WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon reservoir behavior

  1. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  2. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  3. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  4. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  5. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  6. Phenomenology of tremor-like signals observed over hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangel, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Stoll, E.P.; Carniel, R.; Barzandji, O.; Rode, E.D.; Singer, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    We have observed narrow-band, low-frequency (1.5-4 Hz, amplitude 0.01-10 mum/s) tremor signals on the surface over hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil, gas and water multiphase fluid systems in porous media) at currently 15 sites worldwide. These 'hydrocarbon tremors' possess remarkably similar spectral and

  7. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  8. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan; Harbi, Badr M.

    2015-01-01

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A

  9. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-12-23

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around

  10. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens; Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie's parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie's parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie's parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around 15%.

  11. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  12. Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Permeability Using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Permeability is a key parameter associated with the characterization of any hydrocarbon reservoir. In fact, it is not possible to have accurate solutions to many petroleum engineering problems without having accurate permeability value. The conventional methods for permeability determination are core analysis and well test techniques. These methods are very expensive and time consuming. Therefore, attempts have usually been carried out to use artificial neural network for identification of the relationship between the well log data and core permeability. In this way, recent works on artificial intelligence techniques have led to introduce a robust machine learning methodology called support vector machine. This paper aims to utilize the SVM for predicting the permeability of three gas wells in the Southern Pars field. Obtained results of SVM showed that the correlation coefficient between core and predicted permeability is 0.97 for testing dataset. Comparing the result of SVM with that of a general regression neural network (GRNN revealed that the SVM approach is faster and more accurate than the GRNN in prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs permeability.

  13. Potential Development of Hydrocarbon in Basement Reservoirs In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sunarjanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.165Basement rocks, in particular igneous and metamorphic rocks are known to have porosity and permeability which should not be ignored. Primary porosity of basement rocks occurs as the result of rock formation. The porosity increases by the presence of cracks occurring as the result of tectonic processes (secondary porosity. Various efforts have been carried out to explore hydrocarbon in basement rocks. Some oil and gas fields proved that the basement rocks are as reservoirs which so far have provided oil and gas in significant amount. A review using previous research data, new data, and observation of igneous rocks in some fields has been done to see the development of exploration and basement reservoirs in Indonesia. A review on terminology of basement rock up till the identification of oil and gas exploration in basement rocks need to be based on the latest technology. An environmental approach is suggested to be applied as an alternative in analyzing the policy on oil and gas exploration development, especially in basement reservoirs.

  14. On the water saturation calculation in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalheim, Stein Ottar

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to identify the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation and examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations or possibility to develop methods to remove weaknesses and uncertainties in existing S{sub w} - equations. Due to the need for industrial applicability of the equations we aimed for results with the following properties: The accuracy in S{sub w} should increase compared with existing S{sub w} - equations. The equations should be simple to use in petrophysical evaluations. The equations should be based on conventional logs and use as few as possible input parameters. The equations should be numerical stable. This thesis includes an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the most common S{sub w} equations. The results are addressed in chapter 3 and were intended to find the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation. To increase the knowledge of the relationship between R{sub t} and S{sub w} in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs and to understand how the pore geometry affects the conductivity (n and m) of the rock a theoretical study was done. It was also an aim to examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations (or investigation an effective medium model) valid inhydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs. The results are presented in paper 1. A new equation for water saturation calculation in clean sandstone oil reservoirs is addressed in paper 2. A recommendation for best practice of water saturation calculation in non water wet formation is addressed in paper 3. Finally a new equation for water saturation calculation in thinly interbedded sandstone/mudstone reservoirs is presented in paper 4. The papers are titled: 1) Is the saturation exponent n a constant. 2) A New Model for Calculating Water Saturation In 3) Influence of wettability on water saturation modeling. 4) Water Saturation Calculations in Thinly Interbedded Sandstone/mudstone Reservoirs. A

  15. Low permeability Neogene lithofacies in Northern Croatia as potential unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvić, Tomislav; Sučić, Antonija; Cvetković, Marko; Resanović, Filip; Velić, Josipa

    2014-06-01

    We present two examples of describing low permeability Neogene clastic lithofacies to outline unconventional hydrocarbon lithofacies. Both examples were selected from the Drava Depression, the largest macrostructure of the Pannonian Basin System located in Croatia. The first example is the Beničanci Field, the largest Croatian hydrocarbon reservoir discovered in Badenian coarse-grained clastics that consists mostly of breccia. The definition of low permeability lithofacies is related to the margins of the existing reservoir, where the reservoir lithology changed into a transitional one, which is mainly depicted by the marlitic sandstones. However, calculation of the POS (probability of success of new hydrocarbons) shows critical geological categories where probabilities are lower than those in the viable reservoir with proven reserves. Potential new hydrocarbon volumes are located in the structural margins, along the oil-water contact, with a POS of 9.375%. These potential reserves in those areas can be classified as probable. A second example was the Cremušina Structure, where a hydrocarbon reservoir was not proven, but where the entire structure has been transferred onto regional migration pathways. The Lower Pontian lithology is described from well logs as fine-grained sandstones with large sections of silty or marly clastics. As a result, the average porosity is low for conventional reservoir classification (10.57%). However, it is still an interesting case for consideration as a potentially unconventional reservoir, such as the "tight" sandstones.

  16. Reservoir simulation with the cubic plus (cross-) association equation of state for water, CO2, hydrocarbons, and tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    This work presents an efficient reservoir simulation framework for multicomponent, multiphase, compressible flow, based on the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state (EOS). CPA is an accurate EOS for mixtures that contain non-polar hydrocarbons, self-associating polar water, and cross-associating molecules like methane, ethane, unsaturated hydrocarbons, CO2, and H2S. While CPA is accurate, its mathematical formulation is highly non-linear, resulting in excessive computational costs that have made the EOS unfeasible for large scale reservoir simulations. This work presents algorithms that overcome these bottlenecks and achieve an efficiency comparable to the much simpler cubic EOS approach. The main applications that require such accurate phase behavior modeling are 1) the study of methane leakage from high-pressure production wells and its potential impact on groundwater resources, 2) modeling of geological CO2 sequestration in brine aquifers when one is interested in more than the CO2 and H2O components, e.g. methane, other light hydrocarbons, and various tracers, and 3) enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection in reservoirs that have previously been waterflooded or contain connate water. We present numerical examples of all those scenarios, extensive validation of the CPA EOS with experimental data, and analyses of the efficiency of our proposed numerical schemes. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the presented phase split computations pave the way to more widespread adoption of CPA in reservoir simulators.

  17. Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and enrichment laws of multi-layered reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin represents the earliest area where natural gas is explored, developed and comprehensively utilized in China. After over 50 years of oil and gas exploration, oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in 24 gas-dominant layers in this basin. For the purpose of predicting natural gas exploration direction and target of each layer in the Sichuan Basin, the sedimentary characteristics of marine and continental strata in this basin were summarized and the forms of multi-cycled tectonic movement and their controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the following characteristics were identified. First, the Sichuan Basin has experienced the transformation from marine sedimentation to continental sedimentation since the Sinian with the former being dominant. Second, multiple source–reservoir assemblages are formed based on multi-rhythmed deposition, and multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics are vertically presented. And third, multi-cycled tectonic movement appears in many forms and has a significant controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation. Then, oil and gas reservoir characteristics and enrichment laws were investigated. It is indicated that the Sichuan Basin is characterized by coexistence of conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon supply, multiple reservoir types, multiple trap types, multi-staged hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple hydrocarbon accumulation models. Besides, its natural gas enrichment is affected by hydrocarbon source intensity, large paleo-uplift, favorable sedimentary facies belt, sedimentary–structural discontinuity plane and structural fracture development. Finally, the natural gas exploration and research targets of each layer in the Sichuan Basin were predicted according to the basic petroleum geologic conditions

  18. Impact of rock salt creep law choice on subsidence calculations for hydrocarbon reservoirs overlain by evaporite caprocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marketos, G.; Spiers, C.J.; Govers, R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate forward modeling of surface subsidence above producing hydrocarbons reservoirs requires an understanding of the mechanisms determining how ground deformation and subsidence evolve. Here we focus entirely on rock salt, which overlies a large number of reservoirs worldwide, and specifically

  19. Anomalous dispersion due to hydrocarbons: The secret of reservoir geophysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    When P- and S-waves travel through porous sandstone saturated with hydrocarbons, a bit of magic happens to make the velocities of these waves more frequency-dependent (dispersive) than when the formation is saturated with brine. This article explores the utility of the anomalous dispersion in finding more oil and gas, as well as giving a possible explanation about the effect of hydrocarbons upon the capillary forces in the formation. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Alfy, I.M.; Nabih, M.A.; Eysa, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. - Highlights: ► The positive DRAD values indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. ► Thorium normalization was applied to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities. ► The conventional well logs are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in wells. ► Determining hydrocarbon potentialities zones using spectrometric gamma-ray logs

  1. Subcontinuum mass transport of hydrocarbons in nanoporous media and long-time kinetics of recovery from unconventional reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Lyderic

    2015-11-01

    In this talk I will discuss the transport of hydrocarbons across nanoporous media and analyze how this transport impacts at larger scales the long-time kinetics of hydrocarbon recovery from unconventional reservoirs (the so-called shale gas). First I will establish, using molecular simulation and statistical mechanics, that the continuum description - the so-called Darcy law - fails to predict transport within a nanoscale organic matrix. The non-Darcy behavior arises from the strong adsorption of the alkanes in the nanoporous material and the breakdown of hydrodynamics at the nanoscale, which contradicts the assumption of viscous flow. Despite this complexity, all permeances collapse on a master curve with an unexpected dependence on alkane length, which can be described theoretically by a scaling law for the permeance. Then I will show that alkane recovery from such nanoporous reservoirs is dynamically retarded due to interfacial effects occuring at the material's interface. This occurs especially in the hydraulic fracking situation in which water is used to open fractures to reach the hydrocarbon reservoirs. Despite the pressure gradient used to trigger desorption, the alkanes remain trapped for long times until water desorbs from the external surface. The free energy barrier can be predicted in terms of an effective contact angle on the composite nanoporous surface. Using a statistical description of the alkane recovery, I will then demonstrate that this retarded dynamics leads to an overall slow - algebraic - decay of the hydrocarbon flux. Such a behavior is consistent with algebraic decays of shale gas flux from various wells reported in the literature. This work was performed in collaboration with B. Coasne, K. Falk, T. Lee, R. Pellenq and F. Ulm, at the UMI CNRS-MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  3. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

    2013-03-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Microbial Metagenome from Brazilian Petroleum Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-García, Isabel Natalia; Correa Alvarez, Javier; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Pereira de Souza, Anete; dos Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial diversity and metabolic pathways involved in hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum reservoirs is still limited, mostly due to the difficulty in recovering the complex community from such an extreme environment. Metagenomics is a valuable tool to investigate the genetic and functional diversity of previously uncultured microorganisms in natural environments. Using a function-driven metagenomic approach, we investigated the metabolic abilities of microbial communities in oil reservoirs. Here, we describe novel functional metabolic pathways involved in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds in a metagenomic library obtained from an oil reservoir. Although many of the deduced proteins shared homology with known enzymes of different well-described aerobic and anaerobic catabolic pathways, the metagenomic fragments did not contain the complete clusters known to be involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Instead, the metagenomic fragments comprised genes belonging to different pathways, showing novel gene arrangements. These results reinforce the potential of the metagenomic approach for the identification and elucidation of new genes and pathways in poorly studied environments and contribute to a broader perspective on the hydrocarbon degradation processes in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:24587220

  5. Microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Martin; Beckmaann, Sabrina; Siegert, Michael; Grundger, Friederike; Richnow, Hans [Geomicrobiology Group, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, oil production has increased enormously but almost half of the oil now remaining is heavy/biodegraded and cannot be put into production. There is therefore a need for new technology and for diversification of energy sources. This paper discusses the microbial conversion of higher hydrocarbons to methane in oil and coal reservoirs. The objective of the study is to identify microbial and geochemical controls on methanogenesis in reservoirs. A graph shows the utilization of methane for various purposes in Germany from 1998 to 2007. A degradation process to convert coal to methane is shown using a flow chart. The process for converting oil to methane is also given. Controlling factors include elements such as Fe, nitrogen and sulfur. Atmospheric temperature and reservoir pressure and temperature also play an important role. From the study it can be concluded that isotopes of methane provide exploration tools for reservoir selection and alkanes and aromatic compounds provide enrichment cultures.

  6. Mercury-free PVT apparatus for thermophysical property analyses of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansangan, R.M.; Lievois, J.S.

    1992-08-31

    Typical reservoir fluid analyses of complex, multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures include the volumetric properties, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansivity, equilibrium ratios, saturation pressure, viscosities, etc. These parameters are collectively referred to as PVT properties, an acronym for the primary state variables; pressure, volume, and temperature. The reservoir engineer incorporates this information together with the porous media description in performing material balance calculations. These calculations lead to the determination (estimation) of the initial hydrocarbon in-place, the future reservoir performance, the optimal production scheme, and the ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. About four years ago, Ruska Instrument Corporation embarked on a project to develop an apparatus designed to measure PVT properties that operates free of mercury. The result of this endeavor is the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system which has been in the market for the last three years. The 2370 has evolved from the prototype unit to its present configuration which is described briefly in this report. The 2370 system, although developed as a system-engineered apparatus based on existing technology, has not been exempt from this burden-of-proof Namely, the performance of the apparatus under routine test conditions with real reservoir fluids. This report summarizes the results of the performance and applications testing of the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system. Density measurements were conducted on a pure fluid. The results were compared against literature values and the prediction of an equation of state. Routine reservoir fluid analyses were conducted with a black oil and a retrograde condensate gas mixtures. Limited comparison of the results were performed based on the same tests performed on a conventional mercury-based PVT apparatus. The results of these tests are included in this report.

  7. Marine controlled source electromagnetic (mCSEM) detects hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Santos Basin - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonora, Marco Polo Pereira; Rodrigues, Luiz Felipe [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zerilli, Andrea; Labruzzo, Tiziano [WesternGeco, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic (mCSEM) has driven the attention of an increasing number of operators due to its sensitivity to map resistive structures, such as hydrocarbon reservoirs beneath the ocean floor and successful case histories have been reported. The Santos basin mCSEM survey was performed as part of a technical co-operation project between PETROBRAS and Schlumberger to assess the integration of selected deep reading electromagnetic technologies into the full cycle of oil field exploration and development. The survey design was based on an in-depth sensitivity study, built on known reservoirs parameters, such as thickness, lateral extent, overburden and resistivities derived from seismic and well data. In this context, the mCSEM data were acquired to calibrate the technology over the area's known reservoirs, quantify the resistivity anomalies associated with those reservoirs, with the expectation that new prospective locations could be found. We show that the mCSEM response of the known reservoirs yields signatures that can be clearly imaged and accurately quantified and there are evident correlations between the mCSEM anomalies and the reservoirs. (author)

  8. Seismic Response of Deep Hydrocarbon Bearing Reservoirs: examples from Oso Field and implications for Future Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluwasusi, A. B.; Hussey, V.; Goulding, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Oso Field (OML 70) produces approximately 100 TBD of condensate from Miocene age shelfal sand reservoirs at approximately 10,000 feet below sea level. The field was discovered in 1967 while testing a deeply buried fault closure. Reservoirs are normally pressured, exceed 1 Darcy in permeability and range from 50 to 600 feet in thickness.There are seismic amplitudes associated with the shallower reservoirs on the existing conventional 3D dataset; however there are no anomalies associated with the deeper, condensate accumulations.The paper explores the physical rock and fluid properties associated with the Oso reservoirs and the resulting seismic responses. Modelled results have been calibrated with the actual seismic signatures for the water and hydrocarbon bearing zones. Results indicate that the deeper reservoirs exhibit a classic Class II AVG seismic response and that the use of longer offset and angle stack data can help predict the occurrence of these types of reservoirs. Examples of similar accumulations will be shared.Mobil Producing Nigeria is conducting a full reprocessing effort of the existing 3D dataset over the Joint Venture acreage with a goal of identifying and exploiting additional accumulations with Class II AVG seismic response. Preliminary results of the reprocessing over known accumulations will be presented

  9. Calculation of Interfacial Tensions of Hydrocarbon-water Systems under Reservoir Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon......-brine systems. The new model was tested on a number of hydrocarbon-water/brine mixtures and two crude oil-water systems under reservoir conditions. The results show good agreement between the predicted and the experimental interfacial tension data.......Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon-water...... mixtures on the basis of the SRK equation of state. With this model, it is unnecessary to solve the time-consuming density-profile equations of the gradient-theory model. In addition, a correlation was developed for representing the effect of electrolytes on the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon...

  10. Depleted Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Present a Safe and Practical Burial Solution for Graphite Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, L.

    2016-01-01

    A solution for graphite waste is proposed that combines reliance on thick impermeable host rock that is needed to confine the long-life radioactivity content of most irradiated graphite with low capitalistic and operational unit volume costs that are required to render this bulky waste form manageable. The solution, uniquely applicable to irradiated graphite due to its low dose rates, moderate mechanical strength and light density, consists in three steps: first, graphite is fine-crushed under water; second, it is made in an aqueous suspension; third, the suspension is injected into a deep, disused hydrocarbon reservoir. Each of these steps only involves well mastered techniques. Regulatory changes that may allow this solution to be added to the gamut of available waste routes, geochemical issues, availability of depleted reservoirs and cost projections are presented. (author)

  11. Ephemeral-fluvial sediments as potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. Vol. 1: Sedimentology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Although reservoirs formed from ephemeral-fluvial sandstones have previously been considered relatively simple, unresolved problems of sandbody correlation and production anomalies demonstrate the need for improved understanding of their internal complexity. Outcropping ephemeral-fluvial systems have been studied in order to determine the main features and processes occurring in sand-rich ephemeral systems and to identify which features will be of importance in a hydrocarbon reservoir. The Lower Jurassic Upper Moenave and Kayenta Formations of south-eastern Utah and northern Arizona comprise series of stacked, sand-dominated sheet-like palaeochannels suggestive of low sinuosity, braided systems. Low subsidence rates and rapid lateral migration rates enabled channels to significantly modify their widths during high discharge. (author)

  12. DEPLETED HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS AND CO2 INJECTION WELLS –CO2 LEAKAGE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Migration risk assessment of the injected CO2 is one of the fi rst and indispensable steps in determining locations for the implementation of projects for carbon dioxide permanent disposal in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. Within the phase of potential storage characterization and assessment, it is necessary to conduct a quantitative risk assessment, based on dynamic reservoir models that predict the behaviour of the injected CO2, which requires good knowledge of the reservoir conditions. A preliminary risk assessment proposed in this paper can be used to identify risks of CO2 leakage from the injection zone and through wells by quantifying hazard probability (likelihood and severity, in order to establish a risk-mitigation plan and to engage prevention programs. Here, the proposed risk assessment for the injection well is based on a quantitative risk matrix. The proposed assessment for the injection zone is based on methodology used to determine a reservoir probability in exploration and development of oil and gas (Probability of Success, abbr. POS, and modifi ed by taking into account hazards that may lead to CO2 leakage through the cap rock in the atmosphere or groundwater. Such an assessment can eliminate locations that do not meet the basic criteria in regard to short-term and long-term safety and the integrity of the site

  13. Caprock Integrity during Hydrocarbon Production and CO2 Injection in the Goldeneye Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Saeed; Paluszny, Adriana; Zimmerman, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a key technology for addressing climate change and maintaining security of energy supplies, while potentially offering important economic benefits. UK offshore, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs have the potential capacity to store significant quantities of carbon dioxide, produced during power generation from fossil fuels. The Goldeneye depleted gas condensate field, located offshore in the UK North Sea at a depth of ~ 2600 m, is a candidate for the storage of at least 10 million tons of CO2. In this research, a fully coupled, full-scale model (50×20×8 km), based on the Goldeneye reservoir, is built and used for hydro-carbon production and CO2 injection simulations. The model accounts for fluid flow, heat transfer, and deformation of the fractured reservoir. Flow through fractures is defined as two-dimensional laminar flow within the three-dimensional poroelastic medium. The local thermal non-equilibrium between injected CO2 and host reservoir has been considered with convective (conduction and advection) heat transfer. The numerical model has been developed using standard finite element method with Galerkin spatial discretisation, and finite difference temporal discretisation. The geomechanical model has been implemented into the object-oriented Imperial College Geomechanics Toolkit, in close interaction with the Complex Systems Modelling Platform (CSMP), and validated with several benchmark examples. Fifteen major faults are mapped from the Goldeneye field into the model. Modal stress intensity factors, for the three modes of fracture opening during hydrocarbon production and CO2 injection phases, are computed at the tips of the faults by computing the I-Integral over a virtual disk. Contact stresses -normal and shear- on the fault surfaces are iteratively computed using a gap-based augmented Lagrangian-Uzawa method. Results show fault activation during the production phase that may affect the fault's hydraulic conductivity

  14. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Son, Jin Dam; Oh, Jae Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Three year project is being carried out on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by the reservoir characterization. This report describes the results of the second year's work. This project deals with characterization of fluids, bitumen ad rock matrix in the reservoir. New equipment and analytical solutions for naturally fractured reservoir were also included in this study. Main purpose of the reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of fluids (gas, petroleum and water) and distribution of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but development of the petroleum. For the theme of reservoir geochemistry, methods and principles of the reservoir gas and bitumen characterization, which is applicable to the petroleum development, are studied. and case study was carried out on the gas, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir taken form Haenam area and Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Gases taken form the two different wells indicate the different origin. Formation water analyses show the absence of barrier within the tested interval. With the sidewall core samples from a well offshore Korea, the analysis using polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscope with EDX and cathodoluminoscope was performed for the study on sandstone diagenesis. The I/S changes were examined on the cuttings samples from a well, offshore Korea to estimate burial temperature. Oxygen stable isotope is used to study geothermal history in sedimentary basin. Study in the field is rare in Korea and basic data are urgently needed especially in continental basins to determine the value of formation water. In the test analyses, three samples from marine basins indicate final temperature from 55 deg.C to 83 deg.C and one marine sample indicate the initial temperature of 36 deg.C. One sample from continental basin represented the final temperature from 53 and 80 deg.C. These temperatures will be corrected because these values were based on assumed

  15. Application of magnetic techniques to lateral hydrocarbon migration - Lower Tertiary reservoir systems, UK North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, S. A.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Fraser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis experiments show that magnetic minerals can be produced inorganically during oil formation in the `oil-kitchen'. Here we try to identify a magnetic proxy that can be used to trace hydrocarbon migration pathways by determining the morphology, abundance, mineralogy and size of the magnetic minerals present in reservoirs. We address this by examining the Tay formation in the Western Central Graben in the North Sea. The Tertiary sandstones are undeformed and laterally continuous in the form of an east-west trending channel, facilitating long distance updip migration of oil and gas to the west. We have collected 179 samples from 20 oil-stained wells and 15 samples from three dry wells from the British Geological Survey Core Repository. Samples were selected based on geological observations (water-wet sandstone, oil-stained sandstone, siltstones and shale). The magnetic properties of the samples were determined using room-temperature measurements on a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), low-temperature (0-300K) measurements on a Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS) and high-temperature (300-973K) measurements on a Kappabridge susceptibility meter. We identified magnetite, pyrrhotite, pyrite and siderite in the samples. An increasing presence of ferrimagnetic iron sulphides is noticed along the known hydrocarbon migration pathway. Our initial results suggest mineralogy coupled with changes in grain size are possible proxies for hydrocarbon migration.

  16. Hydrocarbon Potential in Sandstone Reservoir Isolated inside Low Permeability Shale Rock (Case Study: Beruk Field, Central Sumatra Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diria, Shidqi A.; Musu, Junita T.; Hasan, Meutia F.; Permono, Widyo; Anwari, Jakson; Purba, Humbang; Rahmi, Shafa; Sadjati, Ory; Sopandi, Iyep; Ruzi, Fadli

    2018-03-01

    Upper Red Bed, Menggala Formation, Bangko Formation, Bekasap Formation and Duri Formationare considered as the major reservoirs in Central Sumatra Basin (CSB). However, Telisa Formation which is well-known as seal within CSB also has potential as reservoir rock. Field study discovered that lenses and layers which has low to high permeability sandstone enclosed inside low permeability shale of Telisa Formation. This matter is very distinctive and giving a new perspective and information related to the invention of hydrocarbon potential in reservoir sandstone that isolated inside low permeability shale. This study has been conducted by integrating seismic data, well logs, and petrophysical data throughly. Facies and static model are constructed to estimate hydrocarbon potential resource. Facies model shows that Telisa Formation was deposited in deltaic system while the potential reservoir was deposited in distributary mouth bar sandstone but would be discontinued bedding among shale mud-flat. Besides, well log data shows crossover between RHOB and NPHI, indicated that distributary mouth bar sandstone is potentially saturated by hydrocarbon. Target area has permeability ranging from 0.01-1000 mD, whereas porosity varies from 1-30% and water saturation varies from 30-70%. The hydrocarbon resource calculation approximates 36.723 MSTB.

  17. Lacustrine Environment Reservoir Properties on Sandstone Minerals and Hydrocarbon Content: A Case Study on Doba Basin, Southern Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumery, N. F. Mohd; Lo, S. Z.; Salim, A. M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of lacustrine environment as the hydrocarbon reservoir has been widely known. However, despite its growing importance, the lacustrine petroleum geology has received far less attention than marine due to its sedimentological complexity. This study therefore aims in developing an understanding of the unique aspects of lacustrine reservoirs which eventually impacts the future exploration decisions. Hydrocarbon production in Doba Basin, particularly the northern boundary, for instance, has not yet succeeded due to the unawareness of its depositional environment. The drilling results show that the problems were due to the: radioactive sand and waxy oil/formation damage, which all are related to the lacustrine depositional environment. Detailed study of geological and petrophysical integration on wireline logs and petrographic thin sections analysis of this environment helps in distinguishing reservoir and non-reservoir areas and determining the possible mechanism causing the failed DST results. The interpretations show that the correlation of all types> of logs and rho matrix analysis are capable in identifying sand and shale bed despite of the radioactive sand present. The failure of DST results were due to the presence of arkose in sand and waxy oil in reservoir bed. This had been confirmed by the petrographic thin section analysis where the arkose has mineral twinning effect indicate feldspar and waxy oil showing bright colour under fluorescent light. Understanding these special lacustrine environment characteristics and features will lead to a better interpretation of hydrocarbon prospectivity for future exploration.

  18. Optimizing and Quantifying CO2 Storage Resource in Saline Formations and Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, Nicholas W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ayash, Scott C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Azzolina, Nicholas A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Peck, Wesley D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorecki, Charles D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ge, Jun [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Jiang, Tao [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Burton-Kelly, Matthew E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Anderson, Parker W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Dotzenrod, Neil W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorz, Andrew J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

    2017-06-30

    In an effort to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from large stationary sources, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being investigated as one approach. This work assesses CO2 storage resource estimation methods for deep saline formations (DSFs) and hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Project activities were conducted using geologic modeling and simulation to investigate CO2 storage efficiency. CO2 storage rates and efficiencies in DSFs classified by interpreted depositional environment were evaluated at the regional scale over a 100-year time frame. A focus was placed on developing results applicable to future widespread commercial-scale CO2 storage operations in which an array of injection wells may be used to optimize storage in saline formations. The results of this work suggest future investigations of prospective storage resource in closed or semiclosed formations need not have a detailed understanding of the depositional environment of the reservoir to generate meaningful estimates. However, the results of this work also illustrate the relative importance of depositional environment, formation depth, structural geometry, and boundary conditions on the rate of CO2 storage in these types of systems. CO2 EOR occupies an important place in the realm of geologic storage of CO2, as it is likely to be the primary means of geologic CO2 storage during the early stages of commercial implementation, given the lack of a national policy and the viability of the current business case. This work estimates CO2 storage efficiency factors using a unique industry database of CO2 EOR sites and 18 different reservoir simulation models capturing fluvial clastic and shallow shelf carbonate depositional environments for reservoir depths of 1219 and 2438 meters (4000 and 8000 feet) and 7.6-, 20-, and 64-meter (25-, 66

  19. EOS simulation and GRNN modeling of the constant volume depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsharkawy, A.M.; Foda, S.G. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Currently, two approaches are being used to predict the changes in retrograde gas condensate composition and estimate the pressure depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs. The first approach uses the equation of states whereas the second uses empirical correlations. Equations of states (EOS) are poor predictive tools for complex hydrocarbon systems. The EOS needs adjustment against phase behavior data of reservoir fluid of known composition. The empirical correlation does not involve numerous numerical computations but their accuracy is limited. This study presents two general regression neural network (GRNN) models. The first model, GRNNM1, is developed to predict dew point pressure and gas compressibility at dew point using initial composition of numerous samples while the second model, GRNNM2, is developed to predict the changes in well stream effluent composition at any stages of pressure depletion. GRNNM2 can also be used to determine the initial reservoir fluid composition using dew point pressure, gas compressibility at dew point, and reservoir temperature. These models are based on analysis of 142 sample of laboratory studies of constant volume depletion (CVD) for gas condensate systems forming a total of 1082 depletion stages. The database represents a wide range of gas condensate systems obtained worldwide. The performance of the GRNN models has been compared to simulation results of the equation of state. The study shows that the proposed general regression neural network models are accurate, valid, and reliable. These models can be used to forecast CVD data needed for many reservoir engineering calculations in case laboratory data is unavailable. The GRNN models save computer time involved in EOS calculations. The study also show that once these models are properly trained they can be used to cut expenses of frequent sampling and laborious experimental CVD tests required for gas condensate reservoirs. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Pre-drilling prediction techniques on the high-temperature high-pressure hydrocarbon reservoirs offshore Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Liu, Huaishan; Wu, Shiguo; Sun, Jin; Yang, Chaoqun; Xie, Yangbing; Chen, Chuanxu; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jiliang

    2018-02-01

    Decreasing the risks and geohazards associated with drilling engineering in high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) geologic settings begins with the implementation of pre-drilling prediction techniques (PPTs). To improve the accuracy of geopressure prediction in HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs offshore Hainan Island, we made a comprehensive summary of current PPTs to identify existing problems and challenges by analyzing the global distribution of HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs, the research status of PPTs, and the geologic setting and its HTHP formation mechanism. Our research results indicate that the HTHP formation mechanism in the study area is caused by multiple factors, including rapid loading, diapir intrusions, hydrocarbon generation, and the thermal expansion of pore fluids. Due to this multi-factor interaction, a cloud of HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs has developed in the Ying-Qiong Basin, but only traditional PPTs have been implemented, based on the assumption of conditions that do not conform to the actual geologic environment, e.g., Bellotti's law and Eaton's law. In this paper, we focus on these issues, identify some challenges and solutions, and call for further PPT research to address the drawbacks of previous works and meet the challenges associated with the deepwater technology gap. In this way, we hope to contribute to the improved accuracy of geopressure prediction prior to drilling and provide support for future HTHP drilling offshore Hainan Island.

  1. A sedimentological approach to refining reservoir architecture in a mature hydrocarbon province: the Brent Province, UK North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, G.J.; Sixsmith, P.J.; Johnson, H.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering

    2004-04-01

    Improved reservoir characterisation in the mature Brent Province of the North Sea, aimed at maximising both in-field and near-field hydrocarbon potential, requires a clearer understanding of sub-seismic stratigraphy and facies distributions. In this context, we present a regional, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework for the Brent Group, UK North Sea based on extensive sedimentological re-interpretation of core and wireline-log data, combined with palynostratigraphy and published literature. This framework is used to place individual reservoirs in an appropriate regional context, thus resulting in the identification of subtle sedimentological and tectono-stratigraphic features of reservoir architecture that have been previously overlooked. We emphasise the following insights gained from our regional, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic synthesis: (1) improved definition of temporal and spatial trends in deposition both within and between individual reservoirs, (2) development of regionally consistent, predictive sedimentological models for two enigmatic reservoir intervals (the Broom and Tarbert Formations), and (3) recognition of subtle local tectono-stratigraphic controls on reservoir architecture, and their links to the regional, Middle Jurassic structural evolution of the northern North Sea. We discuss the potential applications of these insights to the identification of additional exploration potential and to improved ultimate recovery. (author)

  2. Isotopic and geochemical tools to assess the feasibility of methanogenesis as a way to enhance hydrocarbon recovery in oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, N.; Morris, B.E.L.; Richnow, H.H. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung (UFZ), Leipzig (Germany). Abt. Isotopenbiogeochemie; Cai, M.; Yao, Jun [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung (UFZ), Leipzig (Germany). Abt. Isotopenbiogeochemie; University of Sicence and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Civil and Environment Engineering; Straaten, N.; Krueger, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich Geochemie

    2013-08-01

    In situ biotransformation of oil to methane was investigated in a thermophilic reservoir in Dagang, China using isotopic analyzes, chemical fingerprinting and molecular and biological methods. Our first results, which were already published, demonstrated that anaerobic oil degradation concomitant with methane production was occurring. The reservoir was highly methanogenic and the oil exhibited varying degrees of degradation between different parts of the reservoir, although it was mainly highly weathered, and nearly devoid of nalkanes, alkylbenzenes, alkyltoluenes, and light PAHs. In addition, the isotopic data from reservoir oil, water and gas was used to elucidate the origin of the methane. The average {delta}{sup 13}C for methane was around -47 permille and CO{sub 2} was highly enriched in {sup 13}C. The bulk isotopic discrimination ({Delta}{delta}{sup 13}C) between methane and CO{sub 2} was between 32 and 65 permille, in accordance with previously reported results for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Subsequent microcosm experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of degrading oil under methanogenic conditions and of producing methane and/or CO{sub 2} from {sup 13}C-labelled n-hexadecane, 2-methylnaphthalene or toluene ({delta}{sup 13}C values up to 550 permille). These results demonstrate that methanogenesis is linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Further experiments will elucidate the activation mechanisms for the different compounds. (orig.)

  3. Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from an urban reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanke, Hirohide; Uchida, Masao; Okuda, Tomoaki; Yoneda, Minoru; Takada, Hideshige; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from fossil fuel combustion ( 14 C-free) and biomass burning (contemporary 14 C) was carried out using a recently developed compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) method for a sediment core from an urban reservoir located in the central Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. The 14 C abundance of PAHs in the sediments was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) after extraction and purification by three types of column chromatography, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and, subsequently, by a preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) system. This method yielded a sufficient quantity of pure compounds and allowed a high degree of confidence in the determination of 14 C. The fraction modern values (f M ) of individual PAHs (phenanthrene, alkylphenanthrenes, fluoranthene, pyrene and benz[a]anthracene) in the sediments ranged from 0.06 to 0.21. These results suggest that sedimentary PAHs (those compounds mentioned above) were derived mostly from fossil fuel combustion. Three sectioned-downcore profiles (∼40 cm) of the 14 C abundance in phenanthrene and alkylphenanthrenes showed a decreasing trend with depth, that was anti-correlated with the trend of ΣPAHs concentration. The f M values of phenanthrene were also larger than those of alkylphenanthrenes in each section of the core. This result indicates that phenanthrene received a greater contribution from biomass burning than alkylphenanthrenes throughout the core. This finding highlights the method used here as an useful approach to elucidate the source and origin of PAHs in the environment

  4. Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring and Performance Assessment of CO2 Sequestration in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta-Gupta, Akhil [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Carbon dioxide sequestration remains an important and challenging research topic as a potentially viable approach for mitigating the effects of greenhouse gases on global warming (e.g., Chu and Majumdar, 2012; Bryant, 2007; Orr, 2004; Hepple and Benson, 2005; Bachu, 2003; Grimston et al., 2001). While CO2 can be sequestered in oceanic or terrestrial biomass, the most mature and effective technology currently available is sequestration in geologic formations, especially in known hydrocarbon reservoirs (Barrufet et al., 2010; Hepple and Benson, 2005). However, challenges in the design and implementation of sequestration projects remain, especially over long time scales. One problem is that the tendency for gravity override caused by the low density and viscosity of CO2. In the presence of subsurface heterogeneity, fractures and faults, there is a significant risk of CO2 leakage from the sequestration site into overlying rock compared to other liquid wastes (Hesse and Woods, 2010; Ennis-King and Patterson, 2002; Tsang et al., 2002). Furthermore, the CO2 will likely interact chemically with the rock in which it is stored, so that understanding and predicting its transport behavior during sequestration can be complex and difficult (Mandalaparty et al., 2011; Pruess et al., 2003). Leakage of CO2 can lead to such problems as acidification of ground water and killing of plant life, in addition to contamination of the atmosphere (Ha-Duong, 2003; Gasda et al., 2004). The development of adequate policies and regulatory systems to govern sequestration therefore requires improved characterization of the media in which CO2 is stored and the development of advanced methods for detecting and monitoring its flow and transport in the subsurface (Bachu, 2003).

  5. The potential for hydrocarbon biodegradation and production of extracellular polymeric substances by aerobic bacteria isolated from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, S P; Dellagnezze, B M; Wieland, A; Klock, J-H; Santos Neto, E V; Marsaioli, A J; Oliveira, V M; Michaelis, W

    2011-06-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) can contribute to the cellular degradation of hydrocarbons and have a huge potential for application in biotechnological processes, such as bioremediation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Four bacterial strains from a Brazilian petroleum reservoir were investigated for EPS production, emulsification ability and biodegradation activity when hydrocarbons were supplied as substrates for microbial growth. Two strains of Bacillus species had the highest EPS production when phenanthrene and n-octadecane were offered as carbon sources, either individually or in a mixture. While Pseudomonas sp. and Dietzia sp., the other two evaluated strains, had the highest hydrocarbon biodegradation indices, EPS production was not detected. Low EPS production may not necessarily be indicative of an absence of emulsifier activity, as indicated by the results of a surface tension reduction assay and emulsification indices for the strain of Dietzia sp. The combined results gathered in this work suggest that a microbial consortium consisting of bacteria with interdependent metabolisms could thrive in petroleum reservoirs, thus overcoming the limitations imposed on each individual species by the harsh conditions found in such environments.

  6. Ignition behavior of aviation fuels and some hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, F.

    1975-01-01

    Air relighting of jet engines is an important contribution to the operation safety of aircraft engines. Reignition is influenced by fuel properties in addition to the engine design. A survey is presented on the problems, considering the specific fuel properties. Investigations were made on the ignition behavior of aviation fuels and hydrocarbons in a simplified model combustion chamber. Air inlet conditions were 200 to 800 mbar and 300 to 500 K. Correlation between physical and chemical properties and ignitability is discussed.

  7. Reservoir petrophysics and hydrocarbon occurrences of the Bahariya Formation, Alamein-Yidma fields, Western Desert of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz Younes, Mohamed [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Geology Dept.

    2012-12-15

    The Bahariya Formation of Cenomanian age is considered to be one of the main oil and gas accumulations in most of the fields of the Western Desert basins. The lithostratigraphic succession of the Bahariya Formation is classified into two main sand units (Unit I and Unit III) separated by shalesiltstone (Unit II). The sandstone of unit-I and III is characterized by being highly enriched in shale content especially glauconite in all wells of the Alamein Field, that has an obvious negative effect on the porosity and oil saturation, where the glauconite increases the grain density of sandstone reservoirs from 2.65 g/cm{sup 3} up to 2.71 g/cm{sup 3}. The well logging data and petrophysical characteristics conducted on Alamein well-28 involving analysis of 30 core samples, were used to evaluate the reservoir characterization and hydrocarbon potentialities. The petrophysical parameters indicate that the primary porosity values are between 8.7 and 29.1%. Decreasing porosity is related to the increase of shale content from 9 to 13%, which occurs as a dispersed habitat. The water saturation changes from 43 to 80%, while the hydrocarbon saturation ranges from 12.1 to 37%. Promising hydrocarbon accumulations are displayed by the sandstone of unit-III due to increased hydrocarbon saturation and effective porosity, thus reflecting the high quality reservoir of this unit. The irreducible and movable hydrocarbon distribution shows a general increase at the eastern and western flanks of the faulted anticline in the Alamein-Yidma fields. The biomarker characteristics and stable carbonisotopic composition of the Bahariya crude oils recovered from the Alamein Field show no obvious variations among them. These oils are paraffinic, containing little branched or cyclic materials waxy n-alkanes(C{sub 25}-C{sub 31}) and characterized by high API gravity, low sulfur content, oleanane index < 2% and moderately high pristane/phytaneratio > 1 and CPI > 1 and the canonical variable parameter is

  8. Reservoir attributes of a hydrocarbon-prone sandstone complex: case of the Pab Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Southwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umar, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Salam; Kelling, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Links between the architectural elements of major sand bodies and reservoir attributes have been explored in a field study of the hydrocarbon-yielding Late Cretaceous Pab Formation of southwest Pakistan. The lithofacies and facies associations represented in the Pab Formation are the main...... determinants of its reservoir properties. Thus, thick, vertically connected and laterally continuous sand packets have moderate-to-high mean porosities (10–13 %) in fluviodeltaic, shoreface, shelf delta, submarine channel, and fan-lobe facies associations while deeper shelf and basin floor sand bodies yield...... significantly lower porosities (4–6 %). Overall, in the Pab arenites, porosity values increase with increasing grain size and better sorting. The varying sand-shale ratios encountered in different sectors of the Pab outcrop are also petrophysically important: Sequences displaying high ratios yield higher bulk...

  9. Tectonic controls on preservation of Middle Triassic Halfway reservoir facies, Peejay Field, northeastern British Columbia: a new hydrocarbon exploration model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Moslow, T. F. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1997-12-01

    The Peejay Field in northeastern British Columbia was chosen as the site of a detailed study to establish the paleogeography, geological history and genesis of reservoir facies of Middle Triassic strata. A total of 132 cores and well logs from 345 wells were examined to establish the depositional model, to identify the origin of all reservoir facies and to construct an exploration model to improve the prediction of reservoir facies. Results show that the Middle Triassic Halfway Formation of northeastern British Columbia is comprised of at least four west-southwest prograding paleoshorelines. The Lithofacies Succession One quartz-arenites paleoshore faces have less porosity and permeability and are laterally discontinuous. For these reasons shoreface facies have minimal reservoir quality. The tidal inlet fill successions were found to have the greatest observed porosity, permeability and lateral continuity in the Peejay Field. The geometry and orientation of these tidal inlet fill deposits are controlled by tectonic processes. It was suggested that the success of hydrocarbon exploration in this structurally complex area of northeastern British Columbia and west-central Alberta depends on further stratigraphic and sedimentological examination of Middle Triassic strata on a regional scale to obtain a complete understanding of the geological history of the area. 39 refs., 13 refs.

  10. 3D Seismic Reflection Amplitude and Instantaneous Frequency Attributes in Mapping Thin Hydrocarbon Reservoir Lithofacies: Morrison NE Field and Morrison Field, Clark County, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raef, Abdelmoneam; Totten, Matthew; Vohs, Andrew; Linares, Aria

    2017-12-01

    Thin hydrocarbon reservoir facies pose resolution challenges and waveform-signature opportunities in seismic reservoir characterization and prospect identification. In this study, we present a case study, where instantaneous frequency variation in response to a thin hydrocarbon pay zone is analyzed and integrated with other independent information to explain drilling results and optimize future drilling decisions. In Morrison NE Field, some wells with poor economics have resulted from well-placement incognizant of reservoir heterogeneities. The study area in Clark County, Kanas, USA, has been covered by a surface 3D seismic reflection survey in 2010. The target horizon is the Viola limestone, which continues to produce from 7 of the 12 wells drilled within the survey area. Seismic attributes extraction and analyses were conducted with emphasis on instantaneous attributes and amplitude anomalies to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneities and their control on hydrocarbon entrapment settings. We have identified a higher instantaneous frequency, lower amplitude seismic facies that is in good agreement with distinct lithofacies that exhibit better (higher porosity) reservoir properties, as inferred from well-log analysis and petrographic inspection of well cuttings. This study presents a pre-drilling, data-driven approach of identifying sub-resolution reservoir seismic facies in a carbonate formation. This workflow will assist in placing new development wells in other locations within the area. Our low amplitude high instantaneous frequency seismic reservoir facies have been corroborated by findings based on well logs, petrographic analysis data, and drilling results.

  11. The genetic source and timing of hydrocarbon formation in gas hydrate reservoirs in Green Canyon, Block GC955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. T.; Darrah, T.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Phillips, S.; Whyte, C. J.; Lary, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Although large volumes of gas hydrates are known to exist along continental slopes and below permafrost, their role in the energy sector and the global carbon cycle remains uncertain. Investigations regarding the genetic source(s) (i.e., biogenic, thermogenic, mixed sources of hydrocarbon gases), the location of hydrocarbon generation, (whether hydrocarbons formed within the current reservoir formations or underwent migration), rates of clathrate formation, and the timing of natural gas formation/accumulation within clathrates are vital to evaluate economic potential and enhance our understanding of geologic processes. Previous studies addressed some of these questions through analysis of conventional hydrocarbon molecular (C1/C2+) and stable isotopic (e.g., δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-CO2) composition of gases, water chemistry and isotopes (e.g., major and trace elements, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) of natural gas hydrate systems to determine proportions of biogenic and thermogenic gas. However, the effects from contributions of mixing, transport/migration, methanogenesis, and oxidation in the subsurface can complicate the first-order application of these techniques. Because the original noble gas composition of a fluid is preserved independent of microbial activity, chemical reactions, or changes in oxygen fugacity, the integration of noble gas data can provide both a geochemical fingerprint for sources of fluids and an additional insight as to the uncertainty between effects of mixing versus post-genetic modification. Here, we integrate inert noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, and associated isotopes) with these conventional approaches to better constrain the source of gas hydrate formation and the residence time of fluids (porewaters and natural gases) using radiogenic 4He ingrowth techniques in cores from two boreholes collected as part of the University of Texas led UT-GOM2-01 drilling project. Pressurized cores were extracted from

  12. Hydrocarbon Reservoir Identification in Volcanic Zone by using Magnetotelluric and Geochemistry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firda, S. I.; Permadi, A. N.; Supriyanto; Suwardi, B. N.

    2018-03-01

    The resistivity of Magnetotelluric (MT) data show the resistivity mapping in the volcanic reservoir zone and the geochemistry information for confirm the reservoir and source rock formation. In this research, we used 132 data points divided with two line at exploration area. We used several steps to make the resistivity mapping. There are time series correction, crosspower correction, then inversion of Magnetotelluric (MT) data. Line-2 and line-3 show anomaly geological condition with Gabon fault. The geology structure from the resistivity mapping show the fault and the geological formation with the geological rock data mapping distribution. The geochemistry information show the maturity of source rock formation. According to core sample analysis information, we get the visual porosity for reservoir rock formation in several geological structure. Based on that, we make the geological modelling where the potential reservoir and the source rock around our interest area.

  13. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Jin; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Huh, Dae-Gee [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of these heterogeneities and distributions of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but for the development of the petroleums. Methods and principles of the reservoir geochemistry, which are applicable to the petroleum exploration and development, are reviewed in the study. In addition, a case study was carried out on the gas, condensate, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir, taken from the Haenam, Pohang areas and the Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Mineral geothermometers were studied to estimate the thermal history in sedimentary basins and successfully applied to the Korean onshore and offshore basins. The opal silica-to-quartz transformation was investigated in the Pohang basin as a geothermometer. In Korean basins, the smectite-to-illite changes indicate that smectite and illite can act as the geothermometer to estimate the thermal history of the basins. The albitization reaction was also considered as a temperature indicator. Naturally fractured reservoir is an important source of oil and gas throughout the world. The properties of matrix and fracture are the key parameters in predicting the performances of naturally fractured reservoirs. A new laboratory equipment has been designed and constructed by pressure pulse method to determine the properties, which are (1) the porosity of matrix, (2) the permeability of matrix, (3) the effective width of the fractures, and the permeability of the fractures. (author). 97 refs.

  14. Long-term Behavior of Hydrocarbon Production Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A.; Karra, S.; O'Malley, D.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recovering hydrocarbons (such as natural gas) from naturally-occurring formations with low permeability has had a huge impact on the energy sector, however, recovery rates are low due to poor understanding of recovery and transport mechanisms [1]. The physical mechanisms that control the production of hydrocarbon are only partially understood. Calculations have shown that the short-term behavior in the peak of the production curve is understood to come from the free hydrocarbons in the fracture networks, but the long-term behavior of these curves is often underpredicted [2]. This behavior is thought to be due to small scale processes - such as matrix diffusion, desorption, and connectivity in the damage region around the large fracture network. In this work, we explore some of these small-scale processes using discrete fracture networks (DFN) and the toolkit dfnWorks [3], the matrix diffusion, size of the damage region, and distribution of free gas between the fracture networks and rock matrix. Individual and combined parameter spaces are explored, and comparisons of the resulting production curves are made to experimental site data from the Haynesville formation [4]. We find that matrix diffusion significantly controls the shape of the tail of the production curve, while the distribution of free gas impacts the relative magnitude of the peak to the tail. The height of the damage region has no effect on the shape of the tail. Understanding the constrains of the parameter space based on site data is the first step in rigorously quantifying the uncertainties coming from these types of systems, which can in turn optimize and improve hydrocarbon recovery. [1] C. McGlade, et. al., (2013) Methods of estimating shale gas resources - comparison, evaluation, and implications, Energy, 59, 116-125 [2] S. Karra, et. al., (2015) Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production, Water Resources Research, 51(10), 8646-8657 [3] J.D. Hyman, et

  15. Rupture Dynamics and Scaling Behavior of Hydraulically Stimulated Micro-Earthquakes in a Shale Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, G. F.; Urbancic, T.; Baig, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    In hydraulic fracturing completion programs fluids are injected under pressure into fractured rock formations to open escape pathways for trapped hydrocarbons along pre-existing and newly generated fractures. To characterize the failure process, we estimate static and dynamic source and rupture parameters, such as dynamic and static stress drop, radiated energy, seismic efficiency, failure modes, failure plane orientations and dimensions, and rupture velocity to investigate the rupture dynamics and scaling relations of micro-earthquakes induced during a hydraulic fracturing shale completion program in NE British Columbia, Canada. The relationships between the different parameters combined with the in-situ stress field and rock properties provide valuable information on the rupture process giving insights into the generation and development of the fracture network. Approximately 30,000 micro-earthquakes were recorded using three multi-sensor arrays of high frequency geophones temporarily placed close to the treatment area at reservoir depth (~2km). On average the events have low radiated energy, low dynamic stress and low seismic efficiency, consistent with the obtained slow rupture velocities. Events fail in overshoot mode (slip weakening failure model), with fluids lubricating faults and decreasing friction resistance. Events occurring in deeper formations tend to have faster rupture velocities and are more efficient in radiating energy. Variations in rupture velocity tend to correlate with variation in depth, fault azimuth and elapsed time, reflecting a dominance of the local stress field over other factors. Several regions with different characteristic failure modes are identifiable based on coherent stress drop, seismic efficiency, rupture velocities and fracture orientations. Variations of source parameters with rock rheology and hydro-fracture fluids are also observed. Our results suggest that the spatial and temporal distribution of events with similar

  16. Reservoir evaluation of thin-bedded turbidites and hydrocarbon pore thickness estimation for an accurate quantification of resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoniyi, Bayonle; Stow, Dorrik

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the assessment of and production from turbidite reservoirs is to take full account of thin and medium-bedded turbidites (succession, they can go unnoticed by conventional analysis and so negatively impact on reserve estimation, particularly in fields producing from prolific thick-bedded turbidite reservoirs. Field development plans often take little note of such thin beds, which are therefore bypassed by mainstream production. In fact, the trapped and bypassed fluids can be vital where maximising field value and optimising production are key business drivers. We have studied in detail, a succession of thin-bedded turbidites associated with thicker-bedded reservoir facies in the North Brae Field, UKCS, using a combination of conventional logs and cores to assess the significance of thin-bedded turbidites in computing hydrocarbon pore thickness (HPT). This quantity, being an indirect measure of thickness, is critical for an accurate estimation of original-oil-in-place (OOIP). By using a combination of conventional and unconventional logging analysis techniques, we obtain three different results for the reservoir intervals studied. These results include estimated net sand thickness, average sand thickness, and their distribution trend within a 3D structural grid. The net sand thickness varies from 205 to 380 ft, and HPT ranges from 21.53 to 39.90 ft. We observe that an integrated approach (neutron-density cross plots conditioned to cores) to HPT quantification reduces the associated uncertainties significantly, resulting in estimation of 96% of actual HPT. Further work will focus on assessing the 3D dynamic connectivity of the low-pay sands with the surrounding thick-bedded turbidite facies.

  17. Maximization of wave motion within a hydrocarbon reservoir for wave-based enhanced oil recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C.

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We discuss a systematic methodology for investigating the feasibility of mobilizing oil droplets trapped within the pore space of a target reservoir region by optimally directing wave energy to the region of interest. The motivation stems from field and laboratory observations, which have provided sufficient evidence suggesting that wave-based reservoir stimulation could lead to economically viable oil recovery.Using controlled active surface wave sources, we first describe the mathematical framework necessary for identifying optimal wave source signals that can maximize a desired motion metric (kinetic energy, particle acceleration, etc.) at the target region of interest. We use the apparatus of partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained optimization to formulate the associated inverse-source problem, and deploy state-of-the-art numerical wave simulation tools to resolve numerically the associated discrete inverse problem.Numerical experiments with a synthetic subsurface model featuring a shallow reservoir show that the optimizer converges to wave source signals capable of maximizing the motion within the reservoir. The spectra of the wave sources are dominated by the amplification frequencies of the formation. We also show that wave energy could be focused within the target reservoir area, while simultaneously minimizing the disturbance to neighboring formations - a concept that can also be exploited in fracking operations.Lastly, we compare the results of our numerical experiments conducted at the reservoir scale, with results obtained from semi-analytical studies at the granular level, to conclude that, in the case of shallow targets, the optimized wave sources are likely to mobilize trapped oil droplets, and thus enhance oil recovery.

  18. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inducers and estrogen receptor (ER) activities in surface sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China evaluated with in vitro cell bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Bi, Y.; Bernhöft, S.; Schramm, K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Two types of biological tests were employed for monitoring the toxicological profile of sediment cores in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. In the present study, sediments collected in June 2010 from TGR were analyzed for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated

  20. The impact of pressure-dependent interfacial tension and buoyancy forces upon pressure depletion in virgin hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, S.R.; Mackay, E.J. [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a combined experimental and theoretical study of the microscopic pore-scale physics characterizing gas and liquid production from hydrocarbon reservoirs during pressure depletion. The primary focus of the study was to examine the complex interactions between interfacial tension and buoyancy forces during gas evolution within a porous medium containing oil, water and gas. A specialized 2-dimensional glass micromodel, capable of operating at pressure in excess of 35 MPa was used to visualize the physical mechanisms governing such microscopic processes. In addition, a 3-dimensional, 3-phase numerical pore-scale simulator was developed that can be used to examine gas evolution over a range of different lengthscales and for a wide range of fluid and rock properties. The model incorporates all of the important physics observed in associated laboratory micromodel experiments, including: embryonic nucleation, supersaturation effects, multiphase diffusion, bubble growth-migration-fragmentation, and three-phase spreading coefficients. The precise pore-scale mechanisms governing gas evolution were found to be far more subtle than earlier models would suggest because of the large variation of gas/oil interfacial tension with pressure. This has a profound effect upon the migration of gas structures during depletion and, in models pertaining to reservoir rock, the process of gas migration is consequently much slower than previously thought. This is the first time that such a phenomena has been modelled at the pore-scale and the implications for production forecasting are thought to be significant. (author)

  1. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  2. Petrophysics Features of the Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the Precambrian Crystalline Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A prerequisite for determining the distribution patterns of reservoir zones on the section of crystalline basement (CB) is the solution of a number of problems connected with the study of the nature and structure of empty spaces of reservoirs with crystalline basement (CB) and the impact of petrological, and tectonic factors and the intensity of the secondary transformation of rocks. We decided to choose the Novoelhovskaya well # 20009 as an object of our research because of the following factors. Firstly, the depth of the drilling of the Precambrian crystalline rocks was 4077 m ( advance heading - 5881 m) and it is a maximum for the Volga-Urals region. Secondly, petrographic cut of the well is made on core and waste water, and the latter was sampled regularly and studied macroscopically. Thirdly, a wide range of geophysical studies were performed for this well, which allowed to identify promising areas of collector with high probability. Fourth, along with geological and technical studies that were carried out continuously (including washing and bore hole redressing periods), the studies of the gaseous component of deep samples of clay wash were also carried out, which indirectly helped us estimate reservoir properties and fluid saturation permeable zones. As a result of comprehensive analysis of the stone material and the results of the geophysical studies we could confidently distinguish 5 with strata different composition and structure in the cut of the well. The dominating role in each of them is performed by rocks belonging to one of the structural-material complexes of Archean, and local variations in composition and properties are caused by later processes of granitization on different stages and high temperature diaphthoresis imposed on them. Total capacity of reservoir zones identified according to geophysical studies reached 1034.2 m, which corresponds to 25.8% of the total capacity of 5 rock masses. However, the distribution of reservoirs within the cut

  3. Improve The Efficiency Of The Study Of Complex Reservoirs And Hydrocarbon Deposits - East Baghdad Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al-Obaidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical value of this work consists in increasing the efficiency of exploration for oil and gas fields in Eastern Baghdad by optimizing and reducing the complex of well logging coring sampling and well testing of the formation beds and computerizing the data of interpretation to ensure the required accuracy and reliability of the determination of petrophysical parameters that will clarify and increase proven reserves of hydrocarbon fields in Eastern Baghdad. In order to calculate the most accurate water saturation values for each interval of Zubair formation a specific modified form of Archie equation corresponding to this formation was developed.

  4. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  5. A Geochemical Model of Fluids and Mineral Interactions for Deep Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mutual solubility model for CO2-CH4-brine systems is constructed in this work as a fundamental research for applications of deep hydrocarbon exploration and production. The model is validated to be accurate for wide ranges of temperature (0–250°C, pressure (1–1500 bar, and salinity (NaCl molality from 0 to more than 6 mole/KgW. Combining this model with PHREEQC functionalities, CO2-CH4-brine-carbonate-sulfate equilibrium is calculated. From the calculations, we conclude that, for CO2-CH4-brine-carbonate systems, at deeper positions, magnesium is more likely to be dissolved in aqueous phase and calcite can be more stable than dolomite and, for CO2-CH4-brine-sulfate systems, with a presence of CH4, sulfate ions are likely to be reduced to S2− and H2S in gas phase could be released after S2− saturated in the solution. The hydrocarbon “souring” process could be reproduced from geochemical calculations in this work.

  6. Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    directed Paleo-current system prevailed during deposition of Lumshiwal Formation. Diagenetic and tectonically induced fractures make the formation exceedingly porous and permeable as suitable reservoir horizon for the accumulation of hydrocarbon in the Trans-Indus ranges. The same formation has already been proven as potential reservoir horizon for hydrocarbon in the Kohat Plateau of northwest Pakistan. Secondly, the formation is dominantly comprised of silica/quartz sandstone (quartzarenite which can be used as silica sand, one of the essential raw materials for glass industries. The formation is also comprised of local coal seams which can be mined for production of coal in the region.

  7. PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

    1998-08-31

    Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and

  8. Geologic and petrophysic analysis of a travertine block as hydrocarbon reservoir analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, Mateus; Kuroda, Michelle Chaves; Vidal, Alexandre Campane

    2017-01-01

    Microbialitic limestones are gaining space in petroleum geology due to the existence of many reservoirs composed of these lithologies in the pre-salt producing fields. Travertine, calcareous tufa and stromatolites figure among the rocks proposed as analogous for the microbialitic rocks. This work conduces the study of geological, petrophysical and geophysical parameters of a travertine block measuring 1,60 x 1,60 x 2,70 m, weighing 21,2 tons and available in the Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO) at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The Italian block, named T-block, corresponds to the representative elementary volume of its original formation and allows the study in an intermediate scale between the hand sample and the outcrop scale. Permeability tests and gamma ray spectrometry measurements were conducted and the porosity was calculated by image analysis. Models were generated from the obtained data and then associated with descriptive geology of the block. A reduction in permeability, porosity and concentration of elements potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) was recorded, following a gradient towards the top of the T-block accompanying the reduction in the degree of development of the rock fabric. (author)

  9. Water exposure assessment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in Three Gorges Reservoir, China using SPMD-based virtual organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Bernhöft, Silke; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-10-15

    SPMD-based virtual organisms (VOs) were deployed at five to eight sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China for five periods in 2008, 2009 and 2011. The water exposure of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists was assessed by the VOs. The chosen bioassay response for the extracts of the VOs, the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) was assayed using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). The results show that the extracts from the VOs could induce AhR activity significantly, whereas the chemically derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent (TEQcal) accounted for water level reached a maximum of 175 m. Although the aqueous concentration of AhR agonists of 0.8-4.8 pg TCDDL(-1) in TGR was not alarming, the tendency of accumulating high concentration of AhR agonists in VO lipid and existence of possible synergism or antagonism in the water may exhibit a potential hazard to local biota being exposed to AhR agonists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury-free PVT apparatus for thermophysical property analyses of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report, August 16, 1990--July 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansangan, R.M.; Lievois, J.S.

    1992-08-31

    Typical reservoir fluid analyses of complex, multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures include the volumetric properties, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansivity, equilibrium ratios, saturation pressure, viscosities, etc. These parameters are collectively referred to as PVT properties, an acronym for the primary state variables; pressure, volume, and temperature. The reservoir engineer incorporates this information together with the porous media description in performing material balance calculations. These calculations lead to the determination (estimation) of the initial hydrocarbon in-place, the future reservoir performance, the optimal production scheme, and the ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. About four years ago, Ruska Instrument Corporation embarked on a project to develop an apparatus designed to measure PVT properties that operates free of mercury. The result of this endeavor is the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system which has been in the market for the last three years. The 2370 has evolved from the prototype unit to its present configuration which is described briefly in this report. The 2370 system, although developed as a system-engineered apparatus based on existing technology, has not been exempt from this burden-of-proof Namely, the performance of the apparatus under routine test conditions with real reservoir fluids. This report summarizes the results of the performance and applications testing of the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system. Density measurements were conducted on a pure fluid. The results were compared against literature values and the prediction of an equation of state. Routine reservoir fluid analyses were conducted with a black oil and a retrograde condensate gas mixtures. Limited comparison of the results were performed based on the same tests performed on a conventional mercury-based PVT apparatus. The results of these tests are included in this report.

  11. Reactivity of hydrocarbons in response to injection of a CO2/O2 mixture under depleted reservoir conditions: experimental and numerical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacini-Petitjean, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The geological storage of CO 2 (CO 2 Capture-Storage - CCS) and the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by CO 2 injection into petroleum reservoirs could limit CO 2 atmospheric accumulation. However, CO 2 can be associated with oxygen. To predict the hydrocarbon evolution under these conditions involves the study of oxidation mechanisms. Oxidation experiment and kinetic detailed modeling were carried out with pure compounds. The comparison between experimental and modeling results led to the construction of a hydrocarbon oxidation kinetic model and emphasized the parameters leading to auto ignition. The good agreement between our experiments and modeling are promising for the development of a tool predicting the critical temperature leading to auto-ignition and the evolution of hydrocarbon composition, to estimate the stability of a petroleum system in CO 2 injection context. (author) [fr

  12. Invasion of geothermal fluids into hydrocarbon reservoirs; La invasion de fluidos geotermicos en yacimientos de hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Arriaga, Mario Cesar [Universidad Michoacana, Facultad de Ciencias, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: msuarez@umich.mx

    2009-01-15

    Oil reservoirs beneath the coast of the Gulf of Mexico contain geothermal brine at 150 degrees Celsius and produce a mixture of hot brine and oil. Water from an aquifer 6000 m deep flows vertically through conductive faults. These nonisothermal conditions affect the effective saturations and the relative permeability of the immiscible phases. Dynamic viscosities of oil and water diminish, affecting the displacement of both fluids. Studied wells produce from the oil-saturated zone above the aquifer, yet the total volume of produced water can equal or exceed the volume of oil. The presence of water is a severe problem. We produced an original numerical model able to predict the critical production when the wells start to be invaded by geothermal brine. The model has a single equation in partial derivatives, of a parabolic and nonlineal type, which is a function of water saturation, three-dimension space and time. A gas phase can be included in the model. This equation is a generalization of the classic isothermal result of Buckley-Leverett, in a single dimension. The model is solved numerically by using the Finite Element method on a nonstructured network. The historic effect of water invasion observed in some critical cases is reproduced. After production with both phases stable, a sudden brine invasion can occur with a sharp reduction of the oil volume produced. The immediate objective is to optimize the production so the well will be able to produce a stable water-oil mix where oil always prevails. [Spanish] Se reportan reservorios de aceite situados en la costa del Golfo de Mexico que son invadidos por salmuera geotermica con una temperatura de 150 grados centigrados, produciendo una mezcla variable de agua caliente y aceite. El agua de un acuifero, a 6000 metros de profundidad, fluye verticalmente por fallas conductivas. Estas condiciones no isotermicas afectan las saturaciones efectivas y las permeabilidades relativas de las fases inmiscibles. Las viscosidades

  13. Jurassic and Cretaceous clays of the northern and central North Sea hydrocarbon reservoirs reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.; Haszeldine, R.S.; Fallick, A.E.

    2006-03-15

    illite occurs almost ubiquitously within the clastic sediments of the North Sea. An early pore-lining phase has been interpreted as both infiltrated clastic clay, and as an early diagenetic phase. Early clays may have been quite smectite-rich illites, or even discrete smectites. Later, fibrous illite is undoubtedly neoformed, and can degrade reservoir quality significantly. Both within sandstones and shales, there is an apparent increase in the K content deeper than 4 km of burial, which could be due to dilution of the early smectite-rich phase by new growth illite, or to the progressive illitization of existing I-S. Much of the 'illite' that has been dated by the K-Ar method may therefore actually be I-S. The factors that control the formation of fibrous illite are only poorly known, though temperature must play a role. Illite growth has been proposed for almost the entire range of diagenetic temperatures (e.g. 15-20{sup o}C, Brent Group; 35-40{sup o}C, Oxfordian Sand, Inner Moray Firth; 50-90{sup o}C, Brae formation; 100-110{sup o}C, Brent Group; 130-140{sup o}C, Haltenbanken). It seems unlikely that there is a threshold temperature below which illite growth is impossible (or too slow to be significant), though this is a recurring hypothesis in the literature. Instead, illite growth seems to be an event, commonly triggered by oil emplacement or another change in the physiochemical conditions within the sandstone, such as an episode of overpressure release. Hence fibrous illite can grow at any temperature encountered during diagenesis. Although there is an extensive dataset of K-Ar ages of authigenic illites from the Jurassic of the North Sea, there is no consensus as to whether the data are meaningful, or whether the purified illite samples prepared for analysis are so contaminated with detrital phases as to render the age data meaningless. At present it is unclear about how to resolve this problem, though there is some indication that chemical micro

  14. Improved prediction of reservoir behavior through integration of quantitative geological and petrophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auman, J. B.; Davies, D. K.; Vessell, R. K.

    1997-08-01

    Methodology that promises improved reservoir characterization and prediction of permeability, production and injection behavior during primary and enhanced recovery operations was demonstrated. The method is based on identifying intervals of unique pore geometry by a combination of image analysis techniques and traditional petrophysical measurements to calculate rock type and estimate permeability and saturation. Results from a complex carbonate and sandstone reservoir were presented as illustrative examples of the versatility and high level of accuracy of this method in predicting reservoir quality. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs.

  15. From axiomatics of quantum probability to modelling geological uncertainty and management of intelligent hydrocarbon reservoirs with the theory of open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Khrennikov, Andrei; Oleschko, Klaudia

    2018-04-01

    As was recently shown by the authors, quantum probability theory can be used for the modelling of the process of decision-making (e.g. probabilistic risk analysis) for macroscopic geophysical structures such as hydrocarbon reservoirs. This approach can be considered as a geophysical realization of Hilbert's programme on axiomatization of statistical models in physics (the famous sixth Hilbert problem). In this conceptual paper, we continue development of this approach to decision-making under uncertainty which is generated by complexity, variability, heterogeneity, anisotropy, as well as the restrictions to accessibility of subsurface structures. The belief state of a geological expert about the potential of exploring a hydrocarbon reservoir is continuously updated by outputs of measurements, and selection of mathematical models and scales of numerical simulation. These outputs can be treated as signals from the information environment E. The dynamics of the belief state can be modelled with the aid of the theory of open quantum systems: a quantum state (representing uncertainty in beliefs) is dynamically modified through coupling with E; stabilization to a steady state determines a decision strategy. In this paper, the process of decision-making about hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g. `explore or not?'; `open new well or not?'; `contaminated by water or not?'; `double or triple porosity medium?') is modelled by using the Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation. In our model, this equation describes the evolution of experts' predictions about a geophysical structure. We proceed with the information approach to quantum theory and the subjective interpretation of quantum probabilities (due to quantum Bayesianism). This article is part of the theme issue `Hilbert's sixth problem'.

  16. From axiomatics of quantum probability to modelling geological uncertainty and management of intelligent hydrocarbon reservoirs with the theory of open quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Khrennikov, Andrei; Oleschko, Klaudia

    2018-04-28

    As was recently shown by the authors, quantum probability theory can be used for the modelling of the process of decision-making (e.g. probabilistic risk analysis) for macroscopic geophysical structures such as hydrocarbon reservoirs. This approach can be considered as a geophysical realization of Hilbert's programme on axiomatization of statistical models in physics (the famous sixth Hilbert problem). In this conceptual paper , we continue development of this approach to decision-making under uncertainty which is generated by complexity, variability, heterogeneity, anisotropy, as well as the restrictions to accessibility of subsurface structures. The belief state of a geological expert about the potential of exploring a hydrocarbon reservoir is continuously updated by outputs of measurements, and selection of mathematical models and scales of numerical simulation. These outputs can be treated as signals from the information environment E The dynamics of the belief state can be modelled with the aid of the theory of open quantum systems: a quantum state (representing uncertainty in beliefs) is dynamically modified through coupling with E ; stabilization to a steady state determines a decision strategy. In this paper, the process of decision-making about hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g. 'explore or not?'; 'open new well or not?'; 'contaminated by water or not?'; 'double or triple porosity medium?') is modelled by using the Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation. In our model, this equation describes the evolution of experts' predictions about a geophysical structure. We proceed with the information approach to quantum theory and the subjective interpretation of quantum probabilities (due to quantum Bayesianism).This article is part of the theme issue 'Hilbert's sixth problem'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Pheromones for Social Behavior and Their Coding in the Ant Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R. Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The sophisticated organization of eusocial insect societies is largely based on the regulation of complex behaviors by hydrocarbon pheromones present on the cuticle. We used electrophysiology to investigate the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs by female-specific olfactory sensilla basiconica on the antenna of Camponotus floridanus ants through the utilization of one of the largest family of odorant receptors characterized so far in insects. These sensilla, each of which contains multiple olfactory receptor neurons, are differentially sensitive to CHCs and allow them to be classified into three broad groups that collectively detect every hydrocarbon tested, including queen and worker-enriched CHCs. This broad-spectrum sensitivity is conserved in a related species, Camponotus laevigatus, allowing these ants to detect CHCs from both nestmates and non-nestmates. Behavioral assays demonstrate that these ants are excellent at discriminating CHCs detected by the antenna, including enantiomers of a candidate queen pheromone that regulates the reproductive division of labor.

  18. Acoustic study of fish and invertebrate behavior in a tropical reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prchalová, M.; Drastík, V.; Kubeka, J.; Sricharoendham, B.; Schiemer, F.; Vijverberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The fish and invertebrate behavior of the Ubol Ratana Reservoir, Thailand, were monitored using up- and downlooking split beam sonar located at a fixed location. In the same area and period, ichthyoplankton nets and multimesh gillnets were used. The bulk of targets, recorded by acoustics and direct

  19. CO2 dissolution and its impact on reservoir pressure behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Egberts, P.J.P.; Loeve, D.; Hofstee, C.

    2015-01-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in large, saline aquifers needs to be monitored for safety purposes. In particular the observation of the pressure behavior of a storage site is relevant for the indication of CO2 leakage. However, interpretation of observed pressure is not straightforward in these systems,

  20. Integrated 3D Reservoir/Fault Property Modelling Aided Well Planning and Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery in a Niger Delta Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyeagoro, U. O.; Ebong, U. E.; Nworie, E. A.

    2002-01-01

    The large and varied portfolio of assets managed by oil companies requires quick decision-making and the deployment of best in class technologies in asset management. Timely decision making and the application of the best technologies in reservoir management are however sometimes in conflict due to large time requirements of the latter.Optimizing the location of development wells is critical to account for variable fluid contact movements and pressure interference effects between wells, which can be significant because of the high permeability (Darcy range) of Niger Delta reservoirs. With relatively high drilling costs, the optimization of well locations necessitates a good realistic static and dynamic 3D reservoir description, especially in the recovery of remaining oil and oil rim type of reservoirs.A detailed 3D reservoir model with fault properties was constructed for a Niger delta producing field. This involved the integration of high quality 3D seismic, core, petrophysics, reservoir engineering, production and structural geology data to construct a realistic 3D reservoir/fault property model for the field. The key parameters considered during the construction of the internal architecture of the model were the vertical and horizontal reservoir heterogeneities-this controls the fluid flow within the reservoir. In the production realm, the fault thickness and fault permeabilities are factors that control the impedance of fluid flow across the fault-fault transmissibility. These key internal and external reservoir/structural variables were explicitly modeled in a 3D modeling software to produce different realizations and manage the uncertainties.The resulting 3D reservoir/fault property model was upscaled for simulation purpose such that grid blocks along the fault planes have realistic transmissibility multipliers of 0 to 1 attached to them. The model was also used in the well planner to optimize the positioning of a high angle deviated well that penetrated

  1. Unlocking the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern Black Sea basin. Prospectivity of middle Miocene submarine fan reservoirs by seismic sequence stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogan, Coskun; Galip, Ozbek; Ali, Demirer

    2002-01-01

    Full text : The objective of this paper is to present present depositional characteristics and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the middle Miocene submarine basin floor fan deposits from the exploration stand point of view by using seismic data available in the offshore eastern Black Sea basin. This basin is a Tertiary trough formed as a continuation of the Mesozoic oceanic basin. The hydrocarbon potential of the basin is believed to be high in the Tertiary section because of the existence of the elements necessary for generation, migration and entrapment of hydrocarbon. A sequence stratigraphic study has been carried out by using 2-d seismic data in the Turkish portion of the eastern Black Sea basin. The objective of the study was to determine periods of major clastic sediment influxes which might lead to identify good reservoir intervals and their spatial distribution in this basin. All basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation techniques and seismic facies analysis were used to identify times of these sand rich deposition periods. Sequence stratigraphy and seismic facies analysis indicate that the basinal areas of the middle Miocene sequences were dominated mainly by submarine fan complexes introduced in the lowstand stages and pelagic sediments deposited during the transgressive and highstand stages. It was proposed that Turkish portion of this basin which is one of the best frontier exploration area with its high potential left in the world, is glimpsing to those looking for good future exploration opportunities.

  2. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of

  3. Winter swarming behavior by the exotic cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi Sars, 1885 in a Kentucky (USA) reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, John R.; Renicker, Thomas R.; Tausz, Claudia E.; Young, Jade L.; Thomason, Jennifer C.; Wolf, Zachary L.; Russell, Amber L.; Cherry, Mac A.; Scotese, Kyle C.; Koenig, Dawn T.

    2018-01-01

    We describe swarming behavior in the invasive cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi Sars, 1885 in a Kentucky, USA, reservoir during winter 2017. The taxon is a highly successful tropical invader and has spread throughout the lower latitude systems in the USA since its discovery in 1991. Other than a few isolated reports, the abundance of D. lumholtzi is often 10,000 organisms L-1) of sexually reproducing females of this exotic cladoceran at water column temperatures <10°C.

  4. Thermal transport in dimerized harmonic lattices: Exact solution, crossover behavior, and extended reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Chun; Kouachi, Said; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Dubi, Yonatan; Zwolak, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for calculating analytically the thermal conductance of a classical harmonic lattice with both alternating masses and nearest-neighbor couplings when placed between individual Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. The method utilizes recent advances in analytic diagonalization techniques for certain classes of tridiagonal matrices. It recovers the results from a previous method that was applicable for alternating on-site parameters only, and extends the applicability to realistic systems in which masses and couplings alternate simultaneously. With this analytic result in hand, we show that the thermal conductance is highly sensitive to the modulation of the couplings. This is due to the existence of topologically induced edge modes at the lattice-reservoir interface and is also a reflection of the symmetries of the lattice. We make a connection to a recent work that demonstrates thermal transport is analogous to chemical reaction rates in solution given by Kramers' theory [Velizhanin et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 17506 (2015)], 10.1038/srep17506. In particular, we show that the turnover behavior in the presence of edge modes prevents calculations based on single-site reservoirs from coming close to the natural—or intrinsic—conductance of the lattice. Obtaining the correct value of the intrinsic conductance through simulation of even a small lattice where ballistic effects are important requires quite large extended reservoir regions. Our results thus offer a route for both the design and proper simulation of thermal conductance of nanoscale devices.

  5. Computer Modeling of the Displacement Behavior of Carbon Dioxide in Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Binshan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs is performed not only to improve oil recovery but also to store CO2 captured from fuel combustion. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical simulator to predict quantitatively supercritical CO2 flooding behaviors for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR. A non-isothermal compositional flow mathematical model is developed. The phase transition diagram is designed according to the Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP and CO2 maximum solubility in oil phase. The convection and diffusion of CO2 mixtures in multiphase fluids in reservoirs, mass transfer between CO2 and crude and phase partitioning are considered. The governing equations are discretized by applying a fully implicit finite difference technique. Newton-Raphson iterative technique was used to solve the nonlinear equation systems and a simulator was developed. The performances of CO2 immiscible and miscible flooding in oil reservoirs are predicted by the new simulator. The distribution of pressure and temperature, phase saturations, mole fraction of each component in each phase, formation damage caused by asphaltene precipitation and the improved oil recovery are predicted by the simulator. Experimental data validate the developed simulator by comparison with simulation results. The applications of the simulator in prediction of CO2 flooding in oil reservoirs indicate that the simulator is robust for predicting CO2 flooding performance.

  6. Agonistic behavior among three stocked trout species in a novel reservoir fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Hafen, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of reservoirs to support sport fisheries has led to the stocking of species that did not co-evolve, creating novel reservoir fish communities. In Utah, the Bear Lake strain of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah and tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) are being more frequently added to a traditional stocking regimen consisting primarily of Rainbow TroutO. mykiss. Interactions between these three predatory species are not well understood, and studies evaluating community interactions have raised concern for an overall decrease of trout condition. To evaluate the potential for negative interactions among these species, we tested aggression in laboratory aquaria using three-species and pairwise combinations at three densities. Treatments were replicated before and after feeding. During the three-species trials Rainbow Trout initiated 24.8 times more aggressive interactions than Cutthroat Trout and 10.2 times more aggressive interactions than tiger trout, and tiger trout exhibited slightly (1.9 times) more aggressive initiations than Cutthroat Trout. There was no significant difference in behavior before versus after feeding for any species, and no indication of increased aggression at higher densities. Although Rainbow Trout in aquaria may benefit from their bold, aggressive behavior, given observations of decreased relative survival in the field, these benefits may be outweighed in reservoirs, possibly through unnecessary energy expenditure and exposure to predators.

  7. The coupling of dynamics and permeability in the hydrocarbon accumulation period controls the oil-bearing potential of low permeability reservoirs: a case study of the low permeability turbidite reservoirs in the middle part of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between permeability and dynamics in hydrocarbon accumulation determine oilbearing potential (the potential oil charge) of low permeability reservoirs. The evolution of porosity and permeability of low permeability turbidite reservoirs of the middle part of the third member...... facies A and diagenetic facies B do not develop accumulation conditions with low accumulation dynamics in the late accumulation period for very low permeability. At more than 3000 m burial depth, a larger proportion of turbidite reservoirs are oil charged due to the proximity to the source rock. Also...

  8. Timing of Hydrocarbon Fluid Emplacement in Sandstone Reservoirs in Neogene in Huizhou Sag, Southern China Sea, by Authigenic Illite 40Ar- 39Ar Laser Stepwise Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesheng, Shi; Junzhang, Zhu; Huaning, Qiu; yu, Shu; Jianyao, Wu; Zulie, Long

    Timing of oil or gas emplacements is a new subject in isotopic geochronology and petroleum geology. Hamilton et al. expounded the principle of the illite K-Ar age: Illite is often the last or one of the latest mineral cements to form prior to hydrocarbon accumulation. Since the displacement of formation water by hydrocarbons will cause silicate diagenesis to cease, K-Ar ages for illite will constrain the timing of this event, and also constrain the maximum age of formation of the trap structure. In this study, the possibility of authigenic illites 40Ar- 39Ar dating has been investigated. The illite samples were separated from the Tertiary sandstones in three rich oil reservoir belts within the Huizhou sag by cleaning, fracturing by cycled cooling-heating, soxhlet-extraction with solvents of benzene and methanol and separating with centrifugal machine. If oil is present in the separated samples, ionized organic fragments with m/e ratios of 36 to 40 covering the argon isotopes will be yielded by the ion source of a mass spectrometer, resulting in wrong argon isotopic analyses and wrong 40Ar- 39Ar ages. The preliminary experiments of illite by heating did show the presence of ionized organic fragments with m/e ratios of 36 to 44. In order to clean up the organic gases completely and obtain reliable analysis results, a special purification apparatus has been established by Qiu et al. and proved valid by the sequent illite analyses. All the illite samples by 40Ar- 39Ar IR-laser stepwise heating yield stair-up age spectra in lower laser steps and plateaux in higher laser steps. The youngest apparent ages corresponding to the beginning steps are reasonable to be interpreted for the hydrocarbon accumulation ages. The weighted mean ages of the illites from the Zhuhai and Zhujiang Formations are (12.1 ± 1.1) Ma and (9.9 ± 1.2) Ma, respectively. Therefore, the critical emplacement of petroleum accumulation in Zhujiang Formation in Huizhou sag took place in ca 10 Ma. Late

  9. Effect of boundary conditions on pressure behavior of finite-conductivity fractures in bounded stratified reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Mohammed E.; Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    1996-08-15

    In this study, a mathematical model was developed to model the pressure behavior of a well located in a bounded multilayer reservoir and crossed by a finite-conductivity vertical fracture. It was found that the dimensionless pressure function and its derivative strongly depend on fracture conductivity and fracture extension during early times. The effect of reservoir heterogeneity on the pressure function is negligible compared to that on the pressure derivative. Both functions exhibit four flow periods: bilinear, formation linear, pseudoradial and pseudosteady-state which are separated by transition periods. One or more of these flow periods may be missing. Data obtained from a long test and which are characterized by a unit slope line indicate that the well is intercepted by deeply extended fractures. It has been found that the fractional production rates of different layers are a good measure of reservoir and fracture characteristics. Flowmeter survey data can be used to eliminate the non-uniqueness problem when using the type curves presented in this study

  10. Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Supercritical CO2 during Reservoir Depressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Jiang, Peixue; He, Di; Chen, Xue; Xu, Ruina

    2017-08-01

    CO 2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a promising way to address climate change. However, the pressure of the sequestration reservoir may decrease in practice, which induces CO 2 exsolution and expansion in the reservoir. In this study, we conducted a core-scale experimental investigation on the depressurization of CO 2 -containing sandstone using NMR equipment. Three different series of experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the depressurization rate and the initial CO2 states on the dynamics of different trapping mechanisms. The pressure range of the depressurization was from 10.5 to 4.0 MPa, which covered the supercritical and gaseous states of the CO 2 (named as CO 2 (sc) and CO 2 (g), respectively). It was found that when the aqueous phase saturated initially, the exsolution behavior strongly depended on the depressurization rate. When the CO 2 and aqueous phase coexisting initially, the expansion of the CO 2 (sc/g) contributed to the incremental CO 2 saturation in the core only when the CO 2 occurred as residually trapped. It indicates that the reservoir depressurization has the possibility to convert the solubility trapping to the residual trapping phase, and/or convert the residual trapping to mobile CO 2 .

  11. ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-01

    A goal of the Mesaverde project was to better define the depositional system of the Mesaverde in hopes that it would provide insight to new or by-passed targets for oil exploration. The new, detailed studies of the Mesaverde give us a better understanding of the lateral variability in depositional environments and facies. Recognition of this lateral variability and establishment of the criteria for separating deltaic, strandplain-barrier, and estuarine deposits from each other permit development of better hydrocarbon exploration models, because the sandstone geometry differs in each depositional system. Although these insights will provide better exploration models for gas exploration, it does not appear that they will be instrumental in finding more oil. Oil in the Mesaverde Group is produced from isolated fields on the Chaco slope; only a few wells define each field. Production is from sandstone beds in the upper part of the Point Lookout Sandstone or from individual fluvial channel sandstones in the Menefee. Stratigraphic traps rather than structural traps are more important. Source of the oil in the Menefee and Point Lookout may be from interbedded organic-rich mudstones or coals rather than from the Lewis Shale. The Lewis Shale appears to contain more type III organic matter and, hence, should produce mainly gas. Outcrop studies have not documented oil staining that might point to past oil migration through the sandstones of the Mesaverde. The lack of oil production may be related to the following: (1) lack of abundant organic matter of the type I or II variety in the Lewis Shale needed to produce oil, (2) ineffective migration pathways due to discontinuities in sandstone reservoir geometries, (3) cementation or early formation of gas prior to oil generation that reduced effective permeabilities and served as barriers to updip migration of oil, or (4) erosion of oilbearing reservoirs from the southern part of the basin. Any new production should mimic that of

  12. Phase Behaviors of Reservoir Fluids with Capillary Eff ect Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zhiwei

    2013-05-06

    The study of phase behavior is important for the oil and gas industry. Many approaches have been proposed and developed for phase behavior calculation. In this thesis, an alternative method is introduced to study the phase behavior by means of minimization of Helmholtz free energy. For a system at fixed volume, constant temperature and constant number of moles, the Helmholtz free energy reaches minimum at the equilibrium state. Based on this theory, a stochastic method called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, is implemented to compute the phase diagrams for several pure component and mixture systems. After comparing with experimental and the classical PT-ash calculation, we found the phase diagrams obtained by minimization of the Helmholtz Free Energy approach match the experimental and theoretical diagrams very well. Capillary effect is also considered in this thesis because it has a significant influence on the phase behavior of reservoir fluids. In this part, we focus on computing the phase envelopes, which consists of bubble and dew point lines. Both fixed and calculated capillary pressure from the Young-Laplace equation cases are introduced to study their effects on phase envelopes. We found that the existence of capillary pressure will change the phase envelopes. Positive capillary pressure reduces the dew point and bubble point temperatures under the same pressure condition, while the negative capillary pressure increases the dew point and bubble point temperatures. In addition, the change of contact angle and pore radius will affect the phase envelope. The effect of the pore radius on the phase envelope is insignificant when the radius is very large. These results may become reference for future research and study. Keywords: Phase Behavior; Particle Swarm Optimization; Capillary Pressure; Reservoir Fluids; Phase Equilibrium; Phase Envelope.

  13. Phase Behaviors of Reservoir Fluids with Capillary Eff ect Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    The study of phase behavior is important for the oil and gas industry. Many approaches have been proposed and developed for phase behavior calculation. In this thesis, an alternative method is introduced to study the phase behavior by means of minimization of Helmholtz free energy. For a system at fixed volume, constant temperature and constant number of moles, the Helmholtz free energy reaches minimum at the equilibrium state. Based on this theory, a stochastic method called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, is implemented to compute the phase diagrams for several pure component and mixture systems. After comparing with experimental and the classical PT-ash calculation, we found the phase diagrams obtained by minimization of the Helmholtz Free Energy approach match the experimental and theoretical diagrams very well. Capillary effect is also considered in this thesis because it has a significant influence on the phase behavior of reservoir fluids. In this part, we focus on computing the phase envelopes, which consists of bubble and dew point lines. Both fixed and calculated capillary pressure from the Young-Laplace equation cases are introduced to study their effects on phase envelopes. We found that the existence of capillary pressure will change the phase envelopes. Positive capillary pressure reduces the dew point and bubble point temperatures under the same pressure condition, while the negative capillary pressure increases the dew point and bubble point temperatures. In addition, the change of contact angle and pore radius will affect the phase envelope. The effect of the pore radius on the phase envelope is insignificant when the radius is very large. These results may become reference for future research and study. Keywords: Phase Behavior; Particle Swarm Optimization; Capillary Pressure; Reservoir Fluids; Phase Equilibrium; Phase Envelope.

  14. Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Anderson, R.N.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management. 20 figs.

  15. Analysis of Flow Behavior for Acid Fracturing Wells in Fractured-Vuggy Carbonate Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxian Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a mathematical model for transient flow analysis of acid fracturing wells in fractured-vuggy carbonate reservoirs. This model considers a composite system with the inner region containing finite number of artificial fractures and wormholes and the outer region showing a triple-porosity medium. Both analytical and numerical solutions are derived in this work, and the comparison between two solutions verifies the model accurately. Flow behavior is analyzed thoroughly by examining the standard log-log type curves. Flow in this composite system can be divided into six or eight main flow regimes comprehensively. Three or two characteristic V-shaped segments can be observed on pressure derivative curves. Each V-shaped segment corresponds to a specific flow regime. One or two of the V-shaped segments may be absent in particular cases. Effects of interregional diffusivity ratio and interregional conductivity ratio on transient responses are strong in the early-flow period. The shape and position of type curves are also influenced by interporosity coefficients, storativity ratios, and reservoir radius significantly. Finally, we show the differences between our model and the similar model with single fracture or without acid fracturing and further investigate the pseudo-skin factor caused by acid fracturing.

  16. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Crustal processes such as deformations or faulting are strictly related to the petrophysical properties of involved rocks. These properties depend on mineral composition, fabric, pores and any secondary features such as cracks or infilling material that may have been introduced during the whole diagenetic and tectonic history of the rock. In this work we investigate the role of hydrocarbons (HC) in changing the petrophysical properties of rock by merging laboratory experiments, well data and static models focusing on the carbonate-bearing Majella reservoir. This reservoir represent an interesting analogue for the several oil fields discovered in the subsurface in the region, allowing a comparison of a wide range of geological and geophysical data at different scale. The investigated lithology is made of high porosity ramp calcarenites, structurally slightly affected by a superimposed fracture system and displaced by few major normal faults, with some minor strike-slip movements. Sets of rock specimens were selected in the field and in particular two groups were investigated: 1. clean rocks (without oil) and 2. HC bearing rocks (with different saturations). For both groups, density, porosity, P and S wave velocity, permeability and elastic moduli measurements at increasing confining pressure were conducted on cylindrical specimens at the HP-HT Laboratory of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. For clean samples at ambient pressure, laboratory porosity varies from 10 % up to 26 % and P wave velocity (Vp) spans from 4,1 km/s to 4,9 km/s and a very good correlation between Vp, Vs and porosity is observed. The P wave velocity at 100 MPa of confining pressure, ranges between 4,5 km/s and 5,2 km/s with a pressure independent Vp/Vs ratio of about 1,9. The presence of HC within the samples affects both Vp and Vs. In particular velocities increase with the presence of hydrocarbons proportionally respect to the amount of the filled

  17. A review of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: sources, fate and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S.O.; Field, R.A.; Goldstone, M.E.; Kirk, P.W.; Lester, J.N.; Perry, R.

    1991-01-01

    A review has been written to assess the sources, fate and behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmosphere. PAH are formed mainly by anthropogenic processes, especially the combustion of organic fuels. PAH concentration in air will reflect the location of source emitters, with high concentrations corresponding with urban and industrial areas. PAH are however ubiquitous contaminants of the environment having been detected in remote areas of the world. This is thought to be due to long term transport in the atmosphere. PAH can also be subjected to chemical and/or photochemical change whilst resident in the atmosphere prior to their removal by either wet or dry deposition. 146 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Alkanes as Components of Soil Hydrocarbon Status: Behavior and Indication Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of soils on three key plots with different climatic conditions and technogenic impacts in Volgograd, Moscow, and Arkhangelsk oblasts have showed that alkanes in the soil exchange complex have some indication potential for the identification of soil processes. The following combinations of soil-forming factors and processes have been studied: (a) self-purification of soil after oil pollution; (b) accumulation of hydrocarbons coming from the atmosphere to soils of different land use patterns; and (c) changes in the soil hydrocarbon complex beyond the zone of technogenic impact due to the input of free hydrocarbon-containing gases. At the injection input of hydrocarbon pollutants, changes in the composition and proportions of alkanes allow tracing the degradation trend of pollutants in the soil from their initial content to the final stage of soil self-purification, when the background concentrations of hydrocarbons are reached. Upon atmospheric deposition of hydrocarbons onto the soil, from the composition and mass distribution of alkanes, conclusions can be drawn about the effect of toxicants on biogeochemical processes in the soil, including their manifestation under different land uses. Composition analysis of soil alkanes in natural landscapes can reveal signs of hydrocarbon emanation fluxes in soils. The indication potentials of alkanes in combination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other components of soil hydrocarbon complex can also be used for the solution of other soil-geochemical problems.

  19. Investigation on behavior of bacteria in reservoir for microbial enhanced oil recovery; Biseibutsuho (MEOR) no tameno yusonai saikin katsudo ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M.; Nakaya, K. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Research Center; Maezumi, S.; Yazawa, N. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Hong, C.; Chida, T.; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Behavior of bacteria activated in reservoir though molasses-injection-tests, was investigated using the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) method, for elucidating potential bacteria to suppress in situ growth of microbes to be injected into the reservoir in the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) process. As a result, some bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae species or their close relative species were grown predominantly in the reservoir, among bacteria inhibiting in the ground-water. The foregoing indicates that behavior of these bacteria in reservoir must be taken into consideration when giving a full account of behavior of microbes to be injected into the reservoir to put the MEOR process into operation. Potential proliferation using molasses to activate those bacteria was also estimated on the laboratory tests, to clarify the growth of microbes to be injected into the reservoir to operate the MEOR process. In consequence, it became clear that these bacteria have a potential growth exceeding 10{sup 8} CFU/ml, utilizing molasses. These facts indicated that microbes to be injected into the reservoir at the MEOR field tests are necessary to grow more excellently than bacteria inhabiting in the ground-water. In addition, as flow, the injection fluid is influenced by reservoir heterogeneity caused by injection of molasses, it was inferred that microbes to be injected into the reservoir at the MEOR field process are also necessary to grow more remarkably than bacteria inhabiting in the reservoir brine at high permeability zones and bacteria inhabiting in the reservoir rock. Furthermore, the results of the functional testing for MEOR conducted in the presence of bacteria activated through molasses-injection-tests indicated the importance of effective use of microbes to be injected, taking into account the characteristics of the reservoir and function for MEOR of those microbes. (author)

  20. Partitioning and desorption behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from disparate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.R.; McDonald, T.J.; Cizmas, L.; Donnelly, K.C.

    2004-01-01

    Contaminated sediments pose a unique challenge for risk assessment or remediation because the overlying water column may transport contaminants offsite or to ecological receptors. This research compares the behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on marine sediments from two sites. The first site was affected by shipping activities and the second was impacted by a creosote seep. Organic carbon:water partitioning coefficients (K oc values) were measured with three solutions. Desorption was measured using Tenax beads. PAHs from the ship channel had lower K oc values than those from the creosote facility. For example, the average log K oc value of ship channel pyrene was significantly lower than that of creosote facility pyrene (4.39±0.35 and 5.29±0.09, respectively, when tested in 5 mM calcium chloride). These results were consistent with the greater desorption of pyrene, phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene from the ship channel than from the creosote facility sediments. Organic compound desorption from sediments can be considered to be a two-stage process, with a labile fraction that desorbs quickly and a refractory fraction that desorbs much more slowly. In both sediments, more than 75% of the benzo(a)pyrene was found to have partitioned into the refractory phase. The amounts of phenanthrene and pyrene that partitioned into the refractory phase were lower. Linear correlations of log K oc with log (C R /C L ) (where C R and C L are the fractions of the compound in the refractory and labile phases, respectively, at time zero) showed that partitioning measurements made with the US EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure fluid (US EPA, 1996) most closely matched predictions of desorption behavior. The data imply that with a larger data set, it may be possible to relate simple partitioning measurements to desorption behavior. Partitioning measurements were used to predict water concentrations. Despite having higher concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs

  1. Investigating the temporal variations of the time-clustering behavior of the Koyna-Warna (India) reservoir-triggered seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Time-clustering behaviour in seismicity can be detected by applying the Allan Factor. → The reservoir-induced seismicity at Koyna-Warna (India) is time-clusterized. → Pre- and co-seismic increases of the time-clustering degree are revealed. - Abstract: The time-clustering behavior of the 1996-2005 seismicity of Koyna-Warna region (India), a unique site where reservoir-triggered earthquakes have been continuously occurring over the last about 50 year, has been analyzed. The scaling exponent α, estimated by using the Allan Factor method, a powerful tool to investigate clusterization in point processes, shows co-seismic and pre-seismic enhancements associated with the occurrence of the major events.

  2. Appraisal of transport and deformation in shale reservoirs using natural noble gas tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, William Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents efforts to develop the use of in situ naturally-occurring noble gas tracers to evaluate transport mechanisms and deformation in shale hydrocarbon reservoirs. Noble gases are promising as shale reservoir diagnostic tools due to their sensitivity of transport to: shale pore structure; phase partitioning between groundwater, liquid, and gaseous hydrocarbons; and deformation from hydraulic fracturing. Approximately 1.5-year time-series of wellhead fluid samples were collected from two hydraulically-fractured wells. The noble gas compositions and isotopes suggest a strong signature of atmospheric contribution to the noble gases that mix with deep, old reservoir fluids. Complex mixing and transport of fracturing fluid and reservoir fluids occurs during production. Real-time laboratory measurements were performed on triaxially-deforming shale samples to link deformation behavior, transport, and gas tracer signatures. Finally, we present improved methods for production forecasts that borrow statistical strength from production data of nearby wells to reduce uncertainty in the forecasts.

  3. Deposition behavior, risk assessment and source identification of heavy metals in reservoir sediments of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Liu, Jianwei; Xu, Shiguo; Xie, Zaigang

    2017-08-01

    Sediment cores from five reservoirs, located in the Liaoning and Jilin Provinces in Northeast China, were collected to investigate the accumulation and potential toxicity of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cr) during a sampling campaign in February, 2015. The results showed that all the detected metals accumulated significantly, especially Cd, compared to their respective background values. Among these reservoirs, Biliuhe Reservoir had markedly increasing trends for organic matter and all the metals, among which Mn was elevated by 280% to 3411mg/kg in a core of only 18cm in depth. Xinlicheng Reservoir was characterized by heavy siltation and varying metal distribution due to its regular geometric features and pulsed flood events. The Enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (I geo ) indicated Cd was strongly enriched by anthropogenic inputs, with the values of EF and I geo greater than 8 and 3, respectively. The toxicity assessment calculated using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) implied the whole cores of Tanghe and Dahuofang and the upper cores of Biliuhe, Xinlicheng and Fengman exhibited toxicity to sediment-dwelling organisms. Cr contributed more to Q m-PEC than the other heavy metals, because only Cr exceeded the probable effect concentration (PEC) despite its low enrichment. According to the results of correlation analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA), mining industries and agricultural activities within the basin were the main anthropogenic pollution sources for these heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of lumping on the behavior of reservoir with light oil and CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanavini, Helena Finardi Alvares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNISIM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo. Pesquisa em Simulacao e Gerenciamento de Reservatorios; Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    Compositional simulation demands a large number of equations and functions to be solved, once fluid properties depend on reservoir pressure and temperature and also on fluid composition. As a consequence, the number of components used influences considerably in the simulation run time and accuracy: more components yield more equations to be solved with expected higher run time. Giant petroleum fields discovered recently in Brazil (pre-salt reservoirs) demand compositional simulation due to the fluid characteristics (light oil with the presence of CO2). However, the computational time can be a limitation because of the number of grid blocks that are necessary to represent the reservoir. So, reducing the number of components is an important step for the simulation models. Under this context, this paper presents a study on the influence of different lumping clusters, used to reduce the number of components in a volatile oil, on reservoir simulation. Phase diagram, saturation pressure and simulation results were used for comparison purposes. The best results were obtained for the cases with 14, 9 and 7 pseudo components, which represented correctly the original fluid, reducing till three times the simulation run time, for the same production volumes of oil and gas. (author)

  5. Static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Metwalli, Farouk I.; Mesilhi, El Sayed I.

    2018-02-01

    3D static reservoir modeling of the Bahariya reservoirs using seismic and wells data can be a relevant part of an overall strategy for the oilfields development in South Umbarka area (Western Desert, Egypt). The seismic data is used to build the 3D grid, including fault sticks for the fault modeling, and horizon interpretations and surfaces for horizon modeling. The 3D grid is the digital representation of the structural geology of Bahariya Formation. When we got a reasonably accurate representation, we fill the 3D grid with facies and petrophysical properties to simulate it, to gain a more precise understanding of the reservoir properties behavior. Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) techniques are the stochastic algorithms used to spatially distribute discrete reservoir properties (facies) and continuous reservoir properties (shale volume, porosity, and water saturation) respectively within the created 3D grid throughout property modeling. The structural model of Bahariya Formation exhibits the trapping mechanism which is a fault assisted anticlinal closure trending NW-SE. This major fault breaks the reservoirs into two major fault blocks (North Block and South Block). Petrophysical models classified Lower Bahariya reservoir as a moderate to good reservoir rather than Upper Bahariya reservoir in terms of facies, with good porosity and permeability, low water saturation, and moderate net to gross. The Original Oil In Place (OOIP) values of modeled Bahariya reservoirs show hydrocarbon accumulation in economic quantity, considering the high structural dips at the central part of South Umbarka area. The powerful of 3D static modeling technique has provided a considerable insight into the future prediction of Bahariya reservoirs performance and production behavior.

  6. Understanding the fracture role on hydrocarbon accumulation and distribution using seismic data: A case study on a carbonate reservoir from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpouli, Sadegh; Hassani, Hossein; Malehmir, Alireza; Nabi-Bidhendi, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    The South Pars, the largest gas field in the world, is located in the Persian Gulf. Structurally, the field is part of the Qatar-South Pars arch which is a regional anticline considered as a basement-cored structure with long lasting passive folding induced by salt withdrawal. The gas-bearing reservoir belongs to Kangan and Dalan formations dominated by carbonate rocks. The fracture role is still unknown in gas accumulation and distribution in this reservoir. In this paper, the Scattering Index (SI) and the semblance methods based on scattered waves and diffraction signal studies, respectively, were used to delineate the fracture locations. To find the relation between fractures and gas distribution, desired facies containing the gas, were defined and predicted using a method based on Bayesian facies estimation. The analysis and combination of these results suggest that preference of fractures and/or fractured zones are negligible (about 1% of the total volume studied in this paper) and, therefore, it is hard to conceive that they play an important role in this reservoir. Moreover, fractures have no considerable role in gas distribution (less than 30%). It can be concluded from this study that sedimentary processes such as digenetic, primary porosities and secondary porosities are responsible for the gas accumulation and distribution in this reservoir.

  7. Types and characteristics of carbonate reservoirs and their implication on hydrocarbon exploration: A case study from the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate rocks are deposited in the Ordovician, Cambrian, and Sinian of eastern Tarim Basin with a cumulative maximum thickness exceeding 2000 m. They are the main carriers of oil and gas, and a great deal of natural gas has been found there in the past five years. Based on lithofacies and reservoir differences, natural gas exploration domains of eastern Tarim Basin can be classified into five types: Ordovician platform limestone; Ordovician platform dolomite; Cambrian platform margin mound shoal; Cambrian slope gravity flow deposits, and; Sinian dolomite. Carbonate reservoir characteristics of all the types were synthetically analyzed through observation on drilling core and thin sections, porosity and permeability measurement, and logging data of over 10 drilling wells. We find distribution of part of good fracture and cave reservoir in carbonate platform limestone of Ordovician. In the Ordovician, platform facies dolomite is better than limestone, and in the Cambrian, platform margin mound shoal dolomite has large stacking thickness. Good quality and significantly thick carbonate gravity deposit flow can be found in the Cambrian slope, and effective reservoir has also been found in Sinian dolomite. Commercial gas has been found in the limestone and dolomite of Ordovician in Shunnan and Gucheng areas. Exploration experiences from these two areas are instructive, enabling a deeper understanding of this scene.

  8. Three-dimensional migration behavior of juvenile salmonids in reservoirs and near dams

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun D.; Fu, Tao; Brown, Richard S.; Martinez, Jayson J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholds, Jon F.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2018-01-01

    To acquire 3-D tracking data on juvenile salmonids, Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled hydrophone arrays were deployed in the forebays of two dams on the Snake River and at a mid-reach reservoir between the dams. The depth distributions of fish were estimated by statistical analyses performed on large 3-D tracking data sets from ~33,500 individual acoustic tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at the two dams in 2012 and subyearling Chinoo...

  9. Impact of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on behavior, cortical gene expression and DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel L; Yan, Zhonghai; Maher, Christina; Zhang, Hanjie; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; McDonald, Jacob; Champagne, Frances A

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been associated with sustained effects on the brain and behavior in offspring. However, the mechanisms have yet to be determined. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to ambient PAH in mice would be associated with impaired neurocognition, increased anxiety, altered cortical expression of Bdnf and Grin2b , and greater DNA methylation of Bdnf . Our results indicated that during open-field testing, prenatal PAH exposed offspring spent more time immobile and less time exploring. Females produced more fecal boli. Offspring prenatally exposed to PAH displayed modest reductions in overall exploration of objects. Further, prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower cortical expression of Grin2b and Bdnf in males, and greater Bdnf IV promoter methylation. Epigenetic differences within the Bdnf IV promoter correlated with Bdnf gene expression, but not with the observed behavioral outcomes, suggesting that additional targets may account for these PAH-associated effects.

  10. Impact of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on behavior, cortical gene expression, and DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Miller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH has been associated with sustained effects on the brain and behavior in offspring. However, the mechanisms have yet to be determined. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to ambient PAH in mice would be associated with impaired neurocognition, increased anxiety, altered cortical expression of Bdnf and Grin2b, and greater DNA methylation of Bdnf. Our results indicated that during open-field testing, prenatal PAH–exposed offspring spent more time immobile and less time exploring. Females produced more fecal boli. Offspring prenatally exposed to PAH displayed modest reductions in overall exploration of objects. Further, prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower cortical expression of Grin2b and Bdnf in males and greater Bdnf IV promoter methylation. Epigenetic differences within the Bdnf IV promoter correlated with Bdnf gene expression but not with the observed behavioral outcomes, suggesting that additional targets may account for these PAH-associated effects.

  11. Underground disposal of tanks containing liquid and inflammable hydrocarbons; Mise sous talus ou sous terre des reservoirs contenant des hydrocarbures liquides inflammables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuczka, P.; Giovannini, B.; Caumont, M.; Varin, F

    2001-09-15

    The protection from thermal and mechanical stresses, of hazardous products tanks, by earth covering, is often used since many years in France and in many countries of Europe. In the case of hydrocarbons tanks, only small capacity tanks are covering. The aim of this report is to evaluate the feasibility of this technique for big capacity tanks as refinery tanks. It details the different typologies of tanks containing inflammable liquids and the associated systems, examines if the covering technique presents some special difficulties and precises the specifications needed for the new tanks being covering. (A.L.B.)

  12. Flow behavior of N2 huff and puff process for enhanced oil recovery in tight oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Teng; Li, Zhaomin; Li, Jian; Hou, Dawei; Zhang, Dingyong

    2017-11-16

    In the present work, the potential of N 2 huff and puff process to enhance the recovery of tight oil reservoir was evaluated. N 2 huff and puff experiments were performed in micromodels and cores to investigate the flow behaviors of different cycles. The results showed that, in the first cycle, N 2 was dispersed in the oil, forming the foamy oil flow. In the second cycle, the dispersed gas bubbles gradually coalesced into the continuous gas phase. In the third cycle, N 2 was produced in the form of continuous gas phase. The results from the coreflood tests showed that, the primary recovery was only 5.32%, while the recoveries for the three N 2 huff and puff cycles were 15.1%, 8.53% and 3.22%, respectively.The recovery and the pressure gradient in the first cycle were high. With the increase of huff and puff cycles, and the oil recovery and the pressure gradient rapidly decreased. The oil recovery of N 2 huff and puff has been found to increase as the N 2 injection pressure and the soaking time increased. These results showed that, the properly designed and controlled N 2 huff and puff process can lead to enhanced recovery of tight oil reservoirs.

  13. RECENT ADVANCES IN NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIR MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    ORDOÑEZ, A; PEÑUELA, G; IDROBO, E. A; MEDINA, C. E

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of oil reserves are contained in naturally fractured reservoirs. Most of these hydrocarbon volumes have been left behind because of the poor knowledge and/or description methodology of those reservoirs. This lack of knowledge has lead to the nonexistence of good quantitative models for this complicated type of reservoirs. The complexity of naturally fractured reservoirs causes the need for integration of all existing information at all scales (drilling, well logging, seismic, we...

  14. Release from prey preservation behavior via prey switch allowed diversification of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in digger wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdack, Mareike; Polidori, Carlo; Keller, Alexander; Feldhaar, Heike; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The cuticle of insects is covered by a layer of hydrocarbons (CHC), whose original function is the protection from desiccation and pathogens. However, in most insects CHC profiles are species specific. While this variability among species was largely linked to communication and recognition functions, additional selective forces may shape insect CHC profiles. Here, we show that in Philanthinae digger wasps (Crabronidae) the CHC profile coevolved with a peculiar brood-care strategy. In particular, we found that the behavior to embalm prey stored in the nest with hydrocarbons is adaptive to protect larval food from fungi in those species hunting for Hymenoptera. The prey embalming secretion is identical in composition to the alkene-dominated CHC profile in these species, suggesting that their profile is adaptively conserved for this purpose. In contrast, prey embalming is not required in those species that switched to Coleoptera as prey. Released from this chemical brood-care strategy, Coleoptera-hunting species considerably diversified their CHC profiles. Differential needs to successfully protect prey types used as larval food have thus driven the diversification of CHCs profiles of female Philanthinae wasps. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a direct link between selection pressure for food preservation and CHC diversity. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  16. Depletion and recovery behavior of the Gladys McCall geopressured geothermal reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riney, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    Many sedimentary basins throughout the world contain sealed fault blocks in which the pore fluids are at higher pressures and temperatures than normal as a consequence of their depositional environment. The U.S. Department of Energy has drilled, completed, and tested four deep research wells in selected geopressured geothermal prospects in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast region to evaluate the recoverability of the thermal, hydraulic, and chemical (methane) energy in this potential energy resource. The wells are expensive and the specific energy of the fluids is relatively small, but the total recoverable energy from a single well can be extremely large. Long-term testing of the Gladys McCall No. 1 research well, located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, U.S.A., has defined an impressively large geopressured geothermal reservoir. In this paper an integrated analysis of the test data is presented, and a numerical model is constructed that matches the available data for the 6.5-year test history of the well

  17. Mathematical approaches in deriving hydrocarbons expressions from seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung; Yoon-Geun [Geophysical Prospecting Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hwan [Petroleum Engineering & Reservoir Simulation Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-08

    Defining and understanding hydrocarbon expressions in seismic expression is main concern of geoscientists in oil and gas exploration and production. Over the last decades several mathematical approaches have been developed in this regard. Most of approaches have addressed information in amplitude of seismic data. Recently, more attention has been drawn towards frequency related information in order to extract frequency behaviors of hydrocarbons bearing sediments. Spectrally decomposing seismic data into individual frequencies found to be an excellent tool for investigating geological formations and their pore fluids. To accomplish this, several mathematical approaches have been invoked. Continuous wavelet transform and Short Time Window Fourier transform are widely used techniques for this purpose. This paper gives an overview of some widely used mathematical technique in hydrocarbon reservoir detection and mapping. This is followed by an application on real data from Boonsville field.

  18. Modeling of Antenna for Deep Target Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Nasir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays control source electromagnetic method is used for offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Hydrocarbon detection in sea bed logging (SBL is a very challenging task for deep target hydrocarbon reservoir. Response of electromagnetic (EM field from marine environment is very low and it is very difficult to predict deep target reservoir below 2km from the sea floor. This work premise deals with modeling of new antenna for deep water deep target hydrocarbon exploration. Conventional and new EM antennas at 0.125Hz frequency are used in modeling for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon  reservoir.  The  proposed  area  of  the  seabed model   (40km ´ 40km   was   simulated   by using CST (computer simulation technology EM studio based on Finite Integration Method (FIM. Electromagnetic field components were compared at 500m target depth and it was concluded that Ex and Hz components shows better resistivity contrast. Comparison of conventional and new antenna for different target  depths  was  done in  our  proposed  model.  From  the results, it was observed that conventional antenna at 0.125Hz shows 70% ,86% resistivity contrast at target depth of 1000m where   as   new   antenna   showed   329%, 355%   resistivity contrast at the same target depth for Ex and Hz field respectively.  It  was  also  investigated  that  at  frequency of0.125Hz, new antenna gave 46% better delineation of hydrocarbon at 4000m target depth. This is due to focusing of electromagnetic waves by using new antenna. New antenna design gave 125% more extra depth than straight antenna for deep target hydrocarbon detection. Numerical modeling for straight  and  new antenna  was also done to know general equation for electromagnetic field behavior with target depth. From this numerical model it was speculated that this new antenna can detect up to 4.5 km target depth. This new EM antenna may open new frontiers for oil and gas

  19. Geologic and petrophysic analysis of a travertine block as hydrocarbon reservoir analogue; Analise geologica e petrofisica de um bloco de travertino como analogo de reservatorio de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Mateus; Kuroda, Michelle Chaves; Vidal, Alexandre Campane, E-mail: mbstraik@gmail.com, E-mail: ckuroda@ige.unicamp.br, E-mail: vidal@ige.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos do Petroleo

    2017-04-15

    Microbialitic limestones are gaining space in petroleum geology due to the existence of many reservoirs composed of these lithologies in the pre-salt producing fields. Travertine, calcareous tufa and stromatolites figure among the rocks proposed as analogous for the microbialitic rocks. This work conduces the study of geological, petrophysical and geophysical parameters of a travertine block measuring 1,60 x 1,60 x 2,70 m, weighing 21,2 tons and available in the Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO) at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The Italian block, named T-block, corresponds to the representative elementary volume of its original formation and allows the study in an intermediate scale between the hand sample and the outcrop scale. Permeability tests and gamma ray spectrometry measurements were conducted and the porosity was calculated by image analysis. Models were generated from the obtained data and then associated with descriptive geology of the block. A reduction in permeability, porosity and concentration of elements potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) was recorded, following a gradient towards the top of the T-block accompanying the reduction in the degree of development of the rock fabric. (author)

  20. Nanoscale carbon materials from hydrocarbons pyrolysis: Structure, chemical behavior, utilisation for non-aqueous supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savilov, Serguei V.; Strokova, Natalia E.; Ivanov, Anton S.; Arkhipova, Ekaterina A.; Desyatov, Andrey V.; Hui, Xia; Aldoshin, Serguei M.; Lunin, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • N-doped and regular carbon nanomaterials were obtained by pyrolitic technique. • Dynamic vapor sorption of different solvents reveals smaller S BET values. • Steric hindrance and specific chemical interactions are the reasons for this. • Nitrogen doping leads to raise of capacitance and coulombic efficiency with non-aqueous N-containing electrolyte. - Abstract: This work systematically studies adsorption properties of carbon nanomaterials that are synthesized through hydrocarbons that is a powerful technique to fabricate different kinds of carbon materials, e.g., nanotubes, nanoshells, onions, including nitrogen substituted. The adsorption properties of the as-synthesized carbons are achieved by low temperature nitrogen adsorption and organic vapors sorption. Heptane, acetonitrile, water, ethanol, benzene and 1-methylimidazole, which are of great importance for development of supercapacitors, are used as substrates. It is discovered that while nitrogen adsorption reveals a high specific surface area, this parameter for most of organic compounds is rather small depending not only on the size of its molecule but also on chemical interactions for a pair adsorbent–adsorbate. The experimental values of heat of adsorption for carbon and N-substituted structures, when Coulomb cross-coupling of nitrogen atoms in adsorbent and adsorbate takes place, confirms this supposition

  1. Nanoscale carbon materials from hydrocarbons pyrolysis: Structure, chemical behavior, utilisation for non-aqueous supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savilov, Serguei V., E-mail: savilov@chem.msu.ru [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Strokova, Natalia E.; Ivanov, Anton S.; Arkhipova, Ekaterina A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Desyatov, Andrey V. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Russian Federation); Hui, Xia [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology (China); Aldoshin, Serguei M. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Fundamental Physical and Chemical Engineering (Russian Federation); Lunin, Valery V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • N-doped and regular carbon nanomaterials were obtained by pyrolitic technique. • Dynamic vapor sorption of different solvents reveals smaller S{sub BET} values. • Steric hindrance and specific chemical interactions are the reasons for this. • Nitrogen doping leads to raise of capacitance and coulombic efficiency with non-aqueous N-containing electrolyte. - Abstract: This work systematically studies adsorption properties of carbon nanomaterials that are synthesized through hydrocarbons that is a powerful technique to fabricate different kinds of carbon materials, e.g., nanotubes, nanoshells, onions, including nitrogen substituted. The adsorption properties of the as-synthesized carbons are achieved by low temperature nitrogen adsorption and organic vapors sorption. Heptane, acetonitrile, water, ethanol, benzene and 1-methylimidazole, which are of great importance for development of supercapacitors, are used as substrates. It is discovered that while nitrogen adsorption reveals a high specific surface area, this parameter for most of organic compounds is rather small depending not only on the size of its molecule but also on chemical interactions for a pair adsorbent–adsorbate. The experimental values of heat of adsorption for carbon and N-substituted structures, when Coulomb cross-coupling of nitrogen atoms in adsorbent and adsorbate takes place, confirms this supposition.

  2. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  3. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, antioxidant levels and behavioral development of children ages 6-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkinger, Jeanine M; Stigter, Laura; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Wang, Shuang; Roen, Emily L; Majewska, Renata; Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Mroz, Elzbieta; Perera, Frederica P

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure has been shown to increase DNA adduct levels and to affect neurodevelopment. Micronutrients may modify the adverse effect of PAH on neurodevelopment. Thus, we examined if micronutrient concentrations modified the association between PAH exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. 151 children from a birth cohort who had micronutrient concentrations measured in cord blood and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL), between the ages of 6 and 9 years, were evaluated. Prenatal airborne PAH exposure was measured by personal air monitoring. The betas and 95% CI for the associations of antioxidant concentrations and PAH exposure with each of the outcomes of CBCL raw score and dichotomized standardized T-score (based on clinical cutpoints) were estimated, respectively, by multivariable poisson and logistic models. Children below the median for alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentrations, compared to those above, were more likely to have thought problems, aggressive behavior and externalizing problems (pPAH in relation to CBCL symptoms (e.g., internalizing and externalizing problems, pPAH exposure. Future research to confirm these findings are warranted given the importance of identifying modifiable factors for reducing harmful PAH effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Geomechanical production optimization in faulted and fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Pizzocolo, F.; Osinga, S.; Veer, E.F. van der

    2016-01-01

    Faults and fractures in hydrocarbon reservoirs are key to some major production issues including (1) varying productivity of different well sections due to intersection of preferential flow paths with the wellbore, (2) varying hydrocarbon column heights in different reservoir compartments due to

  5. Geomechanical behavior of the reservoir and caprock system at the In Salah CO2 storage project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joshua A; Chiaramonte, Laura; Ezzedine, Souheil; Foxall, William; Hao, Yue; Ramirez, Abelardo; McNab, Walt

    2014-06-17

    Almost 4 million metric tons of CO2 were injected at the In Salah CO2 storage site between 2004 and 2011. Storage integrity at the site is provided by a 950-m-thick caprock that sits above the injection interval. This caprock consists of a number of low-permeability units that work together to limit vertical fluid migration. These are grouped into main caprock units, providing the primary seal, and lower caprock units, providing an additional buffer and some secondary storage capacity. Monitoring observations at the site indirectly suggest that pressure, and probably CO2, have migrated upward into the lower portion of the caprock. Although there are no indications that the overall storage integrity has been compromised, these observations raise interesting questions about the geomechanical behavior of the system. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the measured pressure, seismic, and surface deformation behavior. These include fault leakage, flow through preexisting fractures, and the possibility that injection pressures induced hydraulic fractures. This work evaluates these hypotheses in light of the available data. We suggest that the simplest and most likely explanation for the observations is that a portion of the lower caprock was hydrofractured, although interaction with preexisting fractures may have played a significant role. There are no indications, however, that the overall storage complex has been compromised, and several independent data sets demonstrate that CO2 is contained in the confinement zone.

  6. Density induced crossover of electron mobilities in fluid C3 hydrocarbons; liquid phase behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, N.; Freeman, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    At n = 2 x 10 20 mol/cm 3 in the saturated vapors, the density normalized mobility (μn) of electrons equalled 2.4 x 10 23 mol/cmVs in cyclopropane, 1.5 x 10 23 in propane and 5.4 x 10 22 in propene. In cyclopropane and propene μn decreased due to quasilocalization at n > 4 x 10 20 mol/cm 3 . In propane quasilocalization occurred at n > 8 x 10 20 mol/cm 3 . The more extensive quasilocalization in cyclopropane caused mobilities to be lower than those in propane at the same density when the densities were greater than 1.3 x 10 21 mol/cm 3 . In propylene, μn remained below those in the other compounds at all gas densities. In the liquid phase the mobilities were affected more by the changes of temperature than by those of density. The mobilities at a given temperature decreased in the order propane > propene > cyclopropane. It is curious that the electron traps are deeper in cyclopropane than in propene. The energies of both thermal and optical excitation of solvated electrons may be expressed by equations of the form E 0 = E(0) - aT over considerable ranges of temperature T. The thermal value of a/E(0) is 1.7 x 10 -3 K -1 in many hydrocarbons, estimated from the mobilities. The equivalent ratio of the optical parameters also equals 1.7 x 10 -3 K -1 in ethers and in ammonia. (author)

  7. Understanding CO2 Plume Behavior and Basin-Scale Pressure Changes during Sequestration Projects through the use of Reservoir Fluid Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetaru, H.E.; Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Mehnert, E.; Birkholzer, J.; Zhou, Q.; Jordan, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    Large scale geologic sequestration tests are in the planning stages around the world. The liability and safety issues of the migration of CO2 away from the primary injection site and/or reservoir are of significant concerns for these sequestration tests. Reservoir models for simulating single or multi-phase fluid flow are used to understand the migration of CO2 in the subsurface. These models can also help evaluate concerns related to brine migration and basin-scale pressure increases that occur due to the injection of additional fluid volumes into the subsurface. The current paper presents different modeling examples addressing these issues, ranging from simple geometric models to more complex reservoir fluid models with single-site and basin-scale applications. Simple geometric models assuming a homogeneous geologic reservoir and piston-like displacement have been used for understanding pressure changes and fluid migration around each CO2 storage site. These geometric models are useful only as broad approximations because they do not account for the variation in porosity, permeability, asymmetry of the reservoir, and dip of the beds. In addition, these simple models are not capable of predicting the interference between different injection sites within the same reservoir. A more realistic model of CO2 plume behavior can be produced using reservoir fluid models. Reservoir simulation of natural gas storage reservoirs in the Illinois Basin Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone suggest that reservoir heterogeneity will be an important factor for evaluating storage capacity. The Mt. Simon Sandstone is a thick sandstone that underlies many significant coal fired power plants (emitting at least 1 million tonnes per year) in the midwestern United States including the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio. The initial commercial sequestration sites are expected to inject 1 to 2 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Depending on the geologic structure and

  8. Phase behavior, rheological property, and transmutation of vesicles in fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zaiwu; Qin, Menghua; Chen, Xiushan; Liu, Changcheng; Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2012-06-26

    We present a detailed study of a salt-free cationic/anionic (catanionic) surfactant system where a strongly alkaline cationic surfactant (tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, TTAOH) was mixed with a single-chain fluorocarbon acid (nonadecafluorodecanoic acid, NFDA) and a hyperbranched hydrocarbon acid [di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, DEHPA] in water. Typically the concentration of TTAOH is fixed while the total concentration and mixing molar ratio of NFDA and DEHPA is varied. In the absence of DEHPA and at a TTAOH concentration of 80 mmol·L(-1), an isotropic L(1) phase, an L(1)/L(α) two-phase region, and a single L(α) phase were observed successively with increasing mixing molar ratio of NFDA to TTAOH (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH)). In the NFDA-rich region (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH) > 1), a small amount of excess NFDA can be solubilized into the L(α) phase while a large excess of NFDA eventually leads to phase separation. When NFDA is replaced gradually by DEHPA, the mixed system of TTAOH/NFDA/DEHPA/H(2)O follows the same phase sequence as that of the TTAOH/NFDA/H(2)O system and the phase boundaries remain almost unchanged. However, the viscoelasticity of the samples in the single L(α) phase region becomes higher at the same total surfactant concentration as characterized by rheological measurements. Cryo-transmission electron microscopic (cryo-TEM) observations revealed a microstructural evolution from unilamellar vesicles to multilamellar ones and finally to gaint onions. The size of the vesicle and number of lamella can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of NFDA to DEHPA. The dynamic properties of the vesicular solutions have also been investigated. It is found that the yield stress and the storage modulus are time-dependent after a static mixing process between the two different types of vesicle solutions, indicating the occurrence of a dynamic fusion between the two types of vesicles. The microenvironmental changes induced by aggregate transitions were probed by

  9. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  10. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neural reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers, geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  11. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, A.; Varnon, J.E.; Hoang, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  12. Chemical and behavioral analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons from Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Rouseff, Russell L; Smoot, Jack; Rao, Nandikeswara; Meyer, Wendy L; Lapointe, Stephen L; Robbins, Paul S; Cha, Dong; Linn, Charles E; Webster, Francis X; Tiwari, Siddharth; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the vector of the phloem-inhabiting bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which is presumed to cause HLB in Florida citrus. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and female D. citri to their cuticular extracts. In olfactometer assays, more male D. citri were attracted to one, five, or 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units than blank controls. The results were confirmed in field studies in which clear or yellow traps baited with 10 female cuticular extract equivalent units attracted proportionately more males than clear traps baited with male cuticular extract or unbaited traps. Analyses of cuticular constituents of male and female D. citri revealed differences between the sexes in chemical composition of their cuticular extracts. Laboratory bioassays with synthetic chemicals identified from cuticular extracts indicated that dodecanoic acid attracted more males than clean air. Traps baited with dodecanoic acid did not increase total catch of D. citri as compared with blank traps at the dosages tested; however, the sex ratio of psyllid catch was male biased on traps baited with the highest lure loading dosage tested (10.0 mg). © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Gas sealing efficiency of cap rocks. Pt. 1: Experimental investigations in pelitic sediment rocks. - Pt. 2: Geochemical investigations on redistribution of volatile hydrocarbons in the overburden of natural gas reservoirs; Gas sealing efficiency of cap rocks. T. 1: Experimentelle Untersuchungen in pelitischen Sedimentgesteinen. - T.2: Geochemische Untersuchungen zur Umverteilung leichtfluechtiger Kohlenwasserstoffe in den Deckschichten von Erdgaslagerstaetten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leythaeuser; Konstanty, J.; Pankalla, F.; Schwark, L.; Krooss, B.M.; Ehrlich, R.; Schloemer, S.

    1997-09-01

    New methods and concepts for the assessment of sealing properties of cap rocks above natural gas reservoirs and of the migration behaviour of low molecular-weight hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins were developed and tested. The experimental work comprised the systematic assesment of gas transport parameters on representative samples of pelitic rocks at elevated pressure and temperature conditions, and the characterization of their sealing efficiency as cap rocks overlying hydrocarbon accumulations. Geochemical case histories were carried out to analyse the distribution of low molecular-weight hydrocarbons in the overburden of known natural gas reservoirs in NW Germany. The results were interpreted with respect to the sealing efficiency of individual cap rock lithologies and the type and extent of gas losses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Beurteilung der Abdichtungseigenschaften von Caprocks ueber Gaslagerstaetten und des Migrationsverhaltens niedrigmolekularer Kohlenwasserstoffe in Sedimentbecken wurden neue Methoden und Konzepte entwickelt und angewendet. In experimentellen Arbeiten erfolgte die systematische Bestimmung von Gas-Transportparametern an repraesentativen Proben pelitischer Gesteine unter erhoehten Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen und die Charakterisierung ihrer Abdichtungseffizienz als Deckschicht ueber Kohlenwasserstofflagerstaetten. In geochemischen Fallstudien wurde die Verteilung niedrigmolekularer Kohlenwasserstoffe in den Deckschichten ueber bekannten Erdgaslagerstaetten in NW-Deutschland analysiert und im Hinblick auf die Abdichtungseffizienz einzelner Caprock-Lithologien bzw. Art und Ausmass von Gasverlusten interpretiert. (orig.)

  14. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and thus...... basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... have hardly any stylolites and can have porosity above 40% or even 50% and thus also have relatively high permeability. Such intervals have the problem though, that increasing effective stress caused by hydrocarbon production results in mechanical compaction and overall subsidence. Most other chalk...

  15. The seismo-hydromechanical behavior during deep geothermal reservoir stimulations: open questions tackled in a decameter-scale in situ stimulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Florian; Gischig, Valentin; Evans, Keith; Doetsch, Joseph; Jalali, Reza; Valley, Benoît; Krietsch, Hannes; Dutler, Nathan; Villiger, Linus; Brixel, Bernard; Klepikova, Maria; Kittilä, Anniina; Madonna, Claudio; Wiemer, Stefan; Saar, Martin O.; Loew, Simon; Driesner, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi; Giardini, Domenico

    2018-02-01

    In this contribution, we present a review of scientific research results that address seismo-hydromechanically coupled processes relevant for the development of a sustainable heat exchanger in low-permeability crystalline rock and introduce the design of the In situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC) experiment at the Grimsel Test Site dedicated to studying such processes under controlled conditions. The review shows that research on reservoir stimulation for deep geothermal energy exploitation has been largely based on laboratory observations, large-scale projects and numerical models. Observations of full-scale reservoir stimulations have yielded important results. However, the limited access to the reservoir and limitations in the control on the experimental conditions during deep reservoir stimulations is insufficient to resolve the details of the hydromechanical processes that would enhance process understanding in a way that aids future stimulation design. Small-scale laboratory experiments provide fundamental insights into various processes relevant for enhanced geothermal energy, but suffer from (1) difficulties and uncertainties in upscaling the results to the field scale and (2) relatively homogeneous material and stress conditions that lead to an oversimplistic fracture flow and/or hydraulic fracture propagation behavior that is not representative of a heterogeneous reservoir. Thus, there is a need for intermediate-scale hydraulic stimulation experiments with high experimental control that bridge the various scales and for which access to the target rock mass with a comprehensive monitoring system is possible. The ISC experiment is designed to address open research questions in a naturally fractured and faulted crystalline rock mass at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). Two hydraulic injection phases were executed to enhance the permeability of the rock mass. During the injection phases the rock mass deformation across fractures and within intact rock

  16. Studies on the Optimal behavior of Energy Storage in Reservoirs of a Hydroelectric system; Estudios sobre el comportamiento optimo del almacenamiento de energia en embalses de sistema hidroelectrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Faria, Breno; Franco Barbosa, Paulo Sergio [Universidad Estatal de Campinas (Brazil)

    2002-09-01

    This work aims at studying the results of an optimisation model applied to the Paranaiba river basin, Brazil. This system is made by the junction of three river branches located in a region with a well-defined seasonal hydrological behavior. The ratio between the total energy storage in the system and the active storage for every reservoir is evaluated from the optimal operational results. This relationship allows recognizing systematic patterns on the relative use for every reservoir, when compared to the entire system. The main parameters that define reservoir behavior are identified, with highlights on the position of the power station in the cascade, the relationship between the river flow and the active storage, and the installed capacity of the power station. In addition, the parameter hydrological scenario is also another factor that defines the relative use of the reservoirs. [Spanish] El modelo del presente trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar los resultados de una optimizacion para el sistema hidroelectrico de la cuenca del rio Paranaiba, Brasil, la cual esta formada por la confluencia de tres rios en una region de distribucion de lluvias bien definidas en terminos hidrologicos. Se analiza la relacion entre la energia total almacenada en el sistema y el volumen util de cada embalse a partir de los resultados operativos optimos. Esta relacion permite identificar resultados sistematicos en lo que se refiere a la utilizacion de cada embalse, en comparacion con el uso del sistema como un todo. Se identifican los principales parametros responsables por el comportamiento de los embalses, destacando la influencia de la posicion de la central hidroelectrica en la cascada, de la relacion caudal/volumen util y de la potencia de central. Ademas, el parametro escenario hidrologico tambien es otro factor determinante en el uso relativo de los embalses.

  17. The Influence of Fold and Fracture Development on Reservoir Behavior of the Lisburne Group of Northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Wesley K.; Hanks, Catherine L.; Whalen, Michael T.; Jensen1, Jerry; Shackleton, J. Ryan; Jadamec, Margarete A.; McGee, Michelle M.; Karpov1, Alexandre V.

    2001-07-23

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The lisburne is detachment folded where it is exposed throughout the northeastern Brooks Range, but is relatively underformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study are to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults, (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns, (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow, and (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics.

  18. Gas condensate reservoir performance : part 1 : fluid characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, F.B.; Bennion, D.B. [Hycal Energy Research Laboratories Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Andersen, G. [ChevronTexaco, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Phase behaviour in gas condensate reservoirs is sensitive to changes in pressure and temperature, which can lead to significant errors in fluid characterization. The challenging task of characterizing in situ fluids in gas condensate reservoirs was discussed with reference to the errors that occur as a result of the complex coupling between phase behavior and geology. This paper presented techniques for reservoir sampling and characterization and proposed methods for minimizing errors. Errors are often made in the classification of dew point systems because engineering criteria does not accurately represent the phase behavior of the reservoir. For example, the fluid of a certain condensate yield may be categorized as a wet gas rather than a retrograde condensate fluid. It was noted that the liquid yield does not dictate whether the fluid is condensate or wet gas, but rather where the reservoir temperature is situated in the pressure temperature phase loop. In order to proceed with a viable field development plan and optimization, the reservoir fluid must be understood. Given that gas productivity decreases with liquid drop out in the near wellbore region, capillary pressure plays a significant role in retrograde reservoirs. It was noted that well understood parameters will lead to a better assessment of the amount of hydrocarbon in place, the rate at which the resource can be produced and optimization strategies as the reservoir matures. It was concluded that multi-rate sampling is the best method to use in sampling fluids since the liquid yield changes as a function of rate. Although bottom-hole sampling in gas condensate reservoirs may be problematic, it should always be performed to address any concerns for liquid-solid separation. Produced fluids typically reveal a specific signature that informs the operator of in situ properties. This paper presented examples that pertain to wet versus retrograde condensate behavior and the presence of an oil zone. The

  19. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2011 - February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2013-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder tags were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon. The purpose of the study was to provide information to aid with decisions about potential alternatives for improving downstream passage conditions for juvenile salmonids in this flood-control reservoir. In 2011, a total of 411 hatchery fish and 26 wild fish were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 356 hatchery fish and 117 wild fish were released during a 3-month period in the fall. A series of 16 autonomous hydrophones throughout the reservoir and 12 hydrophones in a collective system near the dam outlet were used to determine general movements and dam passage of the fish over the life of the acoustic transmitter, which was expected to be about 3 months. Movements within the reservoir were directional, and it was common for fish to migrate repeatedly from the head of the reservoir downstream to the dam outlet and back to the head of the reservoir. Most fish were detected near the temperature control tower at least once. The median time from release near the head of the reservoir to detection within about 100 meters of the dam outlet at the temperature control tower was between 5.7 and 10.8 days, depending on season and fish origin. Dam passage events occurred over a wider range of dates in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter, but dam passage numbers were greatest during the fall and winter. A total of 10.5 percent (43 of 411) of the hatchery fish and 15.4 percent (4 of 26) of the wild fish released in the spring are assumed to have passed the dam, whereas a total of 25.3 percent (90 of 356) of the hatchery fish and 16.9 percent (30 of 117) of the wild fish released in the fall are assumed to have passed the dam. A small number of fish passed the dam after their transmitters had stopped working and were detected at

  20. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  1. Sedimentary facies and lithologic characters as main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulations and their critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qing Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking more than 1000 clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs of Bohai Bay Basin, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin, China as examples, the paper has studied the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoirs and their critical conditions to reveal the hydrocarbon distribution and to optimize the search for favorable targets. The results indicated that the various sedimentary facies and lithologic characters control the critical conditions of hydrocarbon accumulations, which shows that hydrocarbon is distributed mainly in sedimentary facies formed under conditions of a long-lived and relatively strong hydrodynamic environment; 95% of the hydrocarbon reservoirs and reserves in the three basins is distributed in siltstones, fine sandstones, lithified gravels and pebble-bearing sandstones; moreover, the probability of discovering conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs decreases with the grain size of the clastic rock. The main reason is that the low relative porosity and permeability of fine-grained reservoirs lead to small differences in capillary force compared with surrounding rocks small and insufficiency of dynamic force for hydrocarbon accumulation; the critical condition for hydrocarbon entering reservoir is that the interfacial potential in the surrounding rock (Φn must be more than twice of that in the reservoir (Φs; the probability of hydrocarbon reservoirs distribution decreases in cases where the hydrodynamic force is too high or too low and when the rocks have too coarse or too fine grains.

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  3. The Influence of Fold and Fracture Development on Reservoir Behavior of the Lisburne Group of Northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L.; Whalen, M.T.; Jensen, J.; Atkinson, P.K.; Brinton, J.S.

    2001-01-09

    The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults, (2) The influence of folding and lithostratigraphy on fracture patterns, (3) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics, and (4) The influence of lithostratigraphy and deformation on fluid flow.

  4. Full field reservoir modeling of shale assets using advanced data-driven analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Esmaili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon production from shale has attracted much attention in the recent years. When applied to this prolific and hydrocarbon rich resource plays, our understanding of the complexities of the flow mechanism (sorption process and flow behavior in complex fracture systems - induced or natural leaves much to be desired. In this paper, we present and discuss a novel approach to modeling, history matching of hydrocarbon production from a Marcellus shale asset in southwestern Pennsylvania using advanced data mining, pattern recognition and machine learning technologies. In this new approach instead of imposing our understanding of the flow mechanism, the impact of multi-stage hydraulic fractures, and the production process on the reservoir model, we allow the production history, well log, completion and hydraulic fracturing data to guide our model and determine its behavior. The uniqueness of this technology is that it incorporates the so-called “hard data” directly into the reservoir model, so that the model can be used to optimize the hydraulic fracture process. The “hard data” refers to field measurements during the hydraulic fracturing process such as fluid and proppant type and amount, injection pressure and rate as well as proppant concentration. This novel approach contrasts with the current industry focus on the use of “soft data” (non-measured, interpretive data such as frac length, width, height and conductivity in the reservoir models. The study focuses on a Marcellus shale asset that includes 135 wells with multiple pads, different landing targets, well length and reservoir properties. The full field history matching process was successfully completed using this data driven approach thus capturing the production behavior with acceptable accuracy for individual wells and for the entire asset.

  5. Multi Data Reservoir History Matching using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir history matching is becoming increasingly important with the growing demand for higher quality formation characterization and forecasting and the increased complexity and expenses for modern hydrocarbon exploration projects. History

  6. Different behavioral effect dose–response profiles in mice exposed to two-carbon chlorinated hydrocarbons: Influence of structural and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, Toyoshi; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify whether dose–response profiles of acute behavioral effects of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE), trichloroethylene (TRIC), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) differ. A test battery involving 6 behavioral endpoints was applied to evaluate the effects of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC in male ICR strain mice under the same experimental conditions. The behavioral effect dose–response profiles of these compounds differed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the dose–response profiles and structural and physical properties of the compounds. Dose–response profile differences correlated significantly with differences in specific structural and physical properties. These results suggest that differences in specific structural and physical properties of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC are responsible for differences in behavioral effects that lead to a variety of dose–response profiles. - Highlights: • We examine effects of 4 chlorinated hydrocarbons on 6 behavioral endpoints in mice. • The behavioral effect dose–response profiles for the 4 compounds are different. • We utilize regression analysis to clarify probable causes of the different profiles. • The compound's physicochemical properties probably produce the different profiles

  7. Different behavioral effect dose–response profiles in mice exposed to two-carbon chlorinated hydrocarbons: Influence of structural and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umezu, Toyoshi, E-mail: umechan2@nies.go.jp; Shibata, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yshibata@nies.go.jp

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to clarify whether dose–response profiles of acute behavioral effects of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE), trichloroethylene (TRIC), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) differ. A test battery involving 6 behavioral endpoints was applied to evaluate the effects of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC in male ICR strain mice under the same experimental conditions. The behavioral effect dose–response profiles of these compounds differed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the dose–response profiles and structural and physical properties of the compounds. Dose–response profile differences correlated significantly with differences in specific structural and physical properties. These results suggest that differences in specific structural and physical properties of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC are responsible for differences in behavioral effects that lead to a variety of dose–response profiles. - Highlights: • We examine effects of 4 chlorinated hydrocarbons on 6 behavioral endpoints in mice. • The behavioral effect dose–response profiles for the 4 compounds are different. • We utilize regression analysis to clarify probable causes of the different profiles. • The compound's physicochemical properties probably produce the different profiles.

  8. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  9. The Influence of fold and fracture development on reservoir behavior of the Lisburne Group of northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Jerry Jensen: Michael T. Whalen; Paul Atkinson; Joseph Brinton; Thang Bui; Margarete Jadamec; Alexandre Karpov; John Lorenz; Michelle M. McGee; T.M. Parris; Ryan Shackleton

    2004-07-01

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is folded and thrust faulted where it is exposed throughout the Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study were to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns. (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow. (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. Symmetrical detachment folds characterize the Lisburne in the northeastern Brooks Range. In contrast, Lisburne in the main axis of the Brooks Range is deformed into imbricate thrust sheets with asymmetrical hangingwall anticlines and footwall synclines. The Continental Divide thrust front separates these different structural styles in the Lisburne and also marks the southern boundary of the northeastern Brooks Range. Field studies were conducted for this project during 1999 to 2001 in various locations in the northeastern Brooks Range and in the vicinity of Porcupine Lake, immediately south of the Continental Divide thrust front. Results are summarized below for the four main subject areas of the study.

  10. Analysis of structural heterogeneities on drilled cores: a reservoir modeling oriented methodology; Analyse des heterogeneites structurales sur carottes: une methodologie axee vers la modelisation des reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, P.; Petit, J.P. [Montpellier-2 Univ., Lab. de Geophysique, Tectonique et Sedimentologie, UMR CNRS 5573, 34 (France); Guy, L. [ELF Aquitaine Production, 64 - Pau (France); Thiry-Bastien, Ph. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The characterization of structural heterogeneities of reservoirs is of prime importance for hydrocarbons recovery. A methodology is presented which allows to compare the dynamic behaviour of fractured reservoirs and the observation of microstructures on drilled cores or surface reservoir analogues. (J.S.)

  11. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  12. Multiple intersecting cohesive discontinuities in 3D reservoir geomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Das, K. C.; Sandha, S.S.; Carol, Ignacio; Vargas, P.E.; Gonzalez, Nubia Aurora; Rodrigues, E.; Segura Segarra, José María; Lakshmikantha, Ramasesha Mookanahallipatna; Mello,, U.

    2013-01-01

    Reservoir Geomechanics is playing an increasingly important role in developing and producing hydrocarbon reserves. One of the main challenges in reservoir modeling is accurate and efficient simulation of arbitrary intersecting faults. In this paper, we propose a new formulation to model multiple intersecting cohesive discontinuities (faults) in reservoirs using the XFEM framework. This formulation involves construction of enrichment functions and computation of stiffness sub-matrices for bulk...

  13. Review of current results in computational studies of hydrocarbon phase and transport properties in nanoporous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroev, N.; Myasnikov, A.

    2017-12-01

    This article provides a general overview of the main simulation results on the behavior of gas/liquids under confinement conditions, namely hydrocarbons in shale formations, and current understanding of such phenomena. In addition to the key effects, which different research groups obtained and which have to be taken into account during the creation of reservoir simulation software, a list of methods is briefly covered. Comprehensive understanding of both fluid phase equilibrium and transport properties in nanoscale structures is of great importance for many scientific and technical disciplines, especially for petroleum engineering considering the hydrocarbon behavior in complex shale formations, the development of which increases with time. Recent estimations show that a significant amount of resources are trapped inside organic matter and clays, which has extremely low permeability and yet great economic potential. The issue is not only of practical importance, as the existing conventional approaches by definition are unable to capture complicated physics phenomena for effective results, but it is also of fundamental value. The research of the processes connected with such deposits is necessary for both evaluations of petroleum reservoir deposits and hydrodynamic simulators. That is why the review is divided into two major parts—equilibrium states of hydrocarbons and their transport properties in highly confined conditions.

  14. Phase behavior of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon double-chain hydroxylated and galactosylated amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles. Long-term shelf-stability of their liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, L; Gadras, C; Greiner, J; Rolland, J P; Santaella, C; Vierling, P; Gulik, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the morphological characterization, by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and the thermotropic phase behavior, by differential scanning calorimetry and/or X-ray scattering, of aqueous dispersions of various hydroxylated and galactosylated double-chain amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles, several of them containing one or two hydrophobic fluorocarbon chains. Colloidal systems are observed in water with the hydroxylated hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon bolaamphiphiles only when they are dispersed with a co-amphiphile such as rac-1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or rac-1,2-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Liposomes are formed providing the relative content of bolaamphiphiles does not exceed 20% mol. Most of these liposomes can be thermally sterilized and stored at room temperature for several months without any significant modification of their size and size distribution. The hydrocarbon galactosylated bolaamphiphile HO[C24][C12]Gal forms in water a lamellar phase (the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition is complete at 45 degrees C) and a Im3m cubic phase above 47 degrees C. The fluorocarbon HO[C24][F6C5]Gal analog displays a more complex and metastable phase behavior. The fluorinated non-bolaform galactosylated [F8C7][C16]AEGal and SerGal amphiphiles form lamellar phases in water. Low amounts (10% molar ratio) of the HO[C24][F6C5]Gal or HO[C24][C12]Gal bolaamphiphiles or of the single-headed [F8C7][C16]AEGal improve substantially the shelf-stability of reference phospholipon/cholesterol 2/1 liposomes. These liposomes when co-formulated with a single-headed amphiphile from the SerGal series are by far less stable.

  15. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  16. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  17. The Importance of Water-Hydrocarbon Phase Equilibria During Reservoir Production and Drilling Operations Nouveaux défis liés à la présence d'équilibres eau-hydrocarbures lors des opérations de production et de forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The inevitable presence of water in high pressure-high temperature reservoirs leads to a number of new challenges for petroleum engineers. A brief state of the art on water-hydrocarbon phase equilibria is presented. It appears that large amounts of water may be present in the hydrocarbon phase (up to 10% molar, and non negligible amounts of gas can dissolve in water. Based on experimental data, a large number of models have been developed. However, concerning the limitations of the data, caution is expressed about the correctness of some models. Recent studies have proven the usefulness of Henry's constants to predict hydrocarbon solubilities in water. The new challenges that are raised by this problem are discussed based on a number of recent publications. The water present in the hydrocarbon may lead to salt deposits downwell, and it must be taken into account in order to estimate the amount of gas in place. It can also result in modifications of the saturation pressure. Due to the presence of water, additional treatment is needed for pipe transport. On the other hand, the large amount of hydrocarbons dissolved in the water phase may result in a modification of the hydrocarbon composition, especially when reservoir pressure becomes very low. The increased toxicity of the water, containing either H2S or aromatics, can become a real burden for gas reservoirs in contact with aquifers or when disposing of production water. During drilling, large amounts of dissolved gas can become very hazardous, increasing the risk of eruption. A particular attention must be paid to acid gas injection in reservoirs, as the true effect of the injected gas may not be straightforward to predict. In conclusion, in light of the industrial importance of this information, some general guidelines are provided concerning additional data to be gathered and ideas for improving current models. La présence inévitable d'eau dans les réservoirs à hautes pression et temp

  18. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology

  19. Seismic reservoir characterization: how can multicomponent data help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of multicomponent seismology and how it can be applied to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs, illustrated using a 3D three-component real-data example from southwest China. Hydrocarbon reservoirs formed from subtle lithological changes, such as stratigraphic traps, may be delineated from changes in P- and S-wave velocities and impedances, whilst hydrocarbon reservoirs containing aligned fractures are anisotropic. Examination of the resultant split shear waves can give us a better definition of their internal structures. Furthermore, frequency-dependent variations in seismic attributes derived from multicomponent data can provide us with vital information about fluid type and distribution. Current practice and various examples have demonstrated the undoubted potential of multicomponent seismic in reservoir characterization. Despite all this, there are still substantial challenges ahead. In particular, the improvement and interpretation of converted-wave imaging are major hurdles that need to be overcome before multicomponent seismic becomes a mainstream technology.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF FOLD AND FRACTURE DEVELOPMENT ON RESERVOIR BEHAVIOR OF THE LISBURNE GROUP OF NORTHERN ALASKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Michael T. Whalen; Jerry Jensen; Paul K. Atkinson; Joseph S. Brinton

    2000-05-01

    The Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is detachment folded where it is exposed throughout the northeastern Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study are to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding and lithostratigraphy on fracture patterns. (3) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. (4) The influence of lithostratigraphy and deformation on fluid flow. The results of field work during the summer of 1999 offer some preliminary insights: The Lisburne Limestone displays a range of symmetrical detachment fold geometries throughout the northeastern Brooks Range. The variation in fold geometry suggests a generalized progression in fold geometry with increasing shortening: Straight-limbed, narrow-crested folds at low shortening, box folds at intermediate shortening, and folds with a large height-to-width ratio and thickened hinges at high shortening. This sequence is interpreted to represent a progressive change in the dominant shortening mechanism from flexural-slip at low shortening to bulk strain at higher shortening. Structural variations in bed thickness occur throughout this progression. Parasitic folding accommodates structural thickening at low shortening and is gradually succeeded by penetrative strain as shortening increases. The amount of structural thickening at low to intermediate shortening may be inversely related to the local amount of structural thickening of the Kayak Shale, the incompetent unit that underlies the Lisburne. The Lisburne Limestone displays a different structural style in the south, across the boundary between the northeastern Brooks Range and the main axis of the Brooks Range fold

  1. Gelation Behavior Study of a Resorcinol–Hexamethyleneteramine Crosslinked Polymer Gel for Water Shut-Off Treatment in Low Temperature and High Salinity Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mature oilfields usually encounter the problem of high watercut. It is practical to use chemical methods for water-shutoff in production wells, however conventional water-shutoff agents have problems of long gelation time, low gel strength, and poor stability under low temperature and high salinity conditions. In this work a novel polymer gel for low temperature and high salinity reservoirs was developed. This water-shutoff agent had controllable gelation time, adjustable gel strength and good stability performance. The crosslinking process of this polymer gel was studied by rheological experiments. The process could be divided into an induction period, a fast crosslinking period, and a stable period. Its gelation behaviors were investigated in detail. According to the Gel Strength Code (GSC and vacuum breakthrough method, the gel strength was displayed in contour maps. The composition of the polymer gel was optimized to 0.25~0.3% YG100 + 0.6~0.9% resorcinol + 0.2~0.4% hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA + 0.08~0.27% conditioner (oxalic acid. With the concentration increase of the polymer gel and temperature, the decrease of pH, the induction period became shorter and the crosslinking was more efficient, resulting in better stability performance. Various factors of the gelation behavior which have an impact on the crosslinking reaction process were examined. The relationships between each impact factor and the initial crosslinking time were described with mathematical equations.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF FOLD AND FRACTURE DEVELOPMENT ON RESERVOIR BEHAVIOR OF THE LISBURNE GROUP OF NORTHERN ALASKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Jerry Jensen; Michael T. Whalen

    2002-01-01

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is detachment folded where it is exposed throughout the northeastern Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study are to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns. (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow. (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. The Lisburne in the main axis of the Brooks Range is characteristically deformed into imbricate thrust sheets with asymmetrical hanging wall anticlines and footwall synclines. In contrast, the Lisburne in the northeastern Brooks Range is characterized by symmetrical detachment folds. The focus of our 2000 field studies was at the boundary between these structural styles in the vicinity of Porcupine Lake, in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The northern edge of thrust-truncated folds in Lisburne is marked by a local range front that likely represents an eastward continuation of the central Brooks Range front. This is bounded to the north by a gently dipping panel of Lisburne with local asymmetrical folds. The leading edge of the flat panel is thrust over Permian to Cretaceous rocks in a synclinal depression. These younger rocks overlie symmetrically detachment-folded Lisburne, as is extensively exposed to the north. Six partial sections were measured in the Lisburne of the flat panel and local range front. The Lisburne here is about 700 m thick and is interpreted to consist primarily of the Wachsmuth and Alapah Limestones, with only a thin veneer of Wahoo Limestone. The Wachsmuth (200 m) is gradational between the underlying Missippian Kayak Shale and the overlying Mississippian Alapah, and

  3. Atmospheric behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a Japanese remote background site, Noto peninsula, from 2004 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Hakamata, Mariko; Sato, Kousuke; Okada, Yumi; Yang, Xiaoyang; Tatematsu, Michiya; Toriba, Akira; Kameda, Takayuki; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-11-01

    Total suspended particulates were collected at a Japanese remote background site (Noto Air Monitoring Station; NAMS) on the Noto Peninsula from September 2004 to June 2014. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particulates (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The mean total concentrations of the nine PAHs in the cold season (November to May for the years 2004-2014) was 670 pg m-3 (range 37-4100 pg m-3). The mean total concentration in the warm season (June to October for the same period) was 170 pg m-3 (range 31-960 pg m-3). The atmospheric PAH level at NAMS decreased in recent years, although no significant change was found in the warm season. An analysis of meteorological conditions showed that the atmospheric PAHs at NAMS were long range transported from Northeast China in the cold seasons and were contributed to by Japanese domestic sources in the warm seasons. Lower concentration ratios of reactive PAHs to their isomers at NAMS also supported these results. Activities associated with the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2008 and reconstruction after the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake may have contributed to the yearly variations of atmospheric PAH levels at NAMS during the period 2007-2009. Source control measures implemented by the Chinese and Japanese governments appear to have been effective in decreasing the atmospheric PAH levels at NAMS in recent years.

  4. Micro- and macro-scale petrophysical characterization of potential reservoir units from the Northern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruzi, Peleg; Halisch, Matthias; Katsman, Regina; Waldmann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Lower Cretaceous sandstone serves as hydrocarbon reservoir in some places over the world, and potentially in Hatira formation in the Golan Heights, northern Israel. The purpose of the current research is to characterize the petrophysical properties of these sandstone units. The study is carried out by two alternative methods: using conventional macroscopic lab measurements, and using CT-scanning, image processing and subsequent fluid mechanics simulations at a microscale, followed by upscaling to the conventional macroscopic rock parameters (porosity and permeability). Comparison between the upscaled and measured in the lab properties will be conducted. The best way to upscale the microscopic rock characteristics will be analyzed based the models suggested in the literature. Proper characterization of the potential reservoir will provide necessary analytical parameters for the future experimenting and modeling of the macroscopic fluid flow behavior in the Lower Cretaceous sandstone.

  5. An Effective Reservoir Parameter for Seismic Characterization of Organic Shale Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luanxiao; Qin, Xuan; Zhang, Jinqiang; Liu, Xiwu; Han, De-hua; Geng, Jianhua; Xiong, Yineng

    2017-12-01

    Sweet spots identification for unconventional shale reservoirs involves detection of organic-rich zones with abundant porosity. However, commonly used elastic attributes, such as P- and S-impedances, often show poor correlations with porosity and organic matter content separately and thus make the seismic characterization of sweet spots challenging. Based on an extensive analysis of worldwide laboratory database of core measurements, we find that P- and S-impedances exhibit much improved linear correlations with the sum of volume fraction of organic matter and porosity than the single parameter of organic matter volume fraction or porosity. Importantly, from the geological perspective, porosity in conjunction with organic matter content is also directly indicative of the total hydrocarbon content of shale resources plays. Consequently, we propose an effective reservoir parameter (ERP), the sum of volume fraction of organic matter and porosity, to bridge the gap between hydrocarbon accumulation and seismic measurements in organic shale reservoirs. ERP acts as the first-order factor in controlling the elastic properties as well as characterizing the hydrocarbon storage capacity of organic shale reservoirs. We also use rock physics modeling to demonstrate why there exists an improved linear correlation between elastic impedances and ERP. A case study in a shale gas reservoir illustrates that seismic-derived ERP can be effectively used to characterize the total gas content in place, which is also confirmed by the production well.

  6. Normal-phase liquid chromatography retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and their methyl-substituted derivatives on an aminopropyl stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Hayes, Hugh V; Sander, Lane C; Campiglia, Andres D; Wise, Stephen A

    2017-09-01

    Retention indices for 124 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 62 methyl-substituted (Me-) PAHs were determined using normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) on a aminopropyl (NH 2 ) stationary phase. PAH retention behavior on the NH 2 phase is correlated to the total number of aromatic carbons in the PAH structure. Within an isomer group, non-planar isomers generally elute earlier than planar isomers. MePAHs generally elute slightly later but in the same region as the parent PAHs. Correlations between PAH retention behavior on the NH 2 phase and PAH thickness (T) values were investigated to determine the influence of non-planarity for isomeric PAHs with four to seven aromatic rings. Correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.19 (five-ring peri-condensed molecular mass (MM) 252 Da) to r = -0.99 (five-ring cata-condensed MM 278 Da). In the case of the smaller PAHs (MM ≤ 252 Da), most of the PAHs had a planar structure and provided a low correlation. In the case of larger PAHs (MM ≥ 278 Da), nonplanarity had a significant influence on the retention behavior and good correlation between retention and T was obtained for the MM 278 Da, MM 302 Da, MM 328 Da, and MM 378 Da isomer sets. Graphical abstract NPLC separation of the three-, four-, five-, and six-ring PAH isomers with different number of aromatic carbon atoms and degrees of non-planarity (Thickness, T). The inserted figure plots the number of aromatic carbon atoms vs. the log I value for the 124 parent PAHs.

  7. Time-lapse cased hole reservoir evaluation based on the dual-detector neutron lifetime log: the CHES II approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, M.R.; Fertl, W.

    1977-01-01

    A newly developed cased hole analysis technique provides detailed information on (1) reservoir rock properties, such as porosity, shaliness, and formation permeability, (2) reservoir fluid saturation, (3) distinction of oil and gas pays, (4) state of reservoir depletion, such as cumulative hydrocarbon-feet at present time and cumulative hydrocarbon-feet already depleted (e.g., the sum of both values then giving the cumulative hydrocarbon-feet originally present), and (5) monitoring of hydrocarbon/water and gas/oil contacts behind pipe. The basic well log data required for this type of analysis include the Dual-Detector Neutron Lifetime Log, run in casing at any particular time in the life of a reservoir, and the initial open-hole resistivity log. In addition, porosity information from open-hole porosity log(s) or core data is necessary. Field examples from several areas are presented and discussed in the light of formation reservoir and hydrocarbon production characteristics

  8. Study of the impact of the uncertainties in petroleum reservoir behavior; Estudo do impacto de incertezas no desempenho de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loschiavo, Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., SE/AL (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao]. E-mail: rloschiavo@ep-seal.petrobras.com.br; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@cepetro.unicamp.br; Steagall, Daniel Escobar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: steagall@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Economic evaluation of a project as well as facilities design for oil exploitation is, in general, based on production forecasts. Since production forecast depends on several parameters that are not completely known, one should take a probabilistic approach for reservoir modeling and numerical flow simulation. With this research we propose a procedure to estimate probabilistic production forecasts profiles based on the decision tree technique. The most influencing parameters of a reservoir model are identified and combined to generate a number of realizations of the reservoirs. The combination of each branch of the decision tree defines the probability associated to each reservoir model. A computer program was developed to automatically generate the reservoir models, submit them to the numerical simulator, and process the results. Parallel computing was used to improve the performance of the procedure. (author)

  9. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  10. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  11. Effect of reservoir heterogeneity on air injection performance in a light oil reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air injection is a good option to development light oil reservoir. As well-known that, reservoir heterogeneity has great effect for various EOR processes. This also applies to air injection. However, oil recovery mechanisms and physical processes for air injection in heterogeneous reservoir with dip angle are still not well understood. The reported setting of reservoir heterogeneous for physical model or simulation model of air injection only simply uses different-layer permeability of porous media. In practice, reservoir heterogeneity follows the principle of geostatistics. How much of contrast in permeability actually challenges the air injection in light oil reservoir? This should be investigated by using layered porous medial settings of the classical Dykstra-Parsons style. Unfortunately, there has been no work addressing this issue for air injection in light oil reservoir. In this paper, Reservoir heterogeneity is quantified based on the use of different reservoir permeability distribution according to classical Dykstra-Parsons coefficients method. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on physical process and production performance of air injection in light oil reservoir through numerical reservoir simulation approach. The basic model is calibrated based on previous study. Total eleven pseudo compounders are included in this model and ten complexity of reactions are proposed to achieve the reaction scheme. Results show that oil recovery factor is decreased with the increasing of reservoir heterogeneity both for air and N2 injection from updip location, which is against the working behavior of air injection from updip location. Reservoir heterogeneity sometimes can act as positive effect to improve sweep efficiency as well as enhance production performance for air injection. High O2 content air injection can benefit oil recovery factor, also lead to early O2 breakthrough in heterogeneous reservoir. Well

  12. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  13. Estimation of reservoir fluid volumes through 4-D seismic analysis on Gullfaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veire, H.S.; Reymond, S.B.; Signer, C.; Tenneboe, P.O.; Soenneland, L.; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla

    1998-12-31

    4-D seismic has the potential to monitor hydrocarbon movement in reservoirs during production, and could thereby supplement the predictions of reservoir parameters offered by the reservoir simulator. However 4-D seismic is often more band limited than the vertical resolution required in the reservoir model. As a consequence the seismic data holds a composite response from reservoir parameter changes during production so that the inversion becomes non-unique. A procedure where data from the reservoir model are integrated with seismic data will be presented. The potential of such a procedure is demonstrated through a case study from a recent 4-D survey over the Gullfaks field. 2 figs.

  14. Paragenetic evolution of reservoir facies, Middle Triassic Halfway Formation, PeeJay Field, northeastern British Columbia: controls on reservoir quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. L. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Moslow, T. F. [Ulster Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Because of the obvious importance of reservoir quality to reservoir performance, diagenetic controls on reservoir quality of Middle Triassic reservoir facies are investigated by comparing two reservoir lithofacies. The implications of porosity structure on the efficiency of primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery are also assessed. Halfway reservoir facies are composed of bioclastic grainstones (lithofacies G) and litharenites/sublitharenites (lithofacies H), both of which are interpreted as tidal inlet fills. Although paragenetic evolution was similar for the two reservoir facies, subtle differences in reservoir quality are discernible. These are controlled by sedimentary structures, porosity type, grain constituents, and degree of cementation. Reservoir quality in lithofacies G is a function of connectivity of the pore network. In lithofacies H, secondary granular porosity creates a more homogeneous interconnected pore system, wide pore throats and low aspect ratios. The high porosity and low permeability values of the bioclastic grainstones are suspected to cause inefficient flushing of hydrocarbons during waterflooding. However, it is suggested that recovery may be enhanced by induced hydraulic fracturing and acidization of lower permeability calcareous cemented zones. 52 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  16. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  17. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-04-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.

  18. 3D Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher D. White

    2009-12-21

    Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs formed by ancient river deltas. This has implications for the spatial distribution of rock types and the variation of transport properties. A between mudstones and sandstones may form baffles that influence productivity and recovery efficiency. Diagenetic processes such as compaction, dissolution, and cementation can also alter flow properties. A better understanding of these properties and improved methods will allow improved reservoir development planning and increased recovery of oil and gas from deltaic reservoirs. Surface exposures of ancient deltaic rocks provide a high-resolution view of variability. Insights gleaned from these exposures can be used to model analogous reservoirs, for which data is sparser. The Frontier Formation in central Wyoming provides an opportunity for high-resolution models. The same rocks exposed in the Tisdale anticline are productive in nearby oil fields. Kilometers of exposure are accessible, and bedding-plane exposures allow use of high-resolution ground-penetrating radar. This study combined geologic interpretations, maps, vertical sections, core data, and ground-penetrating radar to construct geostatistical and flow models. Strata-conforming grids were use to reproduce the observed geometries. A new Bayesian method integrates outcrop, core, and radar amplitude and phase data. The proposed method propagates measurement uncertainty and yields an ensemble of plausible models for calcite concretions. These concretions affect flow significantly. Models which integrate more have different flow responses from simpler models, as demonstrated an exhaustive two-dimensional reference image and in three dimensions. This method is simple to implement within widely available geostatistics packages. Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs that are inferred to have been formed by ancient river deltas. This geologic setting has implications for the spatial distribution of

  19. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  1. APPLICATION OF WELL LOG ANALYSIS IN ASSESSMENT OF PETROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF WELLS IN THE “OTH” FIELD, ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.  

  2. Frequency–amplitude range of hydrocarbon microtremors and a discussion on their source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerivani, H; Hafezi Moghaddas, N; Ghafoori, M; Lashkaripour, G R; Haghshenas, E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, some studies have suggested using ambient noise as a tool for hydrocarbon reservoir investigation. This new passive seismic technique, named HyMas, is based on the positive energy anomaly in data spectra between 1 to 6 Hz for microtremor measurements over reservoirs, which are called hydrocarbon microtremors. Despite the acceptable results obtained by the HyMas technique, there are many unknowns, especially concerning the source and generation mechanism of hydrocarbon microtremors and the relations between reservoir characteristics and the attributes of hydrocarbon microtremors. In this study we tried to find the relations between reservoir characteristics, including fluid content and depth, for 12 sites around the world with hydrocarbon microtremor attributes, including peak amplitude and frequency. Based on the power spectral density curves of these 12 reservoirs, a frequency–amplitude range is also proposed as a criterion for separating hydrocarbon microtremors from local noise not related to reservoirs. Finally, the source of the hydrocarbon microtremors is discussed and tidal displacement is suggested as a probable agent for the generation of these anomalies. (paper)

  3. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  4. Multi Data Reservoir History Matching using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-05-01

    Reservoir history matching is becoming increasingly important with the growing demand for higher quality formation characterization and forecasting and the increased complexity and expenses for modern hydrocarbon exploration projects. History matching has long been dominated by adjusting reservoir parameters based solely on well data whose spatial sparse sampling has been a challenge for characterizing the flow properties in areas away from the wells. Geophysical data are widely collected nowadays for reservoir monitoring purposes, but has not yet been fully integrated into history matching and forecasting fluid flow. In this thesis, I present a pioneering approach towards incorporating different time-lapse geophysical data together for enhancing reservoir history matching and uncertainty quantification. The thesis provides several approaches to efficiently integrate multiple geophysical data, analyze the sensitivity of the history matches to observation noise, and examine the framework’s performance in several settings, such as the Norne field in Norway. The results demonstrate the significant improvements in reservoir forecasting and characterization and the synergy effects encountered between the different geophysical data. In particular, the joint use of electromagnetic and seismic data improves the accuracy of forecasting fluid properties, and the usage of electromagnetic data has led to considerably better estimates of hydrocarbon fluid components. For volatile oil and gas reservoirs the joint integration of gravimetric and InSAR data has shown to be beneficial in detecting the influx of water and thereby improving the recovery rate. Summarizing, this thesis makes an important contribution towards integrated reservoir management and multiphysics integration for reservoir history matching.

  5. Importance of water Influx and waterflooding in Gas condensate reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Faizan

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of losing valuable liquid and lower gas well deliverability have made gas condensate reservoirs very important and extra emphasizes are made to optimize hydrocarbon recovery from a gas condensate reservoir. Methods like methanol treatments, wettability alteration and hydraulic fracturing are done to restore the well deliverability by removing or by passing the condensate blockage region. The above mentioned methods are applied in the near wellbore region and only improve the w...

  6. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  7. Characterisation of unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Mark Adrian

    1989-01-01

    Metadata merged with duplicate record (http://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/666) on 20.12.2016 by CS (TIS). This is a digitised version of a thesis that was deposited in the University Library. If you are the author please contact PEARL Admin () to discuss options. The hydrocarbons of Recent Polluted.., sediments, in-reservoir and laboratory biodegraded crude oils, and certain petroleum products (e. g. lubricating oils) often display "humps" or Unresolved Complex...

  8. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  9. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  10. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  11. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  12. SILTATION IN RESERVOIRS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: reservoir model, siltation, sediment, catchment, sediment transport. 1. Introduction. Sediment ... rendered water storage structures useless in less than 25 years. ... reservoir, thus reducing the space available for water storage and ...

  13. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  14. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  15. Controlled-Source Electromagnetics for Reservoir Monitoring on Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirianto, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of exploration geophysics is to obtain information about the subsurface that is not directly available from surface geological observations. The results are primarily used for finding potential reservoirs that contain commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. A number of possible

  16. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  17. Petroleum geochemical responses to reservoir rock properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, B.; Larter, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Reservoir geochemistry is used to study petroleum basin development, petroleum mixing, and alterations. In this study, polar non-hydrocarbons were used as proxies for describing reservoir properties sensitive to fluid-rock interactions. A core flood experiment was conducted on a Carboniferous siltstone core obtained from a site in the United Kingdom. Core samples were then obtained from a typical upper shoreface in a North Sea oilfield. The samples were extracted with a dichloromethane and methanol mixture. Alkylcarbazoles and alkylfluorenones were then isolated from the samples. Compositional changes along the core were also investigated. Polar non hydrocarbons were studied using a wireline gamma ray log. The strongest deflections were observed in the basal coarsening upwards unit. The study demonstrated the correlations between molecular markers, and indicated that molecular parameters can be used to differentiate between clean sand units and adjacent coarsening upward muddy sand sequences. It was concluded that reservoir geochemical parameters can provide an independent response to properties defined by petrophysical methods. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  19. Adsorption of polar aromatic hydrocarbons on synthetic calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene; Grahl-Madsen, Laila; Grøn, Christian

    1996-01-01

    The wettability of hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. A model system of synthetic call cite, cyclohexane and the three probe molecules: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine, have been...

  20. Analytical determination of low velocity layer in 4-D hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, Seismic reflection surveys are done in the oil sectors to determine commercially viable hydrocarbon reservoirs but in most cases reflection records are obscured by wave behaviours in weathering layer. Hence, Up-hole refraction surveys are carried out in 3-D and 4-D prospects with a view to delineating the ...

  1. Modelling of Salt Solubilities for Smart Water flooding in Carbonate Reservoirs using Extended UNIQUAC Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara

    recovery can increase that capture up to 25-30% of original oil in place (OOIP). But cost effective Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques if implemented correctly canbe used to produce another 10-15% of the initially available hydrocarbons. Advanced water flooding (i.e. altering injection brine...... compositions by varying concentration of selected ions) is an enhanced oil recovery method which in alow cost, non-toxic manner increases oil recovery from various carbonate reservoirs. Dan and Halfdan are chalk reservoirs from the Danish North Sea, which are matured oil fields that have been flooded......For most oil reservoirs which were drilled with conventional methods, the expected initial recovery of available hydrocarbons maybe as low as 15% – thusleaving 85+% of hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Implementation of mechanical methods including pump jacks and initial gas injection or thermal...

  2. Use of natural geochemical tracers to improve reservoir simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseby, O.; Chatzichristos, C.; Sagen, J.; Muller, J.; Kleven, R.; Bennett, B.; Larter, S.; Stubos, A.K.; Adler, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces a methodology for integrating geochemical data in reservoir simulations to improve hydrocarbon reservoir models. The method exploits routine measurements of naturally existing inorganic ion concentration in hydrocarbon reservoir production wells, and uses the ions as non-partitioning water tracers. The methodology is demonstrated on a North Sea field case, using the field's reservoir model, together with geochemical information (SO{sub 4}{sup 2}, Mg{sup 2+} K{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -} concentrations) from the field's producers. From the data-set we show that some of the ions behave almost as ideal sea-water tracers, i.e. without sorption to the matrix, ion-exchange with the matrix or scale-formation with other ions in the formation water. Moreover, the dataset shows that ion concentrations in pure formation-water vary according to formation. This information can be used to allocate produced water to specific water-producing zones in commingled production. Based on an evaluation of the applicability of the available data, one inorganic component, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}, is used as a natural seawater tracer. Introducing SO{sub 4}{sup 2} as a natural tracer in a tracer simulation has revealed a potential for improvements of the reservoir model. By tracking the injected seawater it was possible to identify underestimated fault lengths in the reservoir model. The demonstration confirms that geochemical data are valuable additional information for reservoir characterization, and shows that integration of geochemical data into reservoir simulation procedures can improve reservoir simulation models. (author)

  3. Conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons over conventional and mesoporous H-ZSM-5 and H-Ga-MFI: Major differences in deactivation behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie; Højholt, Karen Thrane; Holm, Martin Spangsberg

    2012-01-01

    . In the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) process, H-ZSM-5 is subjected to coke formation leading to catalyst deactivation. Here we show that when the gallium containing zeotypes are employed in the MTH process, only insignificant amounts of coke are present in the deactivated catalysts, indicating distinct...... (hydrolysis) of the Ga&sbnd;O bonds in the zeolite structure rather than coke deposition....

  4. Fortescue reservoir development and reservoir studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzell, S.T.; Hicks, G.J.; Horden, M.J.; Irrgang, H.R.; Janssen, E.J.; Kable, C.W.; Mitchell, R.A.H.; Morrell, N.W.; Palmer, I.D.; Seage, N.W.

    1985-03-01

    The Fortescue field in the Gippsland Basin, offshore southeastern Australia is being developed from two platforms (Fortescue A and Cobia A) by Esso Australia Ltd. (operator) and BHP Petroleum. The Fortescue reservoir is a stratigraphic trap at the top of the Latrobe Group of sediments. It overlies the western flank of the Halibut and Cobia fields and is separated from them by a non-net sequence of shales and coals which form a hydraulic barrier between the two systems. Development drilling into the Fortescue reservoir commenced in April 1983 with production coming onstream in May 1983. Fortescue, with booked reserves of 44 stock tank gigalitres (280 million stock tank barrels) of 43/sup 0/ API oil, is the seventh major oil reservoir to be developed in the offshore Gippsland Basin by Esso/BHP. In mid-1984, after drilling a total of 20 exploration and development wells, and after approximately one year of production, a detailed three-dimensional, two-phase reservoir simulation study was performed to examine the recovery efficiency, drainage patterns, pressure performance and production rate potential of the reservoir. The model was validated by history matching an extensive suite of Repeat Formation Test (RFT) pressure data. The results confirmed the reserves basis, and demonstrated that the ultimate oil recovery from the reservoir is not sensitive to production rate. This result is consistent with studies on other high quality Latrobe Group reservoirs in the Gippsland Basin which contain undersaturated crudes and receive very strong water drive from the Basin-wide aquifer system. With the development of the simulation model during the development phase, it has been possible to more accurately define the optimal well pattern for the remainder of the development.

  5. Hydrodynamic modeling of petroleum reservoirs using simulator MUFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    MUFITS is new noncommercial software for numerical modeling of subsurface processes in various applications (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). To this point, the simulator was used for modeling nonisothermal flows in geothermal reservoirs and for modeling underground carbon dioxide storage. In this work, we present recent extension of the code to petroleum reservoirs. The simulator can be applied in conventional black oil modeling, but it also utilizes a more complicated models for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs as well as for oil rim fields. We give a brief overview of the code by providing the description of internal representation of reservoir models, which are constructed of grid blocks, interfaces, stock tanks as well as of pipe segments and pipe junctions for modeling wells and surface networks. For conventional black oil approach, we present the simulation results for SPE comparative tests. We propose an accelerated compositional modeling method for sub- and supercritical flows subjected to various phase equilibria, particularly to three-phase equilibria of vapour-liquid-liquid type. The method is based on the calculation of the thermodynamic potential of reservoir fluid as a function of pressure, total enthalpy and total composition and storing its values as a spline table, which is used in hydrodynamic simulation for accelerated PVT properties prediction. We provide the description of both the spline calculation procedure and the flashing algorithm. We evaluate the thermodynamic potential for a mixture of two pseudo-components modeling the heavy and light hydrocarbon fractions. We develop a technique for converting black oil PVT tables to the potential, which can be used for in-situ hydrocarbons multiphase equilibria prediction under sub- and supercritical conditions, particularly, in gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs. We simulate recovery from a reservoir subject to near-critical initial conditions for hydrocarbon mixture. We acknowledge

  6. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  7. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  8. Mathematical and field analysis of longitudinal reservoir infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, W. T.; Capart, H.

    2016-12-01

    In reservoirs, severe problems are caused by infilled sediment deposits. In long term, the sediment accumulation reduces the capacity of reservoir storage and flood control benefits. In the short term, the sediment deposits influence the intakes of water-supply and hydroelectricity generation. For the management of reservoir, it is important to understand the deposition process and then to predict the sedimentation in reservoir. To investigate the behaviors of sediment deposits, we propose a one-dimensional simplified theory derived by the Exner equation to predict the longitudinal sedimentation distribution in idealized reservoirs. The theory models the reservoir infill geomorphic actions for three scenarios: delta progradation, near-dam bottom deposition, and final infill. These yield three kinds of self-similar analytical solutions for the reservoir bed profiles, under different boundary conditions. Three analytical solutions are composed by error function, complementary error function, and imaginary error function, respectively. The theory is also computed by finite volume method to test the analytical solutions. The theoretical and numerical predictions are in good agreement with one-dimensional small-scale laboratory experiment. As the theory is simple to apply with analytical solutions and numerical computation, we propose some applications to simulate the long-profile evolution of field reservoirs and focus on the infill sediment deposit volume resulting the uplift of near-dam bottom elevation. These field reservoirs introduced here are Wushe Reservoir, Tsengwen Reservoir, Mudan Reservoir in Taiwan, Lago Dos Bocas in Puerto Rico, and Sakuma Dam in Japan.

  9. Radar Mapping of Fractures and Fluids in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, L. G.; Wattley, G. G.; Caffey, T. W.

    2001-05-01

    A stepped-frequency radar has been developed for mapping of fractures and fluids within 20 meters of the wellbore. The operating range has been achieved by using a radiating magnetic dipole operating in the low- and medium-frequency bands. Jim Wait has shown that the electromagnetic (EM) wave impedance in an electrically conductive media is largely imaginary, enabling energy to be stored in the near field instead of dissipated, as in the case for an electric dipole. This fact, combined with the low attenuation rate of a low-frequency band EM wave, enables radiation to penetrate deeply into the geology surrounding the wellbore. The radiation pattern features a vertical electric field for optimum electric current induction into vertical fractures. Current is also induced in sedimentary rock creating secondary waves that propagate back to the wellbore. The radiation pattern is electrically driven in azimuth around the wellbore. The receiving antenna is located in the null field of the radiating antenna so that the primary wave is below the thermal noise of the receiver input. By stepping the frequency through the low- and medium-frequency bands, the depth of investigation is varied, and enables electrical conductivity profiling away from the wellbore. Interpretation software has been developed for reconstructive imaging in dipping sedimentary layers. Because electrical conductivity can be related to oil/water saturation, both fractures and fluids can be mapped. Modeling suggests that swarms of fractures can be imaged and fluid type determined. This information will be useful in smart fracking and sealing. Conductivity tomography images will indicate bed dip, oil/water saturation, and map fluids. This paper will provide an overview of the technology development program.

  10. The role of fluid migration system in hydrocarbon accumulation in Maichen Sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Jinxiu; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid migration system is of great significance for hydrocarbon accumulation, including the primary migration and secondary migration. In this paper, the fluid migration system is analysed in Maichen Sag using seismic, well logging and core data. Results show that many factors control the hydrocarbon migration process, including hydrocarbon generation and expulsion period from source rocks, microfractures developed in the source rocks, the connected permeable sand bodies, the vertical faults cutting into/through the source rocks and related fault activity period. The spatial and temporal combination of these factors formed an effective network for hydrocarbon expulsion and accumulation, leading to the hydrocarbon reservoir distribution at present. Generally, a better understanding of the hydrocarbon migration system can explain the present status of hydrocarbon distribution, and help select future target zones for oil and gas exploration.

  11. Constructing reservoir-scale 3D geomechanical FE-models. A refined workflow for model generation and calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K.; Henk, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    2013-08-01

    The tectonic stress field strongly affects the optimal exploitation of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Amongst others, wellbore stability, orientation of hydraulically induced fractures and - particularly in fractured reservoirs - permeability anisotropies depend on the magnitudes and orientations of the recent stresses. Geomechanical reservoir models can provide unique insights into the tectonic stress field revealing the local perturbations resulting from faults and lithological changes. In order to provide robust predictions, such numerical models are based on the finite element (FE) method and account for the complexities of real reservoirs with respect to subsurface geometry, inhomogeneous material distribution and nonlinear rock mechanical behavior. We present a refined workflow for geomechanical reservoir modeling which allows for an easier set-up of the model geometry, high resolution submodels and faster calculation times due to element savings in the load frame. Transferring the reservoir geometry from the geological subsurface model, e.g., a Petrel {sup registered} project, to the FE model represents a special challenge as the faults are discontinuities in the numerical model and no direct interface exists between the two software packages used. Point clouds displaying faults and lithostratigraphic horizons can be used for geometry transfer but this labor-intensive approach is not feasible for complex field-scale models with numerous faults. Instead, so-called Coon's patches based on horizon lines, i.e. the intersection lines between horizons and faults, are well suited to re-generate the various surfaces in the FE software while maintaining their topology. High-resolution submodels of individual fault blocks can be incorporated into the field-scale model. This allows to consider both a locally refined mechanical stratigraphy and the impact of the large-scale fault pattern. A pressure load on top of the model represents the

  12. Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation due to Carbon Dioxide-Water-Rock Interactions: The Significance of Accessory Minerals in Carbonate Reservoirs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Marcon, V.; Chopping, C.

    2013-12-01

    Accessory minerals in carbonate reservoirs, and in the caprocks that seal these reservoirs, can provide insight into multiphase fluid (CO2 + H2O)-rock interactions and the behavior of CO2 that resides in these water-rock systems. Our program integrates field data, hydrothermal experiments, and geochemical modeling to evaluate CO2-water-rock reactions and processes in a variety of carbonate reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region of the US. These studies provide insights into a wide range of geologic environments, including natural CO2 reservoirs, geologic carbon sequestration, engineered geothermal systems, enhanced oil and gas recovery, and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. One suite of experiments evaluates the Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, Southwest Wyoming, a sulfur-rich natural CO2 reservoir. Mineral textures and geochemical features developed in the experiments suggest that carbonate minerals which constitute the natural reservoir will initially dissolve in response to emplacement of CO2. Euhedral, bladed anhydrite concomitantly precipitates in response to injected CO2. Analogous anhydrite is observed in drill core, suggesting that secondary anhydrite in the natural reservoir may be related to emplacement of CO2 into the Madison Limestone. Carbonate minerals ultimately re-precipitate, and anhydrite dissolves, as the rock buffers the acidity and reasserts geochemical control. Another suite of experiments emulates injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the Desert Creek Limestone (Paradox Formation), Paradox Basin, Southeast Utah. Euhedral iron oxyhydroxides (hematite) precipitate at pH 4.5 to 5 and low Eh (approximately -0.1 V) as a consequence of water-rock reaction. Injection of CO2 decreases pH to approximately 3.5 and increases Eh by approximately 0.1 V, yielding secondary mineralization of euhedral pyrite instead of iron oxyhydroxides. Carbonate minerals also dissolve and ultimately re-precipitate, as determined by experiments in the

  13. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  15. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  16. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  17. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    impact on the growth of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  18. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Determination of the vertical distribution and areal of the composition in volatile oil and/or gas condensate reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Santos, Nicolas; Ortiz Cancino, Olga Patricia; Barrios Ortiz, Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The compositional variation in vertical and areal direction due to gravitational and thermal effects plays an important role in the determination of the original reserves in-situ and in the selection of the operation scheme for volatile oil and/or gas condensate reservoirs. In this work we presented the mathematical formulation of the thermodynamic behavior experienced by compositional fluids, such as volatile oil and/or gas condensate, under the influence of the mentioned effects (gravitational and thermal), which was implemented in a software tool, this tool determine the compositional variation in vertical direction and, in addition, it allows to know the saturation pressure variation in the hydrocarbon column and the location of the gas-oil contact. With the obtained results, product of the use of this tool, was developed a methodology to obtain one first approach of the compositional variation in areal direction to obtain compositional spatial distribution (iso composition maps) in the reservoir, for components like the methane, which experiences the greater variations. These iso composition maps allow to determine the location of the hydrocarbon deposits, in such a way that the production strategies can be selected and be applied to maximize the recovery, such as in fill wells, perforation of new zones, EOR processes, etc

  20. A Percolation Study of Wettability Effect on the Electrical Properties of Reservoir Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dengen; Arbabi, Sepehr; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistivity of oil reservoirs are commonly used to estimate other properties of reservoirs, such as porosity and hydrocarbon reserves. However, the interpretation of the measurements is based on empirical correlations, because the underlying mechanisms that control...... the electrical properties of oil bearing rocks have not been well understood. In this paper, we employ percolation concepts to investigate the effect of wettability on the electrical conductivity of a reservoir formation. A three-dimensional simple cubic network is used to represent an ideal reservoir formation...

  1. Integrating gravimetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for enhancing reservoir history matching of carbonate gas and volatile oil reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-08-25

    Reservoir history matching is assuming a critical role in understanding reservoir characteristics, tracking water fronts, and forecasting production. While production data have been incorporated for matching reservoir production levels and estimating critical reservoir parameters, the sparse spatial nature of this dataset limits the efficiency of the history matching process. Recently, gravimetry techniques have significantly advanced to the point of providing measurement accuracy in the microgal range and consequently can be used for the tracking of gas displacement caused by water influx. While gravity measurements provide information on subsurface density changes, i.e., the composition of the reservoir, these data do only yield marginal information about temporal displacements of oil and inflowing water. We propose to complement gravimetric data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation data to exploit the strong pressure deformation relationship for enhancing fluid flow direction forecasts. We have developed an ensemble Kalman-filter-based history matching framework for gas, gas condensate, and volatile oil reservoirs, which synergizes time-lapse gravity and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for improved reservoir management and reservoir forecasts. Based on a dual state-parameter estimation algorithm separating the estimation of static reservoir parameters from the dynamic reservoir parameters, our numerical experiments demonstrate that history matching gravity measurements allow monitoring the density changes caused by oil-gas phase transition and water influx to determine the saturation levels, whereas the interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements help to improve the forecasts of hydrocarbon production and water displacement directions. The reservoir estimates resulting from the dual filtering scheme are on average 20%-40% better than those from the joint estimation scheme, but require about a 30% increase in

  2. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1978-06-01

    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  3. Application of artificial intelligence to forecast hydrocarbon production from shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Panja

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI methods and applications have recently gained a great deal of attention in many areas, including fields of mathematics, neuroscience, economics, engineering, linguistics, gaming, and many others. This is due to the surge of innovative and sophisticated AI techniques applications to highly complex problems as well as the powerful new developments in high speed computing. Various applications of AI in everyday life include machine learning, pattern recognition, robotics, data processing and analysis, etc. The oil and gas industry is not behind either, in fact, AI techniques have recently been applied to estimate PVT properties, optimize production, predict recoverable hydrocarbons, optimize well placement using pattern recognition, optimize hydraulic fracture design, and to aid in reservoir characterization efforts. In this study, three different AI models are trained and used to forecast hydrocarbon production from hydraulically fractured wells. Two vastly used artificial intelligence methods, namely the Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, are compared to a traditional curve fitting method known as Response Surface Model (RSM using second order polynomial equations to determine production from shales. The objective of this work is to further explore the potential of AI in the oil and gas industry. Eight parameters are considered as input factors to build the model: reservoir permeability, initial dissolved gas-oil ratio, rock compressibility, gas relative permeability, slope of gas oil ratio, initial reservoir pressure, flowing bottom hole pressure, and hydraulic fracture spacing. The range of values used for these parameters resemble real field scenarios from prolific shale plays such as the Eagle Ford, Bakken, and the Niobrara in the United States. Production data consists of oil recovery factor and produced gas-oil ratio (GOR generated from a generic hydraulically

  4. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  5. Seismic response of concrete gravity dams with finite reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumber, T.; Ghobarah, A.

    1992-01-01

    In most previous analyses of dam responses to earthquake ground motion, the upstream reservoir is assumed to be infinite in length and completely straight. The meandering nature of the river system, however, results in the creation of a finite length reservoir upstream of the dam structure. A study was carried out to examine the effects of the finite length of the reservoir on the dynamic behavior of the monolith. The effect of excitation of the far end of the boundary on the monolith's response is also of interest. The dam-foundation-reservoir system is modelled using a sub-structuring approach. The analysis is conducted in the frequency domain and utilizes the finite element technique. The water in the reservoir is assumed to be compressible, inviscid, and irrotational. The upstream reservoir is assumed to have a rectangular cross-section. It was found that the finite length reservoir assumption results in supplementary response peaks in the monolith's response. The finite reservoir length allows the reservoir to resonate both in horizontal and vertical directions. The magnitude and spacing of these supplementary response peaks are dependent on the length of the reservoir. The phase of the ground motion which affects the far end boundary of the reservoir was also found to have a significant effect on the dam monolith's response. 8 refs., 5 figs

  6. Optimized CO{sub 2} miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Fyten, G.; Attaway, D.; Watkins, H. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Loree, D. [FracEx Inc. (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids address issues of fluid retention in low-permeability gas reservoirs, including undersaturated and underpressured reservoirs. An optimized surfactant gel technology using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrocarbon fracturing fluids applicable to all gas-well stimulation applications was discussed in this paper. The crosslinked surfactant gel technology improved proppant transport, leakoff control, and generation of effective fracture half-length. Tests indicated that application of the surfactant cooled the fracture face, which had the effect of extending break times and increasing viscosity during pumping periods. Rapid recovery of the fracturing fluid eliminated the need for swabbing in some cases, and the fluid system was not adversely affected by shear. However, rheological test equipment capable of mixing liquid CO{sub 2} and viscosified hydrocarbons at downhole temperatures is required to determine rheology and required chemical concentrations. It was recommended that to achieve an effective methane-drive cleanup mechanism, treatments should be designed so that the gellant system can be effective with up to 50 per cent CO{sub 2} dissolved in oil. It was concluded that it should be possible to apply the technology to low permeability gas reservoirs. Viscosity curves and friction data were presented. Issues concerning the selection of tubulars and flowback procedures were also discussed. It was suggested that the cost of the hydrocarbon fracturing fluid can be recovered by the sale of recovered load fluid. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  8. Relative influence of deposition and diagenesis on carbonate reservoir layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, Emmanuelle [Total E and P, Courbevoie (France); Javaux, Catherine [Total E and P, Pointe Noire (Congo)

    2008-07-01

    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  9. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  10. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    2005-01-01

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  11. Prediction of reservoir compaction and surface subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.A.; Smits, R.M.M.

    1988-06-01

    A new loading-rate-dependent compaction model for unconsolidated clastic reservoirs is presented that considerably improves the accuracy of predicting reservoir rock compaction and surface subsidence resulting from pressure depletion in oil and gas fields. The model has been developed on the basis of extensive laboratory studies and can be derived from a theory relating compaction to time-dependent intergranular friction. The procedure for calculating reservoir compaction from laboratory measurements with the new model is outlined. Both field and laboratory compaction behaviors appear to be described by one single normalized, nonlinear compaction curve. With the new model, the large discrepancies usually observed between predictions based on linear compaction models and actual (nonlinear) field behavior can be explained.

  12. Entanglement backflow under the composite effect of two non-Markovian reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun-Gang; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The entanglement backflow of two qubits coupled to two independent reservoirs is investigated. It is found that under the collective effects of the two independent reservoirs, the entanglement backflow of the qubits does not always increase with the increase of the non-Markovianity of one of the reservoirs but demonstrates an intricate behavior. Interestingly, the action of one reservoir can affect the other reservoir's contribution to the entanglement backflow even when the two reservoirs are independent. -- Highlights: ► We study entanglement backflow of two qubits coupled to two independent reservoirs. ► We find that the entanglement backflow demonstrates an intricate behavior. ► The action of one reservoir can affect the contribution of the other reservoir.

  13. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...

  14. Integration of Seismic and Petrophysics to Characterize Reservoirs in “ALA” Oil Field, Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on “ALA” field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of −2,453 to −3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  15. Integration of seismic and petrophysics to characterize reservoirs in "ALA" oil field, Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, P A; Olabode, S O; Opeloye, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the exploration and production business, by far the largest component of geophysical spending is driven by the need to characterize (potential) reservoirs. The simple reason is that better reservoir characterization means higher success rates and fewer wells for reservoir exploitation. In this research work, seismic and well log data were integrated in characterizing the reservoirs on "ALA" field in Niger Delta. Three-dimensional seismic data was used to identify the faults and map the horizons. Petrophysical parameters and time-depth structure maps were obtained. Seismic attributes was also employed in characterizing the reservoirs. Seven hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs with thickness ranging from 9.9 to 71.6 m were delineated. Structural maps of horizons in six wells containing hydrocarbon-bearing zones with tops and bottoms at range of -2,453 to -3,950 m were generated; this portrayed the trapping mechanism to be mainly fault-assisted anticlinal closures. The identified prospective zones have good porosity, permeability, and hydrocarbon saturation. The environments of deposition were identified from log shapes which indicate a transitional-to-deltaic depositional environment. In this research work, new prospects have been recommended for drilling and further research work. Geochemical and biostratigraphic studies should be done to better characterize the reservoirs and reliably interpret the depositional environments.

  16. Structural segregation of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon regions in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, K.M.; Huseynov, A.N.; Hajiyev, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Structural segregation allows identify the earth crust blocks according to their geological setting and structural history conductive for hydrocarbon generation and their entrapment in the sedimentary fill reservoirs. Since then there has been a need to design a new tectonic map of petroleum and hydrocarbons potential systems in Azerbaijan embracing both on- and offshore areas. Map's legend designed upon above mentioned concepts and principles has made it possible to evaluate the role of individual stratigraphic units in hydrocarbon generation and its entrapment, as well as in recognition of regional structural criteria of the hydrocarbon bearing potential of different structural patterns. Tectonic map of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon bearing on and offshore areas in Azerbaijan for the first time contained a wide range of information related to structural criteria of hydrocarbon bearing potential, sedimentary fill's structural architecture, its thickness, both timing of their formation stages and basement consolidation, its subsidence depth, as well as hydrocarbon deposit areal and vertical distribution across individual regions. This map was considered to be of important implication both for the petroleum geoscience and petroleum industry endeavors.

  17. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  18. Gasbuggy reservoir evaluation - 1969 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, C.H.; Ward, Don C.; Lemon, R.F.

    1970-01-01

    The December 10, 1967, Project Gasbuggy nuclear detonation followed the drilling and testing of two exploratory wells which confirmed reservoir characteristics and suitability of the site. Reentry and gas production testing of the explosive emplacement hole indicated a collapse chimney about 150 feet in diameter extending from the 4,240-foot detonation depth to about 3,900 feet, the top of the 300-foot-thick Pictured Cliffs gas sand. Production tests of the chimney well in the summer of 1968 and during the last 12 months have resulted in a cumulative production of 213 million cubic feet of hydrocarbons, and gas recovery in 20 years is estimated to be 900 million cubic feet, which would be an increase by a factor of at least 5 over estimated recovery from conventional field wells in this low permeability area. At the end of production tests the flow rate was 160,000 cubic feet per day, which is 6 to 7 times that of an average field well in the area. Data from reentry of a pre-shot test well and a new postshot well at distances from the detonation of 300 and 250 feet, respectively, indicate low productivity and consequently low permeability in any fractures at these locations. (author)

  19. Gasbuggy reservoir evaluation - 1969 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H; Ward, Don C [Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior (United States); Lemon, R F [El Paso Natural Gas Company (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The December 10, 1967, Project Gasbuggy nuclear detonation followed the drilling and testing of two exploratory wells which confirmed reservoir characteristics and suitability of the site. Reentry and gas production testing of the explosive emplacement hole indicated a collapse chimney about 150 feet in diameter extending from the 4,240-foot detonation depth to about 3,900 feet, the top of the 300-foot-thick Pictured Cliffs gas sand. Production tests of the chimney well in the summer of 1968 and during the last 12 months have resulted in a cumulative production of 213 million cubic feet of hydrocarbons, and gas recovery in 20 years is estimated to be 900 million cubic feet, which would be an increase by a factor of at least 5 over estimated recovery from conventional field wells in this low permeability area. At the end of production tests the flow rate was 160,000 cubic feet per day, which is 6 to 7 times that of an average field well in the area. Data from reentry of a pre-shot test well and a new postshot well at distances from the detonation of 300 and 250 feet, respectively, indicate low productivity and consequently low permeability in any fractures at these locations. (author)

  20. Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassi, Haitham Tayseer

    2008-09-15

    Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be

  1. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  2. Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Hurwitz, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    When it comes to forecasting eruptions, volcano observatories rely mostly on real-time signals from earthquakes, ground deformation, and gas discharge, combined with probabilistic assessments based on past behavior [Sparks and Cashman, 2017]. There is comparatively less reliance on geophysical and petrological understanding of subsurface magma reservoirs.

  3. An Analytical Model for Assessing Stability of Pre-Existing Faults in Caprock Caused by Fluid Injection and Extraction in a Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Bai, Bing; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Mingze; Wu, Haiqing; Hu, Shaobin

    2016-07-01

    Induced seismicity and fault reactivation associated with fluid injection and depletion were reported in hydrocarbon, geothermal, and waste fluid injection fields worldwide. Here, we establish an analytical model to assess fault reactivation surrounding a reservoir during fluid injection and extraction that considers the stress concentrations at the fault tips and the effects of fault length. In this model, induced stress analysis in a full-space under the plane strain condition is implemented based on Eshelby's theory of inclusions in terms of a homogeneous, isotropic, and poroelastic medium. The stress intensity factor concept in linear elastic fracture mechanics is adopted as an instability criterion for pre-existing faults in surrounding rocks. To characterize the fault reactivation caused by fluid injection and extraction, we define a new index, the "fault reactivation factor" η, which can be interpreted as an index of fault stability in response to fluid pressure changes per unit within a reservoir resulting from injection or extraction. The critical fluid pressure change within a reservoir is also determined by the superposition principle using the in situ stress surrounding a fault. Our parameter sensitivity analyses show that the fault reactivation tendency is strongly sensitive to fault location, fault length, fault dip angle, and Poisson's ratio of the surrounding rock. Our case study demonstrates that the proposed model focuses on the mechanical behavior of the whole fault, unlike the conventional methodologies. The proposed method can be applied to engineering cases related to injection and depletion within a reservoir owing to its efficient computational codes implementation.

  4. Earthquakes and depleted gas reservoirs: which comes first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Donda, F.; Valensise, G.

    2015-10-01

    While scientists are paying increasing attention to the seismicity potentially induced by hydrocarbon exploitation, so far, little is known about the reverse problem, i.e. the impact of active faulting and earthquakes on hydrocarbon reservoirs. The 20 and 29 May 2012 earthquakes in Emilia, northern Italy (Mw 6.1 and 6.0), raised concerns among the public for being possibly human-induced, but also shed light on the possible use of gas wells as a marker of the seismogenic potential of an active fold and thrust belt. We compared the location, depth and production history of 455 gas wells drilled along the Ferrara-Romagna arc, a large hydrocarbon reserve in the southeastern Po Plain (northern Italy), with the location of the inferred surface projection of the causative faults of the 2012 Emilia earthquakes and of two pre-instrumental damaging earthquakes. We found that these earthquake sources fall within a cluster of sterile wells, surrounded by productive wells at a few kilometres' distance. Since the geology of the productive and sterile areas is quite similar, we suggest that past earthquakes caused the loss of all natural gas from the potential reservoirs lying above their causative faults. To validate our hypothesis we performed two different statistical tests (binomial and Monte Carlo) on the relative distribution of productive and sterile wells, with respect to seismogenic faults. Our findings have important practical implications: (1) they may allow major seismogenic sources to be singled out within large active thrust systems; (2) they suggest that reservoirs hosted in smaller anticlines are more likely to be intact; and (3) they also suggest that in order to minimize the hazard of triggering significant earthquakes, all new gas storage facilities should use exploited reservoirs rather than sterile hydrocarbon traps or aquifers.

  5. Naturally fractured reservoirs-yet an unsolved mystery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world's most profitable reservoirs are assumed to be naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR). Effective evaluation, prediction and planning of these reservoirs require an early recognition of the role of natural fractures and then a comprehensive study of factors which affect the flowing performance through these fractures is necessary. As NFRs are the combination of matrix and fractures mediums so their analysis varies from non-fractured reservoirs. Matrix acts as a storage medium while mostly fluid flow takes place from fracture network. Many authors adopted different approaches to understand the flow behavior in such reservoirs. In this paper a broad review about the previous work done in naturally fractured reservoirs area is outlined and a different idea is initiated for the NFR simulation studies. The role of capillary pressure in natural fractures is always been a key factor for accurate recovery estimations. Also recovery through these reservoirs is dependent upon grid block shape while doing NFR simulation. Some authors studied above mentioned factors in combination with other rock properties to understand the flow behavior in such reservoirs but less emphasis was given for checking the effects on recovery estimations by the variations of only fracture capillary pressures and grid block shapes. So there is need to analyze the behavior of NFR for the mentioned conditions. (author)

  6. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    then compared to theoretical Umiat composition derived using the Pedersen method with original Umiat fluid properties published in the original reports. This comparison allowed estimation of the ‘lost’ light hydrocarbon fractions. An Umiat 'dead' oil sample then could be physically created by adding the lost light ends to the weatherized Umiat dead oil sample. This recreated sample was recombined with solution gas to create a 'pseudo-live' Umiat oil sample which was then used for experimental PVT and phase behavior studies to determine fluid properties over the range of reservoir pressures and temperatures. The phase behavior of the ‘pseudo-live’ oil was also simulated using the Peng- Robinson equations of state (EOS). The EOS model was tuned with measured experimental data to accurately simulate the differential liberation tests in order to obtain the necessary data for reservoir simulation studies, including bubble point pressure and oil viscosity. The bubble point pressure of the reconstructed Umiat oil is 345 psi, suggesting that maintenance of reservoir pressures above that pressure will be important for the any proposed production technique. A major part of predicting how the Umiat reservoir will perform is determining the relative permeability of oil in the presence of ice. Early in the project, UAF work on samples of the Umiat reservoir indicated that there is a significant reduction in the relatively permeability of oil in the presence of ice. However, it was not clear as to why this reduction occurred or where the ice resided. To explore this further, additional experimental and theoretical work was conducted. Core flood experiments were performed on two clean Berea sandstone cores under permafrost conditions to determine the relative permeability to oil (kro) over a temperature range of 23ºC to - 10ºC and for a range of connate water salinities. Both cores showed maximum reduction in relative permeability to oil when saturated

  7. Exploration and reservoir characterization; Technology Target Areas; TTA2 - Exploration and reservoir characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    In future, research within exploration and reservoir characterization will play an even more important role for Norway since resources are decreasing and new challenges like deep sea, harsh environment and last but not least environmental issues have to be considered. There are two major fields which have to be addressed within exploration and reservoir characterization: First, replacement of reserves by new discoveries and ultimate field recoveries in mature basins at the Norwegian Continental shelf, e.g. at the Halten Terrace has to be addressed. A wealth of data exists in the more mature areas. Interdisciplinary integration is a key feature of reservoir characterization, where available data and specialist knowledge need to be combined into a consistent reservoir description. A systematic approach for handling both uncertainties in data sources and uncertainties in basic models is needed. Fast simulation techniques are necessary to generate models spanning the event space, covering both underground based and model-based uncertainties. Second, exploration in frontier areas like the Barents Sea region and the deeper Voering Basin has to be addressed. The scarcity of wells in these frontier areas leads to uncertainties in the geological understanding. Basin- and depositional modelling are essential for predicting where source rocks and reservoir rocks are deposited, and if, when and which hydrocarbons are generated and trapped. Predictive models and improved process understanding is therefore crucial to meet these issues. Especially the challenges related to the salt deposits e.g. sub-salt/sub-basalt reservoir definitions in the Nordkapp Basin demands up-front research and technology developments. TTA2 stresses the need to focus on the development of new talents. We also see a strong need to push cooperation as far as possible in the present competitive environment. Projects that may require a substantial financial commitment have been identified. The following

  8. Reservoir Characterization of the Lower Green River Formation, Southwest Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; McClure, Kevin P.; Bereskin, S. Robert; Deo, Milind D.

    2002-12-02

    The objectives of the study were to increase both primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery through improved characterization (at the regional, unit, interwell, well, and microscopic scale) of fluvial-deltaic lacustrine reservoirs, thereby preventing premature abandonment of producing wells. The study will encourage exploration and establishment of additional water-flood units throughout the southwest region of the Uinta Basin, and other areas with production from fluvial-deltaic reservoirs.

  9. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  10. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  11. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  12. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is indispensable for dioxin-induced defects in sexually-dimorphic behaviors due to the reduction in fetal steroidogenesis of the pituitary-gonadal axis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yukiko; Takeda, Tomoki; Nakamura, Arisa; Nishida, Kyoko; Shioji, Yuko; Fukumitsu, Haruki; Yamada, Hideyuki; Ishii, Yuji

    2018-05-16

    Many forms of the toxic effects produced by dioxins and related chemicals take place following activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Our previous studies have demonstrated that treating pregnant rats with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic dioxin, attenuates the pituitary expression of gonadotropins to reduce testicular steroidogenesis during the fetal stage, resulting in the impairment of sexually-dimorphic behaviors after the offspring reach maturity. To investigate the contribution of AHR to these disorders, we examined the effects of TCDD on AHR-knockout (AHR-KO) Wistar rats. When pregnant AHR-heterozygous rats were given an oral dose of 1 µg/kg TCDD at gestational day (GD) 15, TCDD reduced the expression of pituitary gonadotropins and testicular steroidogenic proteins in male wild-type fetuses at GD20 without affecting body weight, sex ratio and litter size. However, the same defect did not occur in AHR-KO fetuses. Further, fetal exposure to TCDD impaired the activity of masculine sexual behavior after reaching adulthood only in the wild-type offspring. Also, in female offspring, not only the fetal gonadotropins production but also sexual dimorphism, such as saccharin preference, after growing up were suppressed by TCDD only in the wild-type. Interestingly, in the absence of TCDD, deleting AHR reduced masculine sexual behavior, as well as fetal steroidogenesis of the pituitary-gonadal axis. These results provide novel evidence that 1) AHR is required for TCDD-produced defects in sexually-dimorphic behaviors of the offspring, and 2) AHR signaling plays a role in gonadotropin synthesis during the developmental stage to acquire sexual dimorphism after reaching adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of the hydraulic behavior of Iguacu River in the region of Uniao da Vitoria and its impacts on operation of the Foz do Areia and Segredo reservoirs; Revisao do comportamento hidraulico do Rio Iguacu na regiao de Uniao da Vitoria e seu impacto na operacao hidraulica dos reservatorios de Foz do Areia e Segredo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castanharo, Giancarlo; Buba, Homero [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: giancarlo.castanharo@copel.com; homero@copel.com

    2008-04-15

    The Foz do Areia reservoir, under certain combinations of events, may influence flood levels in the cities of Uniao da Vitoria and Porto Uniao, located upstream. To avoid this phenomenon constitutes the main purpose of the hydraulic operation of the Foz do Areia and Segredo reservoirs, after dams safety. To satisfy these objectives, first have to correctly quantify these effects by means of studying the hydraulic behavior of the river reach between the cities and the Foz do Areia reservoir. A description of the recent version of these studies is shown, which demanded significant efforts in modeling and obtaining topographical and hydrological data. A more critical scenery has resulted as compared to former studies, emphasizing the importance of the methods and parameters for the hydraulic operation proposed in this paper. (author)

  14. Sensitivity analysis and economic optimization studies of inverted five-spot gas cycling in gas condensate reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Shams Bilal; Yao Jun; Zhang Kai; Zhang Lei

    2017-01-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex flow behaviors because of propagation response of pressure drop from the wellbore into the reservoir. When reservoir pressure drops below the dew point in two phase flow of gas and condensate, the accumulation of large condensate amount occurs in the gas condensate reservoirs. Usually, the saturation of condensate accumulation in volumetric gas condensate reservoirs is lower than the critical condensate saturation that causes trapping of large...

  15. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  16. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  17. Nagylengyel: an interesting reservoir. [Yugoslovia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedinszky, J

    1971-04-01

    The Nagylengyel oil field, discovered in 1951, has oil-producing formations mostly in the Upper-Triassic dolomites, in the Norian-Ractian transition formations, in the Upper-Cretaceous limestones and shales, and in the Miocene. The formation of the reservoir space occurred in many stages. A porous, cavernous fractured reservoir is developed in the Norian principal dolomite. A cavernous fractured reservoir exists in the Cretaceous limestone and in the Cretaceous shale and porous fractured reservoir is developed in the Miocene. The derivation of the model of the reservoir, and the conservative evaluation of the volume of the reservoir made it possible to use secondary recovery.

  18. Production forecasting and economic evaluation of horizontal wells completed in natural fractured reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for optimizing recovery of hydrocarbons from naturally fractured reservoirs using horizontal well technology was proposed. The technique combines inflow performance analysis, production forecasting and economic considerations, and is based on material balance analysis and linear approximations of reservoir fluid properties as functions of reservoir pressure. An economic evaluation model accounting for the time value of cash flow, interest and inflation rates, is part of the package. Examples of using the technique have been demonstrated. The method is also applied to a gas well producing from a horizontal wellbore intersecting discrete natural fractures. 11 refs., 2 tabs,. 10 figs

  19. Structural algorithm to reservoir reconstruction using passive seismic data (synthetic example)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smaglichenko, Tatyana A.; Volodin, Igor A.; Lukyanitsa, Andrei A.; Smaglichenko, Alexander V.; Sayankina, Maria K. [Oil and Gas Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Gubkina str.3, 119333, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 1, str.52,Second Teaching Building.119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shmidt' s Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Science, Bolshaya Gruzinskaya str. 10, str.1, 123995 Moscow (Russian Federation); Oil and Gas Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Gubkina str.3, 119333, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-26

    Using of passive seismic observations to detect a reservoir is a new direction of prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbons. In order to identify thin reservoir model we applied the modification of Gaussian elimination method in conditions of incomplete synthetic data. Because of the singularity of a matrix conventional method does not work. Therefore structural algorithm has been developed by analyzing the given model as a complex model. Numerical results demonstrate of its advantage compared with usual way of solution. We conclude that the gas reservoir is reconstructed by retrieving of the image of encasing shale beneath it.

  20. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  1. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  2. The Role of the Nuclear Science and Technology in Hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Budi Lelono; Isnawati

    2007-01-01

    The development of the nuclear science and technology influences the method of hydrocarbon exploration as shown by the use of radioactive isotope to determine the absolute age of the rock. Traditionally, the age determination relies on the occurrence of index fossil, both micro and macro forms, to define the relative age of the rock. The absolute age is basically defined based on the calculation of the decay of the selected radioactive mineral. By referring to its absolute age, the rock (source rock or reservoir) can be precisely put in the certain stratigraphic level. On the other hand, the nuclear technology - so called NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) - is applied in the well exploration survey to measure the porosity and the permeability of the rock for predicting the existence of hydrocarbon. From the sedimentology view point, the nuclear technology is used in x ray diffraction (XRD) laboratory to identify mineral in the reservoir rock. In addition, it is also applied in scanning electron microscope (sem) laboratory for estimating the porosity of reservoir. These kinds of information are required by the exploration experts to create reservoir management. (author)

  3. The Attribute for Hydrocarbon Prediction Based on Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermana, Maman; Harith, Z Z T; Sum, C W; Ghosh, D P

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon prediction is a crucial issue in the oil and gas industry. Currently, the prediction of pore fluid and lithology are based on amplitude interpretation which has the potential to produce pitfalls in certain conditions of reservoir. Motivated by this fact, this work is directed to find out other attributes that can be used to reduce the pitfalls in the amplitude interpretation. Some seismic attributes were examined and studies showed that the attenuation attribute is a better attribute for hydrocarbon prediction. Theoretically, the attenuation mechanism of wave propagation is associated with the movement of fluid in the pore; hence the existence of hydrocarbon in the pore will be represented by attenuation attribute directly. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the quality factor ratio of P-wave and S-wave (Qp/Qs) as hydrocarbon indicator using well data and also we developed a new attribute based on attenuation for hydrocarbon prediction -- Normalized Energy Reduction Stack (NERS). To achieve these goals, this work was divided into 3 main parts; estimating the Qp/Qs on well log data, testing the new attribute in the synthetic data and applying the new attribute on real data in Malay Basin data. The result show that the Qp/Qs is better than Poisson's ratio and Lamda over Mu as hydrocarbon indicator. The curve, trend analysis and contrast of Qp/Qs is more powerful at distinguishing pore fluid than Poisson ratio and Lamda over Mu. The NERS attribute was successful in distinguishing the hydrocarbon from brine on synthetic data. Applying this attribute on real data on Malay basin, the NERS attribute is qualitatively conformable with the structure and location where the gas is predicted. The quantitative interpretation of this attribute for hydrocarbon prediction needs to be investigated further

  4. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    brine solutions regarding phase behavior and viscosity measurements. This difference is attributed to the difference in composition of the different crude oils. More experiments are carried out in order to understand mechanisms of the crude oil viscosity reduction and emulsion formation. We observed...... with and without aging. The total oil recovery, recovery rate and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injected fluids under different temperatures and wettability conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that the oil recovery mechanism under high salinity seawater flooding...... phase could be the possible reasons for the observed increase in oil recovery with sulfate ions at high temperature in chalk reservoirs, besides the mechanism of the rock wettability alteration. * Crude oil/brine interaction study suggests that viscosity reduction for crude oil in contact with brine...

  5. Effect of retrograde gas condensate in low permeability natural gas reservoir; Efeito da condensacao retrograda em reservatorios de gas natural com baixa permeabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Paulo Lee K.C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Ligero, Eliana L.; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Most of Brazilian gas fields are low-permeability or tight sandstone reservoirs and some of them should be gas condensate reservoir. In this type of natural gas reservoir, part of the gaseous hydrocarbon mixture is condensate and the liquid hydrocarbon accumulates near the well bore that causes the loss of productivity. The liquid hydrocarbon formation inside the reservoir should be well understood such as the knowledge of the variables that causes the condensate formation and its importance in the natural gas production. This work had as goal to better understanding the effect of condensate accumulation near a producer well. The influence of the porosity and the absolute permeability in the gas production was studied in three distinct gas reservoirs: a dry gas reservoir and two gas condensate reservoirs. The refinement of the simulation grid near the producer well was also investigated. The choice of simulation model was shown to be very important in the simulation of gas condensate reservoirs. The porosity was the little relevance in the gas production and in the liquid hydrocarbon formation; otherwise the permeability was very relevant. (author)

  6. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  7. Comparison of static and dynamic resilience for a multipurpose reservoir operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P.; Arunkumar, R.

    2016-11-01

    Reliability, resilience, and vulnerability are the traditional risk measures used to assess the performance of a reservoir system. Among these measures, resilience is used to assess the ability of a reservoir system to recover from a failure event. However, the time-independent static resilience does not consider the system characteristics, interaction of various individual components and does not provide much insight into reservoir performance from the beginning of the failure event until the full performance recovery. Knowledge of dynamic reservoir behavior under the disturbance offers opportunities for proactive and/or reactive adaptive response that can be selected to maximize reservoir resilience. A novel measure is required to provide insight into the dynamics of reservoir performance based on the reservoir system characteristics and its adaptive capacity. The reservoir system characteristics include, among others, reservoir storage curve, reservoir inflow, reservoir outflow capacity, and reservoir operating rules. The reservoir adaptive capacity can be expressed using various impacts of reservoir performance under the disturbance (like reservoir release for meeting a particular demand, socioeconomic consequences of reservoir performance, or resulting environmental state of the river upstream and downstream from the reservoir). Another way of expressing reservoir adaptive capacity to a disturbing event may include aggregated measures like reservoir robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, and rapidity. A novel measure that combines reservoir performance and its adaptive capacity is proposed in this paper and named "dynamic resilience." The paper also proposes a generic simulation methodology for quantifying reservoir resilience as a function of time. The proposed resilience measure is applied to a single multipurpose reservoir operation and tested for a set of failure scenarios. The dynamic behavior of reservoir resilience is captured using the system

  8. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  9. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  10. Iron speciation and mineral characterization of upper Jurassic reservoir rocks in the Minhe Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiangxian; Zheng, Guodong, E-mail: gdzhbj@mail.iggcas.ac.cn; Xu, Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Liang, Minliang [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Institute of Geomechanics, Key Lab of Shale Oil and Gas Geological Survey (China); Fan, Qiaohui; Wu, Yingzhong; Ye, Conglin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Six samples from a natural outcrop of reservoir rocks with oil seepage and two control samples from surrounding area in the Minhe Basin, northwestern China were selectively collected and analyzed for mineralogical composition as well as iron speciation using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Iron species revealed that: (1) the oil-bearing reservoir rocks were changed by water-rock-oil interactions; (2) even in the same site, there was a different performance between sandstone and mudstone during the oil and gas infusion to the reservoirs; and (3) this was evidence indicating the selective channels of hydrocarbon migration. In addition, these studies showed that the iron speciation by Mössbauer spectroscopy could be useful for the study of oil and gas reservoirs, especially the processes of the water-rock interactions within petroleum reservoirs.

  11. An ensemble-based method for constrained reservoir life-cycle optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, O.; Egberts, P.J.P.; Chitu, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal long-term (life-cycle) recovery strategies for hydrocarbon reservoirs by use of simulation models. In such problems the presence of operating constraints, such as for example a maximum rate limit for a group of wells, may strongly influence the range of

  12. High-resolution reservoir characterization by seismic inversion with geological constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetyukhina, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fluvio-deltaic sedimentary systems are of great interest for explorationists because they can form prolific hydrocarbon plays. However, they are also among the most complex and heterogeneous ones encountered in the subsurface. Reservoirs in clinoform systems are difficult to characterize because

  13. Exploiting the airwave for time-lapse reservoir monitoring with CSEM on land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirianto, M.; Mulder, W.A.; Slob, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the application of controlled source electromagnetics for reservoir monitoring on land, repeatability errors in the source will mask the time-lapse signal due to hydrocarbon production when recording surface data close to the source. We demonstrate that at larger distances, the airwave will still

  14. 4D seismic reservoir characterization, integrated with geo-mechanical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelov, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production induces time-lapse changes in the seismic attributes (travel time and amplitude) both at the level of the producing reservoir and in the surrounding rock. The detected time-lapse changes in the seismic are induced from the changes in the petrophysical properties of the rock,

  15. Understanding creep in sandstone reservoirs – theoretical deformation mechanism maps for pressure solution in granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher

    Subsurface exploitation of the Earth’s natural resources removes the natural system from its chemical and physical equilibrium. As such, groundwater extraction and hydrocarbon production from subsurface reservoirs frequently causes surface subsidence and induces (micro)seismicity. These effects are

  16. Smart waterflooding in carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, A.

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior in porous media. The main conclusion of most previous studies was that it is the rock wettability alteration towards more water wetting condition that helps improving the oil recovery. In the first step of this project, we focused on verifying this conclusion. Coreflooding experiments were carried out using Stevens Klint outcrop chalk core plugs with brines without sulfate, as well as brines containing sulfate in different concentrations. The effects of temperature, injection rate, crude oil composition and different sulfate concentrations on the total oil recovery and the recovery rate were investigated. Experimental results clearly indicate improvement of the oil recovery without wettability alteration. At the second step of this project, we studied crude oil/brine interactions under different temperatures, pressures and salinity conditions in order to understand mechanisms behind the high salinity waterflooding. Our results show, in particular that sulfate ions may help decreasing the crude oil viscosity or formation of, seemingly, an emulsion phase between sulfate-enriched brine and oil at high temperature and pressure. Experimental results indicate that crude oils interact differently with the same brine solutions regarding phase behavior and viscosity measurements. This difference is attributed to the difference in composition of the different crude oils. More experiments

  17. Advances in complex reservoir evaluation based on geophysical well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertl, W.H.; Sinha, A.K. (Western Atlas International, Inc., Houston, TX (USA)); McDougall, J.G. (Western Atlas Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1988-09-01

    The matrix of reservoirs having complex lithologies, cause different density, neutron, and acoustic responses. Therefore the lithologies and effective porosity of reservoirs can be determined by using various crossplot techniques on data collected from two of these logs. The Complex Reservoir Analysis program (CRA) computes lithology, porosity, water saturation and relative permeabilities in formations with interbedded limestone, dolomite, and anhydrite. Porosity options include crossplot and individual log response techniques. Corrections for light hydrocarbons were applied. In solving for porosity and mineral volumes, sand, limestone, dolomite, and anhydrite lines were defined on either density/neutron or neutron/acoustic crossplots. Four additional mineral lines were specified. Incorporation of Pe data from the Z-Densilog provided a significant advance in evaluating complex reservoirs via the Z-CRA analysis. The classic reservoir evaluation program CLASS, was used to perform both minerals and shaly evaluation based on density, neutron, resistivity, and natural gamma ray spectral measurements. Computations included total and effective porosities, fluid saturation distribution based on the Wasman-Smits model, productivity indices, and volume and distribution of clay minerals. Additional computed formation parameters included log-derived cation exchange capacity and hydrogen index of dry clay matrix to determine the type and amount of smectite, illite and chlorite/kaolinite present. Canadian field experiences was used to illustrate and support the techniques described. 11 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Deciphering biodegradation effects on light hydrocarbons in crude oils using their stable carbon isotopic composition: a case study from the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand [Vieth; Heinz Wilkes

    2006-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has become an important tool in environmental studies and is an especially powerful way to evaluate biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Here, carbon isotope ratios of light hydrocarbons were used to characterise in-reservoir biodegradation in the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway. Increasing biodegradation, as characterised, for example, by increasing concentration ratios of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18, and decreasing concentrations of individual light hydrocarbons ...

  19. Geothermal reservoir assessment manual; 1984-1992 nendo chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuhou manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    A geothermal reservoir assessment manual was prepared for the promotion of the development of geothermal power generation, based on the results of the 'geothermal reservoir assessment technique development project' implemented during the fiscal 1984-1992 period and on the results of surveys conducted in Japan and abroad. Of the geothermal systems generally classified into the steam dominant type and the hot water dominant type, encounters with the steam dominant type are but seldom reported. This manual therefore covers the hot water dominant type only. In addition to the explanation of the basic concept and the outline of geothermal reservoirs, the manual carries data necessary for reservoir assessment; geological and geophysical data analyses; geochemistry in reservoir assessment; data of underground logging and of fuming; conceptual models; simulators and models for reservoir simulation; natural-state simulation, history-matching simulation, and reservoir behavior predicting simulation; case history (modeling of a geothermal reservoir prior to exploitation), references, and so forth. (NEDO)

  20. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative techniques and concepts, and the emergence of new plays in carbonate rocks are creating a resurgence of oil and gas discoveries worldwide. The maturity of a basin and the application of exploration concepts have a fundamental influence on exploration strategies. Exploration success often occurs in underexplored basins by applying existing established geological concepts. This approach is commonly undertaken when new basins ‘open up’ owing to previous political upheavals. The strategy of using new techniques in a proven mature area is particularly appropriate when dealing with unconventional resources (heavy oil, bitumen, stranded gas), while the application of new play concepts (such as lacustrine carbonates) to new areas (i.e. ultra-deep South Atlantic basins) epitomizes frontier exploration. Many low-matrix-porosity hydrocarbon reservoirs are productive because permeability is controlled by fractures and faults. Understanding basic fracture properties is critical in reducing geological risk and therefore reducing well costs and increasing well recovery. The advent of resource plays in carbonate rocks, and the long-standing recognition of naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs means that new fracture and fault analysis and prediction techniques and concepts are essential.

  1. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  2. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-01-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  3. Work reservoirs in thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    We stress the usefulness of the work reservoir in the formalism of thermodynamics, in particular in the context of the first law. To elucidate its usefulness, the formalism is then applied to the Joule expansion and other peculiar and instructive experimental situations, clarifying the concepts of configuration and dissipative work. The ideas and discussions presented in this study are primarily intended for undergraduate students, but they might also be useful to graduate students, researchers and teachers.

  4. Hydrocarbon accumulation in deep fluid modified carbonate rock in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The activities of deep fluid are regionalized in the Tarim Basin. By analyzing the REE in core samples and crude oil, carbon isotope of carbon dioxide and inclusion temperature measurement in the west of the Tazhong Uplift in the western Tarim Basin, all the evidence confirms the existence of deep fluid. The deep fluid below the basin floor moved up into the basin through discordogenic fauit and volcanicity to cause corrosion and metaaomatosis of carbonate rock by exchange of matter and energy. The pore structure and permeability of the carbonate reservoirs were improved, making the carbonate reservoirs an excellent type of deeply buried modification. The fluorite ore belts discovered along the large fault and the volcanic area in the west of the Tazhong Uplift are the outcome of deep fluid action. Such carbonate reservoirs are the main type of reservoirs in the Tazhong 45 oilfield. The carbonate reservoirs in well YM 7 are improved obviously by thermal fluid dolomitization. The origin and territory of deep fluid are associated with the discordogenic fault and volcanicity in the basin. The discordogenic fault and volcanic area may be the pointer of looking for the deep fluid modified reservoirs. The primary characteristics of hydrocarbon accumulation in deep fluid reconstructed carbonate rock are summarized as accumulation near the large fault and volcano passage, late-period hydrocarbon accumulation after volcanic activity, and subtle trap reservoirs controlled by lithology.

  5. Efficient Reservoir Simulation with Cubic Plus Association and Cross-Association Equation of State for Multicomponent Three-Phase Compressible Flow with Applications in CO2 Storage and Methane Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present novel simulation tools to model multiphase multicomponent flow and transport in porous media for mixtures that contain non-polar hydrocarbons, self-associating polar water, and cross-associating molecules like methane, ethane, unsaturated hydrocarbons, CO2 and H2S. Such mixtures often occur when CO2 is injected and stored in saline aquifers, or when methane is leaking into groundwater. To accurately predict the species transfer between aqueous, gaseous and oleic phases, and the subsequent change in phase properties, the self- and cross-associating behavior of molecules needs to be taken into account, particularly at the typical temperatures and pressures in deep formations. The Cubic-Plus-Association equation-of-state (EOS) has been demonstrated to be highly accurate for such problems but its excessive computational cost has prevented widespread use in reservoir simulators. We discuss the thermodynamical framework and develop sophisticated numerical algorithms that allow reservoir simulations with efficiencies comparable to a simple cubic EOS. This approach improves our predictive powers for highly nonlinear fluid behavior related to geological carbon sequestration, such as density driven flow and natural convection (solubility trapping), evaporation of water into the CO2-rich gas phase, and competitive dissolution-evaporation when CO2 is injected in, e.g., methane saturated aquifers. Several examples demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of this EOS framework for complex applications.

  6. Synergizing Crosswell Seismic and Electromagnetic Techniques for Enhancing Reservoir Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-11-18

    Increasing complexity of hydrocarbon projects and the request for higher recovery rates have driven the oil-and-gas industry to look for a more-detailed understanding of the subsurface formation to optimize recovery of oil and profitability. Despite the significant successes of geophysical techniques in determining changes within the reservoir, the benefits from individually mapping the information are limited. Although seismic techniques have been the main approach for imaging the subsurface, the weak density contrast between water and oil has made electromagnetic (EM) technology an attractive complement to improve fluid distinction, especially for high-saline water. This crosswell technology assumes greater importance for obtaining higher-resolution images of the interwell regions to more accurately characterize the reservoir and track fluid-front developments. In this study, an ensemble-Kalman-based history-matching framework is proposed for directly incorporating crosswell time-lapse seismic and EM data into the history-matching process. The direct incorporation of the time-lapse seismic and EM data into the history-matching process exploits the complementarity of these data to enhance subsurface characterization, to incorporate interwell information, and to avoid biases that may be incurred from separate inversions of the geophysical data for attributes. An extensive analysis with 2D and realistic 3D reservoirs illustrates the robustness and enhanced forecastability of critical reservoir variables. The 2D reservoir provides a better understanding of the connection between fluid discrimination and enhanced history matches, and the 3D reservoir demonstrates its applicability to a realistic reservoir. History-matching enhancements (in terms of reduction in the history-matching error) when incorporating both seismic and EM data averaged approximately 50% for the 2D case, and approximately 30% for the 3D case, and permeability estimates were approximately 25

  7. Fractal nature of hydrocarbon deposits. 2. Spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.C.; Schutter, T.A; Herring, P.R.; Thomas, W.J.; Scholz, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are unevenly distributed within reservoirs and are found in patches whose size distribution is a fractal over a wide range of scales. The spatial distribution of the patches is also fractal and this can be used to constrain the design of drilling strategies also defined by a fractal dimension. Fractal distributions are scale independent and are characterized by a power-law scaling exponent termed the fractal dimension. The authors have performed fractal analyses on the spatial distribution of producing and showing wells combined and of dry wells in 1,600-mi 2 portions of the Denver and Powder River basins that were nearly completely drilled on quarter-mile square-grid spacings. They have limited their analyses to wells drilled to single stratigraphic intervals so that the map pattern revealed by drilling is representative of the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons at depth. The fractal dimensions for the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons in the two basins are 1.5 and 1.4, respectively. The fractal dimension for the pattern of all wells drilled is 1.8 for both basins, which suggests a drilling strategy with a fractal dimension significantly higher than the dimensions 1.5 and 1.4 sufficient to efficiently and economically explore these reservoirs. In fact, the fractal analysis reveals that the drilling strategy used in these basins approaches a fractal dimension of 2.0, which is equivalent to random drilling with no geologic input. Knowledge of the fractal dimension of a reservoir prior to drilling would provide a basis for selecting and a criterion for halting a drilling strategy for exploration whose fractal dimension closely matches that of the spatial fractal dimension of the reservoir, such a strategy should prove more efficient and economical than current practice

  8. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  9. Advantageous Reservoir Characterization Technology in Extra Low Permeability Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took extra low permeability reservoirs in Dagang Liujianfang Oilfield as an example and analyzed different types of microscopic pore structures by SEM, casting thin sections fluorescence microscope, and so on. With adoption of rate-controlled mercury penetration, NMR, and some other advanced techniques, based on evaluation parameters, namely, throat radius, volume percentage of mobile fluid, start-up pressure gradient, and clay content, the classification and assessment method of extra low permeability reservoirs was improved and the parameter boundaries of the advantageous reservoirs were established. The physical properties of reservoirs with different depth are different. Clay mineral variation range is 7.0%, and throat radius variation range is 1.81 μm, and start pressure gradient range is 0.23 MPa/m, and movable fluid percentage change range is 17.4%. The class IV reservoirs account for 9.56%, class II reservoirs account for 12.16%, and class III reservoirs account for 78.29%. According to the comparison of different development methods, class II reservoir is most suitable for waterflooding development, and class IV reservoir is most suitable for gas injection development. Taking into account the gas injection in the upper section of the reservoir, the next section of water injection development will achieve the best results.

  10. Fluid typing and tortuosity analysis with NMR-DE techniques in volcaniclastic reservoirs, Patagonia/Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Ulises Daniel [Schlumberger Argentina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Breda, Eduardo Walter [Repsol YPF Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    Alternative hydrocarbon-detection techniques are used to differentiate water from hydrocarbon where resistivity-based methods are difficult to apply, such as freshwater reservoirs and complex lithologies. One of these areas is represented by the complex volcaniclastic freshwater reservoirs in the Golfo San Jorge basin, Patagonia Argentina, where water and oil have often identical response on conventional logs. Some advances in hydrocarbon identification based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were achieved in long T1 environments (very light oils, gas) in the Golfo San Jorge basin by previous NMR fluid typing methods. However, since medium to heavy oils are commonly present in these intervals, hydrocarbon detection by such techniques cannot be properly achieved. In addition, restricted diffusion phenomena recognized in these intervals, constitute further complications in fluid typing since its presence have similar response than native oil. To address this problem, a fluid characterization method using NMR Diffusion-Editing techniques and processing/interpretation with D-T2 maps in a suite of NMR measurements was applied. The technique allowed the detection and evaluation of restricted diffusion in these reservoirs, enabling better hydrocarbon characterization in a broad viscosity range (from light to heavy). The method also improved the petrophysical evaluation because restricted diffusion is related to tortuosity in the reservoir. Since the application of this innovative reservoir evaluation method, fluid prognosis vs well completion results was increased from around 68% to around 88% in Golfo San Jorge basin. Moreover, in some of these areas rates above 95% were recently achieved in 2004. (author)

  11. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  12. An insight into the mechanism and evolution of shale reservoir characteristics with over-high maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjing Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over-high maturity is one of the most vital characteristics of marine organic-rich shale reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the south part of China. The organic matter (OM in shale gas reservoirs almost went through the entire thermal evolution. During this wide span, a great amount of hydrocarbon was available and numerous pores were observed within the OM including kerogen and solid bitumen/pyrobitumen. These nanopores in solid bitumen/pyrobitumen can be identified using SEM. The imaging can be dissected and understood better based on the sequence of diagenesis and hydrocarbon charge with the shape of OM and pores. In terms of the maturity process showed by the various typical cases, the main effects of the relationship between the reservoir porosity and organic carbon abundance are interpreted as follows: the change and mechanism of reservoirs properties due to thermal evolution are explored, such as gas carbon isotope from partial to complete rollover zone, wettability alteration from water-wet to oil-wet and then water-wet pore surface again, electrical resistivity reversal from the increasing to decreasing stage, and nonlinearity fluctuation of rock elasticity anisotropy. These indicate a possible evolution pathway for shale gas reservoirs from the Lower Paleozoic in the southern China, as well as the general transformation processes between different shale reservoirs in thermal stages.

  13. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  14. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  15. Integrating geologic and engineering data into 3-D reservoir models: an example from norman wells field, NWT, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yose, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    A case study of the Norman Wells field will be presented to highlight the work-flow and data integration steps associated with characterization and modeling of a complex hydrocarbon reservoir. Norman Wells is a Devonian-age carbonate bank ('reef') located in the Northwest Territories of Canada, 60 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. The reservoir reaches a maximum thickness of 130 meters in the reef interior and thins toward the basin due to depositional pinch outs. Norman Wells is an oil reservoir and is currently under a 5-spot water injection scheme for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). EOR strategies require a detailed understanding of how reservoir flow units, flow barriers and flow baffles are distributed to optimize hydrocarbon sweep and recovery and to minimize water handling. Reservoir models are routinely used by industry to characterize the 3-D distribution of reservoir architecture (stratigraphic layers, depositional facies, faults) and rock properties (porosity. permeability). Reservoir models are validated by matching historical performance data (e.g., reservoir pressures, well production or injection rates). Geologic models are adjusted until they produce a history match, and model adjustments are focused on inputs that have the greatest geologic uncertainty. Flow simulation models are then used to optimize field development strategies and to forecast field performance under different development scenarios. (author)

  16. A fast complex domain-matching pursuit algorithm and its application to deep-water gas reservoir detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing; Huang, Handong; Li, Huijie; Miao, Yuxin; Wen, Junxiang; Zhou, Fei

    2017-12-01

    The main emphasis of exploration and development is shifting from simple structural reservoirs to complex reservoirs, which all have the characteristics of complex structure, thin reservoir thickness and large buried depth. Faced with these complex geological features, hydrocarbon detection technology is a direct indication of changes in hydrocarbon reservoirs and a good approach for delimiting the distribution of underground reservoirs. It is common to utilize the time-frequency (TF) features of seismic data in detecting hydrocarbon reservoirs. Therefore, we research the complex domain-matching pursuit (CDMP) method and propose some improvements. First is the introduction of a scale parameter, which corrects the defect that atomic waveforms only change with the frequency parameter. Its introduction not only decomposes seismic signal with high accuracy and high efficiency but also reduces iterations. We also integrate jumping search with ergodic search to improve computational efficiency while maintaining the reasonable accuracy. Then we combine the improved CDMP with the Wigner-Ville distribution to obtain a high-resolution TF spectrum. A one-dimensional modeling experiment has proved the validity of our method. Basing on the low-frequency domain reflection coefficient in fluid-saturated porous media, we finally get an approximation formula for the mobility attributes of reservoir fluid. This approximation formula is used as a hydrocarbon identification factor to predict deep-water gas-bearing sand of the M oil field in the South China Sea. The results are consistent with the actual well test results and our method can help inform the future exploration of deep-water gas reservoirs.

  17. Production Characteristics and Reservoir Quality at the Ivanić Oil Field (Croatia) Predicted by Machine Learning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hernitz, Zvonimir; Đureković, Miro; Crnički, Josip

    1996-01-01

    At the Ivanić oil field, hydrocarbons are accumulated in fine tomedium grained litharenits of the Ivanić-Grad Formation (Iva-sandstones member) of Upper Miocene age. Reservoir rocks are dividedinlo eight depositional (production) units (i1- i8). Deposits of eachunit are characterized by their own reservoir quality parameters(porosity, horizontal permeability, net pay ... ). Production characteristicsof 30 wells have been studied by a simple slatistical method. Twomajor production well ca...

  18. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  19. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  20. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  1. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  2. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  3. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  4. Asphalt features and gas accumulation mechanism of Sinian reservoirs in the Tongwan Palaeo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breakthroughs have been made in natural gas exploration in Sinian reservoirs in the Tongwan Palaeo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, recently. However, there are disputes with regard to the genetic mechanisms of natural gas reservoirs. The development law of asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs may play an extremely important role in the study of the relationships between palaeo oil and gas reservoirs. Accordingly, researches were conducted on the features and development patterns of asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs in this area. The following research results were obtained. (1 Asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs were developed after the important hydrothermal event in the Sichuan Basin, namely the well-known Emei Taphrogeny in the mid-late Permian Period. (2 Distribution of asphalts is related to palaeo oil reservoirs under the control of palaeo-structures of Indosinian-Yanshanian Period, when the palaeo-structures contained high content of asphalts in the high positions of the palaeo-uplift. (3 Large-scale oil and gas accumulations in the Sinian reservoirs occurred in the Indosinian-Yanshanian Period to generate the Leshan-Ziyang and Gaoshiti-Moxi-Guang'an palaeo oil reservoirs. Cracking of crude oil in the major parts of these palaeo oil reservoirs controlled the development of the present natural gas reservoirs. (4 The development of asphalts in the Sinian reservoirs indicates that hydrocarbons in the Dengying Formation originated from Cambrian source rocks and natural gas accumulated in the Sinian reservoirs are products of late-stage cracking of the Sinian reservoirs. (5 The Sinian palaeo-structures of Indosinian-Yanshanian Period in the Sichuan Basin are favorable regions for the development of the Sinian reservoirs, where discoveries and exploration practices will play an important role in the era of Sinian natural gas development in China.

  5. Three dimensional heat transport modeling in Vossoroca reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcie Polli, Bruna; Yoshioka Bernardo, Julio Werner; Hilgert, Stephan; Bleninger, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater reservoirs are used for many purposes as hydropower generation, water supply and irrigation. In Brazil, according to the National Energy Balance of 2013, hydropower energy corresponds to 70.1% of the Brazilian demand. Superficial waters (which include rivers, lakes and reservoirs) are the most used source for drinking water supply - 56% of the municipalities use superficial waters as a source of water. The last two years have shown that the Brazilian water and electricity supply is highly vulnerable and that improved management is urgently needed. The construction of reservoirs affects physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water body, e.g. stratification, temperature, residence time and turbulence reduction. Some water quality issues related to reservoirs are eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission to the atmosphere and dissolved oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion. The understanding of the physical processes in the water body is fundamental to reservoir management. Lakes and reservoirs may present a seasonal behavior and stratify due to hydrological and meteorological conditions, and especially its vertical distribution may be related to water quality. Stratification can control heat and dissolved substances transport. It has been also reported the importance of horizontal temperature gradients, e.g. inflows and its density and processes of mass transfer from shallow to deeper regions of the reservoir, that also may impact water quality. Three dimensional modeling of the heat transport in lakes and reservoirs is an important tool to the understanding and management of these systems. It is possible to estimate periods of large vertical temperature gradients, inhibiting vertical transport and horizontal gradients, which could be responsible for horizontal transport of heat and substances (e.g. differential cooling or inflows). Vossoroca reservoir was constructed in 1949 by the impoundment of São João River and is located near to

  6. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  7. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  8. Nonlinear Filtering Effects of Reservoirs on Flood Frequency Curves at the Regional Scale: RESERVOIRS FILTER FLOOD FREQUENCY CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Yi; Leung, Lai-Yung; Yigzaw, Wondmagegn Y.; Zhao, Jianshi; Lu, Hui; Deng, Zhiqun; Demissie, Yonas; Bloschl, Gunter

    2017-10-01

    Anthropogenic activities, e.g., reservoir operation, may alter the characteristics of Flood Frequency Curve (FFC) and challenge the basic assumption of stationarity used in flood frequency analysis. This paper presents a combined data-modeling analysis of the nonlinear filtering effects of reservoirs on the FFCs over the contiguous United States. A dimensionless Reservoir Impact Index (RII), defined as the total upstream reservoir storage capacity normalized by the annual streamflow volume, is used to quantify reservoir regulation effects. Analyses are performed for 388 river stations with an average record length of 50 years. The first two moments of the FFC, mean annual maximum flood (MAF) and coefficient of variations (CV), are calculated for the pre- and post-dam periods and compared to elucidate the reservoir regulation effects as a function of RII. It is found that MAF generally decreases with increasing RII but stabilizes when RII exceeds a threshold value, and CV increases with RII until a threshold value beyond which CV decreases with RII. The processes underlying the nonlinear threshold behavior of MAF and CV are investigated using three reservoir models with different levels of complexity. All models capture the non-linear relationships of MAF and CV with RII, suggesting that the basic flood control function of reservoirs is key to the non-linear relationships. The relative roles of reservoir storage capacity, operation objectives, available storage prior to a flood event, and reservoir inflow pattern are systematically investigated. Our findings may help improve flood-risk assessment and mitigation in regulated river systems at the regional scale.

  9. All-optical reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  10. Effect of reservoir characteristics on the response of concrete gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumber, T.; Ghobarah, A.

    1992-01-01

    In most previous analyses of dam responses to earthquake ground motion, the upstream reservoir is assumed to be infinite in length with horizontal bottom. This is rarely the actual geometry of a reservoir, as the upstream valley typically has complex geometry. A study was carried out to examine the effects of the geometry of the reservoir on the dynamic behavior of the monolith. The dam-foundation-reservoir system is modelled using a sub-structuring approach. The reservoir is modelled using a finite element formulation. The absorptive capacity of the reservoir's foundation is idealized as a one-dimensional boundary condition at the reservoir-foundation interface. The reservoir bottom is assumed to be sloping. It was found that the assumed shape of the upstream reservoir significantly affects the overall response of the dam-foundation-reservoir system. The frequencies and magnitudes of the response peaks are affected by the geometry of the reservoir. It was also found that the value of the wave reflection coefficient at the reservoir bottom has a significant effect on the system's response. 6 refs., 5 figs

  11. Mathematical simulation of oil reservoir properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Romero, A.; Chavez, F.; Carrillo, F.; Lopez, S.

    2008-01-01

    The study and computational representation of porous media properties are very important for many industries where problems of fluid flow, percolation phenomena and liquid movement and stagnation are involved, for example, in building constructions, ore processing, chemical industries, mining, corrosion sciences, etc. Nevertheless, these kinds of processes present a noneasy behavior to be predicted and mathematical models must include statistical analysis, fractal and/or stochastic procedures to do it. This work shows the characterization of sandstone berea core samples which can be found as a porous media (PM) in natural oil reservoirs, rock formations, etc. and the development of a mathematical algorithm for simulating the anisotropic characteristics of a PM based on a stochastic distribution of some of their most important properties like porosity, permeability, pressure and saturation. Finally a stochastic process is used again to simulated the topography of an oil reservoir

  12. Shale gas reservoir characterization using LWD in real time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.Y.; Kok, J.C.L.; Tollefsen, E.M.; Baihly, J.D.; Malpani, R.; Alford, J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Wireline logging programs are frequently used to evaluate vertical boreholes in shale gas plays. Data logged from the vertical hole are used to define reservoir profiles for the horizontal target window. The horizontal wells are then steered based on gamma ray measurements obtained using correlations against the vertical pilot wells. Logging-while-drilling tools are used in bottom hole assemblies (BHA) to ensure accurate well placement and to perform detailed reservoir characterizations across the target structure. The LWD measurements are also used to avoid hazards and enhance rates of penetration. LWD can also be used to enhance trajectory placement and provide an improved understanding of reservoirs. In this study, LWD measurements were conducted at a shale gas play in order to obtain accurate well placement, formation evaluation, and completion optimization processes. The study showed how LWD measurements can be used to optimize well completion and stimulation plans by considering well positions in relation to geological targets, reservoir property changes, hydrocarbon saturation disparity, and variations in geomechanical properties. 21 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Simulating reservoir lithologies by an actively conditioned Markov chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Runhai; Luthi, Stefan M.; Gisolf, Dries

    2018-06-01

    The coupled Markov chain model can be used to simulate reservoir lithologies between wells, by conditioning them on the observed data in the cored wells. However, with this method, only the state at the same depth as the current cell is going to be used for conditioning, which may be a problem if the geological layers are dipping. This will cause the simulated lithological layers to be broken or to become discontinuous across the reservoir. In order to address this problem, an actively conditioned process is proposed here, in which a tolerance angle is predefined. The states contained in the region constrained by the tolerance angle will be employed for conditioning in the horizontal chain first, after which a coupling concept with the vertical chain is implemented. In order to use the same horizontal transition matrix for different future states, the tolerance angle has to be small. This allows the method to work in reservoirs without complex structures caused by depositional processes or tectonic deformations. Directional artefacts in the modeling process are avoided through a careful choice of the simulation path. The tolerance angle and dipping direction of the strata can be obtained from a correlation between wells, or from seismic data, which are available in most hydrocarbon reservoirs, either by interpretation or by inversion that can also assist the construction of a horizontal probability matrix.

  14. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Matthew T; Moridis, George J; Keen, Noel D; Johnson, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes. Key Points: Short-term leakage fractured reservoirs requires high-permeability pathways Production strategy affects the likelihood and magnitude of gas release Gas release is likely short-term, without additional driving forces PMID

  15. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  16. Communication: Relaxation-limited electronic currents in extended reservoir simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, Daniel; Smolyanitsky, Alex; Zwolak, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Open-system approaches are gaining traction in the simulation of charge transport in nanoscale and molecular electronic devices. In particular, "extended reservoir" simulations, where explicit reservoir degrees of freedom are present, allow for the computation of both real-time and steady-state properties but require relaxation of the extended reservoirs. The strength of this relaxation, γ, influences the conductance, giving rise to a "turnover" behavior analogous to Kramers turnover in chemical reaction rates. We derive explicit, general expressions for the weak and strong relaxation limits. For weak relaxation, the conductance increases linearly with γ and every electronic state of the total explicit system contributes to the electronic current according to its "reduced" weight in the two extended reservoir regions. Essentially, this represents two conductors in series—one at each interface with the implicit reservoirs that provide the relaxation. For strong relaxation, a "dual" expression-one with the same functional form-results, except now proportional to 1/γ and dependent on the system of interest's electronic states, reflecting that the strong relaxation is localizing electrons in the extended reservoirs. Higher order behavior (e.g., γ2 or 1/γ2) can occur when there is a gap in the frequency spectrum. Moreover, inhomogeneity in the frequency spacing can give rise to a pseudo-plateau regime. These findings yield a physically motivated approach to diagnosing numerical simulations and understanding the influence of relaxation, and we examine their occurrence in both simple models and a realistic, fluctuating graphene nanoribbon.

  17. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural analysis that is carried out to evaluate the reservoir properties of Qishn sandstone as well as the entrapment style of the hydrocarbons at Sharyoof field, Sayun-Masila Basin that is located at the east central of Yemen. The reservoir rocks are dominated by clean porous and permeable sandstones zones usually intercalated with some clay stone interbeds. As identified from well logs, Qishn sandstone is classified into subunits (S1A, S1B, S1C and S2) with different reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon potentiality. A number of qualitative and quantitative well logging analyses are used to characterize the different subunits of the Qishn reservoir and identify its hydrocarbon potentiality. Dia-porosity, M-N, Pickett, Buckles plots, petrophysical analogs and lateral distribution maps are used in the analysis. Shale volume, lithology, porosity, and fluid saturation are among the most important deduced parameters. The analysis revealed that S1A and S1C are the main hydrocarbon-bearing units. More specifically, S1A unit is the best, as it attains the most prolific hydrocarbon saturations (oil saturation "SH″ up to 65) and reservoir characteristics. An average petrophysical ranges of 4-21%, 16-23%, 11-19%, 0-65%, are detected for S1A unit, regarding shale volume, total and effective porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, respectively. Meanwhile, S1B unit exhibits less reservoir characteristics (Vsh>30%, ϕEff<15% and SH< 15%). The lateral distribution maps revealed that most of the hydrocarbons (for S1A and S1C units) are indicated at the middle of the study area as NE-SW oriented closures. The analysis and interpretation of seismic data had clarified that the structure of study area is represented by a big middle horst bounded by a group of step-like normal faults at the extreme boundaries (faulted anticlinal-structure). In conclusion, the entrapment of the encountered hydrocarbon at Sharyoof oil

  18. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  19. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  20. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  1. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  2. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  3. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  4. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  5. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  6. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Sande Guy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir’s complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  7. Possibilities of rationalizing gas storage in hydrocarbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker; Gilch; Kretzschmar

    1990-01-01

    A number of criteria on the utilization of gas fields for storage and major methods for rationalizing such storage reservoirs (such as pressure optimization and increase of well performance) are indicated. The pressure reduction/ pressure increase conducted in phases and the investigations involved are discussed in detail. In particular, experiences and results for fixing the maximum allowable storage pressures are analyzed critically. Problems of gas blending in case of different compositions of residual gas and storage gas are dealt with. Finally, some recommendations are given for the necessary investigations to increase efficiency in the conversion of depleted hydrocarbon deposits to gas storage. 3 figs

  8. The seismic expression and hydrocarbon potential of subsurface impact craters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R.; Westbroek, H.H.; Lawton, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    The seismic characteristics of meteorite impact craters and their potential as oil and gas reservoirs were discussed. Seismic data from James River, Alberta, in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin show subsurface anomalies to be meteorite impact structures. The White Valley structure in Saskatchewan has similar features and seismic anomalies indicate that it too could be a meteorite impact structure, although other possibilities have been proposed. Other impact structures in western Canada such as the Steen River structure and the Viewfield crater have or are producing hydrocarbons. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted anticline gas field is closely related to the longstanding active large faults, where natural gas is composed of a high proportion of hydrocarbons, a small amount of non-hydrocarbons, and the wet gas generated during highly mature stage shows obvious vertical migration signs; ② liquid hydrocarbons associated with natural gas there are derived from source rock of the Enping & Zhuhai Formation, whereas natural gas comes mainly from source rock of the Enping Formation, and source rock of the Wenchang Formation made a little contribution during the early Eocene period as well; ③ although there was gas migration and accumulation, yet most of the natural gas mainly scattered and dispersed due to the stronger activity of faults in the early period; later as fault activity gradually weakened, gas started to accumulate into reservoirs in the Baiyun sag; ④ there is stronger vertical migration of oil and gas than lateral migration, and the places where fault links effective source rocks with reservoirs are most likely for gas accumulation; ⑤ effective temporal-spatial coupling of source-fault-reservoir in late stage is the key to gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag; ⑥ the nearer the distance from a trap to a large-scale fault and hydrocarbon source kitchen, the more likely gas may accumulate in the trap in late stage, therefore gas accumulation efficiency is much lower for the traps which are far away from large-scale faults and hydrocarbon source

  10. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  11. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  12. Effect of pore structure on the seepage characteristics of tight sandstone reservoirs: A case study of Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm reservoirs in the western Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Sima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tight sandstone reservoirs are characterized by complex pore structures and strong heterogeneity, and their seepage characteristics are much different from those of conventional sandstone reservoirs. In this paper, the tight sandstone reservoirs of Upper Jurassic Penglaizhen Fm in western Sichuan Basin were analyzed in terms of their pore structures by using the data about physical property, mercury injection and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR tests. Then, the seepage characteristics and the gas–water two-phase migration mechanisms and distribution of tight sandstone reservoirs with different types of pore structures in the process of hydrocarbon accumulation and development were simulated by combining the relative permeability experiment with the visual microscopic displacement model. It is shown that crotch-like viscous fingering occurs in the process of gas front advancing in reservoirs with different pore structures. The better the pore structure is, the lower the irreducible water saturation is; the higher the gas-phase relative permeability of irreducible water is, the more easily the gas reservoir can be developed. At the late stage of development, the residual gas is sealed in reservoirs in the forms of bypass, cutoff and dead end. In various reservoirs, the interference between gas and water is stronger, so gas and water tends to be produced simultaneously. The sealed gas may reduce the production rate of gas wells significantly, and the existence of water phase may reduce the gas permeability greatly; consequently, the water-bearing low-permeability tight sandstone gas reservoirs reveal serious water production, highly-difficult development and low-recovery percentage at the late stage, which have adverse impacts on the effective production and development of gas wells.

  13. Mobile and immobile migrated hydrocarbons in the Embla Field, North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharati, Sunil

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with the geology of the Embla Field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. This field has proven to be an excellent example to apply some of the recent ideas in reservoir geochemistry and has provided a sample set. Although the Embla field is in one of the most prolific regions of the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the Central Graben, its petroleum population is significantly different from neighbouring fields in more than one way. It is hoped that this work will provide a useful database for the planning of Embla`s further development. Migrated hydrocarbons are evaluated with respect to composition, maturity, intra-reservoir communication, compartmentalization and filling history of the field. The presence of immobile solid reservoir bitumen phase (paleo-oil) is mapped and explained and its origin and implications on overall reservoir quality are discussed. 206 refs., 118 figs., 34 tabs.

  14. Mobile and immobile migrated hydrocarbons in the Embla Field, North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharati, Sunil

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the geology of the Embla Field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. This field has proven to be an excellent example to apply some of the recent ideas in reservoir geochemistry and has provided a sample set. Although the Embla field is in one of the most prolific regions of the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the Central Graben, its petroleum population is significantly different from neighbouring fields in more than one way. It is hoped that this work will provide a useful database for the planning of Embla`s further development. Migrated hydrocarbons are evaluated with respect to composition, maturity, intra-reservoir communication, compartmentalization and filling history of the field. The presence of immobile solid reservoir bitumen phase (paleo-oil) is mapped and explained and its origin and implications on overall reservoir quality are discussed. 206 refs., 118 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. EMSE: Synergizing EM and seismic data attributes for enhanced forecasts of reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-10-01

    New developments of electromagnetic and seismic techniques have recently revolutionized the oil and gas industry. Time-lapse seismic data is providing engineers with tools to more accurately track the dynamics of multi-phase reservoir fluid flows. With the challenges faced in distinguishing between hydrocarbons and water via seismic methods, the industry has been looking at electromagnetic techniques in order to exploit the strong contrast in conductivity between hydrocarbons and water. Incorporating this information into reservoir simulation is expected to considerably enhance the forecasting of the reservoir, hence optimizing production and reducing costs. Conventional approaches typically invert the seismic and electromagnetic data in order to transform them into production parameters, before incorporating them as constraints in the history matching process and reservoir simulations. This makes automatization difficult and computationally expensive due to the necessity of manual processing, besides the potential artifacts. Here we introduce a new approach to incorporate seismic and electromagnetic data attributes directly into the history matching process. To avoid solving inverse problems and exploit information in the dynamics of the flow, we exploit petrophysical transformations to simultaneously incorporate time lapse seismic and electromagnetic data attributes using different ensemble Kalman-based history matching techniques. Our simulation results show enhanced predictability of the critical reservoir parameters and reduce uncertainties in model simulations, outperforming with only production data or the inclusion of either seismic or electromagnetic data. A statistical test is performed to confirm the significance of the results. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  17. Frictional and transport properties of simulated faults in CO2 storage reservoirs and clay-rich caprocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    In order to mitigate and meet CO2 emission regulations, long-term CO2 storage in hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most attractive large-scale options. To ensure save anthropogenic storage, it is important to maintain the sealing integrity of potential storage complexes. It is therefore

  18. High-resolution reservoir characterization by an acoustic impedance inversion of a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetyukhina, D.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Luthi, S.M.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Fluvio-deltaic sedimentary systems are of great interest for explorationists because they can form prolific hydrocarbon plays. However, they are also among the most complex and heterogeneous ones encountered in the subsurface, and potential reservoir units are often close to or below seismic

  19. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A literature search on reservoir and/or well stimulation techniques suitable for application in geothermal fields is presented. The literature on stimulation techniques in oil and gas field applications was also searched and evaluated as to its relevancy to geothermal operations. The equivalent low-temperature work documented in the open literature is cited, and an attempt is made to evaluate the relevance of this information as far as high-temperature stimulation work is concerned. Clays play an important role in any stimulation work. Therefore, special emphasis has been placed on clay behavior anticipated in geothermal operations. (MHR)

  20. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Collier, Hughbert A.; Bennett, Michael

    2002-01-29

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate NMR techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging are being linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of the core and theoretical model.

  1. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2002-03-31

    The West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma is one of few newly discovered oil fields in Oklahoma. Although profitable, the field exhibits several unusual characteristics. These include decreasing water-oil ratios, decreasing gas-oil ratios, decreasing bottomhole pressures during shut-ins in some wells, and transient behavior for water production in many wells. This report explains the unusual characteristics of West Carney Field based on detailed geological and engineering analyses. We propose a geological history that explains the presence of mobile water and oil in the reservoir. The combination of matrix and fractures in the reservoir explains the reservoir's flow behavior. We confirm our hypothesis by matching observed performance with a simulated model and develop procedures for correlating core data to log data so that the analysis can be extended to other, similar fields where the core coverage may be limited.

  2. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf; Saad, Bilal; Negara, Ardiansyah; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically

  3. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudini; Nasir Matori, Abd; Talib, Jasmi Ab; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS). Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  4. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS. Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  5. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    good fluid-flow pathway and also a suitable reservoir for hydrocarbons. The youngest faults (D3) are often filled with calcite, (saddle) dolomite and pyrite that formed at temperatures between 100 and 150° C. Fluid inclusions within calcite have abundant hydrocarbon-rich components indicating that these veins formed synchronously with hydrocarbon migration. The same minerals were deposited within the ductile to brittle faults within the granite (formed during D1). This resulted in significant porosity reduction, especially in the faults themselves, reducing the fluid flow efficiency within the altered granite, locking up hydrocarbons and reducing the reservoir quality.

  6. Modeling of Turbidity Variation in Two Reservoirs Connected by a Water Transfer Tunnel in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Chung Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Andong and Imha reservoirs in South Korea are connected by a water transfer tunnel. The turbidity of the Imha reservoir is much higher than that of the Andong reservoir. Thus, it is necessary to examine the movement of turbidity between the two reservoirs via the water transfer tunnel. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the water transfer tunnel on the turbidity behavior of the two connecting reservoirs and to further understand the effect of reservoir turbidity distribution as a function of the selective withdrawal depth. This study applied the CE-QUAL-W2, a water quality and 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model, for simulating the hydrodynamic processes of the two reservoirs. Results indicate that, in the Andong reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was similar to that without the tunnel. However, in the Imha reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was lower than that without the tunnel. This can be attributed to the higher capacity of the Andong reservoir, which has double the storage of the Imha reservoir. Withdrawal turbidity in the Imha reservoir was investigated using the water transfer tunnel. This study applied three withdrawal selections as elevation (EL. 141.0 m, 146.5 m, and 152.0 m. The highest withdrawal turbidity resulted in EL. 141.0 m, which indicates that the high turbidity current is located at a vertical depth of about 20–30 m because of the density difference. These results will be helpful for understanding the release and selective withdrawal turbidity behaviors for a water transfer tunnel between two reservoirs.

  7. Geologic framework for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, U.S. Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group in onshore areas and State waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system. Four assessment units (AUs) are defined based on characterization of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, seals, traps, and the geohistory of the hydrocarbon products. Strata in each AU share similar stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon-charge histories.

  8. Subduction zone earthquake probably triggered submarine hydrocarbon seepage offshore Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David; José M., Mogollón; Michael, Strasser; Thomas, Pape; Gerhard, Bohrmann; Noemi, Fekete; Volkhard, Spiess; Sabine, Kasten

    2014-05-01

    creating pathways for free gas to migrate from a shallow reservoir within the gas hydrate stability zone into the water column. Our results imply that free hydrocarbon gas trapped beneath a local gas hydrate seal was mobilized through earthquake-induced mechanical failure and in that way circumvented carbon sequestration within the sediment. These findings lead to conclude that hydrocarbon seepage triggered by earthquakes can play a role for carbon budgets at other seismically active continental margins. The newly identified process presented in our study is conceivable to help interpret data from similar sites. Reference: Fischer, D., Mogollon, J.M., Strasser, M., Pape, T., Bohrmann, G., Fekete, N., Spieß, V. and Kasten, S., 2013. Subduction zone earthquake as potential trigger of submarine hydrocarbon seepage. Nature Geoscience 6: 647-651.

  9. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  10. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  11. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  12. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  13. Subsurface migration of petroleum hydrocarbons: A case study of immiscible migration and chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The subsurface distribution of a leaked crude oil illustrates the combined influence of both the chemical and physical properties of soil and free product on the migration of petroleum hydrocarbons. Immiscible phase behavior was observed, as well as chromatographic-like separation of the lighter constituents of the crude oil from the heavier constituents. After downward migration through approximately 50 ft of unsaturated, heterogeneous alluvial sediments, the crude oil formed a horizontal plume on top of a perched, saturated zone. Immiscible phase trapping is evident from the occurrence of very high concentration of hydrocarbons in both the vertical and horizontal plumes. Samples taken from the vertical zone of contamination indicate a transition from heavier hydrocarbons near the surface to lighter hydrocarbons at depth. This phenomenon is attributed to chromatographic-like separation of the heavier hydrocarbons by the soil, possibly due to preferential solubility of the lighter hydrocarbons in percolating ran water

  14. Multiscale properties of unconventional reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.

    A multidisciplinary study of unconventional reservoir rocks is presented, providing the theory, forward modeling and Bayesian inverse modeling approaches, and laboratory protocols to characterize clay-rich, low porosity and permeability shales and mudstones within an anisotropic framework. Several physical models characterizing oil and gas shales are developed across multiple length scales, ranging from microscale phenomena, e.g. the effect of the cation exchange capacity of reactive clay mineral surfaces on water adsorption isotherms, and the effects of infinitesimal porosity compaction on elastic and electrical properties, to meso-scale phenomena, e.g. the role of mineral foliations, tortuosity of conduction pathways and the effects of organic matter (kerogen and hydrocarbon fractions) on complex conductivity and their connections to intrinsic electrical anisotropy, as well as the macro-scale electrical and elastic properties including formulations for the complex conductivity tensor and undrained stiffness tensor within the context of effective stress and poroelasticity. Detailed laboratory protocols are described for sample preparation and measurement of these properties using spectral induced polarization (SIP) and ultrasonics for the anisotropic characterization of shales for both unjacketed samples under benchtop conditions and jacketed samples under differential loading. An ongoing study of the effects of kerogen maturation through hydrous pyrolysis on the complex conductivity is also provided in review. Experimental results are catalogued and presented for various unconventional formations in North America including the Haynesville, Bakken, and Woodford shales.

  15. Design Techniques and Reservoir Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Fereidooni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced oil recovery using nitrogen injection is a commonly applied method for pressure maintenance in conventional reservoirs. Numerical simulations can be practiced for the prediction of a reservoir performance in the course of injection process; however, a detailed simulation might take up enormous computer processing time. In such cases, a simple statistical model may be a good approach to the preliminary prediction of the process without any application of numerical simulation. In the current work, seven rock/fluid reservoir properties are considered as screening parameters and those parameters having the most considerable effect on the process are determined using the combination of experimental design techniques and reservoir simulations. Therefore, the statistical significance of the main effects and interactions of screening parameters are analyzed utilizing statistical inference approaches. Finally, the influential parameters are employed to create a simple statistical model which allows the preliminary prediction of nitrogen injection in terms of a recovery factor without resorting to numerical simulations.

  16. The Characteristics of Spanish Reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armengol, J; Merce, R

    2003-01-01

    Sau Reservoir was first filled in 1963 in a middle stretch of the Ter River, as part of a multi-use scheme, including hydroelectric power, agricultural irrigation, domestic and industrial water supply...

  17. Exploitation and Optimization of Reservoir Performance in Hunton Formation, Oklahoma, Budget Period I, Class Revisit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, Mohan

    2002-04-02

    This report explains the unusual characteristics of West Carney Field based on detailed geological and engineering analyses. A geological history that explains the presence of mobile water and oil in the reservoir was proposed. The combination of matrix and fractures in the reservoir explains the reservoir?s flow behavior. We confirm our hypothesis by matching observed performance with a simulated model and develop procedures for correlating core data to log data so that the analysis can be extended to other, similar fields where the core coverage may be limited.

  18. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  19. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  20. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  1. A rationale for reservoir management economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    Significant economic benefits can be derived from the application f reservoir management. The key elements in economical reservoir management are the efficient use of available resources and optimization of reservoir exploitation through a multidisciplined approach. This paper describes various aspects of and approaches to reservoir management and provides case histories that support the findings

  2. Comparison of pressure transient response in intensely and sparsely fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, R.T.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive analytical model is presented to study the pressure transient behavior of a naturally fractured reservoir with a continuous matrix block size distribution. Geologically realistic probability density functions of matrix block size are used to represent reservoirs of varying fracture intensity and uniformity. Transient interporosity flow is assumed and interporosity skin is incorporated. Drawdown and interference pressure transient tests are investigated. The results show distinctions in the pressure response from intensely and sparsely fractured reservoirs in the absence of interporosity skin. Also, uniformly and nonuniformly fractured reservoirs exhibit distinct responses, irrespective of the degree of fracture intensity. The pressure response in a nonuniformly fractured reservoir with large block size variability, approaches a nonfractured (homogeneous) reservoir response. Type curves are developed to estimate matrix block size variability and the degree of fracture intensity from drawdown and interference well tests.

  3. Courtship pheromones in parasitic wasps: comparison of bioactive and inactive hydrocarbon profiles by multivariate statistical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, S.; Mumm, R.; Ruther, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons play a significant role in the regulation of cuticular permeability and also in the chemical communication of insects. In the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), male courtship behavior is mediated by a female-produced sex pheromone. Previous

  4. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  5. Avo analysis in the high impedance reservoir of Chuchupa Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cediel Mauricio; Almanza Ovidio; Montes Luis

    2012-01-01

    The technique of bright spot as a direct indicator of hydrocarbons has been widely used since the work of Ostrander (1984), particularly in gas fields. Located at north of Colombia, the Chuchupa field has produced gas continuously during 30 years, but despite the coverage with 2D seismic, amplitude anomalies associated with gas accumulation have not been observed. In order to find the relationships between the amplitude information and the gas accumulation, an AVO analysis was performed to describe the seismic reservoir response. The raw data of a 2D seismic line that crosses the field from East to West and a well log data set were used. In a first approach the seismic response was modeled using well logs, so a comparative analysis between the furnished synthetic seismograms and the real CDP gathers was done. The results indicated that the reservoirs top is represented by a low amplitude peak which decreases when the offset increases but whose phase remains unchanged. In the well, where the reservoir has 100% gas saturation, a high correlation between the synthetic and real CDP gathers was observed. In a second approach, anomalous clustered points in the IV quadrant were discriminated through intercept versus gradient cross plot analysis. A weak Class-I anomaly was identified, which could not be observed in stacked sections and hence it should be analyzed using pre-stack data.

  6. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  7. Research of hard-to-recovery and unconventional oil-bearing formations according to the principle «in-situ reservoir fabric»

    OpenAIRE

    А. Д. Алексеев; В. В. Жуков; К. В. Стрижнев; С. А. Черевко

    2017-01-01

    Currently in Russia and the world due to the depletion of old highly productive deposits, the role of hard-to-recover and unconventional hydrocarbons is increasing. Thanks to scientific and technical progress, it became possible to involve in the development very low permeable reservoirs and even synthesize oil and gas in-situ. Today, wells serve not only for the production of hydrocarbons, but also are important elements of stimulation technology, through which the technogenic effect on the ...

  8. Three Essays in the Public Economics of Offshore Hydrocarbon Investment and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Owen P.

    Offshore sources, in both shallow and deep waters, are increasingly important contributors to global oil and natural gas production. As both resource owner and taxing authority, national governments play an important role in the production of these offshore hydrocarbons. How the policy choices of these governments affect firm behavior, however, is not necessarily well understood. This dissertation contributes to our knowledge of how public policy influences offshore hydrocarbon investment and production. In the first essay, I estimate the investment responses of hydrocarbon producers to the suspension of the royalty, a type of production tax levied on production from federal lands. I find that the potential for a royalty payments waiver: (1) increases the probability that an individual tract is acquired by an average of 193% (a mean increase of 5.6 percentage points); (2) decreases the probability that a lease is ever drilled during its observed lease term by an average of 14.5% (a mean decrease of 1.3 percentage points); and (3) increases the expected number of explored leases by 150%. The introduction of DWRRA also increases the average winning bid per lease by 60%. These estimates quantify the magnitudes of the discouraging effects of production taxation on oil and natural gas investment. In the second essay, I quantify the implied value of information spillovers in oil and natural gas exploration using an event study design. I find that 25 trading days after a discovery, firms that own leases adjacent to the discovery lease (but not the discovery lease, itself) realize an average abnormal return translating to 315 million in market capitalization. This effect is quantitatively large compared to costs for drilling an exploratory well. In the final essay, I measure how oil price affects water injection, a method for prolonging the productive lifetime of oil fields. I find that a 1 rise in price increases the water injected into the well's reservoir by

  9. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  10. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  11. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  12. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  13. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  15. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  17. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  18. Dynamics of hydrocarbon vents: Focus on primary porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Shedd, W.; Abichou, T.; Pineda-Garcia, O.; Silva, M.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of hydrocarbon release by monitoring activity of a single vent at a 1215m deep site in the Gulf of Mexico (GC600). An autonomous camera, deployed by the submersible ALVIN, was programmed to capture a close-up image every 4 seconds for approximately 3.5 hours. The images provided the ability to study the gas hydrate outcrop site (that measured 5.2x16.3cm3) in an undisturbed state. The outcrop included an array of 38 tube-like vents through which dark brown oil bubbles are released at a rate ranging from 8 bubbles per minute to 0 bubbles per minute. The average release of bubbles from all the separate vents was 59.5 bubbles per minute, equating the total volume released to 106.38cm per minute. The rate of bubble release decreased toward the end of the observation interval, which coincided approximately with the tidal minimum. Ice worms (Hesiocaeca methanicola, Desbruyères & Toulmond, 1998) were abundant at the vent site. The image sequence showed the ice-worms actively moving in and out of burrows in the mound. It has been speculated that Hesiocaeca methanicola contribute to gas hydrate decomposition by creating burrows and depressions in the gas hydrate matrix (Fisher et al, 2000). Ice worm burrows could generate pathways for the passage of oil and gas through the gas hydrate mound. Gas hydrates commonly occur along active and/or passive continental margins (Kennicutt et al, 1988a). The release of oil and gas at this particular hydrocarbon seep site is along a passive continental margin, and controlled primarily by active salt tectonics as opposed to the movement of continental tectonic plates (Salvador, 1987). We propose a descriptive model governing the release of gas and oil from deep sub-bottom reservoirs at depths of 3000-5000m (MacDonald, 1998), through consolidated and unconsolidated sediments, and finally through gas hydrate deposits at the sea floor. The oil and gas escape from the source rock and/or reservoir through

  19. Acoustic Impedance Inversion To Identify Oligo-Miocene Carbonate Facies As Reservoir At Kangean Offshore Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuli Purnama, Arif; Ariyani Machmud, Pritta; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Yusro, Miftahul; Gunawan, Agung; Rahmadi, Dicky

    2018-03-01

    Model based inversion was applied to inversion process of 2D seismic data in Kangean Offshore Area. Integration acoustic impedance from wells and seismic data was expected showing physical property, facies separation and reservoir quality of carbonate rock, particularly in Kangean Offshore Area. Quantitative and qualitative analysis has been conducted on the inversion results to characterize the carbonate reservoir part of Kujung and correlate it to depositional facies type. Main target exploration in Kangean Offshore Area is Kujung Formation (Oligo-Miocene Carbonate). The type of reservoir in this area generate from reef growing on the platform. Carbonate rock is a reservoir which has various type and scale of porosity. Facies determination is required to to predict reservoir quality, because each facies has its own porosity value. Acoustic impedance is used to identify and characterize Kujung carbonate facies, also could be used to predict the distribution of porosity. Low acoustic impedance correlated with packstone facies that has acoustic impedance value below 7400 gr/cc*m/s. In other situation, high acoustic impedance characterized by wackestone facies above 7400 gr/cc*m/s. The interpretation result indicated that Kujung carbonate rock dominated by packstone facies in the upper part of build-up and it has ideal porosity for hydrocarbon reservoir.

  20. Quantifying the clay content with borehole depth and impact on reservoir flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath Kumar, Aaraellu D.; Chattopadhyay, Pallavi B.

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on the application of reservoir well log data and 3D transient numerical model for proper optimization of flow dynamics and hydrocarbon potential. Fluid flow through porous media depends on clay content that controls porosity, permeability and pore pressure. The pressure dependence of permeability is more pronounced in tight formations. Therefore, preliminary clay concentration analysis and geo-mechanical characterizations have been done by using wells logs. The assumption of a constant permeability for a reservoir is inappropriate and therefore the study deals with impact of permeability variation for pressure-sensitive formation. The study started with obtaining field data from available well logs. Then, the mathematical models are developed to understand the efficient extraction of oil in terms of reservoir architecture, porosity and permeability. The fluid flow simulations have been done using COMSOL Multiphysics Software by choosing time dependent subsurface flow module that is governed by Darcy's law. This study suggests that the reservoir should not be treated as a single homogeneous structure with unique porosity and permeability. The reservoir parameters change with varying clay content and it should be considered for effective planning and extraction of oil. There is an optimum drawdown for maximum production with varying permeability in a reservoir.

  1. Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs Using a Combination of Downhole Pressure and Self-Potential Transient Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Nishi; Tsuneo Ishido

    2012-01-01

    In order to appraise the utility of self-potential (SP) measurements to characterize fractured reservoirs, we carried out continuous SP monitoring using multi Ag-AgCl electrodes installed within two open holes at the Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The observed ratio of SP change to pressure change associated with fluid flow showed different behaviors between intact host rock and fractured rock regions. Characteristic behavior peculiar to fractured reservoirs, which is predicted from numerical simulati...

  2. Plasma conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons at surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Kamath, V.A. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Natural gas is widely abundant, is easily withdrawn from reservoirs, is commonly produced as an associated gas along with crude oil production, and is found in many geologic settings as a resource separate from oil. A much larger fraction of the natural gas may be produced from a gas reservoir, as compared with a crude oil reservoir. However, natural gas is normally transported by pipeline, and the energy throughput of such a pipeline is perhaps only 20% to 30% of the throughput of an oil pipeline of the same size and cost. Gas is difficult to transport in moderate quantities at low cost, as it must either have a special pipeline or must be liquified into LNG, shipped in cryogenic LNG tankers, and regasified chemical stability of methane has made it difficult to convert it directly into conventional hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, and has also impeded its use as a feedstock for petrochemical production. Experiments are described in which a methane plasma is created, and the resulting methyl and hydrogen ions have been accelerated within a microchannel array so that they interact with neutral methane molecules on the inside surfaces of the microchannels. No catalysts are used, and the device operates at room temperature. Impact energies of the ions are in the range of 15 ev to greater than 100 ev, and the energy delivered in the interaction at the surfaces has caused the production of larger hydrocarbon molecules, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}, C{sub 6}, C{sub 7}, and C{sub 8} molecules. Conversion effectiveness is greater at higher pressure, due to the increased ionic activity. The costs of production of the plasma conversion devices are projected to be quite low, and the technology appears to be commercially and economically feasible.

  3. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we

  4. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into

  5. Climate Change Impacts on Sediment Quality of Subalpine Reservoirs: Implications on Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziali Laura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs are characterized by accumulation of sediments where micropollutants may concentrate, with potential toxic effects on downstream river ecosystems. However, sediment management such as flushing is needed to maintain storage capacity. Climate change is expected to increase sediment loads, but potential effects on their quality are scarcely known. In this context, sediment contamination by trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organics (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs, Polychlorinated Biphenyls PCBs and C > 12 hydrocarbons was analyzed in 20 reservoirs located in Italian Central Alps. A strong As and a moderate Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment was emphasized by Igeo, with potential ecotoxicological risk according to Probable Effect Concentration quotients. Sedimentation rate, granulometry, total organic carbon (TOC and altitude resulted as the main drivers governing pollutant concentrations in sediments. According to climate change models, expected increase of rainfall erosivity will enhance soil erosion and consequently the sediment flow to reservoirs, potentially increasing coarse grain fractions and thus potentially diluting pollutants. Conversely, increased weathering may enhance metal fluxes to reservoirs. Increased vegetation cover will potentially result in higher TOC concentrations, which may contrast contaminant bioavailability and thus toxicity. Our results may provide elements for a proper management of contaminated sediments in a climate change scenario aiming at preserving water quality and ecosystem functioning.

  6. Formation evaluation in liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Dougherty, E.E.; Handy, L.L.

    1981-04-01

    Studies relative to some formation evaluation aspects of geothermal reservoirs are reported. The particular reservoirs considered were the liquid dominated type with a lithology of the sedimentary nature. Specific problems of interest included the resistivity behavior of brines and rocks at elevated temperatures and studies on the feasibility of using the well log resistivity data to obtain estimates of reservoir permeability. Several papers summarizing the results of these studies were presented at various technical meetings for rapid dissemination of the results to potential users. These papers together with a summary of data most recently generated are included. A brief review of the research findings precedes the technical papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for four papers. Five papers were abstracted previously for EDB.

  7. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550

  8. Effective Stress Law in Unconventional Reservoirs under Different Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, S.; Harpalani, S.

    2017-12-01

    Unconventional reservoirs have attracted a great deal of research interest worldwide during the past two decades. Low permeability and specialized techniques required to exploit these resources present opportunities for improvement in both production rates and ultimate recovery. Understanding subsurface stress modifications and permeability evolution are valuable when evaluating the prospects of unconventional reservoirs. These reservoir properties are functions of effective stress. As a part of this study, effective stress law, specifically the variation of anisotropic Biot's coefficient under various boundary conditions believed to exist in gas reservoirs by different researchers, has been established. Pressure-dependent-permeability (PdK) experiments were carried out on San Juan coal under different boundary conditions, that is, uniaxial strain condition and constant volume condition. Stress and strain in the vertical and horizontal directions were monitored throughout the experiment. Data collected during the experiments was used to determine the Biot's coefficient in vertical and horizontal directions under these two boundary conditions, treating coal as transversely isotropic. The variation of Biot's coefficient was found to be well correlated with the variation in coal permeability. Based on the estimated values of Biot's coefficients, a theory of variation in its value is presented for other boundary conditions. The findings of the study shed light on the inherent behavior of Biot's coefficient under different reservoir boundary conditions. This knowledge can improve the modeling work requiring estimation of effective stress in reservoirs, such as, pressure-/stress- dependent permeability. At the same time, if the effective stresses are known with more certainty by other methods, it enables assessment of the unknown reservoir boundary conditions.

  9. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, S.; Maraschini, A.; Pacini, F.; Biran, O.

    2009-01-01

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  10. Multilevel techniques for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour

    The subject of this thesis is the development, application and study of novel multilevel methods for the acceleration and improvement of reservoir simulation techniques. The motivation for addressing this topic is a need for more accurate predictions of porous media flow and the ability to carry...... Full Approximation Scheme) • Variational (Galerkin) upscaling • Linear solvers and preconditioners First, a nonlinear multigrid scheme in the form of the Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) is implemented and studied for a 3D three-phase compressible rock/fluids immiscible reservoir simulator...... is extended to include a hybrid strategy, where FAS is combined with Newton’s method to construct a multilevel nonlinear preconditioner. This method demonstrates high efficiency and robustness. Second, an improved IMPES formulated reservoir simulator is implemented using a novel variational upscaling approach...

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  12. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  13. Enhanced Recovery in Tight Gas Reservoirs using Maxwell-Stefan Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, C. J. S.; Kantzas, A.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the steep production decline in unconventional gas reservoirs, enhanced recovery (ER) methods are receiving great attention from the industry. Wet gas or liquid rich reservoirs are the preferred ER candidates due to higher added value from natural gas liquids (NGL) production. ER in these reservoirs has the potential to add reserves by improving desorption and displacement of hydrocarbons through the medium. Nevertheless, analysis of gas transport at length scales of tight reservoirs is complicated because concomitant mechanisms are in place as pressure declines. In addition to viscous and Knudsen diffusion, multicomponent gas modeling includes competitive adsorption and molecular diffusion effects. Most models developed to address these mechanisms involve single component or binary mixtures. In this study, ER by gas injection is investigated in multicomponent (C1, C2, C3 and C4+, CO2 and N2) wet gas reservoirs. The competing effects of Knudsen and molecular diffusion are incorporated by using Maxwell-Stefan equations and the Dusty-Gas approach. This model was selected due to its superior properties on representing the physics of multicomponent gas flow, as demonstrated during the presented model validation. Sensitivity studies to evaluate adsorption, reservoir permeability and gas type effects are performed. The importance of competitive adsorption on production and displacement times is demonstrated. In the absence of adsorption, chromatographic separation is negligible. Production is merely dictated by competing effects between molecular and Knudsen diffusion. Displacement fronts travel rapidly across the medium. When adsorption effects are included, molecules with lower affinity to the adsorption sites will be produced faster. If the injected gas is inert (N2), an increase in heavier fraction composition occurs in the medium. During injection of adsorbing gases (CH4 and CO2), competitive adsorption effects will contribute to improved recovery of heavier

  14. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  15. Sedimentological and Geomorphological Effects of Reservoir Flushing: The Cachi Reservoir, Costa Rica, 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders; Swenning, Joar

    1999-01-01

    Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs......Physical geography, hydrology, geomorphology, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, dams, reservoirs...

  16. A new method for calculating gas content of coal reservoirs with consideration of a micro-pore overpressure environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When the gas content of a coal reservoir is calculated, the reservoir pressure measured by well logging and well testing is generally used for inversion calculation instead of gas pressure. However, the calculation result is not accurate because the reservoir pressure is not equal to the gas pressure in overpressure environments. In this paper, coal samples of different ranks in Shanxi and Henan are collected for testing the capillary pressure of coal pores. Based on the formation process of CBM reservoirs and the hydrocarbon generation and expulsion history of coal beds, the forming mechanisms of micro-pore overpressure environments in coal reservoirs were analyzed. Accordingly, a new method for calculating the gas content of coal reservoirs with consideration of a micro-pore overpressure environment was developed. And it was used to calculate the gas content of No. 1 coal bed of the 2nd member of Lower Permian Shanxi Fm in the Zhongmacun Coal Mine in Jiaozuo, Henan. It is indicated that during the formation and evolution of coals, some solid organic matters were converted into gas and water, and gas–water contact is surely formed in pores. In the end, capillary pressure is generated, so the gas pressure in micro-pores is much higher than the hydrostatic column pressure, which results in a micro-pore overpressure environment. Under such an environment, gas pressure is higher than reservoir pressure, so the gas content of coal reservoirs calculated previously based on the conventional reservoir pressure evaluation are usually underestimated. It is also found that the micro-pore overpressure environment exerts a dominating effect on the CBM content calculation of 3–100 nm pores, especially that of 3–10 nm pores, but a little effect on that of pores >100 nm. In conclusion, this new method clarifies the pressure environment of CBM gas reservoirs, thereby ensuring the calculation accuracy of gas content of coal reservoirs.

  17. Insights into the Anaerobic Biodegradation Pathway of n-Alkanes in Oil Reservoirs by Detection of Signature Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xin-Yu; Maurice Mbadinga, Serge; Liu, Yi-Fan; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Ye, Ru-Qiang; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of alkanes in hydrocarbon-rich environments has been documented and different degradation strategies proposed, of which the most encountered one is fumarate addition mechanism, generating alkylsuccinates as specific biomarkers. However, little is known about the mechanisms of anaerobic degradation of alkanes in oil reservoirs, due to low concentrations of signature metabolites and lack of mass spectral characteristics to allow identification. In this work, we used a multidisciplinary approach combining metabolite profiling and selective gene assays to establish the biodegradation mechanism of alkanes in oil reservoirs. A total of twelve production fluids from three different oil reservoirs were collected and treated with alkali; organic acids were extracted, derivatized with ethanol to form ethyl esters and determined using GC-MS analysis. Collectively, signature metabolite alkylsuccinates of parent compounds from C1 to C8 together with their (putative) downstream metabolites were detected from these samples. Additionally, metabolites indicative of the anaerobic degradation of mono- and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (2-benzylsuccinate, naphthoate, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-naphthoate) were also observed. The detection of alkylsuccinates and genes encoding for alkylsuccinate synthase shows that anaerobic degradation of alkanes via fumarate addition occurs in oil reservoirs. This work provides strong evidence on the in situ anaerobic biodegradation mechanisms of hydrocarbons by fumarate addition. PMID:25966798

  18. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.

  19. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-12-31

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have investigated the relative merits of the traditional history matching ('amplitude inversion') and a novel travel time inversion in terms of robustness of the method and convergence behavior of the solution. We show that the traditional amplitude inversion is orders of magnitude more non-linear and the solution here is likely to get trapped in local minimum, leading to inadequate history match. The proposed travel time inversion is shown to be extremely efficient and robust for practical field applications. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects

  20. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon plays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The geologic setting in the deep-water (depths greater than 1,500 feet) Gulf of Mexico is very favorable for the existence of large, commercial hydrocarbon accumulations. These areas have active salt tectonics that create abundant traps, underlying mature Mesozoic source rocks that can be observed expelling oil and gas to the ocean surface, and good quality reservoirs provided by turbidite sand deposits. Despite the limited amount of drilling in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico, 11 deep-water accumulations have been discovered which, when developed, will rank in the top 100 largest fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Proved field discoveries (those with announced development plans) have added over 1 billion barrels of oil equivalent to Gulf of Mexico reserves, and unproved field discoveries may add to additional billion barrels of oil equivalent. The Minerals Management Service, United States Department of the Interior, has completed a gulf-wide review of over 1,086 oil and gas fields and placed every pay sand in each field into a hydrocarbon play (plays are defined by chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraph, structure, and production). Seven productive hydrocarbon plays were identified in the deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico. Regional maps illustrate the productive limits of each play. In addition, field data, dry holes, and wells with sub-economic pay were added to define the facies and structural limits for each play. Areas for exploration potential are identified for each hydrocarbon play. A type field for each play is chosen to demonstrate the play's characteristics

  2. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  3. Petrofacies analysis - the petrophysical tool for geologic/engineering reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Gerlach, P.M. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measures of a reservoir. The word {open_quotes}petrofacies{close_quotes} makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance, and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information, where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations will be reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration holes, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis is applied in this example to distinguishing flow units including discrimination of pore type as assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of color cross sections and cluster analysis.

  4. Fault features and enrichment laws of narrow-channel distal tight sandstone gas reservoirs: A case study of the Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in the Zhongjiang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, is the main base of Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company for gas reserves and production increase during the 12th Five-Year Plan. However, its natural gas exploration and development process was restricted severely, since the exploration wells cannot be deployed effectively in this area based on the previous gas accumulation and enrichment pattern of “hydrocarbon source fault + channel sand body + local structure”. In this paper, the regional fault features and the gas accumulation and enrichment laws were discussed by analyzing the factors like fault evolution, fault elements, fault-sand body configuration (the configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies, trap types, and reservoir anatomy. It is concluded that the accumulation and enrichment of the Shaximiao Fm gas reservoir in this area is controlled by three factors, i.e., hydrocarbon source, sedimentary facies and structural position. It follows the accumulation laws of source controlling region, facies controlling zone and position controlling reservoir, which means deep source and shallow accumulation, fault-sand body conductivity, multiphase channel, differential accumulation, adjusted enrichment and gas enrichment at sweet spots. A good configuration relationship between hydrocarbon source faults and channel sand bodies is the basic condition for the formation of gas reservoirs. Natural gas accumulated preferentially in the structures or positions with good fault-sand body configuration. Gas reservoirs can also be formed in the monoclinal structures which were formed after the late structural adjustment. In the zones supported by multiple faults or near the crush zones, no gas accumulation occurs, but water is dominantly produced. The gas-bearing potential is low in the area with undeveloped faults or being 30 km away from the hydrocarbon source faults. So

  5. An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.

    2012-09-01

    A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent agent for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making agent that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The agent learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the agent. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent agent for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent agent successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature extremes during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.

  6. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  7. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  8. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  9. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  10. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  11. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  12. Digital Core Modelling for Clastic Oil and Gas Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerov, I.; Berezovsky, V.; Gubaydullin, M.; Yur’ev, A.

    2018-05-01

    "Digital core" is a multi-purpose tool for solving a variety of tasks in the field of geological exploration and production of hydrocarbons at various stages, designed to improve the accuracy of geological study of subsurface resources, the efficiency of reproduction and use of mineral resources, as well as applying the results obtained in production practice. The actuality of the development of the "Digital core" software is that even a partial replacement of natural laboratory experiments with mathematical modelling can be used in the operative calculation of reserves in exploratory drilling, as well as in the absence of core material from wells. Or impossibility of its research by existing laboratory methods (weakly cemented, loose, etc. rocks). 3D-reconstruction of the core microstructure can be considered as a cheap and least time-consuming method for obtaining petrophysical information about the main filtration-capacitive properties and fluid motion in reservoir rocks.

  13. X-ray microtomography application in pore space reservoir rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.F.S.; Lima, I. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Borghi, L. [Geology Department, Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Brazil); Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Characterization of porosity in carbonate rocks is important in the oil and gas industry since a major hydrocarbons field is formed by this lithology and they have a complex media porous. In this context, this research presents a study of the pore space in limestones rocks by x-ray microtomography. Total porosity, type of porosity and pore size distribution were evaluated from 3D high resolution images. Results show that carbonate rocks has a complex pore space system with different pores types at the same facies. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is about porosity parameter in carbonate rocks by 3D X-Ray Microtomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has become useful as data input for modeling reservoir characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique was able to provide pores, grains and mineralogical differences among the samples.

  14. Understanding satellite-based monthly-to-seasonal reservoir outflow estimation as a function of hydrologic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew; Sikder, Safat; Miao, Yabin; Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal; Ara Pervin, Ismat; Mahbubur Rahman, S. M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2016-05-01

    Growing population and increased demand for water is causing an increase in dam and reservoir construction in developing nations. When rivers cross international boundaries, the downstream stakeholders often have little knowledge of upstream reservoir operation practices. Satellite remote sensing in the form of radar altimetry and multisensor precipitation products can be used as a practical way to provide downstream stakeholders with the fundamentally elusive upstream information on reservoir outflow needed to make important and proactive water management decisions. This study uses a mass balance approach of three hydrologic controls to estimate reservoir outflow from satellite data at monthly and annual time scales: precipitation-induced inflow, evaporation, and reservoir storage change. Furthermore, this study explores the importance of each of these hydrologic controls to the accuracy of outflow estimation. The hydrologic controls found to be unimportant could potentially be neglected from similar future studies. Two reservoirs were examined in contrasting regions of the world, the Hungry Horse Reservoir in a mountainous region in northwest U.S. and the Kaptai Reservoir in a low-lying, forested region of Bangladesh. It was found that this mass balance method estimated the annual outflow of both reservoirs with reasonable skill. The estimation of monthly outflow from both reservoirs was however less accurate. The Kaptai basin exhibited a shift in basin behavior resulting in variable accuracy across the 9 year study period. Monthly outflow estimation from Hungry Horse Reservoir was compounded by snow accumulation and melt processes, reflected by relatively low accuracy in summer and fall, when snow processes control runoff. Furthermore, it was found that the important hydrologic controls for reservoir outflow estimation at the monthly time scale differs between the two reservoirs, with precipitation-induced inflow being the most important control for the Kaptai

  15. Petrophysics and hydrocarbon potential of Paleozoic rocks in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fowzia; Shaaban, Fouad; Khalaf, Fikry; Bahaman, Fatma; Akbar, Bibi; Al-Khamiss, Awatif

    2017-10-01

    Well logs from nine deep exploratory and development wells in Kuwaiti oil fields have been used to study petrophysical characteristics and their effect on the reservoir quality of the subsurface Paleozoic Khuff and Unayzah formations. Petrophysical log data have been calibrated with core analysis available at some intervals. The study indicates a complex lithological facies of the Khuff Formation that is composed mainly of dolomite and anhydrite interbeds with dispersed argillaceous materials and few limestone intercalations. This facies greatly lowered the formation matrix porosity and permeability index. The porosity is fully saturated with water, which is reflected by the low resistivity logs responses, except at some intervals where few hydrocarbon shows are recorded. The impermeable anhydrites, massive (low-permeability) carbonate rock and shale at the lower part of the formation combine to form intraformational seals for the clastic reservoirs of the underlying Unayzah Formation. By contrast, the log interpretation revealed clastic lithological nature of the Unayzah Formation with cycles of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and shales. The recorded argillaceous materials are mainly of disseminated habit, which control, for some extent, the matrix porosity, that ranges from 2% to 15% with water saturation ranges from 65% to 100%. Cementation, dissolution, compaction and clay mineral authigenesis are the most significant diagenetic processes affecting the reservoir quality. Calibration with the available core analysis at some intervals of the formation indicates that the siliciclastic sequence is a fluvial with more than one climatic cycle changes from humid, semi-arid to arid condition and displays the impact of both physical and chemical diagenesis. In general, the study revealed that the Unyazah Formation has a better reservoir quality than the Khuff Formation and possible gas bearing zones.

  16. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  17. Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eBerdugo-Clavijo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  18. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  19. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  20. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  1. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago; Sun, Shuyu; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Katterbauer, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie's parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  2. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  3. ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION AND MODELING OF NONCONVENTIONAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis J. Durlofsky; Khalid Aziz

    2004-08-20

    Nonconventional wells, which include horizontal, deviated, multilateral and ''smart'' wells, offer great potential for the efficient management of oil and gas reservoirs. These wells are able to contact larger regions of the reservoir than conventional wells and can also be used to target isolated hydrocarbon accumulations. The use of nonconventional wells instrumented with downhole inflow control devices allows for even greater flexibility in production. Because nonconventional wells can be very expensive to drill, complete and instrument, it is important to be able to optimize their deployment, which requires the accurate prediction of their performance. However, predictions of nonconventional well performance are often inaccurate. This is likely due to inadequacies in some of the reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation tools used to model and optimize nonconventional well performance. A number of new issues arise in the modeling and optimization of nonconventional wells. For example, the optimal use of downhole inflow control devices has not been addressed for practical problems. In addition, the impact of geological and engineering uncertainty (e.g., valve reliability) has not been previously considered. In order to model and optimize nonconventional wells in different settings, it is essential that the tools be implemented into a general reservoir simulator. This simulator must be sufficiently general and robust and must in addition be linked to a sophisticated well model. Our research under this five year project addressed all of the key areas indicated above. The overall project was divided into three main categories: (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling nonconventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and for coupling the well to the simulator (which includes the accurate calculation of well index and the modeling of multiphase flow

  4. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  5. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  6. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  7. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  8. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" data-affiliation=" (Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4thfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia))" >Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  9. Full-waveform inversion of cross-hole GPR data collected in a strongly heterogeneous chalk reservoir analogue with sharp permittivity and conductivity contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Moreau, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Chalk sediments form an important reservoir for groundwater onshore and for hydrocarbons in the Danish sector of the North Sea. Cross-hole Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography is an efficient method to investigate subtle porosity variations in the chalk. Traditional ray-based inversion...

  10. An interpretation of core and wireline logs for the Petrophysical evaluation of Upper Shallow Marine sandstone reservoirs of the Bredasdorp Basin, offshore South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoba, Moses; Opuwari, Mimonitu

    2017-04-01

    This paper embodies a study carried out to assess the Petrophysical evaluation of upper shallow marine sandstone reservoir of 10 selected wells in the Bredasdorp basin, offshore, South Africa. The studied wells were selected randomly across the upper shallow marine formation with the purpose of conducting a regional study to assess the difference in reservoir properties across the formation. The data sets used in this study were geophysical wireline logs, Conventional core analysis and geological well completion report. The physical rock properties, for example, lithology, fluid type, and hydrocarbon bearing zone were qualitatively characterized while different parameters such as volume of clay, porosity, permeability, water saturation ,hydrocarbon saturation, storage and flow capacity were quantitatively estimated. The quantitative results were calibrated with the core data. The upper shallow marine reservoirs were penetrated at different depth ranging from shallow depth of about 2442m to 3715m. The average volume of clay, average effective porosity, average water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation and permeability range from 8.6%- 43%, 9%- 16%, 12%- 68% , 32%- 87.8% and 0.093mD -151.8mD respectively. The estimated rock properties indicate a good reservoir quality. Storage and flow capacity results presented a fair to good distribution of hydrocarbon flow.

  11. Carbon-oxygen log applications in complex reservoir evaluation by neutron interactions from (D,T) accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochmann, M.J.; Berg, L.O.; Ivey, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Granite Wash reservoirs in Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado and New Mexico have proven to be effective commercial producers of hydrocarbons. Substantial drilling activity continues to penetrate this formation either as a primary or secondary objective. A new technique to provide additional lithologic data to engineers and geologists will yield significant benefits in the evaluation and treatment of these reservoirs. This information can be obtained by data available from spectrum analysis through the use of tools such as the Carbon/Oxygen Log, Spectralog and NGS

  12. From obc seismic to porosity volume: A pre-stack analysis of a turbidite reservoir, deepwater Campos Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz M. R.

    The Campos Basin is the best known and most productive of the Brazilian coastal basins. Turbidites are, by far, the main oil-bearing reservoirs. Using a four component (4-C) ocean-bottom-cable (OBC) seismic survey I set out to improve the reservoir characterization in a deep-water turbidite field in the Campos Basin. In order to achieve my goal, pre-stack angle gathers were derived and PP and PS inversion were performed. The inversion was used as an input to predict the petrophysical properties of the reservoir. Converting seismic reflection amplitudes into impedance profiles not only maximizes vertical resolution but also minimizes tuning effects. Mapping the porosity is extremely important in the development of a hydrocarbon reservoirs. Combining seismic attributes derived from the P-P data and porosity logs I use linear multi-regression and neural network geostatistical tools to predict porosity between the seismic attributes and porosity logs at the well locations. After predicting porosity in well locations, those relationships were applied to the seismic attributes to generate a 3-D porosity volume. The predicted porosity volume highlighted the best reservoir facies in the reservoir. The integration of elastic impedance, shear impedance and porosity improved the reservoir characterization.

  13. Extraction of hydrocarbons from high-maturity Marcellus Shale using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, Palma B.; Philip A. Candela,; Wenlu Zhu,; Alan J. Kaufman,

    2015-01-01

    Shale is now commonly exploited as a hydrocarbon resource. Due to the high degree of geochemical and petrophysical heterogeneity both between shale reservoirs and within a single reservoir, there is a growing need to find more efficient methods of extracting petroleum compounds (crude oil, natural gas, bitumen) from potential source rocks. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) was used to extract n-aliphatic hydrocarbons from ground samples of Marcellus shale. Samples were collected from vertically drilled wells in central and western Pennsylvania, USA, with total organic carbon (TOC) content ranging from 1.5 to 6.2 wt %. Extraction temperature and pressure conditions (80 °C and 21.7 MPa, respectively) were chosen to represent approximate in situ reservoir conditions at sample depth (1920−2280 m). Hydrocarbon yield was evaluated as a function of sample matrix particle size (sieve size) over the following size ranges: 1000−500 μm, 250−125 μm, and 63−25 μm. Several methods of shale characterization including Rock-Eval II pyrolysis, organic petrography, Brunauer−Emmett−Teller surface area, and X-ray diffraction analyses were also performed to better understand potential controls on extraction yields. Despite high sample thermal maturity, results show that supercritical CO2 can liberate diesel-range (n-C11 through n-C21) n-aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total quantity of extracted, resolvable n-aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges from approximately 0.3 to 12 mg of hydrocarbon per gram of TOC. Sieve size does have an effect on extraction yield, with highest recovery from the 250−125 μm size fraction. However, the significance of this effect is limited, likely due to the low size ranges of the extracted shale particles. Additional trends in hydrocarbon yield are observed among all samples, regardless of sieve size: 1) yield increases as a function of specific surface area (r2 = 0.78); and 2) both yield and surface area increase with increasing

  14. A study of light hydrocarbons (C{sub 4}-C{sub 1}3) in source rocks and petroleum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odden, Wenche

    2000-07-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction and five included papers. Of these, four papers are published in international journals and the fifth was submitted for review in April 2000. Emphasis has been placed on both naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons in petroleum fluids and their proposed source rocks as well as direct application of light hydrocarbons to oil/source rock correlations. Collectively, these papers describe a strategy for interpreting the source of the light hydrocarbons in original oils and condensates as well as the source of the asphaltene fractions from the reservoir fluids. The influence of maturity on light hydrocarbon composition has also been evaluated. The papers include (1) compositional data on the light hydrocarbons from thermal extracts and kerogen pyrolysates of sediment samples, (2) light hydrocarbon data of oils and condensates as well as the pyrolysis products of the asphaltenes from these fluids, (3) assessment of compositional alteration effects, such as selective losses of light hydrocarbons due to evaporation, thermal maturity, phase fractionation and biodegradation, (4) comparison of naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons, and (5) compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of the whole range of hydrocarbons of all sample types. (author)

  15. The Springhill Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous) as a potential low enthalpy geothermal reservoir in the Cerro Sombrero area, Magallanes Basin, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, S. C.; Elgueta, S.; Arancibia, G.; Morata, D.; Sanchez, J.; Rojas, L.

    2017-12-01

    Low enthalpy geothermal energy technologies are being developed around the world as part of policies to replace the use of conventional sources of energy by renewable ones. The reuse of abandoned oil and gas wells in sedimentary basins, whose reservoirs are saturated with water at temperatures above 120°C, is of increasing interest due to the low initial cost.In Chile, interest in applying this technology is focused on the Magallanes Basin (Austral Basin in Argentina) in the extreme south of the country, where important hydrocarbon deposits have been exploited for more than six decades with more than 3,500 wells drilled to depths of over 4,000m. Hydrocarbons have been extracted mainly from the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous Springhill Formation, which includes sandstone lithofacies with porosities of 12% to 19% and permeability of 10mD and 1100mD. This formation has been drilled mainly at depths of 1500m to 3000m, the estimated geothermal gradient in the zone is 4.9 °C/100m with well bottom temperature measurements oscillating between 60° and 170°C, sufficient for district heating, and even, electricity generation by means of ORC technologies.To understand in detail the behavior and distribution of the different lithofacies of the Springhill Formation in the Sombrero Oil and Gas Field, sedimentological and geological 3D models have been generated from existing well logs and seismic data. To comprehend the quality of the reservoirs on the other hand, many petrophysical studies of drill core samples representative of the different lithofacies, complemented by electric well log interpretations, were carried out. Results confirm the existence of at least two quartz-rich sandstone lithofacies as potential geothermal reservoirs. In the principal settlement in this area, Cerro Sombrero township (1,800 population), the annual average temperature is 6.4°C, requiring constant domestic heating which, at present comes exclusively from natural gas. The study shows

  16. Potential urban runoff impacts and contaminant distributions in shoreline and reservoir environments of Lake Havasu, southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Doyle C

    2018-04-15

    Heavy metal, nutrient, and hydrocarbon levels in and adjacent to Lake Havasu, a regionally significant water supply reservoir with a highly controlled, dynamic flow regime, are assessed in relation to possible stormwater runoff impacts from an arid urban center. Shallow groundwater and sediment analyses from ephemeral drainage (wash) mouths that convey stormwater runoff from Lake Havasu City, Arizona to the reservoir, provided contaminant control points and correlation ties with the reservoir environment. Fine-grain sediments tend to contain higher heavy metal concentrations whereas nutrients are more evenly distributed, except low total organic carbon levels from young wash mouth surfaces devoid of vegetation. Heavy metal and total phosphate sediment concentrations in transects from wash mouths into the reservoir have mixed and decreasing trends, respectively. Both series may indicate chemical depositional influences from urban runoff, yet no statistically significant concentration differences occur between specific wash mouths and corresponding offshore transects. Heavy metal pollution indices of all sediments indicate no discernible to minor contamination, indicating that runoff impacts are minimal. Nevertheless, several heavy metal concentrations from mid-reservoir sediment sites increase southward through the length of the reservoir. Continual significant water flow through the reservoir may help to disperse locally derived runoff particulates, which could mix and settle down gradient with chemical loads from upriver sources and local atmospheric deposition. Incorporating the shoreline environment with the reservoir investigation provides spatial continuity in assessing contaminant sources and distribution patterns. This is particularly acute in the investigation of energetic, flow-through reservoirs in which sources may be overlooked if solely analyzing the reservoir environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reservoir rock permeability prediction using support vector regression in an Iranian oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Sadegh; Shadizadeh, Seyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir permeability is a critical parameter for the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. It is often measured in the laboratory from reservoir core samples or evaluated from well test data. The prediction of reservoir rock permeability utilizing well log data is important because the core analysis and well test data are usually only available from a few wells in a field and have high coring and laboratory analysis costs. Since most wells are logged, the common practice is to estimate permeability from logs using correlation equations developed from limited core data; however, these correlation formulae are not universally applicable. Recently, support vector machines (SVMs) have been proposed as a new intelligence technique for both regression and classification tasks. The theory has a strong mathematical foundation for dependence estimation and predictive learning from finite data sets. The ultimate test for any technique that bears the claim of permeability prediction from well log data is the accurate and verifiable prediction of permeability for wells where only the well log data are available. The main goal of this paper is to develop the SVM method to obtain reservoir rock permeability based on well log data. (paper)

  18. Air injection low temperature oxidation process for enhanced oil recovery from light oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunio, A.H.; Harijan, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods to recover unswept oil from depleted light oil reservoirs. The essential theme here is the removal of oxygen at LTO (Low Temperature Oxidation) from the injected air for a light oil reservoir by means of some chemical reactions occurring between oil and oxygen. In-situ combustion process, HTO (High Temperature Oxidation) is not suitable for deep light oil reservoirs. In case of light oil reservoirs LTO is more suitable to prevail as comparative to HTO. Few laboratory experimental results were obtained from air injection process, to study the LTO reactions. LTO process is suitable for air injection rate in which reservoir has sufficiently high temperature and spontaneous reaction takes place. Out comes of this study are the effect of LTO reactions in oxygen consumption and the recovery of oil. This air injection method is economic compared to other EOR methods i.e. miscible hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide flooding etc. This LTO air injection process is suitable for secondary recovery methods where water flooding is not feasible due to technical problems. (author)

  19. Petroleum Characterisation and Reservoir Dynamics - The Froey Field and the Rind Discovery, Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhullar, Abid G.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is to apply the fundamental principles of petroleum geochemistry integrated with petroleum/reservoir engineering and geological concepts to the dynamics and characterisation of petroleum reservoirs. The study is based on 600 core samples and 9 DST oils from 11 wells in the Froey Field and the Rind Discovery. The work is presented in five papers. Paper 1 is a detailed characterisation of the reservoirs using a petroleum geochemical approach. Paper 2 describes the application of a single reservoir geochemical screening technique to exploration, appraisal and production geology and reservoir/petroleum engineering. Paper 3 compares the Iatroscan TLC-FID screening technique and the extraction efficiency of micro-extraction used in this work with the well-established Rock-Eval geochemical screening method and with the Soxtec extraction method. Paper 4 refines the migration and filling models of Paper 1, and Paper 5 presents a comparison of models of petroleum generation, migration and accumulation based on geochemical data with 1D burial history, a ''pseudo well'' based on actual well data and regional seismic analysis representing the hydrocarbon generative basin conditions.

  20. Method of approximate electric modeling of oil reservoir operation with formation of a gas cap during mixed exploitation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragin, V A; Lyadkin, V Ya

    1969-01-01

    A potentiometric model is used to simulate the behavior of a reservoir in which pressure was dropped rapidly and solution gas migrated to the top of the structure forming a gas cap. Behavior of the system was represented by a differential equation, which was solved by an electrointegrator. The potentiometric model was found to closely represent past history of the reservoir, and to predict its future behavior. When this method is used in reservoirs where large pressure drops occur, repeated determination should be made at various time intervals, so that changes in relative permeability are taken into account.

  1. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  2. Accelerated methanogenesis from aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons under iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Cichocka, Danuta; Herrmann, Steffi; Gründger, Friederike; Feisthauer, Stefan; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Springael, Dirk; Krüger, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The impact of four electron acceptors on hydrocarbon-induced methanogenesis was studied. Methanogenesis from residual hydrocarbons may enhance the exploitation of oil reservoirs and may improve bioremediation. The conditions to drive the rate-limiting first hydrocarbon-oxidizing steps for the conversion of hydrocarbons into methanogenic substrates are crucial. Thus, the electron acceptors ferrihydrite, manganese dioxide, nitrate or sulfate were added to sediment microcosms acquired from two brackish water locations. Hexadecane, ethylbenzene or 1-(13)C-naphthalene were used as model hydrocarbons. Methane was released most rapidly from incubations amended with ferrihydrite and hexadecane. Ferrihydrite enhanced only hexadecane-dependent methanogenesis. The rates of methanogenesis were negatively affected by sulfate and nitrate at concentrations of more than 5 and 1 mM, respectively. Metal-reducing Geobacteraceae and potential sulfate reducers as well as Methanosarcina were present in situ and in vitro. Ferrihydrite addition triggered the growth of Methanosarcina-related methanogens. Additionally, methane was removed concomitantly by anaerobic methanotrophy. ANME-1 and -2 methyl coenzyme M reductase genes were detected, indicating anaerobic methanotrophy as an accompanying process [Correction added 16 December after online publication: 'methyl coenzyme A' changed to 'methyl coenzyme M' in this sentence]. The experiments presented here demonstrate the feasibility of enhancing methanogenic alkane degradation by ferrihydrite or sulfate addition in different geological settings. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NMR characterization of hydrocarbon adsorption on calcite surfaces: A first principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevilaqua, Rochele C. A.; Miranda, Caetano R. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Rigo, Vagner A. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, UTFPR, Cornélio Procópio, PR (Brazil); Veríssimo-Alves, Marcos [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal Fluminense, UFF, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-11-28

    The electronic and coordination environment of minerals surfaces, as calcite, are very difficult to characterize experimentally. This is mainly due to the fact that there are relatively few spectroscopic techniques able to detect Ca{sup 2+}. Since calcite is a major constituent of sedimentary rocks in oil reservoir, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between hydrocarbon molecules and mineral surfaces is highly desirable. Here we perform a first principles study on the adsorption of hydrocarbon molecules on calcite surface (CaCO{sub 3} (101{sup ¯}4)). The simulations were based on Density Functional Theory with Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SS-NMR) calculations. The Gauge-Including Projector Augmented Wave method was used to compute mainly SS-NMR parameters for {sup 43}Ca, {sup 13}C, and {sup 17}O in calcite surface. It was possible to assign the peaks in the theoretical NMR spectra for all structures studied. Besides showing different chemical shifts for atoms located on different environments (bulk and surface) for calcite, the results also display changes on the chemical shift, mainly for Ca sites, when the hydrocarbon molecules are present. Even though the interaction of the benzene molecule with the calcite surface is weak, there is a clearly distinguishable displacement of the signal of the Ca sites over which the hydrocarbon molecule is located. A similar effect is also observed for hexane adsorption. Through NMR spectroscopy, we show that aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon molecules adsorbed on carbonate surfaces can be differentiated.

  4. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J Gregory; Seeger, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼ 0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of "conditionally rare taxa," in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.

  6. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  7. Characterization of reservoir fractures using conventional geophysical logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitoon Laongsakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In hydrocarbon exploration fractures play an important role as possible pathways for the hydrocarbon flow and bythis enhancing the overall formation’s permeability. Advanced logging methods for fracture analysis, like the boreholeacoustic televiewer and Formation Microscanner (FMS are available, but these are additional and expensive tools. However,open and with water or hydrocarbon filled fractures are also sensitive to electrical and other conventional logging methods.For this study conventional logging data (electric, seismic, etc were available plus additional fracture information from FMS.Taking into account the borehole environment the results show that the micro-spherically focused log indicates fractures byshowing low resistivity spikes opposite open fractures, and high resistivity spikes opposite sealed ones. Compressional andshear wave velocities are reduced when passing trough the fracture zone, which are assumed to be more or less perpendicularto borehole axis. The photoelectric absorption curve exhibit a very sharp peak in front of a fracture filled with bariteloaded mud cake. The density log shows low density spikes that are not seen by the neutron log, usually where fractures,large vugs, or caverns exist. Borehole breakouts can cause a similar effect on the logging response than fractures, but fracturesare often present when this occurs. The fracture index calculation by using threshold and input weight was calculatedand there was in general a good agreement with the fracture data from FMS especially in fracture zones, which mainlycontribute to the hydraulic system of the reservoir. Finally, the overall results from this study using one well are promising,however further research in the combination of different tools for fracture identification is recommended as well as the useof core for further validation.

  8. Advanced Gas Hydrate Reservoir Modeling Using Rock Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Daniel

    2017-12-30

    Prospecting for high saturation gas hydrate deposits can be greatly aided with improved approaches to seismic interpretation and especially if sets of seismic attributes can be shown as diagnostic or direct hydrocarbon indicators for high saturation gas hydrates in sands that would be of most interest for gas hydrate production.

    A large 3D seismic data set in the deep water Eastern Gulf of Mexico was screened for gas hydrates using a set of techniques and seismic signatures that were developed and proven in the Central deepwater Gulf of Mexico in the DOE Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Project JIP Leg II in 2009 and recently confirmed with coring in 2017.

    A large gas hydrate deposit is interpreted in the data where gas has migrated from one of the few deep seated faults plumbing the Jurassic hydrocarbon source into the gas hydrate stability zone. The gas hydrate deposit lies within a flat-lying within Pliocene Mississippi Fan channel that was deposited outboard in a deep abyssal environment. The uniform architecture of the channel aided the evaluation of a set of seismic attributes that relate to attenuation and thin-bed energy that could be diagnostic of gas hydrates. Frequency attributes derived from spectral decomposition also proved to be direct hydrocarbon indicators by pseudo-thickness that could be only be reconciled by substituting gas hydrate in the pore space. The study emphasizes that gas hydrate exploration and reservoir characterization benefits from a seismic thin bed approach.

  9. Liquid petroleum gas fracturing fluids for unconventional gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Watkins, H.; Attaway, D. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S.; Wilson, L. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented details of a gelled liquid petroleum gas (LPG) based fracturing fluid designed to address phase trapping concerns by replacing water with a mixture of LPG and a volatile hydrocarbon fluid. The system eliminates the need for water, which is a growing concern in terms of its availability. In the application process, up to 100 per cent gelled LPG is used for the pad and flush. Sand slurry stages are comprised of a mixture of up to 90 per cent LPG, with the balance of the volume being a volatile hydrocarbon base fluid. The fluid system is not adversely affected by shear, which ensures that acceptable fluid rheology is delivered. Viscosity can be adjusted during the treatment because the surfactant gellant and crosslinker are run in a 1:1 ratio and have good tolerance to concentration variations. The application ratio also allows for fast and accurate visual checks on amounts pumped during the treatment. A portion of the LPG in the fluid can be reproduced as a gas, while the remaining LPG is dissolved in the hydrocarbon fluid and is produced back as a miscible mixture through the use of a methane drive mechanism. Clean-up is facilitated by eliminating water and having LPG as up to 80-90 per cent of the total fluid system, even when wells have low permeability and reservoir pressure. However, LPG and optimized base oils are more expensive than other fluids. It was concluded that the higher costs of the system can be recovered through eliminating the need for swabbing, coiled tubing and nitrogen. Higher final stabilized productions rates may also offset initial costs. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Evaluation of the bottom water reservoir VAPEX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenfeld, T.W.J.; Jossy, C.; Kissel, G.A. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada); Rispler, K. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The mobilization of viscous heavy oil requires the dissolution of solvent vapour into the oil as well as the diffusion of the dissolved solvent into the virgin oil. Vapour extraction (VAPEX) is an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process which involves injecting a solvent into the reservoir to reduce the viscosity of hydrocarbons. This paper describes the contribution of the Alberta Research Council to solvent-assisted oil recovery technology. The bottom water process was also modelled to determine its feasibility for a field-scale oil recovery scheme. Several experiments were conducted in an acrylic visual model in which Pujol and Boberg scaling were used to produce a lab model scaling a field process. The model simulated a slice of a 30 metre thick reservoir, with a 10 metre thick bottom water zone, containing two horizontal wells (25 metres apart) at the oil water interface. The experimental rates were found to be negatively affected by continuous low permeability layers and by oil with an initial gas content. In order to achieve commercial oil recovery rates, the bottom water process must be used to increase the surface area exposed to solvents. A large oil water interface between the wells provides contact for solvent when injecting gas at the interface. High production rates are therefore possible with appropriate well spacing. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 16 figs.

  11. MIKROMITSETY- MIGRANTS IN MINGECHEVIR RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Salmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. It is hardly possible to predict the continued stability of the watercourse ecosystems without the study of biological characteristics and composition of organisms inhabiting them. In the last 35-40 years, environmental conditions of the Mingachevir reservoir are determined by the stationary anthropogenic pressure. It was found that such components of plankton as algae, bacteria and fungi play a leading role in the transformation and migration of pollutants. The role of the three groups of organisms is very important in maintaining the water quality by elimination of pollutants. Among the organisms inhabiting the Mingachevir Reservoir, micromycetes have not yet been studied. Therefore, the study of the species composition and seasonal dynamics, peculiarities of their growth and development in the environment with the presence of some of the pollutants should be considered to date.Methods. In order to determine the role of micromycetes-migrants in the mineralization of organic substrates, as an active participant of self-purification process, we used water samples from the bottom sediments as well as decaying and skeletonized stalks of cane, reeds, algae, macrophytes, exuvia of insects and fish remains submerged in water.Findings. For the first time, we obtained the data on the quality and quantity of microscopic mycelial fungi in freshwater bodies on the example of the Mingachevir water reservoir; we also studied the possibilities for oxygenating the autochthonous organic matter of allochthonous origin with micromycetes-migrants.Conclusions. It was found that the seasonal development of micromycetes-migrants within the Mingachevir reservoir is characterized by an increase in the number of species in the summer and a gradual reduction in species diversity in the fall. 

  12. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate...... to various degrees. Series of grafting densities and graft lengths are prepared, and membranes are solvent cast from DMSO. The membrane properties in aqueous environments are evaluated from their water swelling behavior, and their thermal properties and stability are investigated by thermogravimetric...

  13. Williston Reservoir raising - environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This preliminary environmental overview report was prepared by B.C. Hydro in June 1987 and revised in July 1988 as an initial assessment of a possible 1.5 m (5 ft.) raise in the Williston Reservoir maximum normal level. The enviromental overview study and the associated engineering and property studies were undertaken to provide information for a decision on whether to initiate more detailed studies. Overview studies are based mainly on available reports, mapping and field data, supplemented by limited site reconnaissance and, in this case, input from key agencies and groups. The lack of adequate mapping of areas which could be affected by reservoir raising did not permit definitive conclusion to be reached. This mapping will be done over the next year to complete the overview assessment. This document covers the impact assessment of socio-economic factors, forestry, reservoir clearing, heritage, recreation, aquatic resources, and wilflife. Further studies in each of these areas are also included. 54 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Using microstructure observations to quantify fracture properties and improve reservoir simulations. Final report, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubach, S.E.; Marrett, R.; Rossen, W.; Olson, J.; Lake, L.; Ortega, O.; Gu, Y.; Reed, R.

    1999-01-01

    The research for this project provides new technology to understand and successfully characterize, predict, and simulate reservoir-scale fractures. Such fractures have worldwide importance because of their influence on successful extraction of resources. The scope of this project includes creation and testing of new methods to measure, interpret, and simulate reservoir fractures that overcome the challenge of inadequate sampling. The key to these methods is the use of microstructures as guides to the attributes of the large fractures that control reservoir behavior. One accomplishment of the project research is a demonstration that these microstructures can be reliably and inexpensively sampled. Specific goals of this project were to: create and test new methods of measuring attributes of reservoir-scale fractures, particularly as fluid conduits, and test the methods on samples from reservoirs; extrapolate structural attributes to the reservoir scale through rigorous mathematical techniques and help build accurate and useful 3-D models of the interwell region; and design new ways to incorporate geological and geophysical information into reservoir simulation and verify the accuracy by comparison with production data. New analytical methods developed in the project are leading to a more realistic characterization of fractured reservoir rocks. Testing diagnostic and predictive approaches was an integral part of the research, and several tests were successfully completed.

  16. Geothermal reservoir assessment manual; 1984-1992 nendo chinetsu choryusou hyoka shuhou manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    A geothermal reservoir assessment manual was prepared for the promotion of the development of geothermal power generation, based on the results of the 'geothermal reservoir assessment technique development project' implemented during the fiscal 1984-1992 period and on the results of surveys conducted in Japan and abroad. Of the geothermal systems generally classified into the steam dominant type and the hot water dominant type, encounters with the steam dominant type are but seldom reported. This manual therefore covers the hot water dominant type only. In addition to the explanation of the basic concept and the outline of geothermal reservoirs, the manual carries data necessary for reservoir assessment; geological and geophysical data analyses; geochemistry in reservoir assessment; data of underground logging and of fuming; conceptual models; simulators and models for reservoir simulation; natural-state simulation, history-matching simulation, and reservoir behavior predicting simulation; case history (modeling of a geothermal reservoir prior to exploitation), references, and so forth. (NEDO)

  17. Discussion of the feasibility of air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Air injection in light oil reservoirs has received considerable attention as an effective, improved oil recovery process, based primarily on the success of several projects within the Williston Basin in the United States. The main mechanism of air injection is the oxidation behavior between oxygen and crude oil in the reservoir. Air injection is a good option because of its wide availability and low cost. Whether air injection can be applied to shale is an interesting topic from both economic and technical perspectives. This paper initiates a comprehensive discussion on the feasibility and potential of air injection in shale oil reservoirs based on state-of-the-art literature review. Favorable and unfavorable effects of using air injection are discussed in an analogy analysis on geology, reservoir features, temperature, pressure, and petrophysical, mineral and crude oil properties of shale oil reservoirs. The available data comparison of the historically successful air injection projects with typical shale oil reservoirs in the U.S. is summarized in this paper. Some operation methods to improve air injection performance are recommended. This paper provides an avenue for us to make use of many of the favorable conditions of shale oil reservoirs for implementing air injection, or air huff ‘n’ puff injection, and the low cost of air has the potential to improve oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs. This analysis may stimulate further investigation.

  18. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  19. Thermochemical sulfate reduction in deep petroleum reservoirs: a molecular approach; Thermoreduction des sulfates dans les reservoirs petroliers: approche moleculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanin, S.

    2002-11-01

    The thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) is a set of chemical reactions leading to hydrocarbon oxidation and production of carbon dioxide and sour gas (H{sub 2}S) which is observed in deep petroleum reservoirs enriched in anhydrites (calcium sulfate). Molecular and isotopic studies have been conducted on several crude oil samples to determine which types of compounds could have been produced during TSR. Actually, we have shown that the main molecules formed by TSR were organo-sulfur compounds. Indeed, sulfur isotopic measurements. of alkyl-di-benzothiophenes, di-aryl-disulfides and thia-diamondoids (identified by NMR or synthesis of standards) shows that they are formed during TSR as their value approach that of the sulfur of the anhydrite. Moreover, thia-diamondoids are apparently exclusively formed during this phenomenon and can thus be considered as true molecular markers of TSR. In a second part, we have investigated with laboratory experiments the formation mechanism of the molecules produced during TSR. A first model has shown that sulfur incorporation into the organic matter occurred with mineral sulfur species of low oxidation degree. The use of {sup 34}S allowed to show that the sulfates reduction occurred during these simulations. At least, some experiments on polycyclic hydrocarbons, sulfurized or not, allowed to establish that thia-diamondoids could be formed by acid-catalysed rearrangements at high temperatures in a similar way as the diamondoids. (author)

  20. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  1. An innovative technique for estimating water saturation from capillary pressure in clastic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoti, Lukumon; Ayolabi, Elijah Adebowale; James, Logan

    2017-11-01

    A major drawback of old resistivity tools is the poor vertical resolution and estimation of hydrocarbon when applying water saturation (Sw) from historical resistivity method. In this study, we have provided an alternative method called saturation height function to estimate hydrocarbon in some clastic reservoirs in the Niger Delta. The saturation height function was derived from pseudo capillary pressure curves generated using modern wells with complete log data. Our method was based on the determination of rock type from log derived porosity-permeability relationship, supported by volume of shale for its classification into different zones. Leverette-J functions were derived for each rock type. Our results show good correlation between Sw from resistivity based method and Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves in wells with modern log data. The resistivity based model overestimates Sw in some wells while Sw from the pseudo capillary pressure curves validates and predicts more accurate Sw. In addition, the result of Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves replaces that of resistivity based model in a well where the resistivity equipment failed. The plot of hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV) from J-function against HCPV from Archie shows that wells with high HCPV have high sand qualities and vice versa. This was further used to predict the geometry of stratigraphic units. The model presented here freshly addresses the gap in the estimation of Sw and is applicable to reservoirs of similar rock type in other frontier basins worldwide.

  2. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjua, Osama Akhtar; Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Rahman, M. Nasir B. A.

    2016-01-01

    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I –Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well – log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively

  3. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjua, Osama Akhtar, E-mail: janjua945@hotmail.com; Wahid, Ali, E-mail: ali.wahid@live.com; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail: mohamed.salim@petronas.com.my [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Rahman, M. Nasir B. A., E-mail: nasirr@petronas.com.my [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I –Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well – log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively.

  4. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock

  5. Evaporation and Hydrocarbon Chain Conformation of Surface Lipid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, Samiyyah M.; Khimji, Hussain; Borchman, Douglas; Oliver, Alexandria; Michael, Heidi; Dennis, Emily K.; Gerlach, Dylan; Bhola, Rahul; Stephen, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The inhibition of the rate of evaporation (Revap) by surface lipids is relevant to reservoirs and dry eye. Our aim was to test the idea that lipid surface films inhibit Revap. Methods Revap were determined gravimetrically. Hydrocarbon chain conformation and structure were measured using a Raman microscope. Six 1-hydroxyl hydrocarbons (11–24 carbons in length) and human meibum were studied. Reflex tears were obtained from a 62-year-old male. Results The Raman scattering intensity of the lipid film deviated by about 7 % for hydroxyl lipids and varied by 21 % for meibum films across the entire film at a resolution of 5 µm2. All of the surface lipids were ordered. Revap of the shorter chain hydroxyl lipids were slightly (7%) but significantly lower compared with the longer chain hydroxyl lipids. Revap of both groups was essentially similar to that of buffer. A hydroxyl lipid film did not influence Revap over an estimated average thickness range of 0.69 to >6.9 µm. Revap of human tears and buffer with and without human meibum (34.4 µm thick) was not significantly different. Revap of human tears was not significantly different from buffer. Conclusions Human meibum and hydroxyl lipids, regardless of their fluidity, chain length, or thickness did not inhibit Revap of buffer or tears even though they completely covered the surface. It is unlikely that hydroxyl lipids can be used to inhibit Revap of reservoirs. Our data do not support the widely accepted (yet unconfirmed) idea that the tear film lipid layer inhibits Revap of tears. PMID:27395776

  6. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  7. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  8. Limnological characteristics and trophic state of a newly created site: the Pareja Limno-reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, E.; Martínez-Pérez, S.; Sastre-Merlín, A.

    2012-04-01

    The creation of dams in the riverine zone of large reservoirs is an innovative action whose primary goal is to generate water bodies that ensure a stable level of water there. We have termed these bodies of water "limno-reservoirs" because their water level becomes constant and independent of the fluctuations occurring in the main reservoir. In addition, limno-reservoirs represent environmental initiatives with corrective and/or compensatory effects. Pareja Limno-reservoir, located near the left side of Entrepeñas Reservoir (Guadalajara province, central Spain), is one of the first initiatives of this type in Spain. We are investigating the hydrology, limnology, microbiology, siltation risk and other aspects of this site. This research has a special interest since the building of limno-reservoirs is rising in Spain. To acquire knowledge about their behavior may be helpful for further constructions. In fact, every new reservoir building project usually includes a limno-reservoir. Moreover, there are many initiatives related with the construction of this kind of hydraulic infrastructures in the reservoirs under exploitation. This work focuses on the limnological study of the Pareja Limno-reservoir. To conduct this research, twelve seasonal sample collections at two sampling points (the dam and inflow zones) have been made in Pareja Limno-reservoir, from spring 2008 to winter 2011. The primary goal of this study is to describe the limnological characteristics of the limno-reservoir. Special interest is placed in the study of the trophic state through different indicators (nutrients, transparency, phytoplankton and zooplankton populations), as the European Water Framework Directive objective is to achieve a "good ecological status" in every aquatic ecosystem by 2015. The results of the study show that the Pareja Limno-reservoir follows a warm monomictic water stratification pattern. Water was slightly alkaline and conductivity values were mostly over 1000 μS cm-1 due

  9. Petroacoustic Modelling of Heterolithic Sandstone Reservoirs: A Novel Approach to Gassmann Modelling Incorporating Sedimentological Constraints and NMR Porosity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.; Lovell, M.; Davies, S. J.; Pritchard, T.; Sirju, C.; Abdelkarim, A.

    2012-12-01

    Heterolithic or 'shaly' sandstone reservoirs constitute a significant proportion of hydrocarbon resources. Petroacoustic models (a combination of petrophysics and rock physics) enhance the ability to extract reservoir properties from seismic data, providing a connection between seismic and fine-scale rock properties. By incorporating sedimentological observations these models can be better constrained and improved. Petroacoustic modelling is complicated by the unpredictable effects of clay minerals and clay-sized particles on geophysical properties. Such effects are responsible for erroneous results when models developed for "clean" reservoirs - such as Gassmann's equation (Gassmann, 1951) - are applied to heterolithic sandstone reservoirs. Gassmann's equation is arguably the most popular petroacoustic modelling technique in the hydrocarbon industry and is used to model elastic effects of changing reservoir fluid saturations. Successful implementation of Gassmann's equation requires well-constrained drained rock frame properties, which in heterolithic sandstones are heavily influenced by reservoir sedimentology, particularly clay distribution. The prevalent approach to categorising clay distribution is based on the Thomas - Stieber model (Thomas & Stieber, 1975), this approach is inconsistent with current understanding of 'shaly sand' sedimentology and omits properties such as sorting and grain size. The novel approach presented here demonstrates that characterising reservoir sedimentology constitutes an important modelling phase. As well as incorporating sedimentological constraints, this novel approach also aims to improve drained frame moduli estimates through more careful consideration of Gassmann's model assumptions and limitations. A key assumption of Gassmann's equation is a pore space in total communication with movable fluids. This assumption is often violated by conventional applications in heterolithic sandstone reservoirs where effective porosity, which

  10. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  11. Molecular processes in the biodegradation of crude oils and crude oil products in the natural reservoir and in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalenbach, S.S.

    1993-10-01

    Two ains were pursued in the present study; first, to find positive indicators of the onset of biodegradation of reservoir oil wherever other parameters fail to give a clear picture; second, to establish a basic understanding of the molecular processes underlying the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and thus create a starting point for finding better criteria for valuating biological restoration methods for crude oil contaminated soils. (orig./HS) [de

  12. A novel viscoelastic surfactant suitable for use in high temperature carbonate reservoirs for diverted acidizing stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Stuart; Zhou, Jian; Gadberry, Fred [AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry, Forth Worth, TX (United States); Nasr-El-Din, Hisham; Wang, Guanqun [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Due to the low permeability of many carbonate hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs, it is difficult to achieve economic hydrocarbon recovery from a well without secondary stimulation. Bullheading of strong acids, such as HCl is practiced in low temperature reservoirs, but as the bottom hole temperature (BHT) rises, the acid becomes increasingly corrosive, causing facial dissolution and sub-optimal wormhole network development. In the last decade, viscoelastic surfactants (VES) have been added to HCl acid systems to improve the stimulation of HT carbonate reservoirs. The VES form 'living polymers' or worm-like micelles as electrolyte concentration rises in the acid due to reaction with the reservoir. This leads to viscosification of the stimulation fluid. The viscosification slows further acid reaction in the region already contacted by the acid, and forces the acid to take an alternate path into the rock, leading to diversion of the acids further down the well to the harder to access toe or lower permeability zones. Until recently, the maximum BHT that such VES-based diverting systems could be used was up to about 250 deg F/120 deg C. Above that temperature, all viscous properties of the fluid are lost, destroying the mechanism of acid diversion. A recently developed novel viscoelastic surfactant provides nearly 100 deg F/55 deg C extension in the BHT range in which diverted acid treatments can be used. These fluids are able to maintain both viscosity up to about 375 deg F/190 deg C, with the elastic modulus predominating up to 350 deg F/175 deg C. It is the elasticity which is particularly important in acid diversion. These fluids can have their viscosity readily broken by in-situ hydrocarbons, dilution with water or by using a mutual solvent. The broken fluids are readily removed from the near-well bore, leaving the newly created wormhole network to produce the target hydrocarbons. The new VES is significantly more environmentally benign compared with current

  13. Sensitivity analysis and economic optimization studies of inverted five-spot gas cycling in gas condensate reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Bilal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas condensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex flow behaviors because of propagation response of pressure drop from the wellbore into the reservoir. When reservoir pressure drops below the dew point in two phase flow of gas and condensate, the accumulation of large condensate amount occurs in the gas condensate reservoirs. Usually, the saturation of condensate accumulation in volumetric gas condensate reservoirs is lower than the critical condensate saturation that causes trapping of large amount of condensate in reservoir pores. Trapped condensate often is lost due to condensate accumulation-condensate blockage courtesy of high molecular weight, heavy condensate residue. Recovering lost condensate most economically and optimally has always been a challenging goal. Thus, gas cycling is applied to alleviate such a drastic loss in resources.

  14. Simulation study of huff-n-puff air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first attempt to evaluate huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir using a simulation approach. Recovery mechanisms and physical processes of huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir are investigated through investigating production performance, thermal behavior, reservoir pressure and fluid saturation features. Air flooding is used as the basic case for a comparative study. The simulation study suggests that thermal drive is the main recovery mechanism for huff-n-puff air injection in the shale oil reservoir, but not for simple air flooding. The synergic recovery mechanism of air flooding in conventional light oil reservoirs can be replicated in shale oil reservoirs by using air huff-n-puff injection strategy. Reducing huff-n-puff time is better for performing the synergic recovery mechanism of air injection. O2 diffusion plays an important role in huff-n-puff air injection in shale oil reservoirs. Pressure transmissibility as well as reservoir pressure maintenance ability in huff-n-puff air injection is more pronounced than the simple air flooding after primary depletion stage. No obvious gas override is exhibited in both air flooding and air huff-n-puff injection scenarios in shale reservoirs. Huff-n-puff air injection has great potential to develop shale oil reservoirs. The results from this work may stimulate further investigations.

  15. Hydrocarbon Migration from the Micro to Macro Scale in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Marty, E.; Silva, M.; Natter, M.; Shedd, W. W.; Hill, J. C.; Viso, R. F.; Lobodin, V.; Krajewski, L.; Abrams, M.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) at GC600, ECOGIG has been investigating the processes involved in hydrocarbon migration from deep reservoirs to sea surface. We studied two individual vents, Birthday Candles (BC) and Mega-Plume (MP), which are separated by 1km on a salt supported ridge trending from NW-SE. Seismic data depicts two faults, also separated by 1km, feeding into the surface gas hydrate region. BC and MP comprise the range between oily, mixed, and gaseous-type vents. In both cases bubbles are observed escaping from gas hydrate out crops at the sea floor and supporting chemosynthetic communities. Fluid flow is indicated by features on the sea floor such as hydrate mounds, authigenic carbonates, brine pools, mud volcanoes, and biology. We propose a model to describe the upward flow of hydrocarbons from three vertical scales, each dominated by different factors: 1) macro (capillary failure in overlying cap rocks causing reservoir leakage), 2) meso (buoyancy driven fault migration), and 3) micro (hydrate formation and chemosynthetic activity). At the macro scale we use high reflectivity in seismic data and sediment pore throat radii to determine the formation of fractures in leaky reservoirs. Once oil and gas leave the reservoir through fractures in the cap rock they migrate in separate phases. At the meso scale we use seismic data to locate faults and salt diapirs that form conduits for buoyant hydrocarbons follow. This connects the path to the micro scale where we used video data to observe bubble release from individual vents for extended periods of time (3h-26d), and developed an image processing program to quantify bubble release rates. At mixed vents gaseous bubbles are observed escaping hydrate outcrops with a coating of oil varying in thickness. Bubble oil and gas ratios are estimated using average bubble size and release rates. The relative vent age can be described by carbonate hard ground cover, biological activity, and hydrate mound formation

  16. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  17. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  18. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  19. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  20. Significance of Microbiology in Porous Hydrocarbon Related Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Augsburger, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    This thesis explores bio-mediated processes in geotechnical and petroleum engineering. Worldwide energy consumption is rapidly increasing as the world population and per-capita consumption rises. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) predicts that hydrocarbons will remain the primary energy source to satisfy the surging energy demands in the near future. The three topics described in detail in this document aim to link microbiology with geotechnical engineering and the petroleum industry. Microorganisms have the potential to exploit residual hydrocarbons in depleted reservoirs in a technique known as microbial enhanced oil recovery, MEOR. The potential of biosurfactants was analyzed in detail with a literature review. Biosurfactant production is the most accepted MEOR technique, and has been successfully implemented in over 700 field cases. Temperature is the main limiting factor for these techniques. The dissolution of carbonates by microorganisms was investigated experimentally. We designed a simple, economical, and robust procedure to monitor diffusion through porous media. This technique determined the diffusion coefficient of H+ in 1.5% agar, 1.122 x 10-5 cm2 sec-1, by using bromothymol blue as a pH indicator and image processing. This robust technique allows for manipulation of the composition of the agar to identify the effect of specific compounds on diffusion. The Red Sea consists of multiple seeps; the nearby sediments are telltales of deeper hydrocarbon systems. Microbial communities associated with the sediments function as in-situ sensors that provide information about the presence of carbon sources, metabolites, and the remediation potential. Sediments seeps in the Red Sea revealed different levels of bioactivity. The more active seeps, from the southern site in the Red Sea, indicated larger pore sizes, higher levels of carbon, and bioactivity with both bacteria and archaeal species present.

  1. Advances and Applications of Rock Physics for Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle-Molina C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the geological and geophysical information with different scale and features is the key point to establish relationships between petrophysical and elastic characteristics of the rocks in the reservoir. It is very important to p