.Advantages of the solution include its simple structure,consisting of the Theis well function and parameters of aquifer and streambed semipervious material.The calculated results show that the proposed analytical solution agrees with a previously developed acceptable solution and the errors between the two solutions are equal to zero without consideration of the effect of stream width.Also,deviations between the two analytical solutions incrcase with stream width.Four cases were studied to examine the effect of two streams on drawdown,assuming that some parameters were changeable,and other parameters were constant,such as the stream width,the distance between the stream and the pumping well,the stream recharge rate,and the leakage coefficient of streambed semipervious material.

  20. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) and Lake-Catchment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsLake and stream conditions respond to both natural and human-related landscape features. Characterizing these features within contributing areas (i.e., delineated watersheds) of streams and lakes could improve our understanding of how biological conditions vary spatially and improve the use, management, and restoration of these aquatic resources. However, the specialized geospatial techniques required to define and characterize stream and lake watersheds has limited their widespread use in both scientific and management efforts at large spatial scales. We developed the StreamCat and LakeCat Datasets to model, predict, and map the probable biological conditions of streams and lakes across the conterminous US (CONUS). Both StreamCat and LakeCat contain watershed-level characterizations of several hundred natural (e.g., soils, geology, climate, and land cover) and anthropogenic (e.g., urbanization, agriculture, mining, and forest management) landscape features for ca. 2.6 million stream segments and 376,000 lakes across the CONUS, respectively. These datasets can be paired with field samples to provide independent variables for modeling and other analyses. We paired 1,380 stream and 1,073 lake samples from the USEPAs National Aquatic Resource Surveys with StreamCat and LakeCat and used random forest (RF) to model and then map an invertebrate condition index and chlorophyll a concentration, respectively. Results/ConclusionsThe invertebrate

  1. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  2. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  3. Waste volume reduction factors for potential 242-A evaporator feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1995-05-04

    Double-shell tank (DST) storage space requirements have been shown to be highly dependent on the end point of 242-A operations. Consequences to the DST of various waste volumes, and concentrations, are evaluated. Only waste streams that are currently planned to be stored in the DST system before the year 2004 are discussed. As of January 1, 1995, approximately 27-million L (7.2-million gal) of dilute wastes are stored in the DSTs available for evaporator processing. Waste streams planned to be transferred to the DSTs before December 31, 2004, are identified. The DST volume for storing slurry from these wastes is presented in this document. At a final slurry specific gravity of -1.35, 22.5-million L (5.93-million gal) of DST space would be needed on December 31, 2004, to store the product from evaporator processing of these feedstocks. The expected volume needed if the resultant slurry were concentrated to the traditional double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) phase boundary (a specific gravity of {approximately}1.5) would be 17.7-million L (4.67-million gal). An additional 4.8-million L (1.26-million gal) is therefore needed if these wastes are concentrated to a specific gravity of 1.35 instead of the DSSF limit.

  4. Institutional feeding of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Not only is there a high prevalence of malnutrition among the elderly admitted to hospital and other institutions, but nutritional status seems to decline during admission, not only as a result of disease but also problems with catering and feeding policies, which are not well-geared to the needs of the sick. This results in high food wastage rates and inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes to meet requirements. In the elderly, decreased portion size and increased energy, protein and micronutrient density have been shown to be effective in decreasing wastage and improving intake. Other strategies for improving intake are reviewed, including a better environment, a reduction in drugs causing anorexia, help with eating, and less interruption of meals by procedures and ward rounds. Targets for nutritional intake and aims of feeding are reviewed.

  5. [Updating enteral feeding by catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, T; Planas, M

    2005-12-01

    Intestinal nutrition can be administered orally or by means of a catheter; the latter method is the focus of this article. The authors' objective is to provide up-to-date information in a succinct manner about the enteral feeding technique. The authors hope health professionals know the advantages as well as the inconveniences of the latest intestinal nutrition advances regarding access ways and the means to administer these. Intestinal nutrition formulas will not be dealt with in this article. However, a health professional should know that there is a wide variety of diets available depending on the complexity of macronutrients included in a diet, the quantity of proteins in a mixture, and that these are designed, in addition to feeding, to treat the specific pathological process a patient suffers from, such as diabetes of cancer.

  6. Effect of boiling regime on melt stream breakup in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B.W.; Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been performed examining the breakup and mixing behavior of an initially coherent stream of high-density melt as it flows downward through water. This work has application to the quenching of molten core materials as they drain downward during a postulated severe reactor accident. The study has included examination of various models of breakup distances based upon interfacial instabilities dominated either by liquid-liquid contact or by liquid-vapor contact. A series of experiments was performed to provide a data base for assessment of the various modeling approaches. The experiments involved Wood's metal (T/sub m/ = 73/sup 0/C, rho = 9.2 g/cm/sup 3/, d/sub j/ = 20 mm) poured into a deep pool of water. The temperature of the water and wood's metal were varied to span the range from single-phase, liquid-liquid contact to the film boiling regime. Experiment results showed that breakup occurred largely as a result of the spreading and entrainment from the leading edge of the jet. However, for streams of sufficient lengths a breakup length could be discerned at which there was no longer a coherent central core of the jet to feed the leading edge region. The erosion of the vertical trailing column is by Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities and related disengagement of droplets from the jet into the surrounding fluid. For conditions of liquid-liquid contact, the breakup length has been found to be about 20 jet diameters; when substantial vapor is produced at the interface due to heat transfer from the jet to the water, the breakup distance was found to range to as high as 50 jet diameters. The former values are close to the analytical prediction of Taylor, whereas the latter values are better predicted by the model of Epstein and Fauske.

  7. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  8. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  9. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cereda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  10. Analysis of feeding preference experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C H; Renaud, P E

    1989-03-01

    Published studies of consumer feeding preferences using foods that experience autogenic change in mass, numbers, area, etc., on the time scale of a feeding trial fail to employ appropriate statistical analyses to incorporate controls for those food changes occurring in the absence of the consumer. The studies that run controls typically use them to calculate a constant "correction factor", which is subtracted prior to formal data analysis. This procedure constitutes a non-rigorous suppression of variance that overstates the statistical significance of observed differences. The appropriate statistical analysis for preference tests with two foods is usually a simple t-test performed on the between-food differences in loss of mass (or numbers, area, etc.) comparing the results of experimentals with consumers to controls without consumers. Application of this recommended test procedure to an actual data set illustrates how low replication in controls, which is typical of most studies of feeding preference, inhibits detection of an apparently large influence of previous mechanical damage (simulated grazing) in reducing the attractiveness of a brown alga to a sea urchin.

  11. Slope failure as an upslope source of stream wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel. Miller

    2013-01-01

    Large woody debris is recognized as an important component of stream geomorphology and stream ecosystem function, and forest-land management is recognized as an important control on the quantity (and size and species distributions) of wood available for recruitment to streams. Much of the wood present in streams comes from adjacent forests, and riparian management...

  12. Global abundance and size distribution of streams and rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, J.A.; Cole, J.J.; Duarte, C.M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.M.; Prairie, Y.T.; Kortelainen, P.; Striegl, R.G.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    To better integrate lotic ecosystems into global cycles and budgets, we provide approximations of the size-distribution and areal extent of streams and rivers. One approach we used was to employ stream network theory combined with data on stream width. We also used detailed stream networks on 2 cont

  13. RStorm : Developing and testing streaming algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams. However

  14. RStorm : Developing and testing streaming algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams.

  15. RStorm: Developing and Testing Streaming Algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams.

  16. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  17. Global abundance and size distribution of streams and rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downing, J.A.; Cole, J.J.; Duarte, C.M.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.M.; Prairie, Y.T.; Kortelainen, P.; Striegl, R.G.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    To better integrate lotic ecosystems into global cycles and budgets, we provide approximations of the size-distribution and areal extent of streams and rivers. One approach we used was to employ stream network theory combined with data on stream width. We also used detailed stream networks on 2

  18. The Dawning of the Stream of Aquarius in RAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, M. E. K.; Steinmetz, M.; Sharma, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; de Jong, R. S.; Seabroke, G. M.; Helmi, A.; Freeman, K. C.; Binney, J.; Minchev, I.; Bienayme, O.; Campbell, R.; Fulbright, J. P.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, E. K.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2011-01-01

    We identify a new, nearby (0.5 kpc less than or similar to d less than or similar to 10 kpc) stream in data from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). As the majority of stars in the stream lie in the constellation of Aquarius, we name it the Aquarius Stream. We identify 15 members of the stream ly

  19. Sampling, Splitting and Merging in Coinductive Stream Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niqui, M.; Rutten, J.J.M.M.; Bolduc, C.; Desharnais, J.; Ktari, B.

    2010-01-01

    We study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of \\emph{stream calculus} and \\emph{stream circuits} for defining and proving propertie

  20. Sampling, splitting and merging in coinductive stream calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niqui, M.; Rutten, J.J.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of stream calculus and stream circuits for defining and proving properties of such opera

  1. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  2. RStorm: Developing and Testing Streaming Algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams. However

  3. Some security results of the RC4+ stream cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Jha, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    The RC4+ stream cipher was proposed as an alternative to the well known RC4 stream cipher. It was claimed by the authors that this new stream cipher was designed to overcome all the weaknesses reported against the alleged RC4 stream cipher. In the design specifications of RC4+, the authors make u...

  4. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  5. Scenario driven data modelling: a method for integrating diverse sources of data and data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettin, Thomas S.; Cottingham, Robert W.; Griffith, Shelton D.; Quest, Daniel J.

    2015-09-08

    A system and method of integrating diverse sources of data and data streams is presented. The method can include selecting a scenario based on a topic, creating a multi-relational directed graph based on the scenario, identifying and converting resources in accordance with the scenario and updating the multi-directed graph based on the resources, identifying data feeds in accordance with the scenario and updating the multi-directed graph based on the data feeds, identifying analytical routines in accordance with the scenario and updating the multi-directed graph using the analytical routines and identifying data outputs in accordance with the scenario and defining queries to produce the data outputs from the multi-directed graph.

  6. Highly selective ethylbenzene production through alkylation of dilute ethylene with gas phase-liquid phase benzene and transalkylation feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenglin Liu; Fucun Chen; Sujuan Xie; Peng Zeng; Xiyan Du; Longya Xu

    2009-01-01

    A novel industrial process was designed for the highly selective production of ethylbenzene.It comprised of a reactor vessel,vapor phase ethylene feed stream,benzene and transalkylation feed stream.Especially the product stream containing ethylbenzene was used to heat the reactor vessel,which consisted of an alkylation section,an upper heat exchange section,and a bottom heat exchange section.In such a novel reactor,vapor phase benzene and liquid phase benzene were coexisted due to the heat produced by isothermal reaction between the upper heat exchange section and the bottom heat exchange section.The process was demonstrated by the thermodynamic analysis and experimental results.In fact,during the 1010 hour-life-test of gas phase ethene with gas phase-liquid phase benzene alkylation reaction,the ethene conversion was above 95%,and the ethylbenzene selectivity was above 83% (only benzene feed) and even higher than 99% (benzene plus transalkylation feed).At the same time,the xylene content in the ethylbenzene was less than 100 ppm when the reaction was carried out under the reaction conditions of 140-185℃ of temperature,1.6-2.1 MPa of pressure,3.0-5.5 of benzene/ethylene mole ratio,4-6 v% of transalkylation feed/(benzene+transalkylation feed),0.19-0.27 h-1 of ethene space velocity,and 1000 g of 3998 catalyst loaded.Thus,compared with the conventional ethylbenzene synthesis route,the transalkylation reactor could be omitted in this novel Industrial process.

  7. POLA RASIO KEUANGAN PADA SAAT UP STREAM DAN DOWN STREAM DI INDUSTRI REALESTAT YANG GO PUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sukardi Kodrat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has purpose to explain differences on indicator financial ratio in up and down stream condition. This research uses real estate industries listed on Jakarta Stock Exchange as a sample. Sample selection is performed based on purposive sampling method with object to gain sample according to the research aim. Based on those criteria, there are 18 companies, which have fulfilling the conditions needed, starting from 1994 until 2002. The classification of business cycle on up and down stream conditions to used stock pricing indexes of property and real estate which calculated by arithmatic mean method. Based on those criteria, the classifications from 1994 until 1997 are represented by up stream condition and from 1998 until 2002 are represented by down stream condition. The result shows indicators: profitability ratios, gross margin ratios, capital turnover ratios, asset to equity ratios, growth ratios, liquidity ratios, leverage ratios, and cash flow ratios are different in up and down stream conditions, both simultaneously and partially. Simultaneously, there is a significant difference between up and down stream condition with wilks lambda of 0,346 and p value of 0,000. This research shows financial ratio indicator has differences on business cycle. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitan ini mempunyai tujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan indikator rasio keuangan pada kondisi up stream dan down stream. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel pada industri di sektor properti yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Jakarta. Pemilihan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Purposive Sampling yaitu sampel diambil berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria tertentu yang sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian ini. Berdasarkan kriteria tersebut, terdapat 18 perusahaan yang dapat dijadikan sampel mulai tahun 1994 sampai dengan 2002. Untuk menentukan perubahan business cycle pada kondisi up stream dan down stream dilakukan dengan menggunakan indeks harga saham di sektor properti

  8. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with the

  9. [Functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrates in Gaira river, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barrios, Javier; Ospina-Tórres, Rodulfo; Turizo-Correa, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers are frequently described on their biodiversity but few studies have considered the ecological value of this richness in their food webs. We determined the trophic structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities (expressed in the richness and abundance of taxa and biomass proportions of different functional feeding groups) at the level of the river, stretch and microhabitats (functional units - UFs). We evaluated the spatial and temporal variation of these descriptors during wet and dry events, and selected three sites associated with different altitudinal belts. We reported 109 taxa, with 11167 individuals who contributed 107.11g of biomass. Density of macroinvertebrates was favored with increasing height, and biomass showed the opposite pattern (K-W = 10.1, d.f. = 1, p shredders (Macrobrachium, 73%), present only in the lower reaches, followed by shredder Leptonema with 15%, located mostly in the upper reaches and predatory stoneflies of the genus Anacroneuria to 6.56%, which dominated in the middle stretch of stream. Excluding Macrobrachium from the analysis, there was dominance of Anacroneuria in the lower reaches. Between rainfall and drought events, biomass of functional feeding groups was higher in rain (W = 10.1, d.f. = 1, p < 0.05), favoring the growth of decapods, but the abundance was much higher during drought events.

  10. Energy use in the animal-feeds industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-05-01

    Fuel and electricity use in the animal feeds industry is discussed. Data were collected by postal survey and by detailed energy survey from plant records. Energy conservation measures are discussed. Large energy savings are unlikely in lucerne pellet production but significant savings in imported fuel oil could be made by conversion to coal or other indigenous fuels. When heat pump technology has improved it may be economically feasible to use a heat pump to recover heat from the dryer outlet air and use it to preheat the incoming air stream. Electricity savings are unlikely in feed mills but the boiler fuel consumption can by reduced by better situation of boilers and upgrading of steam reticulation systems. Energy consumption in dog biscuit factories can be reduced by similar methods to those suggested in the biscuit baking industry report, in particular conversion to direct gas heating (where available) and waste heat recovery for hot water production offer potential savings. Methods used to manufacture processed animal foods differ between factories and a general list of conservation measures could not be prepared. Useful savings are likely by reduced baseload boiler fuel consumption and waste heat recovery for hot water production.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) POUR STREAM SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental

  12. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  13. Geomorphic variation in riparian tree mortality and stream coarse woody debris recruitment from record flooding in a coastal plain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Stephen W. Golladay; P. Charles Goebel; Brad W. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    Large floods are an important process controlling the structure and function of stream ecosystems. One of the ways floods affect streams is through the recruitment of coarse woody debris from stream-side forests. Stream valley geomorphology may mediate this interaction by altering flood velocity, depth, and duration. Little research has examined how floods and...

  14. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  15. Feeding difficulties in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Morag J; Parr, Jeremy R; Sullivan, Peter B

    2012-12-01

    Feeding difficulties are common in children with cerebral palsy and have an effect on growth, nutritional state, general health, social interaction and behaviour and developmental outcomes. Many factors have an effect on feeding ability. Identification of these factors and amelioration of their impact on feeding difficulties is essential to promote adequate growth and nutrition. Appropriate assessment and management is best achieved by a multiprofessional team skilled in the care of children with cerebral palsy and feeding impairments. Feeding difficulties must be considered within the wider context of family and social circumstance.

  16. Maine StreamStats: a water-resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Maine StreamStats is a tool that any user with Internet access can use to delineate a basin on the fly and estimate a wide variety of streamflow statistics for ungaged sites on rivers and streams in Maine. Estimates are based on regression equations or are from data from similar gaged locations on the stream. Maine StreamStats is based on a national StreamStats application that can be used for streamflow estimates in many other states across the country.

  17. Control-based Scheduling in a Distributed Stream Processing System

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Stream processing systems receive continuous streams of messages with raw information and produce streams of messages with processed information. The utility of a stream-processing system depends, in part, on the accuracy and timeliness of the output. Streams in complex event processing systems are processed on distributed systems; several steps are taken on different processors to process each incoming message, and messages may be enqueued between steps. This paper de...

  18. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF COMPACT POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS CONTAINING UP TO 384 CARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Boersma, Christiaan; Allamandola, Louis J. [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Tielens, Alexander G. G. M., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov, E-mail: Louis.J.Allamandola@nasa.gov, E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov, E-mail: tielens@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA (Netherlands)

    2012-07-20

    The mid- and the far-infrared spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been computed using density functional theory. This study has focused on PAHs in the highly symmetric, compact, coronene family with sizes up to 384 carbons. We have identified trends in the peak position and intrinsic strength of the vibrational modes of these species and compared these to trends previously reported for less symmetric and smaller PAHs. The computed spectral modes have been used to calculate the IR emission spectrum of PAHs pumped by UV photons. The results have been compared to observed interstellar spectra to elucidate the characteristics of the interstellar PAH family. The calculations show that highly symmetric PAHs are very stable and, hence, might be favored under the harsh conditions of interstellar space. Our calculated vibrational properties confirm and extend previous studies for small PAHs to the large compact PAHs studied here, specifically in terms of the dependence of the spectral characteristics on ionization and on H-adjacency. The calculations show that for PAHs larger than 150 carbons, the 6.3 {mu}m feature becomes very broad and shifts to longer wavelengths, the 8.6 {mu}m band becomes stronger than the '7.7' {mu}m band, and the 11.0/12.7 band strength ratio gets too large compared with observations. Thus, PAHs with 150 carbons or more are unlikely to be the dominant species in interstellar space. The simplicity of the observed spectra in the 15-20 {mu}m range points toward a preponderance of compact PAHs in the interstellar PAH family.

  19. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  20. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.