WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon processing industry

  1. Hydrocarbon processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.G.; Seddon, D.

    1989-06-28

    A process for the catalytic conversion of synthesis-gas into a product which comprises naphtha, kerosene and distillate is characterized in that the catalyst is a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst also containing a zeolite, the naphtha fraction contains 60% or less linear paraffins and the kerosene and distillated fractions contain more linear paraffins and olefins than found in the naphtha fraction. Reduction of the relative amount of straight chain material in the naphtha fraction increases the octane number and so enhances the quality of the gasoline product, while the high quality of the kerosene and distillate fractions is maintained.

  2. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  3. Hydrocarbon fuels from brown grease: Moving from the research laboratory toward an industrial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Lawrence M.; Strothers, Joel; Pinnock, Travis; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Bacolod, Beatrice; Cai, Zhuo Biao; Sim, Yoke-Leng

    2017-04-01

    Brown grease is a generic term for the oily solids and semi-solids that accumulate in the sewer system and in sewage treatment plants. It has previously been shown that brown grease undergoes pyrolysis to form a homologous series of alkanes and 1-alkenes between 7 and 17 carbon atoms, with smaller amounts of higher hydrocarbons and ketones up to about 30 carbon atoms. The initial study was performed in batch mode on a scale of up to 50 grams of starting material. However, continuous processes are usually more efficient for large scale production of fuels and commodity chemicals. This work describes the research and development of a continuous process. The first step was to determine the required reactor temperature. Brown grease consists largely of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and they react at different rates, and produce different products and intermediates. Intermediates include ketones, alcohols, and aldehydes, and Fe(III) ion catalyzes at least some of the reactions. By monitoring the pyrolysis of brown grease, its individual components, and intermediates, it was determined that a reactor temperature of at least 340 °C is required. A small scale (1 L) continuous stirred tank reactor was built and its performance is described.

  4. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  5. Membrane filtration process and bioreactor for elimination of chlorinated hydrocarbons from industrial effluents; Membranfiltration und Bioreaktor zur Eliminierung chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe aus Industrieabwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schierenbeck, A.

    2003-07-01

    Selective separation and elimination of chlorinated hydrocarbons from industrial effluents directly at the production site was to be achieved by a combined process including membrane technology and biodegradation. This way, closed cycle processes can be designed which will be a major contribution to environmental protection integrated in production processes. First, chlorinated hydrocarbons are characterized in terms of occurrence and biodegradability. Two model substances are discussed (3-chlorobenzoic acid and 4-chlorophenol), and a practical example is presented. The fundamentals of the processes used for treatment of industrial effluents are outlined, and their advantages and shortcomings are discussed, with particular regard to integrated application in production processes. [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Entwicklung einer Verfahrenstechnik, bei der durch die Kombination der Membrantechnik mit dem biologischen Abbau die selektive Abtrennung und Eliminierung chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe aus dem Industrieabwasser schon am Ort des Entstehens realisiert werden. Durch den Einsatz dieser Technik wird die Schliessung von Wasserkreislaeufen moeglich. Dies stellt fuer alle Bereiche, in denen chlorierte Kohlenwasserstoffe in das Abwasser gelangen koennen, einen wichtigen Beitrag zum produktionsintegrierten Umweltschutz dar. Dazu wird zunaechst die Problemstoffgruppe der chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe hinsichtlich ihres Auftretens und der biologischen Abbaubarkeit charakterisiert. Zwei Modellsubstanzen (3-Chlorbenzoesaeure und 4-Chlorphenol) werden diskutiert sowie ein Beispiel aus der Praxis vorgestellt, bei dem ein Abwasser mit chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen anfaellt. Die Grundlagen der verwendeten Verfahren zur Behandlung von Industrieabwaessern mit entsprechenden Abwasserinhaltsstoffen werden dargestellt. Die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen dieser Verfahren, insbesondere im Hinblick auf den produktionsintegrierten Einsatz, werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  6. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  7. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Yuschak, Thomas; LaPlante, Timothy J.; Rankin, Scott; Perry, Steven T.; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick; Simmons, Wayne W.; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  11. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  12. Do sealless pumps belong in hydrocarbon processing services?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Shawn L. [Sundyne Corporation, Arvada, CO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sealless pump technology seems unimaginable in the hot, dirty and high-pressure world of hydrocarbon processing. Furthermore the high flow rates typical of the industry seem incompatible with sealless pumps. Seals and their environmental controls used in conventional technologies are not immune from these factors making sealless worth another look. In October 2000 the Sealless Centrifugal Pump Specification API 685 was published. This specification lends sealless pumps credibility and emphasizes the proper application of the technology. In many process units seal leaks can be extremely dangerous and costly. The heavy hydrocarbons can auto-ignite and light hydrocarbons will tend to find a source of ignition. The ever-increasing requirements for clean fuels are driving many of the current refinery upgrades. Best Also available control technology requirements and additional focus on Environmental Health and Safety increase the attractiveness of sealless technology to mitigate the hazards associated with seal leaks. Sealless has a place in hydrocarbon processing to eliminate seals, provide mechanical simplification, and ensure personnel/environmental protection. The proper application involves evaluating canned motor/magnetic drive technology, API 685 Guidelines, and vapor pressure versus pump circuit pressure analysis. There are four (4) specific processes where sealless pumps should be targeted: Alkylation, Sulfur Recovery/Hydrotreating, Naphtha Reforming Production, and Neutralization. (author)

  13. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  14. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coking industries in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Mu; Lin Peng; Junji Cao; Qiusheng He; Fan Li; Jianqiang Zhang; Xiaofeng Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from coking industries,with field samplings conducted at four typical coke plants.For each selected plant,stack flue gas samples were collected during processes that included charging coal into the ovens (CC),pushing coke (PC) and the combustion of coke-oven gas (CG).Sixteen individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Results showed that the total PAH concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 45.776 to 414.874 μg/m3,with the highest emission level for CC (359.545 μg/m3).The concentration of PAH emitted from the CC process in CP1 (stamp charging) was lower than that from CP3 and CP4 (top charging).Low-molecular-weight PAHs (i.e.,two-to three-ring PAHs) were predominant contributors to the total PAH contents,and Nap,AcPy,Flu,PhA,and AnT were found to be the most abundant ones.Total BaPeq concentrations for CC (2.248 iμg/m3) were higher than those for PC (1.838 μg/m3) and CG (1.082 μg/m3),and DbA was an important contributor to carcinogenic risk as BaP in emissions from coking processes.Particulate PAH accounted for more than 20% of the total BaPeq concentrations,which were significantly higher than the corresponding contributions to the total PAH mass concentration (5%).Both particulate and gaseous PAH should be taken into consideration when the potential toxicity risk of PAH pollution during coking processes is assessed.The mean total-PAH emission factors were 346.132 and 93.173 μg/kg for CC and PC,respectively.

  15. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  16. Microwave plasma torch for processing hydrocarbon gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Zherlitsyn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We designed and developed an ultrahigh-frequency (microwave plasma torch with a combined (nitrogen, methane plasma-forming environment, and microwave output of up to 2 kW, continuously. We demonstrate the possibility of using it in order to process natural and associated petroleum (APG gas into valuable products (hydrogen and carbon nanomaterial CNM with up to 70% efficiency. Based on the developed microwave plasma torch, we developed an apparatus capable of converting hydrocarbon feedstock at a capacity of 50 g/h yielding CNM and hydrogen of up to 70 vol. %. In its mobile small-tonnage version, this technology can be used on gas-condensate fields.

  17. Industrial Applications of Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

  18. A PROCESS FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing an alcohol from a gaseous hydrocarbon, e.g. a lower alkane such as methane, via oxidative reaction of the hydrocarbon in a concentrated sulfuric acid medium in the presence of a catalyst employs an added catalyst comprising a substance selected from iodine, iodine compounds...

  19. Design of Industrial Quenching Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolai. I. KOBASKO; George .E. TOTTEN

    2004-01-01

    The method of designing industrial processes of quench cooling, in particular, the speed of the conveyor movement with regard to shape and sizes of parts to be quenched, thermal and physical properties of material and cooling capacity of quenchants has been developed. The suggested designing method and databases are the basis for the complete automation of industrial processes of quench cooling, especially for continuous conveyor lines, with the purpose of making high-strength materials. The process is controlled by infrared technique.

  20. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  1. Novel Electrochemical Treatment of Spent Caustic from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Ti/BDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Medel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the crude oil refining process, NaOH solutions are used to remove H2S, H2Saq, and sulfur compounds from different hydrocarbon streams. The residues obtained are called “spent caustics.” These residues can be mixed with those obtained in other processes, adding to its chemical composition naphthenic acids and phenolic compounds, resulting in one of the most dangerous industrial residues. In this study, the use of electrochemical technology (ET, using BDD with Ti as substrate (Ti/BDD, is evaluated in electrolysis of spent caustic mixtures, obtained through individual samples from different refineries. In this way, the Ti/BDD’s capability of carrying out the electrochemical destruction of spent caustics in an acidic medium is evaluated having as key process a chemical pretreatment phase. The potential production of •OHs, as the main reactive oxygen species electrogenerated over Ti/BDD surface, was evaluated in HCl and H2SO4 through fluorescence spectroscopy, demonstrating the reaction medium’s influence on its production. The results show that the hydrocarbon industry spent caustics can be mineralized to CO2 and water, driving the use of ET and of the Ti/BDD to solve a real problem, whose potential and negative impact on the environment and on human health is and has been the environmental agencies’ main focus.

  2. Industrial Information Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build-to-order...

  3. Inorganic materials in industrial processes

    OpenAIRE

    Demadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Although inorganic materials represent a small number to the extreme number of the organic ones, they play a number of crucial roles in several processes of industrial interest. Two significant technologically processes have been selected as “case studies” for this presentation: metallic corrosion and its control, and mitigation of inorganic deposits, both related to industrial water systems. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  4. Agricultural and industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of solar energy to agricultural and industrial process heat requirements is discussed. This energy end use sector has been the largest and it appears that solar energy can, when fully developed and commercialized, displace from three to eight or more quads of oil and natural gas in U.S. industry. This potential for fossil fuel displacement in the agricultural and industrial process heat area sector represents a possible savings of 1.4 to 3.8 million barrels of oil daily.

  5. Industrial Information Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build......-to-order” challenge. An outcome of this capability is that the potential market for customized products will expand, resulting in a reduction in administrative and manufacturing costs. This potential for cost reduction, simultaneous with market expansion, is a source of competitive advantage; hence manufacturers have...

  6. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami, E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l{sup -1} to 8 mg TPH l{sup -1}. Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  7. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l(-1) to 8 mg TPH l(-1). Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbons in water from a Brazilian tropical estuary facing industrial and port development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Rafael Thompson de Oliveira; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete

    2014-05-15

    A fast paced industrial and port development has occurred at Suape Estuary, Northeast Brazil, but no information about hydrocarbon concentrations in water is available to this area. Considering that, the contamination level of Suape was determined by UV-Fluorescence in terms of dissolved and/or dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPHs), during wet and dry seasons. DDPHs ranged between 0.05 and 4.59 μg L(-1) Carmópolis oil equivalents and 0.01-1.39 μg L(-1) chrysene equivalents, indicating DDPHs close to a baseline contamination level. Some relatively high concentrations (>1 μg L(-1)) were probably associated with shipyard operations (hull paintings and ship docking), pollutants remobilization by dredging operations, occasional industrial discharges and oil derivatives released by vessels. DDPHs concentrations were lower in the wet season suggesting that the increased dilution rates caused by rainfall dominated upon the wet deposition of atmospheric combustion-derived PAHs process. Results in this study may be used as baseline to further studies in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cooperation of the Institute of Industrial Chemistry with a petroleum refinery at Plotska for the purpose of modernizing the technology for producing aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tecza, U.; Lisicki, Z.; Manka, S.; Mierzejewski, M.; Prakhmajer, A.

    1982-01-01

    A project of the technological system of a unit for producing aromatic hydrocarbons at a petroleum refinery in Plotska and projects to modernize the technological processes in the production of aromatic hydrocarbons which are related to it is examined. These projects were carried out by colleagues of Institute of Industrial Chemistry (Warsaw) at the plant in 1974-80. They led to intensification of the production of xylenes and to the production of new products.

  10. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.

  11. Application of single-particle laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot particles originating from an industrial combustion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Ferge, T; Gälli, M; Karlsson, R

    2003-01-01

    Combustion-related soot particles were sampled in situ from the stoker system of a 0.5 MW incineration pilot plant (feeding material was wood) at two different heights over the feed bed in the third air supply zone. The collected particles were re-aerosolized by a powder-dispersing unit and analyzed by a single-particle laser desorption/ionization (LDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer (aerosol-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, ATOFMS). The ATOFMS instrument characterizes particles according to their aerodynamic size (laser velocimetry) and chemical composition (LDI mass spectrometry). Chemical species from the particles are laser desorbed/ionized by 266 nm Nd:YAG laser pulses. ATOFMS results on individual 'real world' particles in general give information on the bulk inorganic composition. Organic compounds, which are of much lower concentrations, commonly are not detectable. However, recent off-line laser microprobe mass spectrometric (LMMS) experiments on bulk soot aerosol samples have emphasized that organic compounds can be desorbed and ionized without fragmentation in LDI experiments from black carbonaceous matrices. This paper reports the successful transfer of the off-line results to on-line analysis of airborne soot particles by ATOFMS. The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot particles is addressed in detail. The results are interpreted in the context of the recent LMMS results. Furthermore, their relevance with respect to possible applications in on-line monitoring of combustion processes is discussed. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Psychosocial risks and hydrocarbon leaks : an exploration of their relationship in the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, L.I.V.; Ringstad, A.J.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon leaks have a major accident potential in the oil and gas industry. Over the years the oil and gas industry in Norway has worked hard to find means to prevent hydrocarbon leaks and is today able to report significant progress. In this context, the exploration of accidents in light of huma

  13. Industrial Specialization: Determinants, Processes and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the causes, processes and consequences of industrial specialization. Specifically, three sets of questions are addressed. First, how do trade and financial openness affect industrial specialization across countries? Second, how does trade openness affect industrial composition

  14. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  15. Vision Systems Illuminate Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA designs a spacecraft to undertake a new mission, innovation does not stop after the design phase. In many cases, these spacecraft are firsts of their kind, requiring not only remarkable imagination and expertise in their conception but new technologies and methods for their manufacture. In the realm of manufacturing, NASA has from necessity worked on the cutting-edge, seeking new techniques and materials for creating unprecedented structures, as well as capabilities for reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of existing manufacturing technologies. From friction stir welding enhancements (Spinoff 2009) to thermoset composites (Spinoff 2011), NASA s innovations in manufacturing have often transferred to the public in ways that enable the expansion of the Nation s industrial productivity. NASA has long pursued ways of improving upon and ensuring quality results from manufacturing processes ranging from arc welding to thermal coating applications. But many of these processes generate blinding light (hence the need for special eyewear during welding) that obscures the process while it is happening, making it difficult to monitor and evaluate. In the 1980s, NASA partnered with a company to develop technology to address this issue. Today, that collaboration has spawned multiple commercial products that not only support effective manufacturing for private industry but also may support NASA in the use of an exciting, rapidly growing field of manufacturing ideal for long-duration space missions.

  16. Industrial process heat market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  17. Hydrocarbon status of soils under atmospheric pollution from a local industrial source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zhidkin, A. P.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Contents and compositions of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and free and retained hydrocarbon gases in soils along a transect at different distances from the local industrial source of atmospheric pollution with soot emissions have been studied. The reserves of PAHs progressively decrease when the distance from the source increases. Among the individual PAHs, the most significant decrease is observed for benzo[ a]pyrene, tetraphene, pyrene, chrysene, and anthracene. On plowlands, the share of heavy PAHs—benzo[ ghi]perylene, benzo[ a]pyrene, perylene, etc.—is lower than in the forest soils. In automorphic soils of the park zone adjacent to the industrial zone, the penetration depth of four-, five-, and sixring PAHs from the atmosphere is no more than 25 cm. In soils under natural forest vegetation, heavy PAHs do not penetrate deeper than 5 cm; in tilled soils, their penetration depth coincides with the lower boundary of plow horizons. Analysis of free gases in the soil air revealed hydrocarbons only under forest. From the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the content, reserves, and compositions of different hydrocarbons, the following modification types of hydrocarbon status in the studied soils were revealed: injection, atmosedimentation-injection, atmosedimentation-impact, atmosedimentation-distant, and biogeochemical types.

  18. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  19. Design and intensification of industrial DADPM process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneker, Anne Maria; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; de Waele, B.; de Zeeuw, A.J.; van den Berg, Henderikus

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification is an essential method for the improvement of energy and material efficiency, waste reduction and simplification of industrial processes. In this research a Process Intensification methodology developed by Lutze, Gani and Woodley at the Computer Aided Process Engineering

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed.

  1. Thermal cracking of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures for re-pyrolysis: Operational analysis of some industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, T. [MOL PETCHEM Division, Tisza Chemical Works Co. Ltd. (TVK), P.O. Box 20, H-3581 Tiszaujvaros (Hungary); Lakatos, B.G. [Department of Process Engineering, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2008-02-15

    Thermal decomposition process of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures in industrial furnaces is analyzed by computer simulation. The detailed kinetic and mathematical model developed was validated by using the process control laboratory cracked gas analysis of an industrially operated furnace. The effects of feed compositions and operational conditions are examined to select the favorable operating parameters and to achieve the possibly highest online operation period of the furnace. The effect of deposited coke on the lifetime of radiant coils is examined by a heat-transfer model. The simulation study confirmed that temporal variations of the feedstock composition could be harmonized well with the operating parameters of furnaces with the purpose of achieving maximum effectiveness. (author)

  2. Water Reuse in Industrial food Processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subject of responsible care for the environment, water reuse is increasingly regarded as a tool for ... In this paper some hints are given for implementing water reuse in the food processing industry, ... The problem of rational use of industrial.

  3. Suitability of the hydrocarbon-hydroxylating molybdenum-enzyme ethylbenzene dehydrogenase for industrial chiral alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataruch, M; Heider, J; Bryjak, J; Nowak, P; Knack, D; Czerniak, A; Liesiene, J; Szaleniec, M

    2014-12-20

    The molybdenum/iron-sulfur/heme protein ethylbenzene dehydrogenase (EbDH) was successfully applied to catalyze enantiospecific hydroxylation of alkylaromatic and alkylheterocyclic compounds. The optimization of the synthetic procedure involves use of the enzyme in a crude purification state that saves significant preparation effort and is more stable than purified EbDH without exhibiting unwanted side reactions. Moreover, immobilization of the enzyme on a crystalline cellulose support and changes in reaction conditions were introduced in order to increase the amounts of product formed (anaerobic atmosphere, electrochemical electron acceptor recycling or utilization of ferricyanide as alternative electron acceptor in high concentrations). We report here on an extension of effective enzyme activity from 4h to more than 10 days and final product yields of up to 0.4-0.5g/l, which represent a decent starting point for further optimization. Therefore, we expect that the hydrocarbon-hydroxylation capabilities of EbDH may be developed into a new process of industrial production of chiral alcohols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume II. Evaluation of process feasibility. [49 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.M.; Dyslin, D.A.; Edwards, M.S.; Joy, D.S.; Peterson, G.R.

    1977-07-01

    Volume II of a two-volume study concerning the preliminary design and economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility includes: (1) a review of the current status of the major processing units, (2) an assessment of operating problems, (3) considerations of possible process alternatives, (4) an evaluation of the overall process feasibility, and (5) recommendations for future process development. Results of the study emphasize the need for testing the evaluated process, which is based on the Clean Coke Process, in a continuous pilot plant using a wide variety of highly caking bituminous coals as feed material. A program suggested for the pilot plant would encompass: (1) development of improved methods for the prevention of agglomeration of highly caking coals during hydrocarbonization, (2) optimization of the yields of coal liquids, (3) investigation of a single-stage high-temperature hydrocarbonizer optimized for char production, and (4) optimization of beneficiation ratios employed during coal preparation.

  5. Industrial best practices of conceptual process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical process industry aims particularly at energy, capital expenditure and variable feedstock cost savings due to fierce global competition, the Kyoto Protocol and requirements for sustainable development. Increasingly conceptual process design methods are used in the industry to achieve the

  6. Theory of Nonmarine Hydrocarbon Generation and Its Relation to the Development of China Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jiandong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Since the foundation of new China, its petroleum industry has grown out of nothing and from weak to strong, as well as from onshore to offshore. In 1995,China's output of crude oil totaled149 × 10 6 t and that of natural gas17 × 109 m 3, thus, enabling the country to rank among the world's major oil producers. There have also been significant creations and inventions in related science and technology, among which the theory of nonmarine hydrocarbon generation is a typical one.

  7. Assessment of the potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Joan F.; Catterall, Peter H.; Richmond, Sharon A.

    1998-01-01

    Many technologies for the clean-up of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated sites depend on microbial degradation of the pollutant. In these technologies the site may be modified to enhance microbial activity, or may simply be monitored for naturally occurring microbial activity. In either case, an important aspect of site assessment for these technologies is to determine if the microorganisms present at the site have the potential to break down contaminants under the prevailing environmental conditions. We examined the numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in ground water collected from petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated wells at the Railroad Industrial Area near Fairbanks, Alaska. We found that the population of gasoline-degrading microorganisms in ground water was correlated to the degree of contamination by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). We also found that these organisms could actively mineralize these types of compounds in laboratory mineralization assays. Increasing temperature and adding nutrients both enhanced the rate of mineralization in the laboratory, but measurable degradation still occurred under conditions similar to those found in the field. Dissolved oxygen in ground water at this site ranged from 0 to 3.6 milligrams per liter. Therefore, oxygen may not always be available to microorganisms as a terminal electron acceptor. Preliminary geochemical evidence from the field indicates that alternative electron acceptors such as Fe(III), sulfate, or nitrate may be used, contributing to degradation of contaminants at this site.

  8. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  10. Industrial processes of olefin metathesis. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S.

    1987-05-01

    Olefin metathesis opens new synthetic routes to typical petrochemicals (ethylene, propylene, n-butenes), special olefins (neohexene, higher molecular linear olefins, , -dienes) and unsaturated polymers (polynorbornene, -cyclooctene, -dicyclopentadiene) in an industrial scale. The 8 metathesis processes used in industry and further possible applications of olefin metathesis are reviewed.

  11. Industrial water and effluent management in the milk processing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, JW

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important commodities used in any food-processing industry is water which must be of the right quality. Water which comes into direct contact with milk or milk products must meet standards which are even stricter than those for a...

  12. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-21

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  13. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  14. Environmental challenges for the Egg Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Hald, Mie

    industries having a large consumption of natural resources (water and energy) and produces significantly amounts of residue (waste water, carbon dioxide and biodegradable waste). As such it is only natural that the food industry is governed by environmental regulation. In this book the Egg......Environmental regulation within the European Union and its Member States has evolved from command-and-control regulation to more complex ways of regulation. Different industries may be more or less ‘vulnerable’ towards an increased level of environmental regulation. The food industry is among those......-processing industry has been selected as a case study in order to be capable of illustrating the impact of such regulation on industry...

  15. Process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon like material or mixtures thereof by conversion of a suitable substrate using micro-organisms, in which process the said substrate is continuously, anaerobically fermented to

  16. Process to separate alkali metal salts from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier; Larsen, Dennis; Killpack, Jeff

    2017-06-27

    A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about 350.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.

  17. Expert systems in the process industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

  18. Industrial uses of radiation processing in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, J. P.

    Since 1979, the Irradiation Department of IRE, in conjunction with universities and the industrial sector, has set up an extensive programme of research, development and promotion of the radiation process applied to cross-linking and polymerization of plastics, to waste treatment and to food preservation. Starting from scratch, it is thanks to our research in this last-mentioned field that we have been able to develop and to increase the application of the irradiation process within the food industry. At present, two irradiation facilities of a total design capacity of 2.5 10 6 Ci irradiate 24 hours per day mostly for the agro-industry.

  19. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Industrial Harbor Sediments by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Wen Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutant list was carried out in sediment samples of an industrial port in the southern Kaohsiung Harbor of Taiwan which is supposed to be extensively polluted by industrial wastewater discharges. The determination and quantification of PAHs in sediment samples were performed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS with the aid of deuterated PAH internal standards and surrogate standards. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 4,425 to 51,261 ng/g dw, with a mean concentration of 13,196 ng/g dw. The PAHs concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. Diagnostic ratios showed that the possible source of PAHs in the industrial port area could be coal combustion. As compared with the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs, the various observed levels of PAHs exceeded the effects range median (ERM, and could thus cause acute biological damages. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the various industries in this region for reducing pollution.

  20. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  1. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  2. Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

    2009-09-28

    This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

  3. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...... with cleaning chemicals and cleaning procedures • Optimising design of production equipment • Development of environmentally friendly cleaning procedures for removal of biofilm The partners include food production/processing companies and producers of equipment for the food industry, cleaning chemicals...... approach is to focus on surface material hygienic lifetime. Test of this is made in an industrial test loop run by biotechnology researchers in co-operation with materials producers and a food producer to compare biofilm formation, cleanability and deterioration of different rubber and plastic materials...

  4. Geothermal energy market potential in industrial processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.J.; Hanny, J.A.; Knuth, W.H.

    1978-11-01

    Geothermal energy is currently being used for a number of industrial processes in countries throughout the world. Its application in the United States is mainly limited to space heating even though the temperature of the geothermal fluid is sufficient for process uses, and could be sold at attractive prices while maintaining a high return on investment. The temperature span for industrial use ranges from 40 to 275/sup 0/C, thus encompassing both the abundant low temperature and the less available high temperature resources. Hydrothermal fluids can be used either directly or indirectly dependent upon fluid quality and process needs. The barriers facing hydrothermal industrial process development are (a) the development infrastructure does not exist, (b) energy users are not aware of hydrothermal energy and its advantages, (c) federal incentives are limited, (d) resources are not fully defined.

  5. Interface design in the process industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverstock, M. C.; Stassen, H. G.; Williamson, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Every operator runs his plant in accord with his own mental model of the process. In this sense, one characteristic of an ideal man-machine interface is that it be in harmony with that model. With this theme in mind, the paper first reviews the functions of the process operator and compares them with human operators involved in control situations previously studied outside the industrial environment (pilots, air traffic controllers, helmsmen, etc.). A brief history of the operator interface in the process industry and the traditional methodology employed in its design is then presented. Finally, a much more fundamental approach utilizing a model definition of the human operator's behavior is presented.

  6. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  7. Bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables grown in an industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipopoulou, A M; Manoli, E; Samara, C

    1999-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content was determined in the inner tissue of various vegetable species and their growing environment (soil and atmosphere) in the greater industrial area of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The lower molecular weight compounds dominated in both vegetable leaves and roots. Statistical analysis of variance showed that species and season are the factors that significantly affect PAH concentrations in inner vegetable tissue and soil, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated that the mixture of PAHs in inner vegetable tissue was very similar to that in air vapour thus suggesting gaseous deposition as the principal pathway for the accumulation of PAHs. Soil-to-vegetation and air-to-vegetation bioconcentration factors were calculated and their relationships with PAHs' physicochemical properties were investigated. Solubility and the octanol-water partition coefficient, as well as vapour pressure and the octanol-air partition coefficient were proved to be good predictors for the accumulation of PAHs in inner root and leaf tissue, respectively.

  8. Determination of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in domestic, commercial and industrial soot samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Yousaf; Sohail, Syed Muhammad; Ahmad, Imtiaz [Peshawar Univ., Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemical Sciences; Saeed, Khalid [Malakand Univ., Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in domestic, commercial and industrial soot samples via HPLC. The study showed that benzo[a]pyrene (bap) was not present in most of the samples. The highest quantity of BaP was found in Pakistan Particle Board where its concentration was 259.12 mg/kg. The high quantity of other PAHs such as chrysene (CHR), anthracene (ANT), fluorene (FL), naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), acenaphthylene (ACP) and flouranthene (FTH) were found in tandoor, kabab karayi, tabakhee, brick kiln and motor car soot samples. The low concentration of most of the PAH compounds in most of the samples might be due to their photooxidative, biological and microbial degradation. (orig.)

  9. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-05-30

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  10. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  11. Identification of sources of elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an industrial area in Tianjin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, T.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Wang, G.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector in 105 topsoil samples from an industrial area around Bohai Bay, Tianjin in the North of China. Results demonstrated that concentrations of PAHs in 104 so

  12. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  13. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  14. Lyophilization: The process and industrial use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržić Dejan S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of lyophilization and discusses the underlying principles of the process through the basics of: formulation, freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. In this article lyophilization is defined as a stabilizing process in which the substance is first frozen and then the quantity of the solvent is reduced first by sublimation (primary drying and then by desorption (secondary drying to values that will no longer support biological growth or chemical reactions. Special mention was made of the industrial use of the process and emphasis was placed on the lyophilization of pharmaceutical products and food industry products. Lyophilization equipment, as well as the formulation of materials that can be lyophilized, are described in sufficient detail to give information on the restrictions and advantages of lyophlization. Processing economics and comparison with conventional drying methods are presented. A historical overview of the process and future developments presented from the industrial viewpoint give an insight on the previous application of lyophilization and the prospects of its broad industrial use.

  15. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-05

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future.

  16. Source Apportionment of Particle Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Industrial Location in Agra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Lakhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were quantified in total suspended ambient particulate matter (TSPM collected from an industrial site in Agra (India using gas chromatography. The major industrial activities in Agra are foundries that previously used coal and coke as fuel in cupola furnaces. These foundries have now switched over to natural gas. In addition, use of compressed natural gas has also been promoted and encouraged in automobiles. This study attempts to apportion sources of PAH in the ambient air and the results reflect the advantages associated with the change of fuel. The predominant PAHs in TSPM include high molecular weight (HMW congeners BghiP, DbA, IP, and BaP. The sum of 16 priority PAHs had a mean value of 72.7 ± 4.7 ng m−3. Potential sources of PAHs in aerosols were identified using diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis. The results reflect a blend of emissions from diesel and natural gas as the major sources of PAH in the city along with contribution from emission of coal, coke, and gasoline.

  17. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA damage by industry: a nationwide study in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczynski, Boleslaw; Pesch, Beate; Rabstein, Sylvia; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Erkes, Anja; Engelhardt, Beate; Kaefferlein, Heiko Udo; Angerer, Juergen; Bruening, Thomas [BGFA - Research Institute of Occupational Medicine, German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Wilhelm, Michael [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Bochum (Germany); Rossbach, Bernd [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Preuss, Ralf [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen/Nuernberg, Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational, Social- and Environmental Medicine, Erlangen (Germany); Hahn, Jens-Uwe [BGIA - Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, German Social Accident Insurance, Sankt Augustin (Germany); Seidel, Albrecht [Biochemical Institute for Environmental Carcinogens, Grosshansdorf (Germany); Adams, Ansgar [BAD Health Prevention and Technical Safety GmbH, Koblenz (Germany); Scherenberg, Michael [Occupational Medical Center Oberhausen, German Social Accident Insurance of the Construction Industry, Oberhausen (Germany); Straif, Kurt [International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), World Health Organisation, Lyon Cedex 08 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and DNA damage were analyzed in coke oven (n = 37), refractory (n = 96), graphite electrode (n = 26), and converter workers (n = 12), whereas construction workers (n = 48) served as referents. PAH exposure was assessed by personal air sampling during shift and biological monitoring in urine post shift (1-hydroxypyrene, 1-OHP and 1-, 2 + 9-, 3-, 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, {sigma}OHPHE). DNA damage was measured by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2{sup '}-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and DNA strand breaks in blood post shift. Median 1-OHP and {sigma}OHPHE were highest in converter workers (13.5 and 37.2 {mu}g/g crea). The industrial setting contributed to the metabolite concentrations rather than the air-borne concentration alone. Other routes of uptake, probably dermal, influenced associations between air-borne concentrations and levels of PAH metabolites in urine making biomonitoring results preferred parameters to assess exposure to PAH. DNA damage in terms of 8-oxo-dGuo and DNA strand breaks was higher in exposed workers compared to referents ranking highest for graphite-electrode production. The type of industry contributed to genotoxic DNA damage and DNA damage was not unequivocally associated to PAH on the individual level most likely due to potential contributions of co-exposures. (orig.)

  18. Microprocessor systems for industrial process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    Six computers operate synchronously and are interconnected by three independent data buses. Processors control one subsystem. Some can control buses to transfer data at 1 megabit per second. Every 2.5 msec each processor examines list of things to do during next interval. This spacecraft control system could be adapted for controlling complex industrial processes.

  19. Fuzzy Control in the Process Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Verbruggen, Henk; Østergaard, Jens-Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Control problems in the process industry are dominated by non-linear and time-varying behaviour, many inner loops, and much interaction between the control loops. Fuzzy controllers have in some cases nevertheless mimicked the control actions of a human operator. Simple fuzzy controllers can...

  20. Exergy analysis in industrial food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable provision of food on a global scale in the near future is a very serious challenge. This thesis focuses on the assessment and design of sustainable industrial food production chains and processes by using the concept of exergy which is an objective metric based on the first and secon

  1. Digital Image Processing in Private Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Connie

    1986-01-01

    Examines various types of private industry optical disk installations in terms of business requirements for digital image systems in five areas: records management; transaction processing; engineering/manufacturing; information distribution; and office automation. Approaches for implementing image systems are addressed as well as key success…

  2. Local learning processes in Malaysian industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Local learning processes are a vital part of any dynamic assimilation of transferred technology. The paper raises the question about the interaction between the training paradigms, which transnational corporations introduce in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and the specific basis for learning...... of Malaysian labour. Experiences from Malaysian industry indicate that local learning processes are shaped, among other things, by the concept of knowledge in a particular training programme, labour market structures, and learning cultures....

  3. Are styrene oligomers in coastal sediments of an industrial area aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Changkeun; Yoon, Seo Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-06-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed to identify the major aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in sediments collected from a highly industrialized area (Lake Shihwa, Korea). Great AhR-mediated potencies were found in fractions containing aromatic compounds with log Kow values of 5-8, and relatively great concentrations of styrene oligomers (SOs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in those fractions. Until now, there was little information on occurrences and toxic relative potencies (RePs) of SOs in coastal environments. In the present study; i) distributions and compositions, ii) AhR binding affinities, and iii) contributions of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were determined in coastal sediments. Elevated concentrations of 10 SOs were detected in sediments of inland creeks ranging from 61 to 740 ng g(-1) dry mass (dm), while lesser concentrations were found in inner (mean = 33 ng g(-1) dm) and outer regions (mean = 25 ng g(-1) dm) of the lake. Concentrations of PAHs in sediments were comparable to those of SOs. 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene (SD3) was the predominant SO analogue in sediments. SOs and PAHs were accumulated in sediments near sources, and could not be transported to remote regions due to their hydrophobicity. RePs of 3 SOs could be derived, which were 1000- to 10,000-fold less than that of one representative potent AhR active PAH, benzo[a]pyrene. Although concentrations of SOs in sediments were comparable to those of PAHs, the collective contribution of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were rather small (coastal environment.

  4. Downstream processing in the biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, Manohar

    2002-09-01

    The biotechnology industry today employs recombinant bacteria, mammalian cells, and transgenic animals for the production of high-value therapeutic proteins. This article reviews the techniques employed in this industry for the recovery of these products. The methods reviewed extend from the centrifugation and membrane filtration for the initial clarification of crude culture media to the final purification of the products by a variety of membrane-based and chromatographic methods. The subject of process validation including validation of the removal of bacterial and viral contaminants from the final products is also discussed with special reference to the latest regulatory guidelines.

  5. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  6. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...... goals: • Development of materials with low bioadhesion (defined as resistance towards biofilm formation) - and in this context evaluation of quantitative techniques for examination of bioadhesion • Improvement of surface material hygienic life time by selecting surface materials in combination...... approach is to focus on surface material hygienic lifetime. Test of this is made in an industrial test loop run by biotechnology researchers in co-operation with materials producers and a food producer to compare biofilm formation, cleanability and deterioration of different rubber and plastic materials...

  7. FTIR monitoring of industrial scale CVD processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfe, V.; Mosebach, H.; Meyer, M.; Sheel, D.; Grählert, W.; Throl, O.; Dresler, B.

    1998-06-01

    The goal is to improve chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and infiltration (CVI) process control by a multipurpose, knowledge based feedback system. For monitoring the CVD/CVI process in-situ FTIR spectroscopic data has been identified as input information. In the presentation, three commonly used, and distinctly different, types of industrial CVD/CVI processes are taken as test cases: (i) a thermal high capacity CVI batch process for manufacturing carbon fibre reinforced SiC composites for high temperature applications, (ii) a continuously driven CVD thermal process for coating float glass for energy protection, and (iii) a laser stimulated CVD process for continuously coating bundles of thin ceramic fibers. The feasibility of the concept with FTIR in-situ monitoring as a core technology has been demonstrated. FTIR monitoring sensibly reflects process conditions.

  8. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  9. CHALLENGES FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES IN RECYCLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lothar Reh

    2006-01-01

    Increasing population and individual wealth have led to a higher demand for energy and raw material resources as well as for steady improvement of processing technology in view of efficient use of resources and avoiding emissions in production and recycling processes. Present situation and future trend of recycling processing are discussed by examples from the aluminium and steel industries, recycling of cars and post-consumer municipal recovery.The importance of more intense observance of thermodynamic laws and of a 4E strategy "Economy, Energy, Environment and Education" is outlined.

  10. Early Phase Process Evaluation: Industrial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan Adi Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Process route evaluation is a part of research and development (R&D works in an industrial chemical project life cycle. In this early phase, good process evaluation, including process synthesis and designs, provide guidance’s on the R&D project. The paper aimed to collect practical methods used in this early phase process route evaluation from author’s 10 years of industrial experiences.  The collected methods range from forward-backward process synthesis, functional process design, use of cost estimation, and applications of Monte Carlo simulation. Led by a good project management (e.g. via a stage-gate approach use of these methods have shown beneficial results. Some important results are strong arguments on whether or not the project will continue, as well as relevant technical and economic issues identified during this early phase process synthesis and design. Later on, these issues become guidance’s to the follow-up project, if it is continued.

  11. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  12. China Aluminum Processing Industry Development Report 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2011,China’s aluminum processing industry maintained a high growth rate,with the aluminum output reaching 23,456,000tons,up 20.6% y-o-y.Overshadowed by complicated situation both at home and abroad,China’seconomy slowed down and declined by2.2% y-o-y.In 2011,China’s aluminum processing industry showed a downward tendency,that is,it grew at a high speed before the3rd quarter,but suffered from a shortage of orders in the remaining time of the year and the growth rate fell increasingly.Between January and August,China’s aluminum output rose by 26% y-o-y;

  13. Characteristics of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from industrial grade biomass boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Geng, Chunmei; Sun, Xuesong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xinhua; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic or mutagenic and are important toxic pollutants in the flue gas of boilers. Two industrial grade biomass boilers were selected to investigate the characteristics of particulate-bound PAHs: one biomass boiler retro-fitted from an oil boiler (BB1) and one specially designed (BB2) biomass boiler. One coal-fired boiler was also selected for comparison. By using a dilution tunnel system, particulate samples from boilers were collected and 10 PAH species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total emission factors (EFs) of PAHs ranged from 0.0064 to 0.0380 mg/kg, with an average of 0.0225 mg/kg, for the biomass boiler emission samples. The total PAH EFs for the tested coal-fired boiler were 1.8 times lower than the average value of the biomass boilers. The PAH diagnostic ratios for wood pellets and straw pellets were similar. The ratio of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/[indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene] for the two biomass boilers was lower than those of the reference data for other burning devices, which can probably be used as an indicator to distinguish the emission of biomass boilers from that of industrial coal-fired boilers and residential stoves. The toxic potential of the emission from wood pellet burning was higher than that from straw pellet burning, however both of them were much lower than residential stove exhausts.

  14. Variations in the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial and agricultural soils after bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meixia; Gong, Zongqiang; Allinson, Graeme; Tai, Peidong; Miao, Renhui; Li, Xiaojun; Jia, Chunyun; Zhuang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the variations in bioavailability remaining in industrial and agricultural soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after bioremediation. After inoculation of Mycobacterium sp. and Mucor sp., PAH biodegradation was tested on a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil and an agricultural soil. PAH bioavailability was assessed before and after biodegradation using solid-phase extraction (Tenax-TA extraction) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) to represent bioaccessibility and chemical activity of PAHs, respectively. Only 3- and 4-ring PAHs were noticeably biodegradable in the MGP soil. PAH biodegradation in the agricultural soil was different from that in the MGP soil. The rapidly desorbing fractions (F(rap)) extracted by Tenax-TA and the freely dissolved concentrations of 3- and 4-ring PAHs determined by SPME from the MGP soil decreased after 30 days biodegradation; those values of the 5- and 6-ring PAHs changed to a lesser degree. For the agricultural soil, the F(rap) values of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs also decreased after the biodegradation experiment. The Tenax-TA extraction and the SPME have the potential to assess variations in the bioavailability of PAHs and the degree of biodegradation in contaminated MGP soils. In addition, Tenax-TA extraction is more sensitive than SPME when used in the agricultural soil.

  15. Removal and transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during electrocoagulation treatment of an industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chenhao; Shen, Gang; Huang, Haiou; He, Peiran; Zhang, Zhongguo; Ma, Baoqing

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of water pollutants because of their known ecological and human toxicity. Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising technology for mitigating industrial wastewater pollution, but the removal and transformation of PAHs during EC treatment has not yet been understood. Therefore, a paper-making wastewater effluent (PMWW) was employed in this study to investigate the relationship between PAHs' removal and transformation during EC treatment. The results show that 86% of PAHs were effectively removed not only by the electro-oxidation reactions, but also by adsorption onto Fe hydroxide flocs. The removal and transformation of PAHs were related to the number of rings in their structures. Some PAHs composed of two aromatic rings (e.g., naphthaline and dimethylnaphthalene) were produced from humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like organics in PMWW, while PAHs with three to four rings were degraded, thus being removed efficiently. Therefore, PAH transformation during EC treatment exerted double-sided effects on the removal of PAHs; the net effect appeared to be positive. Overall, this study revealed the existence and importance of PAH transformation during EC treatment and provided useful guidance for pulp and paper mills to improve the design and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrocarbon Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen: A Two-Step Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    with an immersion cooler (SP Scientific) in a water bath, and the product gas stream was first dried over a bed of 3 Å molecular sieves prior to GC...Commonwealth realm Crown government in the course of their duties. Article Hydrocarbon Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen: A Two-Step Process...AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrocarbon Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen: A

  17. Contamination of urban, industrial and continental waters by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessabi, M; Elhraiki, A; Nader, B

    1988-05-01

    Residual waters (urban, industrial and continental) of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast situated between Tangier and Al Hoceima were found to be contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. Hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin and heptachlor were frequently encountered. The contamination was relatively low for endrin and dieldrin and irregular for DDT and its derivatives. The levels detected differed from traces to 0.5 ppm. The areas of high urban density showed the highest contamination, with some seasonal variation.

  18. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-07-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  19. Automated full matrix capture for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roy H.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Collison, Ian; Dutton, Ben; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Jackson, Joseph; Lardner, Timothy; MacLeod, Charles; Morozov, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    Full matrix capture (FMC) ultrasound can be used to generate a permanent re-focusable record of data describing the geometry of a part; a valuable asset for an inspection process. FMC is a desirable acquisition mode for automated scanning of complex geometries, as it allows compensation for surface shape in post processing and application of the total focusing method. However, automating the delivery of such FMC inspection remains a significant challenge for real industrial processes due to the high data overhead associated with the ultrasonic acquisition. The benefits of NDE delivery using six-axis industrial robots are well versed when considering complex inspection geometries, but such an approach brings additional challenges to scanning speed and positional accuracy when combined with FMC inspection. This study outlines steps taken to optimize the scanning speed and data management of a process to scan the diffusion bonded membrane of a titanium test plate. A system combining a KUKA robotic arm and a reconfigurable FMC phased array controller is presented. The speed and data implications of different scanning methods are compared, and the impacts on data visualization quality are discussed with reference to this study. For the 0.5 m2 sample considered, typical acquisitions of 18 TB/m2 were measured for a triple back wall FMC acquisition, illustrating the challenge of combining high data throughput with acceptable scanning speeds.

  20. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-07-15

    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  1. Applications of density functional theory calculations to selected problems in hydrocarbon processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabar, Rahul

    Recent advances in theoretical techniques and computational hardware have made it possible to apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods to realistic problems in heterogeneous catalysis. Hydrocarbon processing is economically, and strategically, a very important industrial sector in today's world. In this thesis, we employ DFT methods to examine several important problems in hydrocarbon processing. Fischer Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) is a mature technology to convert synthesis gas derived from coal, natural-gas or biomass into liquid fuels, specifically diesel. Iron is an active FTS catalyst, but the absence of detailed reaction mechanisms make it difficult to maximize activity and optimize product distribution. We evaluate thermochemistry, kinetics and Rate Determining Steps (RDS) for Fischer Tropsch Synthesis on several models of Fe catalysts: Fe(110), Fe(211) and Pt promoted Fe(110). Our studies indicated that CO-dissociation is likely to be the RDS under most reaction conditions, but the DFT-calculated activation energy ( Ea) for direct CO dissociation was too large to explain the observed catalyst activity. Consequently we demonstrate that H-assisted CO-dissociation pathways are competitive with direct CO dissociation on both Co and Fe catalysts and could be responsible for a major fraction of the reaction flux (especially at high CO coverages). We then extend this alternative mechanistic model to closed-packed facets of nine transition metal catalysts (Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt). H-assisted CO dissociation offers a kinetically easier route on each of the metals studied. DFT methods are also applied to another problem from the petroleum industry: discovery of poison-resistant, bimetallic, alloy catalysts (poisons: C, S, CI, P). Our systematic screening studies identify several Near Surface Alloys (NSAs) that are expected to be highly poison-resistant yet stable and avoiding adsorbate induced reconstruction. Adsorption trends are also correlated with

  2. Solar energy for agricultural and industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-22

    A state-of-the-art review of solar process heat is given; near term prospects are discussed; and the federal solar industrial process heat program is reviewed. Existing solar industrial process heat projects are tabulated. (WHK)

  3. Process for converting hydrocarbon oils and catalyst for use in such a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, T.; Schaper, H.; Hoek, A.

    1990-05-08

    This invention is directed at increasing the utilization of residual oil found in currently available crude oil feedstocks. The process of the invention is particularly suitable for hydrocracking, and comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil in the presence of hydrogen with a hydrocracking catalyst. Suitable feedstocks include tar oils, vacuum gas oil, deasphalted oils, long and short residues, catalytically cracked cycle oils, thermally cracked gas oils, and synthetic crudes, or combinations of various such oils. Suitable process conditions comprise temperatures from 200 to 500{degree}C, hydrogen pressures up to 300 bar, space velocities of 0.1-10 kg feed per liter of catalyst per hour, and gas/feed ratios of 100-5000 Nl/kg feed. The catalyst used in the process comprises zeolite Y particles, with an average size in the range of 0.8 to 5.0 mm, and a unit cell size preferably from 24.19 to 24.35 {angstrom}. Preference is given to zeolite Y having a silica/alumina molar ratio of 8-15. The zeolite is combined with a hydrogenation component of a Group VI and/or VIII metal, preferably nickel and tungsten. Alumina is the preferred binder. The catalyst contains 60-85% zeolite and 15-40% binder, based on the total amount of zeolite and binder. The products of the process include gaseous material (in general C1-4 hydrocarbons), naphtha, and a middle distillate fraction. Experiments are described to illustrate the preparation of catalysts and the process of the invention. 1 tab.

  4. PROCESS VALIDATION AS AN INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Chandan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality is the primordial intention to any industry and its products manufactured. Recently validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industries’ most recognized and discussed subjects. Validation is the means of catering enormous benefits to even more than the acceptable quality level which in the global standard scale lending importance to validation is increasingly profound in recent years. The word validation simply means “Assessment of validation or action of proving effectiveness”. The process is developed in such a way that the required parameters are achieved and it ensures that the output of the process will consistently meet the required parameters during routine production, the process is validated. Validation and quality assurance will go hand in hand, ensuring the through quality for the products. Hence, an emphasis is made in this review that gives a detailed, overview of validation concept of designing, organizing and conducting validation trials.

  5. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim Z.

    2011-08-23

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  6. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  7. Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical process industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupis, C.H.P.

    1999-10-01

    The present lecture offers a brief review of the greenhouse effect, the sources of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming, the response of the international community, and the probable cost of national compliance. The specific emissions of the metallurgical process industry, particularly those of the steel and aluminum sectors, are then examined. The potential applications of life-cycle assessments and of an input-output model in programs of emissions' abatement are investigated, and, finally, a few remarks on some implications for education are presented.

  8. A novel zeolite process for clean end use of hydrocarbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, K.M. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Technology Centre

    1996-12-31

    In recent years zeolites such as ZSM-5 have attracted considerable interest for the catalysis of a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations. A novel process developed by Neste converts light olefins to higher molecular weight hydrocarbon products. A wide range of high quality diesel, solvents and lube oils can be produced by the new NESKO process. Hydrotreated products have excellent properties; negligible sulphur or nitrogen compounds, very low aromatic content and pour point lower than -50 deg C. Proprietary technology is used in this olefin oligomerization process. (author) (7 refs.)

  9. Process Design of Industrial Triethylene Glycol Processes Using the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis;

    2014-01-01

    design of liquid-liquid extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons by TEG. Comparisons between simulation and experimental results are presented in order to illustrate the reliability of Thermo System while it is used in a process simulator for industrial applications. Detailed analysis on selecting TEG pure...... the CAPE-OPEN standards. We, then, simulate certain binary and multicomponent systems where experimental data are available in the literature and which are critical for process design of natural gas dehydration units by triethylene glycol (TEG). We also demonstrate the potential of CPA for the process...

  10. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T. Donna

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the "enemy". Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. Clearly it is a challenge we cannot afford to ignore.

  11. Iron and steel industry process model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1978-07-01

    The model depicts expected energy-consumption characteristics of the iron and steel industry and ancillary industries for the next 25 years by means of a process model of the major steps in steelmaking from ore mining and scrap recycling to the final finishing of carbon, alloy, and stainless steel into steel products such as structural steel, slabs, plates, tubes, and bars. Two plant types are modelled: fully integrated mills and minimills. User-determined inputs into the model are: (a) projected energy materials prices for the horizon; (b) projected costs of capacity expansion and replacement; (c) energy conserving options - both operating modes and investments; (d) internal rate of return required on projects; and (e) growth in finished steel demand. Nominal input choices in the model are: DOE baseline projections for oil, gas, distillates, residuals, and electricity for energy, and 1975 actual prices for materials; actual 1975 costs; adding new technologies; 15% after taxes; and 1975 actual demand with 1.5% growth/year. Output of the model includes: energy use by type, by process, and by time period, both in total and intensity (Btu/ton); energy-conservation options chosen; and utilization rates for existing capacity, and the capacity expansion decisions of the model.

  12. EFFICIENCY OF THE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS USAGE IN THE ENRICHMENT PROCESS OF IRON ORE

    OpenAIRE

    SHKURENOK V.; PANOVA A.; AKYLBEK B.; OSTANINA N.

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes the liquid hydrocarbon reductant (LHR) usage in the process of iron ore opening-up to a metallurgic range. Calcination process optimization of Lisakovsk gravity-magnetic concentrate (LGMC) was performed by the planning of experiments using Seidel – Gauss method. Iron content in the concentrate increases from 47,6 % to 54,17 % in optimal conditions.

  13. EFFICIENCY OF THE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS USAGE IN THE ENRICHMENT PROCESS OF IRON ORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHKURENOK V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the liquid hydrocarbon reductant (LHR usage in the process of iron ore opening-up to a metallurgic range. Calcination process optimization of Lisakovsk gravity-magnetic concentrate (LGMC was performed by the planning of experiments using Seidel – Gauss method. Iron content in the concentrate increases from 47,6 % to 54,17 % in optimal conditions.

  14. Quality tools - systematic use in process industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sokovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper is dealing with one segment of broader research of universality systematicness in application of seven basic quality tools (7QC tools. The research was carried out in different areas that include power plant, process industry, government, health and tourism services. The aim of the research was to show on practical examples that there is real possibility of application of 7QC tools. Furthermore, the research has to show to what extent are selected tools in usage and what reasons of avoiding their broader application are. The simple example of successful application of one of quality tools are shown on selected company in process industry.Design/methodology/approach: In the research each of 7QC tools have been tested and its applicability in the frame of selected business has been shown. Systematic approach is explained on the example of selected company in process industry which is ISO 9000:2000 certified.Findings: Conducted research has shown that there is possibility of systematic application of all of the 7QC tools in the frame of companies’ overall quality management system. The research has also shown that 7QC tools are not so wide spread as expected, although they are quite simple for application and easy to interpret. The further investigation should be carried out in order to find reasons for such condition, and, in accordance, to define appropriate corrective actions to eliminate or minimize that problem.Practical implications: The partners in research were from different area of business, as stated above. To each partner has been shown in what manner can quality tools are applied and how formal quality management system can help in process improvement on day-to day basis.Originality/value: The main value of conducted research is, in author’s opinion, to show to each partner in research that all of 7QC tools can be successfully applied within their own business. Also, the correlation between formal quality

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on hydrocarbon processing mixing and scale-up problems. [Fuels processing for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, J. D. [ed.

    1978-01-01

    A workshop was convened by the Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization of the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Particulate and Multiphase Process Program of the National Science Foundation to identify needs for fundamental engineering support for the design of chemical reactors for processing heavy hydrocarbon liquids. The problems associated with dispersing liquid hydrocarbons in a reacting gas and mixing within the gas phase are of primary concern. The transactions of the workshop begin with an introduction to the immediate goals of the Department of Energy. Fuel cell systems and current research and development are reviewed. Modeling of combustion and the problems of soot formation and deposits in hydrocarbon fuels are next considered. The fluid mechanics of turbulent mixing and its effect on chemical reactions are then presented. Current experimental work and process development provide an update on the present state-of-the-art.

  16. 27 CFR 19.67 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.67 Section 19.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.67 Spirits produced in industrial processes. (a) Applicability. (1) Persons who produce spirits in industrial processes (including...

  17. Lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments are major factors for the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Zecheng; LI Xiaoqing; WANG Hongjun; WANG Zhaoyun

    2005-01-01

    The formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs is controlled by three major factors: lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments. Among the three major factors, lithological architecture provides the storing medium for hydrocarbon; geological processes include hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and modification; and energy-field environments refer to the various geothermal and geodynamic forces that affect the lithological architecture and drive the geological processes.In this study, we take Kela-2 and Sulige gas reservoirs as two examples to study relationships among the three major factors, and explain how these factors influence the scale and quality of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  18. Improving industrial process control systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Epting, U; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    System providers are today creating process control systems based on remote connectivity using internet technology, effectively exposing these systems to the same threats as corporate computers. It is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to patch/maintain the technical infrastructure monitoring and control systems to remove these vulnerabilities. A strategy including risk assessment, security policy issues, service level agreements between the IT department and the controls engineering groups must be defined. In addition an increased awareness of IT security in the controls system engineering domain is needed. As consequence of these new factors the control system architectures have to take into account security requirements, that often have an impact on both operational aspects as well as on the project and maintenance cost. Manufacturers of industrial control system equipment do however also propose progressively security related solutions that can be used for our active projects. The paper discusses ...

  19. BRANDING PROCESS - FUNDAMENTAL PROCESS IN THE TEXTI LE INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURCAREA Anca Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available More companies in textile industry organizations understand that in making a decision a key factor is the performance of organizational processes. Products are becoming more numerous and increasingly resemble each other.In this conditions the brand can make the difference in a highly competitive market. Both academic specialists and professionals believes that the brand has become an intangible capital of a company which ensures its long-term profitability. In a globalized economy brand break the barriers of space enabling the company to have a great vision, far beyond its reach. Methodology was based on a bibliographical research. The research has identified the major role that brands can play both for customers and manufacturers in the textile Industry organizations. In conclusion literature and experience has shown that large companies both brands operating in B2B markets and the B2C markets, have an increasingly higher for long-term competitive advantage.

  20. Process for simultaneously processing of used metal and/or metal scrap and scrap containing halogenated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapper, G.; Kirchner, W.; Sloterdijk, W.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1982-03-02

    A process is presened for reducing environmental pollution resulting from disposal of waste containing halogenated hydrocarbons by simultaneous treatment with used metal and/or metal scrap at elevated temperatures. The halogenated hydrocarbons are pyrolyzed and the resulting hydrogen halide containing gas is brought into contact with the used metal and/or metal scrap at elevated temperatures so as to form metal halogenides that are volatile under the conditions applied. The volatile metal halogenides are largely separated from the gaseous mixture formed, and at least part of the remaining gaseous mixture and/or hydrocarbon residue is used as fuel to maintain the required temperature. The waste feed compositions and process conditions can be chosen to effect separation between various metals by selective halogenation and condensation, and substantially all of the hydrogen halide can be tied up and recovered as metal halogenides.

  1. Investigation of non-volatile additives on the process of distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Б. Степанов

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  The given results of researches of influence of nonvolatile additives on processes of distillation of individual hydrocarbons and their mixes, including petroleum and mineral oil. With the help of the developed computer system of the continuous control of distillation it is shown, that at the presence of small amounts of the additive decrease of temperature of the beginning of boiling of hydrocarbons is observed, their speeds of banish and exits of light fuel mineral oil grow during initial oil refining

  2. Recovery Process for Lighter Hydrocarbon of Natural Gas in Liaohe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Fulu

    1995-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Oilfield, the third largest oilfield in China is richer in natural gas. Up to the end of 1993,the accumulative production of natural gas reached 31. 15 billion m3,among which associated gas occupied 19.83 billion m3. In the recent ten years ,more than ten of lighter hydrocarbon recovery units with different scales have been constructed. The following is describing the main process features about recovery units of 200 × 104m3/d,120× 104 m3/d and other small recovery units for lighter hydrocarbon of natural gas.

  3. Normal hydrocarbons as a source of resin formation in the process of obtaining isoprene from isopentane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isagulyants, G.V.; Sire, Y.M.; Vasil' yeva, V.P.; Gitis, K.M.; Rozengart, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made on a catalyst of dehydrogenation of olefins of the conversion of isoamylenes and other C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons (isoprene, n-pentenes, piperylene), formed during dehydrogenation of isoamylenes to isoprene. It was found that the yield of heavy products increases on transition from hydrocarbons of iso-structure to normal hydrocarbons, which is due to the greater ease of polycondensation of cyclopentadiene formed from n-pentenes and particularly from piperylene under conditions of dehydrogenation. A study was made by chromato-mass-spectrometry of the composition of heavy products of conversion of piperylene and isoprene. In contrast with the catalysate of isoprene, the catalysate of piperylene contains a significant proportion of hydrocarbons containing a five-membered ring in the molecule (dicyclopentadiene, indane, indene, methylindenes, azilene), this being due to the participation of cyclopentadiene in the formation of heavy products. In the two-stage process of dehydrogenation of isopentane to isoprene 95% normal hydrocarbons are formed on dehydrogenation of isopentane to isoamylenes. (JMT)

  4. Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Francisco Zaera

    2007-08-09

    production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a β-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the

  5. Development of Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon Atmospheric Carburizing and Process Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolan; Zurecki, Zbigniew; Sisson, Richard D.

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure carburizing and neutral carbon potential annealing in nitrogen containing small additions of hydrocarbon gases can offer cost and steel surface quality alternatives to the comparable, endothermic atmosphere, or vacuum operations. An experimental program was conducted for refining real-time process control methods in carburizing of AISI 8620 steel under N2-CH4, N2-C3H8 blends containing <5 vol.% of hydrocarbon gas at 900 and 930 °C. Multiple types of gas analyzers were used to monitor residual concentrations of H2, CO, CO2, H2O, O2, CH4, C3H8, and other hydrocarbons inside furnace. A modified shim stock technique was additionally evaluated for correlation with gas analysis and diffusional modeling using measured carbon mass flux values (g/cm2/s). Results of this evaluation work are presented.

  6. The institutional changes of hydrocarbon national and international industries; As mudancas institucionais da industria nacional e internacional de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simao, Newton Brito [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Dutra, Luis E.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    This paper approaches the development of the petroleum market from the beginning in the year of 1859, aiming to give the exact dimension of the recent modifications in the petroleum industry. A description of the dynamics of the institutional modifications in Germany, Italy, France, Japan, United Kingdom, USA, Mexico and Venezuela is presented, from the first petroleum 'shock', conducted mostly for the adaptation of the respective internal markets, to the new conditions imposed by the international market. The authors use the political and institutional changes occurred in the aforementioned, for the identification of the disagreement among those changes and those implemented in the hydrocarbon Brazilian national market.

  7. First Principles Simulations of Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes in Functionalized Zeolitic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Mark Nickolaus

    With increasing demand for chemicals and fuels, and finite traditional crude oil resources, there is a growing need to invent, establish, or optimize chemical processes that convert gasifiable carbon-based feedstocks (e.g., coal, natural gas, oil sands, or biomass) into the needed final products. Catalysis is central to almost every industrial chemical process, including alkane metathesis (AM) and the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) process, which represent final steps in a sequence of hydrocarbon conversion reactions. An in depth understanding of AM and MTH is essential to the selective production of the desired end products. In this dissertation, ab initio density functional theory simulations provide unique mechanistic and thermodynamic insight of specific elementary steps involved in AM and MTH as performed on zeolite supports. Zeolites have been employed throughout the petroleum industry because of their ability to perform acid-catalyzed reactions (e.g., cracking or MTH). The crystalline structure of zeolites imparts regular microporous networks and, in turn, the selective passage of molecules based on shape and functionality. Many different elements can be grafted onto or substituted into zeolites, resulting in a broad range of catalytic behavior. However, due to the variety of competing and secondary reactions that occur at experimental conditions, it is often difficult to extract quantitative information regarding individual elementary steps. ab initio calculations can be particularly useful for this purpose. Alkane metathesis (i.e., the molecular redistribution or chain length averaging of alkanes) is typically performed by transition metal hydrides on amorphous alumina or silica supports. In Chapter 3, the feasibility of AM in zeolites is assessed by using a grafted Ta-hydride complex to explore the full catalytic cycle in the self-metathesis of ethane. The decomposition of a Ta-metallacyclobutane reaction intermediate that forms during olefin metathesis

  8. The Managerial Process in the Media Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei NICULESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing an organisation from the media industry has a series of particularities that are the object of this analysis. The main functions of management are studied with the help of relevant examples and case studies taken from the specialized literature. For such a complex, dynamic and versatile industry such as media, with the electronic sector evolving perhaps more rapidly than in any other industry, the challenges facing managers are multiple.

  9. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  10. Method for estimating processability of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock for hydroprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2014-01-14

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitates asphaltenes. Determined parameters and processabilities for a plurality of feedstocks can be used to generate a mathematical relationship between parameter and processability; this relationship can be used to estimate the processability for hydroprocessing for a feedstock of unknown processability.

  11. Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics'era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment's complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment's reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying "omics" approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we

  12. Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics’era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana eCravo-Laureau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment’s complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature, nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment’s reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying ‘omics’ approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon

  13. Identification of emission sources of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovčić Nataša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in ambient air accessed at selected locations in the vicinity of the industrial zone of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, have been presented and analyzed in order to determine seasonal and spatial variations and to identify emission sources of particle-bound PAHs. Previous studies have demonstrated that the major contributors of PAHs in urban areas are the emissions from vehicle exhaust, and emissions releases from industrial processes like aluminium production, creosote and wood preservation, waste incineration, cement manufacture, petrochemical and related industries, commercial heat/power production etc. The sampling campaigns have been conducted at three sampling sites, during the two 14-day periods. The first site was situated near industrial area, with a refinery, power plant and heavy-traffic road in the vicinity. The second site was located nearby the heavy traffic area, especially busy during the rush hour. The third site was residential district. Summer sampling period lasted from June 26th to July 10th 2008, while sampling of ambient air during the winter was undertaken from January 22nd to February 5th 2009. Eighty-four (84 air samples were collected using a high volume air sampler TCR Tecora H0649010/ECHO. 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in all samples using a gas chromatographer with a mass spectrometer as a detector (Shimatzu MDGC/GCMS-2010. The total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 1.21 to 1.77 ng/m3 during the summer period and from 6.31 to 7.25 ng/m3 in the winter. Various techniques, including diagnostic ratio (DR and principal component analysis (PCA, have been used to define and evaluate potential emission sources of PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that vehicles, diesel or/and gasoline, industrial and combustion emissions were sources of PAHs in the vicinity of the industrial zone. Additionally, principal component analysis was used

  14. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  15. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapas, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colwell, Jeffery A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  16. Fact sheets energy efficiency. Meat processing industry; Factsheets energie-efficiency. Vleesverwerkende industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    To support the activities of the Dutch industry, carried out within the framework of the long-range agreements between the Dutch government and the industry to improve the energy efficiency by 20% in the year 2000, energy efficiency fact sheets have been drafted. Based on the information in the fact sheets specific industries can gain insight into and learn about energy saving options. The information in the fact sheets concerns data about a specific industrial sector, schematic presentation of processes and energy carriers, and technical and economical aspects of energy saving options and how they can be realized. This fact sheet concerns the meat processing industry. 28 refs.

  17. Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements.

  18. Profit opportunities for the chemical process industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Papers given at a seminar designed to assist industry in the utilization of NASA-developed technology are presented. The topics include the following: the Technology Utilization program, NASA patent policy changes, transfer of Hysttl resin technology, nonflammable cellulosic materials development, nonflammable paper technology, circuit board laminates and construction, polymide resins and other polymers, and intumescent coatings.

  19. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  20. Cross-industry innovation processes strategic implications for telecommunication companies

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Based on multiple case study analysis, focusing on scalable service innovation, the present study provides a practical process model that shall serve telecommunication companies as a guideline while conducting strategic cross-industry innovation projects. The findings also pay attention to characteristics in cross-industry collaboration, organizational preconditions and strategic deliberations and postulate propositions for present theoretical innovation process models.

  1. Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Institute of Plastics Processing and processing center sponsored by UNDP. University. Application of Light Industry was Since 1999, it has been attached set up in 1983, based on the plastics to Beijing Technology and Business

  2. Problems in Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons and Detailed Simulation of Combustion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuxuan

    This dissertation research consists of two parts, with Part I on the kinetics of catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and Part II on aspects on the detailed simulation of combustion processes. In Part I, the catalytic oxidation of C1--C3 hydrocarbons, namely methane, ethane, propane and ethylene, was investigated for lean hydrocarbon-air mixtures over an unsupported Pd-based catalyst, from 600 to 800 K and under atmospheric pressure. In Chapter 2, the experimental facility of wire microcalorimetry and simulation configuration were described in details. In Chapter 3 and 4, the oxidation rate of C1--C 3 hydrocarbons is demonstrated to be determined by the dissociative adsorption of hydrocarbons. A detailed surface kinetics model is proposed with deriving the rate coefficient of hydrocarbon dissociative adsorption from the wire microcalorimetry data. In Part II, four fundamental studies were conducted through detailed combustion simulations. In Chapter 5, self-accelerating hydrogen-air flames are studied via two-dimensional detailed numerical simulation (DNS). The increase in the global flame velocity is shown to be caused by the increase of flame surface area, and the fractal structure of the flame front is demonstrated by the box-counting method. In Chapter 6, skeletal reaction models for butane combustion are derived by using directed relation graph (DRG) and DRG-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA), and uncertainty minimization by polynomial chaos expansion (MUM-PCE) mothodes. The dependence of model uncertainty is subjected to the completeness of the model. In Chapter 7, a systematic strategy is proposed to reduce the cost of the multicomponent diffusion model by accurately accounting for the species whose diffusivity is important to the global responses of the combustion systems, and approximating those of less importance by the mixture-averaged model. The reduced model is validated in an n-heptane mechanism with 88 species. In Chapter 8, the influence of Soret

  3. Energy analysis of 108 industrial processes. Phase 1, industrial applications study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, B. B.; Brown, H. L.

    1979-06-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy balances in 108 industrial processes. Specific information on unit operation, material, temperature, unrecoverable losses, along with the process flow diagram is given for each of the industries. The following industries are included: meak packing; milk; canned fruits and vegetables; baked goods; sugar refining; soybean; textiles; wood products; building materials; alkalies and chlorine; inorganic gases; pigments, chemicals; plastic materials and resins; synthetic rubbers; organic fibers; pharmaceutical preparations; organic chemicals; petroleum products; fertilizers; rubber products; glass; blast furnaces and steel mills; metals; farm machinery; motor vehicles; and photographic materials. The SIC's for each industry are identified.

  4. An integrated bioremediation process for petroleum hydrocarbons removal and odor mitigation from contaminated marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lo, Irene M C; Yan, Dickson Y S

    2015-10-15

    This study developed a novel integrated bioremediation process for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and the mitigation of odor induced by reduced sulfur from contaminated marine sediment. The bioremediation process consisted of two phases. In Phase I, acetate was dosed into the sediment as co-substrate to facilitate the sulfate reduction process. Meanwhile, akaganeite (β-FeOOH) was dosed in the surface layer of the sediment to prevent S(2-) release into the overlying seawater. In Phase II, NO3(-) was injected into the sediment as an electron acceptor to facilitate the denitrification process. After 20 weeks of treatment, the sequential integration of the sulfate reduction and denitrification processes led to effective biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), in which about 72% of TPH was removed. In Phase I, the release of S(2-) was effectively controlled by the addition of akaganeite. The oxidation of S(2-) by Fe(3+) and the precipitation of S(2-) by Fe(2+) were the main mechanisms for S(2-) removal. In Phase II, the injection of NO3(-) completely inhibited the sulfate reduction process. Most of residual AVS and S(0) were removed within 4 weeks after NO3(-) injection. The 16S rRNA clone library-based analysis revealed a distinct shift of bacterial community structure in the sediment over different treatment phases. The clones affiliated with Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales were the most abundant in Phase I, while the clones related to Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus, Thiohalomonas nitratireducens and Sulfurimonas denitrificans predominated in Phase II.

  5. Process stabilisation - key assumption for implementation of Industry 4.0 concept in industrial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicita Chromjakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of Industry 4.0 concept based on the real stability of horizontal (business and vertical (digitized enterprise processes. Special attention will be given in this paper to the process stabilisation model including their core pillars, next to the identification of basic metric for evaluation of process model stability. Results presented in this paper based on the research project and survey realised in more industrial companies.

  6. China Plastics Industry (2011) China Plastics Processing Industry Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2012-01-01

    General situation of China plastics industry in 2011 was reviewed, including the output and export/import of plastics products, synthetic resins,and plastics processing machinery, as well as major economic data, such as the total industrial values, sales and profits of plastics products, etc. Analysis of the market of plastics products in 2011 was made, and the developing trend of China plastics industry in 2012 was proposed.

  7. Evolution of the radiation processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Marshall R. [IBA Industrial, Inc., 151 Heartland Boulevard, Edgewood, NY 11717 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Early investigations of the effects of treating materials with ionizing radiations began in 1894 with the irradiation of gases at atmospheric pressure using cathode rays from a Crookes gas-discharge tube, in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays emitted from a Crookes tube, and in 1896 with the discovery of radioactivity in uranium. In 1897, small electrically charged particles were detected and identified in the gas discharges inside Crookes tubes. These particles were then named electrons. During the next three decades, it was found that these novel forms of energy could produce ions to initiate chemical reactions in some gases and liquids. By 1921, it had also been shown that insects, parasites and bacteria could be killed by treatment with ionizing radiation. In 1925, a high-vacuum tube with a thermionic cathode and a thin metallic anode was developed to produce electron beams in air by using accelerating potentials up to 250 kilovolts. That unique apparatus was the precursor of the many types of electron accelerators that have been developed since then for a variety of industrial applications. In 1929, the vulcanization of natural rubber without using any chemical additives was achieved by irradiation with electrons from a 250 kilovolt accelerator. In 1939, several liquid monomers were polymerized by treatment with gamma rays from radioactive nuclides. These early results were not exploited before the end of World War II because intense sources of ionizing radiation were not available then. Shortly after that war, there was increased interest in developing the peaceful uses of atomic energy, which included the chemical and biological effects of radiation exposures. Many uses that have been developed since then are described briefly in this paper. These industrial applications are now producing billions of US dollars in revenue every year.

  8. Particle size distribution of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in urban and industrial aerosol of Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladji, R; Yassaa, N; Balducci, C; Cecinato, A

    2014-02-01

    The distribution of ambient air n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated to particles with aerodynamic diameters lesser than 10 μm (PM(10)) into six fractions (five stages and a backup filter) was studied for the first time in Algeria. Investigation took place during September of 2007 at an urban and industrial site of Algiers. Size-resolved samples (particles ≤ 1.5 μm in both urban and industrial atmosphere. In both cases, the n-alkane contents exhibited bimodal or weakly bimodal distribution peaking at the 0.95-1.5-μm size range within the fine mode and at 7.3-10 μm in the coarse mode. Low molecular weight PAHs displayed bimodal patterns peaking at 0.49-0.95 and 7.3-10 μm, while high molecular weight PAHs exhibited mono-modal distribution with maximum in the particles ≤ 0.95 μm in diameter which could induce adverse health effects to the population living in these areas.

  9. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tree-rings of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) from two industrial sites in the Pearl River Delta, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yuan-wen; Zhou, Guo-yi; Wen, Da-zhi; Li, Jiong; Sun, Fang-fang

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined and potential sources of PAHs were identified from the dated tree-rings of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) near two industrial sites (Danshuikeng, DSK and Xiqiaoshan, XQS) in the Pearl River Delta of south China. Total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs) were revealed with similar patterns of temporal trends in the tree-rings at both sites, suggesting tree-rings recorded the historical variation in atmospheric PAHs. The differences of individual PAHs and of ∑PAHs detected in the tree-rings between the two sites reflected the historical differences of airborne PAHs. Regional changes in industrial activities might contribute to the site-specific and period-specific patterns of the tree-ring PAHs. The diagnostic PAH ratios of Ant/(Ant + PA), FL/(FL + Pyr), and BaA/(BaA + Chr)) revealed that PAHs in the tree-rings at both sites mainly stemmed from the combustion process (pyrogenic sources). Principal component analysis further confirmed that wood burning, coal combustion, diesel, and gasoline-powered vehicular emissions were the dominant contributors of PAHs sources at DSK, while diesel combustion, gasoline and natural gas combustion, and incomplete coal combustion were responsible for the main origins of PAHs at XQS. Tree-ring analysis of PAHs was indicative of PAHs from a mixture of sources of combustion, thus minimizing the bias of short-term active air sampling.

  10. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  11. Multivariate statistical analysis of a multi-step industrial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinikainen, S.P.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and quality control of industrial processes often produce information on how the data have been obtained. In batch processes, for instance, the process is carried out in stages; some process or control parameters are set at each stage. However, the obtained data might not be utilized....... This approach will show how the process develops from a data point of view. The procedure is illustrated on a relatively simple industrial batch process, but it is also applicable in a general context, where knowledge about the variables is available....

  12. Field—Based Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Hydrocarbons at Industrially Contaminated Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Rigou

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of organic pollutants in groundwaters should also consider the source of the pollution, which is often a solid matrix such as soil, landfill waste, or sediment. This premise should be viewed alongside the growing trend towards field-based characterisation of contaminated sites for reasons of speed and cost. Field-based methods for the extraction of organic compounds from solid samples are generally cumbersome, time consuming, or inefficient. This paper describes the development of a field-based supercritical fluid extraction (SFE system for the recovery of organic contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from soils. A simple, compact, and robust SFE system has been constructed and was found to offer the same extraction efficiency as a well-established laboratory SFE system. Extraction optimisation was statistically evaluated using a factorial analysis procedure. Under optimised conditions, the device yielded recovery efficiencies of >70% with RSD values of 4% against the standard EPA Soxhlet method, compared with a mean recovery efficiency of 48% for a commercially available field-extraction kit. The device will next be evaluated with real samples prior to field deployment.

  13. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become on

  14. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become

  15. Developing and Managing University-Industry Research Collaborations through a Process Methodology/Industrial Sector Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Simon P.

    2010-01-01

    A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the…

  16. The process matters: cyber security in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadžiosmanović, Dina

    2014-01-01

    An industrial control system (ICS) is a computer system that controls industrial processes such as power plants, water and gas distribution, food production, etc. Since cyber-attacks on an ICS may have devastating consequences on human lives and safety in general, the security of ICS is important. I

  17. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude...

  18. Analyzing scheduling in the food-processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Production scheduling has been widely studied in several research areas, resulting in a large number of methods, prescriptions, and approaches. However, the impact on scheduling practice seems relatively low. This is also the case in the food-processing industry, where industry-specific character...

  19. The process matters: cyber security in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziosmanovic, D.

    2014-01-01

    An industrial control system (ICS) is a computer system that controls industrial processes such as power plants, water and gas distribution, food production, etc. Since cyber-attacks on an ICS may have devastating consequences on human lives and safety in general, the security of ICS is important. I

  20. Influence of mid-point temperature of heavy hydrocarbons separator to the liquefaction process for small LNG plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, H. A.; Indarto, A.

    2016-11-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) process production, one of the important units is heavy hydrocarbon removal unit to prevent freezing during liquefaction. For small scale of LNG plant, this unit is usually integrated with main heat exchanger. Feed is obtained from main heat exchanger then flows to separator to separate liquid from gas. The separator operating condition is called as Midpoint condition. Selecting Midpoint conditions have impact to light hydrocarbon losses, Specific Brake Horse Power (SBHP) process, and heating value of LNG. Hence understanding of selecting this condition and its effect to light hydrocarbon losses, SBHP process, and HHV of LNG will help to design more efficient LNG plant. According to study, the lower of Mid-Point temperature will result in lower SBHP, lower of light hydrocarbon losses, and increase LNG of HHV value. Meanwhile, the higher Mid-Point pressure will result in lower SBHP, higher light hydrocarbon losses, and lower LNG of HHV value. The change of Mid-Point pressures have more impact to light hydrocarbon losses than SBHP process.

  1. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some agricultural, industrial and urban areas along Xiamen coastal waters, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An intensive investigation was conducted to study the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), to show firstly the level of pollution in the agricultural areas and analyses specifically the status of soil polluted by these persistent pollutants in some locations of Xiamen region. Soil samples collected from Jiulong agricultural catchment have been analysed for 16 PAH compounds, using gas chromatography flame ionization detection in order to determine the level of selected PAH components and to identify the factors that may control their distribution and persistence in the area. The main PAHs found in soil samples were the low molecular weight. The total PAHs detected in soil samples ranged from 0.50 to 0.95 μg/g soil. The highest values of PAHs were significantly detected in the orange tree leaves, which range from 236.1 to 249.3 μg/g soil showing recent atmospheric inputs of these volatile pollutants. The distribution of PAHs in vegetable were monitored and indicating that the concentration were high and ranged from 8.24 to 58.87 μg/g. Other sediment samples were also collected and analysed from urban sewage (5.26 μg/g dw), aquacultural(0.52 μg/g dw) and industrial areas (from 0.62 to 2.09 μg/g dw), during this investigation. The contamination of Jiulong river estuary and Xiamen Western Sea by PAHs has been then widely justified by wastewater discharges and soil runoffs from these areas. The results, therefore, provide important information on the current contamination status caused by the atmospheric transport and point to the need for urgent actions to stop the release of these hydrocarbons to the environment. The necessity of implementing systematic monitoring of PAHs is also emphasized.

  2. Afghan hydrocarbons: a source for development or for conflict? A risk assessment of Norwegian involvement in development of the Afghan oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Arne; Hakim, Mohammad; Newrozi, Sediqa; Sarwari, Akbar; Williams, Aled

    2010-10-22

    Norad has been engaged in capacity building and provision of technical support to the Afghan Ministry of Mines since 2007. A part of this engagement relates to the development of the Afghan Hydrocarbons Law, and commercialization of gas and oil reserves through an international bidding process. The Afghan oil and gas industry has been in production since the mid 1980s, but is in need of major investments. Afghans interviewed are of the opinion that oil and gas reserves are national property, to be used for the benefit of all Afghans. The review has identified a range of risks and challenges to the further process, and Norad is advised to consider: To await further engagement on policy matters until there is further clarity as to how the Government of Afghanistan aims to develop and utilize these resources. But consider to provide: 1) Advice on the political/diplomatic process of negotiating agreements for utilization and division of underground natural resources; 2) Assist in training and development of Afghan technical expertise in oil and gas exploration, production and management; 3) Assist in the further development of the hydro power and alternative energy sector. (AG)

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of oil industry hydrocarbons models at laboratory and at pilot-plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Ronald; Nunez, Oswaldo [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica Organica y Quimica Ambiental, Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2010-02-15

    Photodegradation/mineralization (TiO{sub 2}/UV Light) of the hydrocarbons: p-nitrophenol (PNP), naphthalene (NP) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) at three different reactors: batch bench reactor (BBR), tubular bench reactor (TBR) and tubular pilot-plant (TPP) were kinetically monitored at pH = 3, 6 and 10, and the results compared using normalized UV light exposition times. The results fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model; therefore, LH adsorption equilibrium constants (K) and apparent rate constants (k) are reported as well as the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constants, k{sub obs}{sup '} = kK/(1 + Kc{sub r}). The batch bench reactor is the most selective reactor toward compound and pH changes in which the reactivity order is: NP > DBT > PNP, however, the catalyst adsorption (K) order is: DBT > NP > PNP at the three pH used but NP has the highest k values. The tubular pilot-plant (TPP) is the most efficient of the three reactors tested. Compound and pH photodegradation/mineralization selectivity is partially lost at the pilot plant where DBT and NP reaches ca. 90% mineralization at the pH used, meanwhile, PNP reaches only 40%. The real time, in which these mineralization occur are: 180 min for PNP and 60 min for NP and DBT. The mineralization results at the TPP indicate that for the three compounds, the rate limiting step is the same as the degradation one. So that, there is not any stable intermediate that may accumulate during the photocatalytic treatment. (author)

  4. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons...... associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used...... separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement...

  5. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krzemińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC, Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting high reactivity of HO• radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving decolonization and odour reduction, and the complete mineralization or increase of bioavailability of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  6. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help...

  7. Proceedings of the solar industrial process heat symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the progress of various solar energy systems currently under design for supplying industrial process heat. Formal presentations consisted of a review of solar energy applications in industrial process heat as well as several on-going project reviews. An Open Forum was held to solicit the comments of the participants. The recommendations of this Open Forum are included in these proceedings. Eighteen papers were included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper.

  8. Specification process reengineering: concepts and experiences from Danish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Riis, Jesper; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents terminologies and concepts related to the IT automation of specification processes in companies manufacturing custom made products. Based on 11 cases from the Danish industry the most significant development trends are discussed.......This paper presents terminologies and concepts related to the IT automation of specification processes in companies manufacturing custom made products. Based on 11 cases from the Danish industry the most significant development trends are discussed....

  9. Secure VM for Monitoring Industrial Process Controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Dipankar [ORNL; Ali, Mohammad Hassan [University of Memphis; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Carvalho, Marco [Institute of Human and Machine Cognition

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the biological immune system as an autonomic system for self-protection, which has evolved over millions of years probably through extensive redesigning, testing, tuning and optimization process. The powerful information processing capabilities of the immune system, such as feature extraction, pattern recognition, learning, memory, and its distributive nature provide rich metaphors for its artificial counterpart. Our study focuses on building an autonomic defense system, using some immunological metaphors for information gathering, analyzing, decision making and launching threat and attack responses. In order to detection Stuxnet like malware, we propose to include a secure VM (or dedicated host) to the SCADA Network to monitor behavior and all software updates. This on-going research effort is not to mimic the nature but to explore and learn valuable lessons useful for self-adaptive cyber defense systems.

  10. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...... categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is concluded that the design method proposed provides a framework for the progress of the display design and is useful in pin......-pointing the actual problems. The method was useful in reducing the number of existing displays that could fulfil the requirements of the supervision task. The method provided at the same time a framework for dealing with the problems involved in inventing new displays based on structured analysis. However...

  11. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  12. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  13. Dust exposures in the wood processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, U; Mandryk, J; Hocking, A D; Lee, J; Mayhew, T; Baker, W

    1999-01-01

    Workers at four different woodworking processes--two logging sites, four sawmills, one major woodchipping operation, and five joineries situated in the state of New South Wales in Australia--were studied for personal inhalable dust exposures (N = 182). The geometric mean exposure at logging sites was 0.6 mg/m3 (N = 7), sawmills 1.6 mg/m3 (N = 93), woodchipping 1.9 mg/m3 (N = 9), and joineries 3.7 mg/m3 (N = 66). Overall, 62% of the exposures exceeded the current standards. Among joineries, 95% of the hardwood exposures and 35% of the softwood exposures were above the relevant standards. A majority of workers (approximately 90%) did not wear appropriate respirators approved for wood dust, while the ones who did wear them, used them on average less than 50% of the time. The significant determinants of personal wood dust exposures (n = 163) were found to be local exhaust ventilation, job title, use of handheld tools, cleaning method used, use of compressed air, and green or dry wood processed. Type of wood processed (softwood or hardwood) was not found to be statistically significant.

  14. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  15. Industrial heat pumps for high temperature process applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær

    Industrial processes often consume large quantities of heat, while of-ten dissipating large quantities of waste heat to the ambient. The main energy source for industrial heat supply is fossil fuels, either oil or nat-ural gas. Thus, the heat consumption of industrial processes often entail large...... is determined. This is know as an exergoeconomic analysis. Further, a life cycle assessment is performed and combined with the exergy analysis to associate environmental impact to all streams of exergy and thereby determine the environmental impact of exergy destruction. This is known as an exergoenvironmental...

  16. Logistic paradigm for industrial solid waste treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Grabara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing wi th industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allows for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management

  17. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, M.A., E-mail: talaricomarco@hotmail.com [Marinha do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Porgrama de Submarino com Propulsao Nuclear; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS IMPROVING INDUSTRIAL SAFETY OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN ASPHALT-CONCRETE PLANT MIXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivanova

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. The problem of improvement of industrial safety of technol-ogical processes in mixers of asphalt-concrete plants is considered on the basis of analysis of organic impurities content in incomplete combustion products, and es-timation of efficiency of purification of asphalt-concrete plant emissions in the presence of “wet” flue gas purification system is given.Results and conclusions. It has been found that the efficiency of hydrocarbon fuel burning affects the amount of hydrophobic dust thrown into the atmosphere, and burning of heavy fuel oil is attended by significant incompleteness of fuel combustion, and this is connected with the processes of fuel dispersion and evapo-ration. The optimal measures for efficient combustion and cleaning of hydrophob-ic dust are described.

  19. The multi-factor recombination and processes superimposition model for hydrocarbon accumulation: application to the Silurian in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingyang; Pang Xiongqi; Gao Jianbo

    2008-01-01

    The multi-factor recombination and processes superimposition model for hydrocarbon accumulation is put forward in view of the hydrocarbon geological characteristics of multiple episodes of structural evolution, multiple sets of source-reservoir-seal assemblage, multiple cycles of hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple episodes of readjustment and reconstruction in the complex superimposed basins in China. It is a system including theories and methods that can help to predict favorable exploration regions. According to this model, the basic discipline for hydrocarbon generation, evolution and distribution in the superimposed basins can be summarized in multi-factor recombination, processes superimposition, multiple stages of oil filling and latest stage preservation. With the Silurian of the Tarim basin as an example, based on the reconstruction of the evolution history of the four factors (paleo-anticline,source rock, regional cap rock and kinematic equilibrium belt) controlling hydrocarbon accumulation,this model was adopted to predict favorable hydrocarbon accumulation areas and favorable exploration regions following structural destruction in three stages of oil filling, to provide guidance for further exploration of oil and gas in the Silurian of the Tarim basin.

  20. Analysis of root causes of major hazard precursors (hydrocarbon leaks) in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnem, Jan Erik, E-mail: jev@preventor.n [Preventor AS/University of Stavanger, Rennebergstien 30, 4021 Stavanger (Norway); Hestad, Jon Andreas [Safetec Nordic AS, Bergen (Norway); Kvaloy, Jan Terje [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger (Norway); Skogdalen, Jon Espen [Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    The offshore petroleum industry in Norway reports major hazard precursors to the authorities, and data are available for the period 1996 through 2009. Barrier data have been reported since 2002, as have data from an extensive questionnaire survey covering working environment, organizational culture and perceived risk among all employees on offshore installations. Several attempts have been made to analyse different data sources in order to discover relations that may cast some light on possible root causes of major hazard precursors. These previous attempts were inconclusive. The study presented in this paper is the most extensive study performed so far. The data were analysed using linear regression. The conclusion is that there are significant correlations between number of leaks and safety climate indicators. The discussion points to possible root causes of major accidents.

  1. Preliminary overview of innovative industrial-materials processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eakin, D.E.; Gurwell, W.E.; Williams, T.A.; Abarcar, R.; Szekely, J.; Ashton, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    In evaluating the potential for industrial energy conservation, 45 candidate processes were identified. The chemical and the iron and steel industries presented the most well-developed candidates, whereas those processes identified in the pulp and paper and textiles industries were the most speculative. Examples of the candidate processes identified include direct steelmaking and ore-to-powder systems, which potentially require 30 to 40% less energy, respectively, than conventional steelmaking systems; membrane separations and freeze crystallization, which offer up to 90% reductions in energy use when compared with distillation; the cold processing of cement, which offers a 50% reduction in energy requirements; and the dry forming of paper, which offers a 25% reduction in the energy needed for papermaking. A review of all the industries revealed that the revolutionary alternatives often use similar concepts in avoiding current process inefficiencies. These concepts include using chemical, physical, or biological processes to replace thermally intensive processes; using specific forms of energy to minimize wasteful thermal diffusion; using chemical, biological, or ultrasonic processes to replace physical reduction; combining multiple processing steps into a single reactor; using a dry processing to eliminate energy needed for evaporation; and using sterilization or biotechnology to reduce the need for refrigeration.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Assess Exposure and Health-Risk from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in a Fastener Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Hsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach was developed to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry. One previously developed model and one new model were adopted for predicting oil mist exposure concentrations emitted from metal work fluid (MWF and PAHs contained in MWF by using the fastener production rate (Pr and cumulative fastener production rate (CPr as predictors, respectively. By applying the annual Pr and CPr records to the above two models, long-term workplace PAH exposure concentrations were predicted. In addition, true exposure data was also collected from the field. The predicted and measured concentrations respectively served as the prior and likelihood distributions in the Bayesian decision analysis (BDA, and the resultant posterior distributions were used to determine the long-term exposure and health-risks posed on workers. Results show that long term exposures to PAHs would result in a 3.1%, 96.7%, and 73.4% chance of exceeding the PEL-TWA (0.2 mg/m3, action level (0.1 mg/m3, and acceptable health risk (10−3, respectively. In conclusion, preventive measures should be taken immediately to reduce workers’ PAH exposures.

  3. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in industrial wastewater: A review%生物法降解工业废水中石油烃研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张攀; 尤朝阳; 陈纪赛; 孙永军; 张路广; 夏钱华

    2016-01-01

    介绍了微生物降解石油烃的机理,探讨了生物可利用性、营养物质、pH、温度等因素对微生物降解石油烃的影响.综述了生物法在工业废水降解石油烃应用方面的研究进展.提出了当前存在的微生物降解机理、降解污染物酶系统及构建降解石油烃基因工程菌研究不足问题,对未来的研究趋势进行了展望.%This review highlights the mechanism of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon and discusses the influencing factors (biodegradability,nutrients,pH value,temperature and biosurfactants) on the microbial degradation.The recent development of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon in industrial wastewater has also been summarized.Insufficient aspects of recent research,including the mechanism of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon,the enzyme systems that degrade pollutants and applications for genetically engineered microorganisms,have also been mentioned.Additionally,further development on the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon in industrial wastewater has been prospected.

  4. Study on the Competitiveness of the Romanian Meat Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat processing represents a strategic sector that can significantly contribute to local food industry competitiveness and national food security. The generous natural resources available to Romania and the tradition in animal husbandry can provide adequate raw materials for the processing industry in order to cover domestic consumption needs and obtain substantial revenues by export. Currently, Romanian meat market is dependent on the imports of meat, as carcasses or processed products. There have been mainly live animals or semi-finished products which are exported, fact which led to an imbalance of trade and to low revenues for the domestic meat industry. This article proposes an analysis of the local meat processing industry in terms of production, consumption and trade transactions, assessed in the international context of the meat market. The study indicates that in the last few years, Romania has recorded significant progress in the meat processing and production domain; nevertheless, the financial performance of the local companies is inferior to that of the EU companies. Except the poultry meat and mutton sectors, in which the export value exceeds imports, the other sectors show a deficit, the domestic demand not being covered. The low concentration degree of the companies from the meat processing industry show a continued market fragmentation and a growth potential for the existing companies.

  5. Collision processes of hydrocarbon species in hydrogen plasmas. II The ethane and propane families

    CERN Document Server

    Janev, R K

    2002-01-01

    Cross sections and rate coefficients are provided for collision processes of electrons and protons with C sub x H sub y and C sub x H sub y sup + (x = 2, 3; 1 <= y <= 2x + 2) hydrocarbon species in a wide range of collision energies and plasma (gas) temperatures. The considered processes include: electron-impact ionization and dissociation of C sub x H sub y , dissociative excitation, ionization and recombination of C sub x H sub y sup + with electrons, and both charge transfer and atom exchange in proton channels are considered separately. Information is also provided for the energies of each individual reaction channel. The cross sections and rate coefficients are presented in compact analytic forms.

  6. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry.

  7. Hybrid membrane operations in water desalination and industrial process rationalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drioli, E; Di Profio, G; Curcio, E

    2005-01-01

    Membrane science and technology are recognized today as powerful tools in resolving some important global problems, and developing newer industrial processes, needed from the imperative of sustainable industrial growth. In seawater desalination, for resolving the dramatic increase of freshwater demand in many regions of the world, membrane unitary operations or the combination of some of them in integrated systems are already a real means for producing water from the sea, at lower costs and minimum environmental impact, with a very interesting prospective in particular for poor economy countries. However, membranes are used or are becoming used in some important industrial fields, for developing more efficient productive cycles, with reduced waste of raw-material, reducing the polluting charge by controlling byproduct generation, and reducing overall costs. In the present paper, other than for seawater desalination applications, some industrial applications where membrane technology has led already to match the goal of process intensification are discussed.

  8. Process for the separation of C sub 2 hydrocarbons from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H.; Sapper, R.

    1990-08-21

    A process for the separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas under pressure is disclosed, in which the natural gas is cooled, partially condensed, and separated into a liquid fraction and a gaseous fraction. The liquid fraction is subcooled and then expanded into the upper zone of a rectifying column. The gaseous fraction, after engine expansion, is also introduced into the rectifying column. During rectification, a product stream containing essentially C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons and a residual gas stream containing predominantly lower-boiling components are obtained. The residual gas stream is initially heated by heat exchange with the liquid fraction and then heated by heat exchange with the gaseous fraction obtained after partial condensation. The residual gas stream is then further heated by heat exchange with the feed stream of natural gas to be partially condensed. The heated residual gas is then engine expanded and reheated again by heat exchange with the feed stream of natural gas to be partially condensed.

  9. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  10. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  11. A novel cloud-point extraction process for preconcentrating selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, D.; Li, J.; Chen, S.B.; Chen, B.-H. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2001-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released in such processes as incomplete coal combustion and during the disposal of coal tar, are subject to strict emission controls in which the determination of PAHs has to be addressed. PAHs have low aqueous solubility which necessitates preconcentration prior to the analytical determination of PAHs. A novel but simple cloud-point extraction (CPE) process is developed to preconcentrate the trace of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the use of the readily biodegradable nonionic surfactant of secondary ethyoxylated alcohol Tergitol 15-S-7 as extractant. The concentrations of PAHs, mixtures of naphthalene and phenanthrene as well as pyrene in the spiked samples were determined with the new CPE process at ambient temperature (23{degree}C) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. More than 80% of phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively, and 96% of naphthalene initially present in the aqueous solutions with concentrations near or below their aqueous solubilities were recovered using this new CPE process. Importantly Tergitol 15-S-7 does not give any fluorometric signal to interfere with fluorescence detection of PAHs in the UV range. No special washing step is, thus, required to remove surfactant before HPLC analyses. Different experimental conditions were studied. The optimum conditions for the preconcentration and determination of these selected PAHs at ambient temperature have been established as the following: (1) 3 wt% surfactant; (2) addition of 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; (3) 10 min for equilibration time; and (4) 3000 rpm for centrifugal speed with duration of 10 min. 50 refs., 7 figs.

  12. CLUSTERS: INNOVATION, KNOWLEDGE AND COMPETITIVENESS IN THE WOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta RUSU-TANASA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the wood processing industry in the process of regional development. The concept of clusters has become more and more popular in recent years, as more and more theorists and practitioners realize its potential; nevertheless the idea of cluster research in the wood processing industry is relatively new. With the shift to knowledge based management, the difference made by creative networks and clusters that promote research, development and innovation is crucial. The purpose of this paper is to underline the benefits that can come from cluster development and outline the impact of clusters on innovation, Knowledge and competitiveness in the wood processing industry and the Romanian Economy.

  13. Development of sustainable paper coatings using nanoscale industrial surface processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Breedveld, Leo; Lahti, Johanna

    developers, production industries, consumers and authorities. Part of the consideration is the public perception of the new product and the processes to manufacture it, which is an important aspect for products being developed using nanoscale surface processing. Such considerations are integrated...... to inform the public about the processes and benefits of the prototype products, and partly to give feedback to the project partners on the environmental and safety aspects of the different material, processing, use and waste stages. By that being a link between the industrial project partners developing...... in the PlasmaNice project, as environmental and social aspects are addressed using methods like life cycle check (LCC), life cycle assessment (LCA), and industrial risk assessment (RA) within the boundary of an economical production for different market segments. The results are intended to be used partly...

  14. Society of the plastic industry process emission initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermott, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    At first view, plastics process emissions research may not seem to have much bearing on outgassing considerations relative to advanced composite materials; however, several parallel issues and cross currents are of mutual interest. The following topics are discussed: relevance of plastics industry research to aerospace composites; impact of clean air act amendment requirements; scope of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. activities in thermoplastic process emissions and reinforced plastics/composites process emissions; and utility of SPI research for advanced polymer composites audiences.

  15. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing......, and industrial coating processes are likely candidates for substitution of VOC with VOFA. Requirements to the resulting surfaces may, however, hinder the replacement. This is especially important when the surface has to be coated in a subsequent step....

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  17. Operational impact of product variety in the process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseley, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2016-01-01

    variants and their production sequence must also be considered. Based on the findings, a method for quantifying the production cost of product variety in the process industry is developed, add ing to the literature a rich case howcasing factors which influence production performance and the impact......The purpose of this research article is to examine the impact of product variety on production performance in the process industry. As the number of product variants sold by a process company typically impacts the run length, production data from a mineral wool insulation manufacturer is analyzed...

  18. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40% of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Results of study contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center have identified three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries is nearly 9 million bbl of oil.

  19. The planning flexibility bottleneck in food processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wezel, W.M.C.; van Donk, D.P.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    Production planners in food processing industries must continuously balance efficient production with flexible performance. On the basis of case studies, we state that flexibility is not only restrained by hard-wired production process characteristics, but also by organizational procedures in the

  20. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...

  1. Cooking, industrial processing and caloric density of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    During human evolution, the development of a wide range of cooking processing techniques enabled humans to provide their social group with maximum benefits from limited food resources. Industrial processing and mass market distribution made available high food calorie density foods to the world

  2. U.S. Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Katharine C.; And Others

    Because of shifts in consumer tastes and preferences, demographics, technology, government regulation, and the expanding interdependence of world markets, the United States fruit and vegetable processing industries must operate in a constantly changing and uncertain economic environment. U.S. per capita use of processed fruits and vegetables is…

  3. Unit Operations for the Food Industry: Equilibrium Processes & Mechanical Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Unit operations are an area of engineering that is at the same time very fascinating and most essential for the industry in general and the food industry in particular. This book was prepared in a way to achieve simultaneously the academic and practical perspectives. It is organized into two parts: the unit operations based on equilibrium processes and the mechanical operations. Each topic starts with a presentation of the fundamental concepts and principles, followed by a discussion of ...

  4. Cadmium isotope fractionation of materials derived from various industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinková, Eva; Chrastný, Vladislav; Francová, Michaela; Šípková, Adéla; Čuřík, Jan; Myška, Oldřich; Mižič, Lukáš

    2016-01-25

    Our study represents ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values of materials resulting from anthropogenic activities such as coal burning, smelting, refining, metal coating, and the glass industry. Additionally, primary sources (ore samples, pigment, coal) processed in the industrial premises were studied. Two sphalerites, galena, coal and pigment samples exhibited ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 values of 1.0±0.2, 0.2±0.2, 1.3±0.1, -2.3±0.2 and -0.1±0.3, respectively. In general, all studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. Most of the industrial materials studied were clearly distinguishable from the samples used as a primary source based on ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values. The heaviest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of 58.6±0.9 was found for slag resulting from coal combustion, and the lightest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of -23±2.5 was observed for waste material after Pb refinement. It is evident that ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values depend on technological processes, and in case of incomplete Cd transfer from source to final waste material, every industrial activity creates differences in Cd isotope composition. Our results show that Cd isotope analysis is a promising tool to track the origins of industrial waste products.

  5. Thermodynamic and Thermo-graphic Research of the Interaction Process of the Lisakovsky Gravitymagnetic Concentrate with Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Мuhtar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this work consists in treatment of complex brown iron ores. Large volumes of off-balance ores are an additional source of production raw materials, however, there is still a problem of their treatment by effective complex methods.This work shows a possibility of using liquid hydrocarbons as the reducers during thermochemical preparation of brown iron concentrates of the Lisakovsky field to metallurgical conversion and studies the features and main regularities of a roasting process of Lisakovsky gravitymagnetic concentrate in the presence of liquid hydrocarbons.The initial concentrate was treated by solution of a liquid hydrocarbon reducer (oil: phenyl hydride: water, which was subjected to heat treatment with the subsequent magnetic dressing.Research by the X-ray phase analysis of reducing products has shown that the main phases of magnetic fraction of a roasted product are presented by magnetite in a small amount hematite and quartz. Generally, only relative intensity of peaks is changed.The thermodynamic analysis of interaction between the hydrocarbons, which are a part of oil, and iron oxides was carried out. This analysis allowed us to suppose a reducing mechanism for the brown iron ores by liquid reducers.The data obtained by the thermodynamic analysis are confirmed by experimental results. It is proved that with increasing hydrogen-to-carbon ratio the probability of proceeding reactions of interaction between oxide of iron (III and liquid hydrocarbon increases.The differential and thermal analysis allowed us to study a heat treatment process of the Lisakovsky gravity-magnetic concentrate, which is pre-treated by oil solutions, as well as to show a possibility for proceeding the process of interaction between liquid hydrocarbon and ferriferous products of Lisakovsky gravity-magnetic concentrate.It is found that with increasing temperature in the treated samples of LGMK the hydrogoethite dehydration product interacts with

  6. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  7. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  8. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Medel; Erika Bustos; Karen Esquivel; Godínez, Luis A.; Yunny Meas

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. ...

  9. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Medel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. The results indicate that the use of a boron-doped diamond electrode in an electrochemical incineration process mineralizes 99.5% of the phenolic sample content. Working in acidic medium (pH = 1, and applying 2 A at 298 K under constant stirring for 2 hours, also results in the incineration of the reaction intermediates reflected by 97% removal of TOC. In contrast, the photo-electro-Fenton process results in 99.9% oxidation of phenolic compounds with only a 25.69% removal of TOC.

  10. 3D electrical image in area contaminated by hydrocarbons at the Cubatao, Brazil, industrial pole; Imageamento eletrico 3D em area contaminada por hidrocarbonetono no polo industrial de Cubatao - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baessa, Marcus Paulus Martins [Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello, CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcus.baessa@petrobras.br; Oliva, Andresa; Kiang, Chang Hung [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: aoliva@rc.unesp.br, chang@rc.unesp.br

    2010-12-15

    This work presents the results of geophysical surveys performed over an oil contaminated site in the Polo Industrial de Cubatao - Sao Paulo. The aim is to characterize geoelectrical signatures associated to hydrocarbon presence in order to delimit and calculate the volume of the contaminated area. For this study were used Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 3D Electrical Imaging for characterization of geology and geoelectrical response of the contaminant. The results showed that the hydrocarbon presence is associated to conductive anomalies due to products from biodegradation. The conductive anomalies are disseminated over the area, totalizing 1365.3 m3 volume. This volume, however, corresponds only to the residual phase contaminants, since it was not possible to map free-phase hydrocarbons. (author)

  11. Spectroscopy for Industrial Applications: High-Temperature Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Grosch, Helge; Clausen, Sønnik

    The continuous development of the spectroscopic databases brings new perspectives in the environmental and industrial on-line process control, monitoring and stimulates further optical sensor developments. This is because no calibration gases are needed and, in general, temperature-dependent spec......The continuous development of the spectroscopic databases brings new perspectives in the environmental and industrial on-line process control, monitoring and stimulates further optical sensor developments. This is because no calibration gases are needed and, in general, temperature......-dependent spectral absorption features gases of interest fora specic instrument can in principle be calculated by knowing only the gas temperature and pressure in the process under investigation/monitoring. The latest HITRAN-2012 database contains IR/UV spectral data for 47 molecules and it is still growing. However....... Overall the presentation shows an example of successful industrial and academic partnerships within the framework of national and international ongoing projects....

  12. Capturing connectivity and causality in complex industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fan; Shah, Sirish L; Chen, Tongwen

    2014-01-01

    This brief reviews concepts of inter-relationship in modern industrial processes, biological and social systems. Specifically ideas of connectivity and causality within and between elements of a complex system are treated; these ideas are of great importance in analysing and influencing mechanisms, structural properties and their dynamic behaviour, especially for fault diagnosis and hazard analysis. Fault detection and isolation for industrial processes being concerned with root causes and fault propagation, the brief shows that, process connectivity and causality information can be captured in two ways: ·      from process knowledge: structural modeling based on first-principles structural models can be merged with adjacency/reachability matrices or topology models obtained from process flow-sheets described in standard formats; and ·      from process data: cross-correlation analysis, Granger causality and its extensions, frequency domain methods, information-theoretical methods, and Bayesian ne...

  13. Research competence accounting profession as a specialist business process management in processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhelyuk, Viktoriya

    2015-01-01

    The article is the realization of research competence accountancy profession as a specialist business process management in processing industries.The main base for the study are research scientists to research the accounting profession as a specialist business process management in processing industries. When writing articles used methods: monographic (the study of scientific publications of scientists for the development of basic principles of formation of accounting in the processing indust...

  14. Creative Industries: Development Processes Under Contemporary Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Kontrimienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the processes of developing creative industries under conditions of a growth in the worldwide economy and globalization, discloses the role of the sector of creative industries and shows its place in the system of the modern global economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of theories and theoretical approaches intended for the sector of creative industries and its development as well as defines regularities and specificities characteristic of the development of creative industries. Particular attention is shifted on the growth and development of creative industries considering the current challenges of globalization and on the most important specificities of the developing sector in the context of the challenges of economic globalization. The paper examines the trends reflecting the place of the sector of creative industries in the economy of the modern world, including the tendencies indicating changes in the export of the products created in this sector. The article considers the issues of developing creative industries and reveals priorities of future research.

  15. Business process of reputation management of food industry enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Derevianko Olena. H.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article is development of the methodical base of reputation management directed at formalisation of theoretical provisions and explanation how to organise reputation management at food industry enterprises. The article shows prospectiveness of use of the Business Process Management concept in reputation management. Using the diagram of the Reputation Management business process environment the article shows its key participants (suppliers and clients of the business process) a...

  16. Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water in industrial affected areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binghui; Ma, Yingqun; Qin, Yanwen; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yanmin; Cao, Wei; Yang, Chenchen; Han, Chaonan

    2016-12-01

    Water samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), drain water (DW), major tributaries (MT), and main course of the Yangtze River (MY) in areas of three industrial parks (IPs) in Chongqing city in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Sixteen EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants were quantified to identify the effects of industrial activities on water quality of the TGR. The results showed that 11 individual PAHs were quantified and 5 PAHs (naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (Acy), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP)) were under detection limits in all of the water samples. Three-ring and four-ring PAHs were the most detected PAHs. Concentrations of individual PAHs were in the range of not detected (nd) to 24.3 ng/L. Total PAH concentrations for each site ranged from nd to 42.9 ng/L and were lower compared to those in other studies. The mean PAH concentrations for sites WWTP, DW, MT, and MY showed as follows: DW (25.9 ng/L) > MY (15.5 ng/L) > MT (14.0 ng/L) > WWTP (9.3 ng/L), and DW contains the highest PAH concentrations. Source identification ratios showed that petroleum and combustion of biomass coal and petroleum were the main sources of PAHs. The results of potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that, although PAH concentrations in MT and MY are likely harmless to ecosystem, contaminations of PAHs in DW were listed as middle levels and some management strategies and remediation actions, like strengthen clean production processes and banning illegal sewage discharging activities, etc., should be taken to lighten the ecosystem risk caused by PAHs especially risks caused by water discharging drains.

  17. Industrial process heat case studies. [PROSYS/ECONMAT code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, D.W.; May, E.K.; West, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Commercially available solar collectors have the potential to provide a large fraction of the energy consumed for industrial process heat (IPH). Detailed case studies of individual industrial plants are required in order to make an accurate assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of applications. This report documents the results of seven such case studies. The objectives of the case study program are to determine the near-term feasibility of solar IPH in selected industries, identify energy conservation measures, identify conditions of IPH systems that affect solar applications, test SERI's IPH analysis software (PROSYS/ECONOMAT), disseminate information to the industrial community, and provide inputs to the SERI research program. The detailed results from the case studies are presented. Although few near-term, economical solar applications were found, the conditions that would enhance the opportunities for solar IPH applications are identified.

  18. Estimation of the Heat Balance of the Liquid Hydrocarbons Evaporation Process from the Open Surface During Geotechnical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-10-01

    Researchers in Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) have conducted a complex research of the heat and mass transfer processes and thermophysical properties of hydrocarbons, taking into account their impact on the reliability and safety of the hydrocarbon transport and storage processes. It has been shown that the thermodynamic conditions on the surface and the color of oil influence the degree of temperature rise in the upper layers of oil when exposed to direct solar radiation. In order to establish the nature of solar radiation impact on the surface temperature the experimental studies were conducted in TSOGU on the hydrocarbon evaporation and the temperature change of various petroleum and petroleum products on the free surface with varying degrees of thermal insulation of the side walls and bottom of the vessel.

  19. Chifeng Strives to Build China’s Nonferrous Metals Industrial Processing Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>As the largest pillar industry of Chifeng industrial economy, metallurgical industry offers half of industrial added value and approximately 60% of fiscal revenue of the city. In recent years, Chifeng continues to extend industrial chain and enhance industrial level by relying on nonferrous metals resources, striving to build the nonferrous metals industrial processing base of China.

  20. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  1. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  2. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  3. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON PROCESSING IN THE BLAST WAVE OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT N132D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappe, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-72, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rho, J. [SOFIA Science Mission Operations/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Boersma, C. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Micelotta, E. R., E-mail: atappe@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2012-08-01

    We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 14-36 {mu}m mapping observations of the supernova remnant N132D in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study focuses on the processing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that we previously identified in the southern blast wave. The mid-infrared spectra show strong continuum emission from shock-heated dust and a unique, nearly featureless plateau in the 15-20 {mu}m region, which we attribute to PAH molecules. The typical PAH emission bands observed in the surrounding interstellar medium ahead of the blast wave disappear, which indicates shock processing of PAH molecules. The PAH plateau appears most strongly at the outer edge of the blast wave and coincides with diffuse X-ray emission that precedes the brightest X-ray and optical filaments. This suggests that PAH molecules in the surrounding medium are swept up and processed in the hot gas of the blast wave shock, where they survive the harsh conditions long enough to be detected. We also observe a broad emission feature at 20 {mu}m appearing with the PAH plateau. We speculate that this feature is either due to FeO dust grains or connected to the processing of PAHs in the supernova blast wave shock.

  4. Process of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Tamagawa karyuiki ni okeru sekiyukei tanka suiso no biseibutsu bunkai katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morito, M. (Sumitomo 3M Co., Kanagawa (Japan)); Okada, M.; Murakami, A. (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-12-10

    The process of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated in the downstream of the Tamagawa river. Petroleum hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane, octylbenzene, and 1-methylnaphtalene were observed to be rapidly degraded by microorganisms in the water sampled from the surface of the river after a period of lag time. The longer lag time was observed in order of hexadecane hydrocarbons, but the rates was not be promoted by physical and chemical emulsification. It was suggested that petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded not in physical and chemical process in which the hydrocarbons were emulsified by microbial extracellular products, microfinded and enhanced contact area or frequency to microbes, but in biochemical process in which the microorganisms gained the ability of petroleum hydrocarbons degradation, that is, induction of production of a degrading enzyme. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well...

  6. Mini-channel heat exchangers for industrial distillation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Bor, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the technical and economic performance of compression-resorption heat pumps has been investigated. The main objective of this thesis was to improve the performance and reduce the investment costs of compression-resorption heat pumps applied in process industry. A model that is able to

  7. Computer simulation program is adaptable to industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, F. E.

    1966-01-01

    The Reaction kinetics ablation program /REKAP/, developed to simulate ablation of various materials, provides mathematical formulations for computer programs which can simulate certain industrial processes. The programs are based on the use of nonsymmetrical difference equations that are employed to solve complex partial differential equation systems.

  8. Intelligent supervisory-level control of industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervensivu, M. [Pronyx Control Software (Finland); Juuso, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Control Engineering Lab.

    2000-07-01

    Faced by intense competition, the pulp and paper industry is aiming for higher profitability by raising productivity and lowering costs. On the global scale, the industry has to meet increasing market demands for higher product quality, more specialty products, greater production flexibility and a higher standard of environmental protection. For these reasons, extensive research is being conducted to improve existing processes. One option that is gaining increasing attention within the industry is to improve control of existing processes by means of intelligent systems. In this paper, an intelligent kiln control system is presented. The system consists of two parts: the stabilizing control is based on a new LECont concept which uses a novel linguistic equation approach, while the targets are determined by a StabOpti concept on the optimisation level. Nonlinear models obtained from process data are used for optimisation and compensation of load disturbances. According to test results from on industrial pulp mill, operational flexibility was improved and both economic and ecological benefits were obtained. The overall control system provides a better insight into the process and extends the scope of both fuzzy logic control and advanced extensions of classical control. (orig.)

  9. Working conditions in the European meat processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nossent, S.; Groot, B. de; Verschuren, R.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the main results of one part of the study 'Monitoring the work environment at sectorial level'. This part regards the meat processing industry in Europe. In this study, which was a project of the European Foundation for Living and Working Conditions, ten member states of the

  10. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  11. Post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiktenko, Evgeny; Trushechkin, Anton; Kurochkin, Yury; Fedorov, Aleksey

    2016-08-01

    We present algorithmic solutions aimed on post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems with hardware sifting. The main steps of the procedure are error correction, parameter estimation, and privacy amplification. Authentication of classical public communication channel is also considered.

  12. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for pastas industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... pastas industry effluent using response surface methodology ... Research and practical applications have shown that ... treatment and in some other applications. .... The germination indexes were determined for two vegetable species ..... flocculation process for palm oil mill effluent using response surface.

  13. Mini-channel heat exchangers for industrial distillation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Bor, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the technical and economic performance of compression-resorption heat pumps has been investigated. The main objective of this thesis was to improve the performance and reduce the investment costs of compression-resorption heat pumps applied in process industry. A model that is able to

  14. Advantages of Laser Polarimetry Applied to Tequila Industrial Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajer, V.; Rodriguez, C.; Flores, R.; Naranjo, S.; Cossio, G.; Lopez, J.

    2002-03-01

    The development of a polarimetric method for crude and cooked agave juice quality control not only by direct polarimetric measurement also by means of laser polarimeter LASERPOL 101M used as a liquid chromatographic detector is presented. The viability and advantage of this method for raw material quality control and during Tequila industrial process is shown.

  15. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  16. Pressurized Recuperator For Heat Recovery In Industrial High Temperature Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators and regenerators are important devices for heat recovery systems in technological lines of industrial processes and should have high air preheating temperature, low flow resistance and a long service life. The use of heat recovery systems is particularly important in high-temperature industrial processes (especially in metallurgy where large amounts of thermal energy are lost to the environment. The article presents the process design for a high efficiency recuperator intended to work at high operating parameters: air pressure up to 1.2 MPa and temperature of heating up to 900°C. The results of thermal and gas-dynamic calculations were based on an algorithm developed for determination of the recuperation process parameters. The proposed technical solution of the recuperator and determined recuperation parameters ensure its operation under maximum temperature conditions.

  17. Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.

    1980-04-01

    The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commercial buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particularly to the supplemental supply of process heat of all kinds. The realization of that potential will depend, however, on the identification of the most suitable applications and locations for industrial solar energy and the continued improvement in cost, durability, and reliability of solar equipment. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications is surveyed, including a description of current costs and operating histories. Because the current status is unsatisfactory in view of the goals established by President Carter for solar industrial energy, the most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar IPH are outlined. The effect of government tax policy will be of little impact until technical efficiency and cost effectiveness are significantly improved.

  18. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  19. Opportunities and Challenges Confronting China’s Copper Processing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Against the macro background of gradually recovering global economy,China’s copper processing industry is facing good opportunities:External environment continues to optimize,key enterprises show improvement in profit earning condition.In 2013 the output of copper processing products was 14.987 million tonnes,up by25.20%on Y-o-Y basis.In 2014,the output of

  20. Utilization of waste heat from energy conversion and industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Hamilton, R.W.

    The laws of thermodynamics state that no process of energy transformation can take place with perfect efficiency--some waste heat is always produced. The generation of waste heat from energy conversion and industrial processes are discussed. First-law and second-law efficiencies are defined. After listing the amounts of waste heat produced, some technological options for reducing waste heat or using it for other purposes, such as district heating, are described.

  1. Application of electrical capacitance tomography for imaging industrial processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DYAKOWSKI Tom

    2005-01-01

    Electrical tomography is, in certain cases, the most attractive method for real imaging of industrial processes, because of its inherent simplicity, rugged cons truction of the tomographer and high-speed capability. This paper presents examples illustrating applications of electrical tomography for imaging fluidized beds, bubble columns and pneumatic conveyors. Electrical tomography opens up new ways for processing, imaging and modelling multi-phase flows as shown by 2D and 3D images illustrating the various types of flow morphology.

  2. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  3. The application of mean control chart in managing industrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić-Blagojević Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the advent of mass production comes the problem of monitoring and maintaining the quality of the product, which stressed the need for the application of selected statistical and mathematical methods in the control process. The main objective of applying the methods of statistical control is continuous quality improvement through permanent monitoring of the process in order to discover the causes of errors. Shewart charts are the most popular method of statistical process control, which performs separation of controlled and uncontrolled variations along with detection of increased variations. This paper presents the example of Shewart mean control chart with application in managing industrial process.

  4. Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1998-11-01

    On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

  5. A process economic assessment of hydrocarbon biofuels production using chemoautotrophic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, NE; Myers, JA; Tuerk, AL; Curtis, WR

    2014-11-01

    Economic analysis of an ARPA-e Electrofuels (http://arpa-e.energy.gov/?q=arpa-e-programs/electrofuels) process is presented, utilizing metabolically engineered Rhodobacter capsulatus or Ralstonia eutropha to produce the C30+ hydrocarbon fuel, botryococcene, from hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The analysis is based on an Aspen plus (R) bioreactor model taking into account experimentally determined Rba. capsulatus and Rls. eutropha growth and maintenance requirements, reactor residence time, correlations for gas-liquid mass-transfer coefficient, gas composition, and specific cellular fuel productivity. Based on reactor simulation results encompassing technically relevant parameter ranges, the capital and operating costs of the process were estimated for 5000 bbl-fuel/day plant and used to predict fuel cost. Under the assumptions used in this analysis and crude oil prices, the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) required for economic feasibility must be less than 2(sic)/kWh. While not feasible under current market prices and costs, this work identifies key variables impacting process cost and discusses potential alternative paths toward economic feasibility. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution, partition and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during coking wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; An, Guanfeng

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we report the performance of a full-scale conventional activated sludge (A-O1-O2) treatment in eliminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Both aqueous and solid phases along with the coking wastewater treatment processes were analyzed for the presence of 18 PAHs. It was found that the target compounds occurred widely in raw coking wastewater, treated effluent and sludge samples. In the coking wastewater treatment system, 4-5 ring PAHs were the dominant compounds, while 4 rings PAHs predominated in the sludge samples. Over 98% of the PAH removal was achieved in the coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), with the total concentration of PAHs being 21.3 ± 1.9 μg L(-1) in the final effluent. During the coking wastewater treatment processes, the association of the lower molecular weight PAH with suspended solids was generally less than 60%, while the association of higher molecular weight PAHs was greater than 90%. High distribution efficiencies (Kdp and Kds) were found, suggesting that adsorption was the potential removal pathway of PAHs. Finally, the mass balances of PAHs in various stages of the coking WWTP were obtained, and the results indicated that adsorption to sludge was the main removal pathway for PAHs in the coking wastewater treatment processes.

  7. A process economic assessment of hydrocarbon biofuels production using chemoautotrophic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nymul E; Myers, John A; Tuerk, Amalie L; Curtis, Wayne R

    2014-11-01

    Economic analysis of an ARPA-e Electrofuels (http://arpa-e.energy.gov/?q=arpa-e-programs/electrofuels) process is presented, utilizing metabolically engineered Rhodobacter capsulatus or Ralstonia eutropha to produce the C30+ hydrocarbon fuel, botryococcene, from hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The analysis is based on an Aspen plus® bioreactor model taking into account experimentally determined Rba. capsulatus and Rls. eutropha growth and maintenance requirements, reactor residence time, correlations for gas-liquid mass-transfer coefficient, gas composition, and specific cellular fuel productivity. Based on reactor simulation results encompassing technically relevant parameter ranges, the capital and operating costs of the process were estimated for 5000 bbl-fuel/day plant and used to predict fuel cost. Under the assumptions used in this analysis and crude oil prices, the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) required for economic feasibility must be less than 2¢/kWh. While not feasible under current market prices and costs, this work identifies key variables impacting process cost and discusses potential alternative paths toward economic feasibility.

  8. Business process of reputation management of food industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derevianko Olena. H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is development of the methodical base of reputation management directed at formalisation of theoretical provisions and explanation how to organise reputation management at food industry enterprises. The article shows prospectiveness of use of the Business Process Management concept in reputation management. Using the diagram of the Reputation Management business process environment the article shows its key participants (suppliers and clients of the business process and identifies their place in formation of the enterprise reputation. It also shows that the reputation management should be considered a business process of the highest level of management. Construction of the flow structure of the Reputation Management business process allows uncovering the logic of interrelation of inlets and outlets within the framework of the specified main stages of the business process: assessment of the current state of reputation, collection of information about stakeholders, identification of PR strategy goals, planning of necessary resources, realisation of the PR strategy, assessment of efficiency and process monitoring. The article offers the flow, functional and organisational structures of the Reputation Management business process for food industry enterprises. Moreover, justification of functional and organisational structures of the Reputation Management business process gives a possibility to distribute functions of reputation management between specific executors and establish responsibility for each stage of the business process.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of waste products of the coal-tar industry and the mutagenic effect of soot extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khesina, A.Ia.; Tolcheev, Iu.D.; Chikovani, G.R.; Khitrovo, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    The content of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in organized and nonorganized effluents of cake- and by-product processes at the Rustavi integrated iron-and-steel works was quantitatively determined by the method of low-temperature spectrofluorescence. Contents of BP and other PAH in nonorganized effluents is 100 and more times higher than those in the organized one and play a decisive role in pollution of the low atmospheric layer. The effluent is characterized by a specific PAH composition and therefore BP may be both a quantitative and a qualitative indicator of PAH. The mutagenic effect was studied by the Ames method with S. typhimurium TA 100 as a test strain. The extracts from soot of nonorganized cake-batlery effluent were studied. Simultaneously the effects of BP, of all PAH in the total and of carcinogenic PAH in concentrations corresponding to the discharge composition were studied. It is shown that BP may be used as an indicator of PAH composition and mutagenic effect.

  10. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...

  11. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  12. Catalytic arylation methods from the academic lab to industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    A current view of the challenging field of catalytic arylation reactions. Clearly structured, the chapters in this one-stop resource are arranged according to the reaction type, and focus on novel, efficient and sustainable processes, rather than the well-known and established cross-coupling methods.The entire contents are written by two authors with academic and industrial expertise to ensure consistent coverage of the latest developments in the field, as well as industrial applications, such as C-H activation, iron and gold-catalyzed coupling reactions, cycloadditions or novel methodologies

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  14. Effects of industrial processing on folate content in green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delchier, Nicolas; Ringling, Christiane; Le Grandois, Julie; Aoudé-Werner, Dalal; Galland, Rachel; Georgé, Stéphane; Rychlik, Michael; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2013-08-15

    Folates are described to be sensitive to different physical parameters such as heat, light, pH and leaching. Most studies on folates degradation during processing or cooking treatments were carried out on model solutions or vegetables only with thermal treatments. Our aim was to identify which steps were involved in folates loss in industrial processing chains, and which mechanisms were underlying these losses. For this, the folates contents were monitored along an industrial canning chain of green beans and along an industrial freezing chain of spinach. Folates contents decreased significantly by 25% during the washing step for spinach in the freezing process, and by 30% in the green beans canning process after sterilisation, with 20% of the initial amount being transferred into the covering liquid. The main mechanism involved in folate loss during both canning green beans and freezing spinach was leaching. Limiting the contact between vegetables and water or using steaming seems to be an adequate measure to limit folates losses during processing.

  15. Global process industry initiatives to reduce major accident hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitblado, Robin [DNV Energy Houston, TX (United States). SHE Risk Management; Pontes, Jose [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Americas Region; Oliveira, Luiz [DNV Energy Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Since 2000, disasters at Texas City, Toulouse, Antwerp, Buncefield, P-36 and several near total loss events offshore in Norway have highlighted that major accident process safety is still a serious issue. Hopes that Process Safety Management or Safety Case regulations would solve these issues have not proven true. The Baker Panel recommended to BP several actions mainly around leadership, incentives, metrics, safety culture and more effective implementation of PSM systems. In Europe, an approach built around mechanical integrity and safety barriers, especially relating to technical safety systems, is being widely adopted. DNV has carried out a global survey of process industry initiatives, by interview and by literature review, for both upstream and downstream activities, to identify what the industry itself is planning to implement to enhance process safety in the next 5 - 10 years. This shows that an approach combining Baker Panel and EU barrier approaches and some nuclear industry real-time risk management approaches might be the best means to achieve a factor of 3-4 improvement in process safety. (author)

  16. Offshoring trends in the manufacturing process within the automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, S.; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates offshoring trends in the automotive industry. The research approach consisted of combining empirical findings from case companies with latest research from the field. Empirical data was collected through case studies from 15 automotive organisations based in Europe...... consisting of original equipment manufacturers and engineering service providers. The findings indicated some offshoring trends in the automotive industry. Offshoring in this industry is moving from a manufacturing focus to incorporate large parts of the process, including high-level product development...... engineering activities. This development has created several challenges. These challenges arose as organisations are not considering how offshoring activities could be integrated with an increasingly global supply chain for the manufacturing of the final product. The paper contributes to manufacturing theory...

  17. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...... industry, and vehicle repair and maintenance. There are, however, other elements that influence the possibility to substitute. The requirements to the resulting surface, depending on the following treatment of the surface. The character of the soilings to be removed. The possible presence of other...

  18. Simulation and modeling of the hydrocarbon generation-migration-mixing processes in Louisiana`s sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.K.; Shi, Ying [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Mixed-age Mesozoic and Cenozoic hydrocarbons are present in many Louisiana oil and gas reservoirs. This phenomenon has added fuel to the controversy over whether the hydrocarbon source rocks underwent {open_quotes}shallow{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}deep{close_quotes} burial. Source rock generating capacities and timing of maturation, expulsion, and migration are important factors in providing a potential solution to the problem. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct the dynamic processes of oil and gas generation-migration-mixing in Louisiana basins by using numerical simulation. Problem solution employed a finite difference model which simulates numerically five processes on 2D vertical grids: (1) reconstruction of geological evolution as a result of sedimentation, erosion, and compaction; (2) computation of paleotemperatures based on constant crustal heat flow; (3) computation of source rock maturity based on a first-order kinetic model; (4) computation of geopressure based upon the result of compaction disequilibrium; and (5) computation of hydrocarbon expulsion and migration rates based on calculated results of maturity and geopressure reconstruction. This simulation/model yields plausible results for estimating potential regional reservoir volumetric distributions. The integrated approach used in this study provides a means for analyzing the dynamic processes of oil and gas generation-migration-mixing in Louisiana`s hydrocarbon systems. It also provides a basis for designing objective oil and gas trend analysis.

  19. Ergonomics and simulation tools for service & industrial process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A.; García, M.

    2012-04-01

    Human interaction within designed processes is a really important factor in how efficiently any process will operate. How a human will function in relation to a process is not easy to predict. All the ergonomic considerations traditionally have been evaluated outside of the 3D product design. Nowadays technologies of 3D process design and simulation tools give us this opportunity from the earliest stages of the design process. Also they can be used to improve current process in order to increase human comfort, productivity and safety. This work shows a methodology using 3D design and simulation tools to improve industrial and service process. This methodology has as an objective the detection, evaluation, control of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).

  20. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS VALIDATION OF TABLET DOSAGE FORM: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Surbhi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In pharmaceutical organizations, validation is a fundamental segment that supports a company commitment to quality assurance. Validation is a tool of quality assurance which provides confirmation of the quality in equipment systems, manufacturing processes, software and testing methods. Validation assures that products with pre-determined quality characteristics and attributes can be reproduced consistently/reproducibly within the established limits of the manufacturing process operation at the manufacturing site. Validation of the individual steps of the manufacturing processes is called the process validation. Different dosage forms have different validation protocols. Here this article concentrates on the process validation of tablet dosage form, protocol preparation and regulatory basis for process validation in industry. It gives in detail the validation of each step of the manufacturing process of tablets through wet granulation.

  1. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different types of processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumosani, Taha A; Moselhy, Said S; Asseri, Abdullah M; Asseri, Amer Hamzah

    2013-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PCAHs), particularly those with a high molecular weight, have been classified as probable carcinogens to humans. The aim of the present study is to determine the levels of PCAHs in samples of meat, fish, chicken, fried potato, and toasted bread, which will be thermally processed using conventional and microwave ovens. Different samples will be collected and analyzed for five PCAHs including pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzoflouroanthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. The analytical method involves saponification with methanolic potassium hydroxide, extraction with cyclohexane, and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. The obtained results showed that there is a variation in the detected PCAHs in different foodstuffs. Fried potato processed by conventional oven or microwave oven showed none of the selected studied PCAHs. It was found that, chicken showed higher content levels of total PCAHs than the meat and fish. Data are the highest mean concentrations of fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene but within low limit. The obtained results were compared with international permissible levels to avoid pollution, which may cause hazardous effects on individual and society.

  2. AN OVERVIEW: THE ROLE OF PROCESS VALIDATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaganpreet kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review article focus on introduction and general overview on process validation in pharmaceutical industry. The word validation simply means “Assessment of validation or action of proving effectiveness”. The process is developed in such a way that the required parameters are achieved and it ensures that the output of the process will consistently meet the required parameters during routine production, the process is validated. The process validation process parameters are derived from the specifications for the device, component or other entity to be produced by the process. A manufacturer can assure through careful design of the device, processes, process controls and packaging that all manufactured units will meet specifications and have uniform quality. However, in-process and finished product testing still play an important role in assuring that products meet specifications Validation is defined as a collection and evaluation of data , from the process design stage through commercial production, which establishes scientific evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The validation protocol includes inventory control and equipment inspection in the preliminary steps and in-process controls in the subsequent steps. Process controls are mandatory in good manufacturing practices (GMP. The goal of a quality system is to consistently produce products that are fit for their intended use. This review covers need of validation, elements of validation, principles of validation, phases of validation, types of validation.

  3. Prospects of Applying Feed Processing Technologies Based on Industrial Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Petrus Ginting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potency of plantation sectors (palm oil, sugar cane and cacao as alternative feed resources for ruminants has been acknowledged since 20 – 25 years ago. However, the level of utilization of these feeds in small ruminant production system has been very low and sporadic. The typical chemical and physical characteristics of most of those feedstuffs required some steps of processing in order to improve their nutritional quality and to ease their handling. Small ruminants, like sheep and goats have relatively higher metabolic energy requirement per kg BW and anatomically have lower gut capacity to process lignocelluose materials compared to large ruminants. It is, therefore, these animals nutritionally face more constraints in handling lignocellulose and bulky materials mostly found in industrial by products or crop-residues from plantations. Physical processes (chopping, phyiscal separation, hydrothermal, chemical processes (ammoniation, hydrolyses and oxidative treatments and bio-conversions (fermentation, ensiling have been recommended as alternative technologies in maximizing the utilization of those feedstuffs for small ruminant animals. The principal mechanisms of those treatments are: (i breaking the linkages between structural carbohydrate and lignin so that it could be easily digested by the animal enzyme systems and (ii preserving the material from being spoilage due to its high moisture content or for feed stocking purposes. Priorities for choosing the most effective processing technology for implementation or adoption is depent largely on the scale of feed production. Ammoniation, chopping, physical separation, ensiling or bio-conversion are several technologies mostly recommended for small scale operation in situ. These alternative technologies should be able to be adopted by small-holders living around the plantation area. The commercial or large scale feed production could be implemented by the plantation industry by giving high

  4. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well...... as the prospects for performing the substitution with a vegetable ester. It can be a tool for companies to decide which cleaning process has the highest demand for substitution, if there is a choice between several processes, but it may also be a tool to convince companies to use non-volatile, low-toxic cleaning...

  5. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  6. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and pemission of ΣPCB. The profiles of PCBs emitted from the thirteen thermal processes were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs.

  7. Towards A Unified HFE Process For The Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    As nuclear power utilities embark on projects to upgrade and modernize power plants, they are likely to discover that traditional engineering methods do not typically make provision for the integration of human considerations. In addition, human factors professionals will find that traditional human performance methods such as function allocation, task analysis, human reliability analysis and human-machine interface design do not scale well to the complexity of a large-scale nuclear power upgrade project. Up-to-date human factors engineering processes, methods, techniques and tools are required to perform these kinds of analyses. This need is recognized widely in industry and an important part of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program deals with identifying potential impacts of emerging technologies on human performance and the technical bases needed to address them. However, so far no formal initiative has been launched to deal with the lack of integrated processes. Although human factors integration frameworks do exist in industries such as aviation or defense, no formal integrated human factors process exists in the nuclear industry. As a first step towards creating such a process, a “unified human factors engineering process” is proposed as a framework within which engineering organizations, human factors practitioners and regulatory bodies can ensure that human factors requirements are embedded in engineering activities throughout the upgrade project life cycle.

  8. Ewmareg control chart applied in the monitoring of industrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cuzzuol Pedrini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available If the process quality characteristics are dependent of control variables, and these vary during the process operation, the basic assumptions of control charts are violated. If the values of the control variables are known, it’s possible to apply the regression control chart. One of the most recent works in this area is the EWMAREG chart, which is the monitoring of the standardized residuals using exponentially weighted moving average control chart. In this paper, we present a systematic application of the EWMAREG control chart in monitoring a simulated process of chemical industry. The process characteristic monitored was the corrosion rate of steel pipe in function of four process control variables. The tool applied demonstrated high potential to detect change in surveillance of corrosion rate, ensuring stability process.

  9. Description of the production process - industrial phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the present state-of-art, in this paper called first generation of the productive process of sugar-cane bio ethanol in Brazil, related to the industrial phase involving their improvements and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies, particularly the hydrolysis and gasification of the biomass technologies. The chapter also approaches the aspects referred to the use of sugar cane bagasse and the straw cape, and also the production of electric power surplus.

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. Rotating thermal flows in natural and industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lappa, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Rotating Thermal Flows in Natural and Industrial Processes provides the reader with a systematic description of the different types of thermal convection and flow instabilities in rotating systems, as present in materials, crystal growth, thermal engineering, meteorology, oceanography, geophysics and astrophysics. It expressly shows how the isomorphism between small and large scale phenomena becomes beneficial to the definition and ensuing development of an integrated comprehensive framework.  This allows the reader to understand and assimilate the underlying, quintessential mechanisms withou

  12. Public Consultation Processes in Greenland Regarding the Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ackrén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the Greenland Self-Government Act came into force in 2009, economic development and the right to utilize natural resources in Greenland lies in the hands of the Self-Government. Earlier efforts to establish this authority were made back in the 1970s, when discussions on Home Rule were first on the agenda. Mining industries are not a new activity in Greenland. During the Second World War, Greenlandic cryolite was used to produce aluminum for the North American aircraft industry. Other essential natural resources, such as gold and gemstones, have also received international interest over the years. Greenland's new development aim is to build up a large-scale mining industry. This article elucidates the form of public consultation processes followed in Greenland in connection with two large-scale mining projects and the different views various actors have regarding these events. How did the deliberative democratic process unfold in Greenland regarding these projects? Was the process followed an effective way to manage these kinds of projects? The article shows that two projects that received a lot of media attention: the 2005 iron ore mine project in Isukasia, and the 2001 TANBREEZ-project to extract rare earth elements, used highly different approaches when it comes to deliberative democracy. In the former case, a limited degree of deliberative democracy was used, while in the latter case, the opposite applies.

  13. Greenhouse gas impacts of declining hydrocarbon resource quality: Depletion, dynamics, and process emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam Robert

    This dissertation explores the environmental and economic impacts of the transition to hydrocarbon substitutes for conventional petroleum (SCPs). First, mathematical models of oil depletion are reviewed, including the Hubbert model, curve-fitting methods, simulation models, and economic models. The benefits and drawbacks of each method are outlined. I discuss the predictive value of the models and our ability to determine if one model type works best. I argue that forecasting oil depletion without also including substitution with SCPs results in unrealistic projections of future energy supply. I next use information theoretic techniques to test the Hubbert model of oil depletion against five other asymmetric and symmetric curve-fitting models using data from 139 oil producing regions. I also test the assumptions that production curves are symmetric and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions. Results show that if symmetry is enforced, Gaussian production curves perform best, while if asymmetry is allowed, asymmetric exponential models prove most useful. I also find strong evidence for asymmetry: production declines are consistently less steep than inclines. In order to understand the impacts of oil depletion on GHG emissions, I developed the Regional Optimization Model for Emissions from Oil Substitutes (ROMEO). ROMEO is an economic optimization model of investment and production of fuels. Results indicate that incremental emissions (with demand held constant) from SCPs could be 5-20 GtC over the next 50 years. These results are sensitive to the endowment of conventional oil and not sensitive to a carbon tax. If demand can vary, total emissions could decline under a transition because the higher cost of SCPs lessens overall fuel consumption. Lastly, I study the energetic and environmental characteristics of the in situ conversion process, which utilizes electricity to generate liquid hydrocarbons from oil shale. I model the energy inputs and outputs

  14. Process and apparatus for conversion of water vapor with coal or hydrocarbon into a product gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.; Barnert, H.; Oertel, M.; Schulten, R.

    1990-03-27

    A process and apparatus are provided for conversion of steam and hydrocarbon, or steam and coal, into a product gas which contains hydrogen. The conversion rate is augmented by effective extraction and removal of hydrogen as and when hydrogen is generated. Within a reaction vessel wherein the conversion takes place, a chamber for collection of hydrogen is formed by the provision of a hydrogen permeable membrane. The chamber is provided with a hydrogen extraction means and houses a support structure, for example, in the form of a mesh providing structural support to the membrane. The membrane may be of a pleated or corrugated construction, so as to provide an enlarged surface for the membrane to facilitate hydrogen extraction. Also, to further facilitate hydrogen extraction, a hydrogen partial pressure differential is maintained across the membrane, such as, for example, by the counter pressure of an inert gas. A preferred configuration for the apparatus of the invention is a tubular construction which houses generally tubular hydrogen extraction chambers. 5 figs.

  15. Optimization of purification processes to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted raw fish oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Fernández-González, Ricardo; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    Fish oils are one of the main sources of health promoting nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids in animal and human diet. Nevertheless, they could be an important source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Different strategies of decontamination processes to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in fish oils, such as solvent extraction (ethanol) and adsorbent extraction using commercially available (activated carbon) and sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood ashes), were compared. Adsorption conditions were evaluated and optimized by an experimental design and the experimental results were adjusted to response surfaces. In this way, PAH removals increased with increasing of individual PAH molecular weight and they range from 80% to 100% using activated carbon and from 10% to 100% using wood ashes. Pine wood ashes showed similar removal rates to activated carbon (87%-100%) excluding F (51%) and P (42%). No PAH removal was observed using mussel shell ashes. Ethanol extraction was also optimized and showed a good performance in the extraction of PAHs. However, it does affect their ω-3 fatty acid contents. Finally, real oil samples from different fishing areas: Spain, South America, and North Europe were selected for the decontamination experiments under experimental conditions previously optimized.

  16. Treatability assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated marine sediments using permanganate, persulfate and Fenton oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-05-01

    Various chemical oxidation techniques, such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8), Fenton (H2O2/Fe(2+)), and the modified persulfate and Fenton reagents (activated by ferrous complexes), were carried out to treat marine sediments that were contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dredged from Kaohsiung Harbor in Taiwan. Experimental results revealed that KMnO4 was the most effective of the tested oxidants in PAH degradation. Owing to the high organic matter content in the sediment that reduced the efficiencies of Na2S2O8 and regular Fenton reactions, a large excess of oxidant was required. Nevertheless, KH2PO4, Na4P2O7 and four chelating agents (EDTA, sodium citrate, oxalic acid, and sodium oxalate) were utilized to stabilize Fe(II) in activating the Na2S2O8 and Fenton oxidations, while Fe(II)-citrate remarkably promoted the PAH degradation. Increasing the molecular weight and number of rings of PAH did not affect the overall removal efficiencies. The correlation between the effectiveness of the oxidation processes and the physicochemical properties of individual PAH was statistically analyzed. The data implied that the reactivity of PAH (electron affinity and ionization potential) affected its treatability more than did its hydrophobicity (Kow, Koc and Sw), particularly using experimental conditions under which PAHs could be effectively oxidized.

  17. Remediation trials for hydrocarbon-contaminated sludge from a soil washing process: evaluation of bioremediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, F J García; Pérez, R; Escolano, O; Rubio, A; Gimeno, A; Fernandez, M D; Carbonell, G; Perucha, C; Laguna, J

    2012-01-15

    The usual fate of highly contaminated fine products (silt-clay fractions) from soil washing plants is disposal in a dump or thermal destruction (organic contaminants), with consequent environmental impacts. Alternative treatments for these fractions with the aim of on-site reuse are needed. Therefore, the feasibility of two technologies, slurry bioremediation and landfarming, has been studied for the treatment of sludge samples with a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of 2243 mg/kg collected from a soil washing plant. The treatability studies were performed at the laboratory and pilot-real scales. The bioslurry assays yielded a TPH reduction efficiency of 57% and 65% in 28 days at the laboratory and pilot scale, respectively. In the landfarming assays, a TPH reduction of 85% in six months was obtained at laboratory scale and 42% in three months for the bioremediation performed in the full-scale. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated by ecotoxicity assessments. The toxic effects in the initial sludge sample were very low for most measured parameters. After the remediation treatments, a decrease in toxic effects was observed in earthworm survival and in carbon mineralisation. The results showed the applicability of two well known bioremediation technologies on these residues, this being a novelty.

  18. Evaluation of electrochemical processes for the removal of several target aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalka, Yamen; Karabet, François; Hashem, Shahir

    2011-03-01

    Ground and surface water contamination resulting from the leakage of crude oil and refined petroleum products is a serious and growing environmental problem throughout the world. Consequently, a study of the use of electrochemical treatment in the clean-up was undertaken with the aim of reducing the water contamination by aromatic pollutants to more acceptable levels. In the experiments described, water contamination by refined petroleum products was simulated under laboratory conditions. Electrochemical treatment, using aluminium electrodes, has been optimised by full factorial design and surface response analysis in term of BTEX and PAHs removal and energy consumption. The optimal conditions of pH, current density, electrolysis time, electrolyte type, and electrolyte concentration have then been applied in the treatment of real water samples which were monitored as petroleum contaminated samples. Treatment results have shown that electrochemical methods could achieve the concentration of these pollutants to undetectable levels in particular groundwater and surface water, hence, they can be highly effective in the remediation of water contaminated by aromatic hydrocarbons, and the use of these processes is therefore recommended.

  19. Implementation of Haccp in the Mexican Poultry Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José A.

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a safety and quality management tool used as major issue in international and domestic trade in food industry. However, detailed information on costs and benefits of HACCP implementation is needed to provide appropriate advice to food processing plants. This paper reports on the perceptions of costs and benefits by the Mexican poultry processing plants and sale destinations. The results suggest that the major costs of implementing and operating HACCP within poultry processing plants are record keeping and external technical advice. The main benefit indicated by the majority of processing plants is a reduction in microbial counts. Over 39% of poultry production is sent to nation-wide chains of supermarkets, and less than 13% is sent to international markets. It was concluded that the adoption of HACCP by the Mexican poultry processing sector is based on the concern to increase and keep the domestic market, rather than to compete in the international market.

  20. Bundle adjustment for data processing of theodolite industrial surveying system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹峥嵘; 丁晓利; 曾卓乔; 何凭宗

    2001-01-01

    The photogrammetric bundle adjustment was used in data processing of electronic theodolite industrial surveying system by converting angular observations into virtual photo coordinates. The developed algorithm has ability of precision estimation and data-snooping, do not need initial values of exterior orientation elements and object point coordinates. The form of control condition for the system is quite flexible. Neither centering nor leveling is the theodolite needed and the lay-out of theodolite position is flexible when the system is used for precise survey. Experiments carried out in test field verify the validity of the data processing method.

  1. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  2. Recent Developments in the Crystallization Process: Toward the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is one of the oldest separation and purification unit operations, and has recently contributed to significant improvements in producing higher-value products with specific properties and in building efficient manufacturing processes. In this paper, we review recent developments in crystal engineering and crystallization process design and control in the pharmaceutical industry. We systematically summarize recent methods for understanding and developing new types of crystals such as co-crystals, polymorphs, and solvates, and include several milestones such as the launch of the first co-crystal drug, Entresto (Novartis, and the continuous manufacture of Orkambi (Vertex. Conventional batch and continuous processes, which are becoming increasingly mature, are being coupled with various control strategies and the recently developed crystallizers are thus adapting to the needs of the pharmaceutical industry. The development of crystallization process design and control has led to the appearance of several new and innovative crystallizer geometries for continuous operation and improved performance. This paper also reviews major recent progress in the area of process analytical technology.

  3. HACCP and quality system in the food processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turubatović Lazar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points is an indispensable contemporary system of process control in the food processing industry. In its original meaning this control procedure includes hazard analysis and identification of the points in the production process where the product contamination is reasonably likely to occur resulting in an unsafe product. At the critical points the control of the production process should be severer in order to eliminate or reduce the product safety risks. The aim of implementing a quality management system being quality management, according to the standards of the ISO 9000 series, the formulation of a product that meets "the requirements stated or implied", where the implied requirements refer to the prescribed quality requirements, which, in the food industry above all, comprises safety, it is necessary to build HACCP into the quality system. The application of HACCP principles when introducing a quality system should be extended to those parts of the production process in which the required quality of the product may be at risk.

  4. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Owen Evans

    2011-10-13

    Under this program, Aspen Aerogels has developed an industrial insulation called Pyrogel HT, which is 4-5 times more thermally efficient than current non-aerogel technology. Derived from nanoporous silica aerogels, Pyrogel HT was specifically developed to address a high temperature capability gap not currently met with Aspen Aerogels{trademark} flagship product, Pyrogel XT. Pyrogel XT, which was originally developed on a separate DOE contract (DE-FG36-06GO16056), was primarily optimized for use in industrial steam processing systems, where application temperatures typically do not exceed 400 C. At the time, further improvements in thermal performance above 400 C could not be reasonably achieved for Pyrogel XT without significantly affecting other key material properties using the current technology. Cumulative sales of Pyrogel HT into domestic power plants should reach $125MM through 2030, eventually reaching about 10% of the total insulation market share in that space. Global energy savings would be expected to scale similarly. Over the same period, these sales would reduce domestic energy consumption by more than 65 TBtu. Upon branching out into all industrial processes in the 400 C-650 C regime, Pyrogel HT would reach annual sales levels of $150MM, with two-thirds of that being exported.

  5. Novel antifoam for fermentation processes: fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon hybrid unsymmetrical bolaform surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Pinar; Ileri, Nazar; Erdinç, Burak I; Aydogan, Nihal; Argun, Muharrem

    2005-09-13

    As foaming appears as a problem in chemical and fermentation processes that inhibits reactor performance, the eminence of a novel fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon unsymmetrical bolaform (FHUB: OH(CH2)11N+(C2H4)2(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3 I-) surfactant as an antifoaming agent as well as a foam-reducing agent was investigated and compared with other surfactants and a commercial antifoaming agent. The surface elasticity of FHUB was determined as 4 mN/m, indicating its high potential on thinning of the foam film. The interactions between FHUB and the microoganism were investigated in a model fermentation process related with an enzyme production by recombinant Escherichia coli, in V = 3.0 dm3 bioreactor systems with V(R) = 1.65 dm3 working volume at air inlet rate of Q(o)/V(R) = 0.5 dm3 dm(-3) min(-1) and agitation rate of N = 500 min(-1) oxygen transfer conditions, at T = 37 degrees C, pH(o) = 7.2, and C(FHUB) = 0 and 0.1 mM, in a glucose-based defined medium. As FHUB did not influence the metabolism, specific enzyme activity values obtained with and without FHUB were close to each other; however, because of the slight decrease in oxygen transfer coefficient, slightly lower volumetric enzyme activity and cell concentrations were obtained. However, when FHUB is compared with widely used silicon oil based Antifoam A, with the use of the FHUB, higher physical oxygen transfer coefficient (K(L)a) values are obtained. Moreover, as the amount required for the foam control is very low, minute changes in the working volume of the bioreactor were obtained indicating the high potential of the use of FHUB as an antifoaming agent as well as a foam-reducing agent.

  6. Impact of oxidation process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Christophe; Juery, Catherine; Thiebaut, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the oxidation process on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in blown bitumen and identified some key contributing parameters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's PAH list was used for this study. PAHs are considered a good toxicological marker, and measurement of PAHs in bitumen can be performed easily. The results of PAH content in blown bitumen and the corresponding feedstock was determined from the limit of detection up to 120 mg/kg for 24 samples. Compared to PAH levels in coal tar pitch, PAH levels in bitumen are very low. Measurements were performed by three laboratories using different methods to allow robust conclusions. The results highlight the difficulties in measuring PAHs in bitumen with accuracy for values below 30 mg/kg; therefore the discussion is based on summary statistics by adding concentrations of PAHs with common ring sizes. Incorporation of flux oil in the feed of the blowing bitumen unit tends to increase PAH content in feed stock and in blown bitumen, particularly the 4- to 6-ring PAHs, which are the most carcinogenic as identified by an animal skin painting test. The amount of PAH content from blown bitumen with flux oil can be at least three times higher than the amount in blown bitumen without flux oil, depending on the quality and quantity of the flux oil used. This study shows that the blowing process does not produce PAHs in bitumen. Conversely, it appears to reduce them in the final product. Close to 10 to 30% of PAHs are probably stripped from the liquid phase of bitumen during the blowing operation.

  7. Picosecond and femtosecond lasers for industrial material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, R.; Serbin, J.; Deeg, F. W.

    2016-03-01

    Cold laser materials processing using ultra short pulsed lasers has become one of the most promising new technologies for high-precision cutting, ablation, drilling and marking of almost all types of material, without causing unwanted thermal damage to the part. These characteristics have opened up new application areas and materials for laser processing, allowing previously impossible features to be created and also reducing the amount of post-processing required to an absolute minimum, saving time and cost. However, short pulse widths are only one part of thee story for industrial manufacturing processes which focus on total costs and maximum productivity and production yield. Like every other production tool, ultra-short pulse lasers have too provide high quality results with maximum reliability. Robustness and global on-site support are vital factors, as well ass easy system integration.

  8. Predictive maintenance of critical equipment in industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Hashem M.

    This dissertation is an account of present and past research and development (R&D) efforts conducted by the author to develop and implement new technology for predictive maintenance and equipment condition monitoring in industrial processes. In particular, this dissertation presents the design of an integrated condition-monitoring system that incorporates the results of three current R&D projects with a combined funding of $2.8 million awarded to the author by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This system will improve the state of the art in equipment condition monitoring and has applications in numerous industries including chemical and petrochemical plants, aviation and aerospace, electric power production and distribution, and a variety of manufacturing processes. The work that is presented in this dissertation is unique in that it introduces a new class of condition-monitoring methods that depend predominantly on the normal output of existing process sensors. It also describes current R&D efforts to develop data acquisition systems and data analysis algorithms and software packages that use the output of these sensors to determine the condition and health of industrial processes and their equipment. For example, the output of a pressure sensor in an operating plant can be used not only to indicate the pressure, but also to verify the calibration and response time of the sensor itself and identify anomalies in the process such as blockages, voids, and leaks that can interfere with accurate measurement of process parameters or disturb the plant's operation, safety, or reliability. Today, process data are typically collected at a rate of one sample per second (1 Hz) or slower. If this sampling rate is increased to 100 samples per second or higher, much more information can be extracted from the normal output of a process sensor and then used for condition monitoring, equipment performance measurements, and predictive maintenance. A fast analog-to-digital (A

  9. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  10. Competent statistical programmer: Need of business process outsourcing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran

    2014-07-01

    Over the last two decades Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) has evolved as much mature practice. India is looked as preferred destination for pharmaceutical outsourcing over a cost arbitrage. Among the biometrics outsourcing, statistical programming and analysis required very niche skill for service delivery. The demand and supply ratios are imbalance due to high churn out rate and less supply of competent programmer. Industry is moving from task delivery to ownership and accountability. The paradigm shift from an outsourcing to consulting is triggering the need for competent statistical programmer. Programmers should be trained in technical, analytical, problem solving, decision making and soft skill as the expectations from the customer are changing from task delivery to accountability of the project. This paper will highlight the common issue SAS programming service industry is facing and skills the programmers need to develop to cope up with these changes.

  11. Competent statistical programmer: Need of business process outsourcing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades Business Process Outsourcing (BPO has evolved as much mature practice. India is looked as preferred destination for pharmaceutical outsourcing over a cost arbitrage. Among the biometrics outsourcing, statistical programming and analysis required very niche skill for service delivery. The demand and supply ratios are imbalance due to high churn out rate and less supply of competent programmer. Industry is moving from task delivery to ownership and accountability. The paradigm shift from an outsourcing to consulting is triggering the need for competent statistical programmer. Programmers should be trained in technical, analytical, problem solving, decision making and soft skill as the expectations from the customer are changing from task delivery to accountability of the project. This paper will highlight the common issue SAS programming service industry is facing and skills the programmers need to develop to cope up with these changes.

  12. Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

    Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

  13. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  14. Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) growing nearby different industrial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fangfang; Wen, Dazhi; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Jiong; Li, Jianli; Zuo, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from industrial activities pose a serious threat to human health and impose the need for monitoring both inorganic and organic pollutants in industrial areas. We selected Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) as potential biomonitor and collected the current (C) and previous year (C+1) needles from three industrial sites dominated by petrochemical, ceramics manufacturing, and iron and steel smelting plants and one remote site to determine heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni and Co) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in unwashed and water-washed needles. Both unwashed and washed C+1 needles showed generally higher concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs than C needles, although the washed needles more clearly spotlighted the accumulation effect of PAHs over exposure time. Water-washing resulted in a significant decrease in needle PAH concentrations with more significant effects shown in C needles. By contrast, needle heavy metal concentrations were much less affected by washing. Although heavy metals and PAHs might differ in adsorption and uptake strategies, their higher concentrations in the needles at the industrial sites indicated conspicuous contamination due to industrial emissions there. The PAH distribution patterns in pine needles accorded with the real types of energy consumption in the study sites and were efficiently used for pinpointing local pollutant sources.

  15. Complex evaluation of health status and life quality of employees occupied in mining and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    G.G. Gimranova; A.B. Bakirov; L.K. Karimova; Z.F. Gimaeva; N.A. Beigul

    2016-01-01

    A complex social-hygienic investigation for the assessment of health-related life quality and living standards among 1200 male workers occupied in mining and primary processing of hydrocarbon raw materials has been performed. The study included the method of the anonymous survey for the employee with using a questionnaire developed by WHO experts for the realization of Health, environment and social capital management in enterprises (HESME). The health risk factors’ prevalence associated with...

  16. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  17. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] in processed meat products using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Olatunde S; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Opeolu, Beatrice O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked, grilled and boiled meats were determined using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GC-FID). PAHs in the processed meats were extracted in n-hexane after hydrolysis with methanolic KOH. Clean-up was achieved using solid phase extraction in neutral-Si/basic-Si/acidic-Si/neutral-Si frits. The fractions, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkP), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[123-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were separated and quantified using GC-FID. The method and instrument limits of detections were 0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3μg/kg and 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5μg/kg, respectively, for BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP. The method's recovery and precision generally varied between 83.69% and 94.25% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.18-15.60%; and 90.38-96.71% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.82-12.87% respectively. The concentration of BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP in smoked, grilled and boiled meat samples were ranged 0.64-31.54μg/kg, 0.07-7.04μg/kg, 0.09-15.03, 0.51-46.67μg/kg and 0.01-5.11μg/kg, respectively.

  18. Possibilities of implementing nonthermal processing methods in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades a lot of research in the field of food science has focused on new, non-thermal processing methods. This article describes the most intensively investigated new processing methodsfor implementation in the dairy industry, like microfiltration, high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields. For each method an overview is given for the principle of microbial inactivation, the obtained results regarding reduction of microorganisms as well as the positive and undesirable effects on milk composition and characteristics. Most promising methods for further implementation in the dairy industry appeared to be combination of moderate temperatures with high hydrostatic pressure, respectively, pulsed electric fields and microfiltration, since those treatments did not result in any undesirable changes in sensory properties of milk. Additionally, milk treatment with these methodsresulted in a better milk fat homogenization, faster rennet coagulation, shorter duration of milk fermentations, etc. Very good results regarding microbial inactivation were obtained by treating milkwith combination of moderate temperatures and high intensity ultrasound which is also called a process of thermosonification. However, thermosonification treatments often result in undesirablechanges in milk sensory properties, which is most probably due to ultrasonic induced milk fat oxidation. This article also shortly describes the use of natural compounds with antimicrobial effects such as bacteriocins, lactoperoxidase system and lysozime. However their implementation is limited for reasons like high costs, interaction with other food ingredients, poor solubility, narrow activity spectrum, spontaneous loss of bacteriocinogenicity, etc. In addition, principles of antimicrobial effect of microwaves and ultraviolet irradiation are described. However their implementation in the dairy industry failed mostly due to technical and commercial reasons.

  19. Process model economics of xanthan production from confectionery industry wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajić, Bojana Ž; Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Grahovac, Jovana A; Dodić, Jelena M

    2017-09-04

    In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer(®)). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales. Previously acquired experimental knowledge about using confectionery wastewaters from five different factories as substitutes for commercially used cultivation medium have been incorporated into the process model in order to obtain an economic viability of implementing such substrates. A lower initial sugar content in the medium based on wastewater (28.41 g/L) compared to the synthetic medium (30.00 g/L) gave a lower xanthan content at the end of cultivation (23.98 and 26.27 g/L, respectively). Although this resulted in somewhat poorer economic parameters, they were still in the range of being an investment of interest. Also the possibility of utilizing a cheap resource (waste) and reducing pollution that would result from its disposal has a positive effect on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 5 MV 30 mA industrial electron processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Y.; Mizusawa, K.

    1991-05-01

    Industrial electron beam processing systems have been in use in various application fields such as: improving heat resistivity of wire insulation; controlling quality of automobile rubber tires and melt index characteristics of PE foams; and curing paintings or printing inks. Recently, there has come up a need for electron beam with an energy higher than 3 MV in order to disinfect salmonella in chicken meat, to kill bugs in fruits, and to sterilize medical disposables. To meet this need we developed a 5 MV 30 mA electron processing system with an X-ray conversion target. The machine was tested in NHV's plant in Kyoto at continuous operation of full voltage and full current. It proved to be very steady in operation with a high efficiency (as much as 72%). Also, the X-ray target was tested in a continuous run of 5 MV 30 mA (150 kW). It proved to be viable in industrial utilization. This paper introduces the process and the results of the development.

  1. Biodegradation and bioremediation of hydrocarbons in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, R; Schinner, F

    2001-09-01

    Many hydrocarbon-contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, high salt concentrations, or high pressure, Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and thrive in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. The biodegradation (transformation or mineralization) of a wide range of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated and nitrated compounds, has been shown to occur in various extreme habitats. The biodegradation of many components of petroleum hydrocarbons has been reported in a variety of terrestrial and marine cold ecosystems. Cold-adapted hydrocarbon degraders are also useful for wastewater treatment. The use of thermophiles for biodegradation of hydrocarbons with low water solubility is of interest, as solubility and thus bioavailability, are enhanced at elevated temperatures. Thermophiles, predominantly bacilli, possess a substantial potential for the degradation of environmental pollutants, including all major classes. Indigenous thermophilic hydrocarbon degraders are of special significance for the bioremediation of oil-polluted desert soil. Some studies have investigated composting as a bioremediation process. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in the presence of high salt concentrations is of interest for the bioremediation of oil-polluted salt marshes and industrial wastewaters, contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons or with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Our knowledge of the biodegradation potential of acidophilic, alkaliphilic, or barophilic microorganisms is limited.

  2. Biodegradation and bioremediation of hydrocarbons in extreme environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margesin, R.; Schinner, F. [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie

    2001-07-01

    Many hydrocarbon-contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, high salt concentrations, or high pressure. Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and thrive in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. The biodegradation (transformation or mineralization) of a wide range of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated and nitrated compounds, has been shown to occur in various extreme habitats. The biodegradation of many components of petroleum hydrocarbons has been reported in a variety of terrestrial and marine cold ecosystems. Cold-adapted hydrocarbon degraders are also useful for wastewater treatment. The use of thermophiles for biodegradation of hydrocarbons with low water solubility is of interest, as solubility and thus bioavailability, are enhanced at elevated temperatures. Thermophiles, predominantly bacilli, possess a substantial potential for the degradation of environmental pollutants, including all major classes. Indigenous thermophilic hydrocarbon degraders are of special significance for the bioremediation of oil-polluted desert soil. Some studies have investigated composting as a bioremediation process. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in the presence of high salt concentrations is of interest for the bioremediation of oil-polluted salt marshes and industrial wastewaters, contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons or with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Our knowledge of the biodegradation potential of acidophilic, alkaliphilic, or barophilic microorganisms is limited. (orig.)

  3. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  4. Curable liquid hydrocarbon prepolymers containing hydroxyl groups and process for producing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Production of hydroxyl containing curable liquid hydrocarbon prepolymers by ozonizing a high molecular weight saturated hydrocarbon polymer such as polyisobutylene or ethylene propylene rubber is discussed. The ozonized material is reduced using reducing agents, preferably diisobutyl aluminum hydride, to form the hydroxyl containing liquid prepolymers having a substantially lower molecular weight than the parent polymer. The resulting curable liquid hydroxyl containing prepolymers can be poured into a mold and readily cured, with reactants such as toluene diisocyanate, to produce highly stable elastomers having a variety of uses such as binders for solid propellants.

  5. Process and catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. Udaya S.; Gormley, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas containing CO and H.sub.2 is converted to a high-octane hydrocarbon liquid in the gasoline boiling point range by bringing the gas into contact with a heterogeneous catalyst including, in physical mixture, a zeolite molecular sieve, cobalt at 6-20% by weight, and thoria at 0.5-3.9% by weight. The contacting occurs at a temperature of 250.degree.-300.degree. C., and a pressure of 10-30 atmospheres. The conditions can be selected to form a major portion of the hydrocarbon product in the gasoline boiling range with a research octane of more than 80 and less than 10% by weight aromatics.

  6. Changing the composition of the group hydrocarbons of diesel fractions in the process of hydrotreating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivtcova, N.; Baklashkina, К; Sabiev, Sh; Krivtsov, E.; Syskina, A.

    2016-09-01

    Change in group composition of sulfur compounds and structural group composition of the diesel fractions in the course of hydrotreating is presented in the paper. The removal degree of sulfur compounds is shown to comprise 95.8% rel. The homologs of benzothiophenes are removed for 93.9% rel., ones of the dibenzothiophenes are for 90.7% rel. A considerable change in group composition of diesel fraction is established in the course of hydrotreating. Hydrogenation degree of aromatic hydrocarbons is 24.4% wt., the amount of saturated hydrocarbons has increased by 20.4% wt.

  7. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  8. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  9. Cogeneration handbook for the food processing industry. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fasbender, A.G.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the food processing industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  10. Intelligent Industrial Transmitters of Pressure and Other Process Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Miljković

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of industrial measurement instruments (transmitters of pressure and other process parameters. It is followed by a description of the technology used in the current generation of intelligent transmitters featuring two-way digital communication. A recently developed product of IHTM–CMTM, the intelligent pressure transmitter is presented, including a description of the software temperature compensation method for the used pressure sensor. Features and application possibilities of the developed hardware and software platform are discussed, as well as its suitability for the realization of wireless sensors.

  11. Industrial process system assessment: bridging process engineering and life cycle assessment through multiscale modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Process System Assessment (IPSA) methodology is a multiple step allocation approach for connecting information from the production line level up to the facility level and vice versa using a multiscale model of process systems. The allocation procedure assigns inpu...

  12. Industrial process system assessment: bridging process engineering and life cycle assessment through multiscale modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Process System Assessment (IPSA) methodology is a multiple step allocation approach for connecting information from the production line level up to the facility level and vice versa using a multiscale model of process systems. The allocation procedure assigns inpu...

  13. Process of technology management in SMEs of the metal processing industry – the case study investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk-Dembicka Elżbieta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to identify the factors that influence the process of technology management in the sector of small- and medium-sized enterprises of the metal processing industry, considering the shape and course required to achieve modern operation conditions by enterprises in the market.

  14. Availabiltiy and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Controlling processes and comparison of testing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskam, G.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the availability and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two contaminated materials, a tar-containing asphalt granulate (¿16 US-EPA PAHs 3412 mg/kg) and gasworks soil (¿PAHs 900 mg/kg), by comparing results from three typical types of leaching tests: a column, se

  15. Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, J. M.

    2000-06-01

    The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep

  16. Development of a process control sensor for the glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, M.; Candee, A.; Kramlich, J.; Koppang, R.

    1991-05-01

    This project was initiated to fill a need in the glass industry for a non-contact temperature sensor for glass melts. At present, the glass forming industry (e.g., bottle manufacture) consumes significant amounts of energy. Careful control of temperature at the point the bottle is molded is necessary to prevent the bottle from being rejected as out-of-specification. In general, the entire glass melting and conditioning process is designed to minimize this rejection rate, maximize throughput and thus control energy and production costs. This program focuses on the design, development and testing of an advanced optically based pyrometer for glass melts. The pyrometer operates simultaneously at four wavelengths; through analytical treatment of the signals, internal temperature profiles within the glass melt can be resolved. A novel multiplexer alloys optical signals from a large number of fiber-optic sensors to be collected and resolved by a single detector at a location remote from the process. This results in a significant cost savings on a per measurement point basis. The development program is divided into two phases. Phase 1 involves the construction of a breadboard version on the instrument and its testing on a pilot-scale furnace. In Phase 2, a prototype analyzer will be constructed and tested on a commercial forehearth. This report covers the Phase 1 activities.

  17. Difference-based Model Synchronization in an Industrial MDD Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick; Kindler, Ekkart; Unland, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    Models play a central role in model-driven software engineering. There are different kinds of models during the development process, which are related to each other and change over time. Therefore, it is difficult to keep the different models consistent with each other. Consistency of different...... model versions, and for synchronizing other types of models. The main concern is to apply our concepts to an industrial process, in particular keeping usability and performance in mind. Keyword: Model Differencing, Model Merging, Model Synchronization...... models is maintained manually in many cases today. This paper presents an approach for automated model differencing, so that the differences between two model versions can be extracted and stored. It can then be re-used independently of the models it was created from to interactively merge different...

  18. Diff-based model synchronization in an industrial MDD process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Könemann, Patrick; Unland, Ludger

    Models play a central role in model-driven software engineering. There are many different kinds of models during the development process, which are related to each other and change over time. Therefore, it is difficult to keep the different models consistent with each other. Consistency...... to interactively merge different model versions, and for synchronizing other types of models. The main concern was to apply our concepts to an industrial process, so usability and performance were important issues....... of different models is maintained manually in many cases today. This paper presents an approach for automated model differencing, so that the differences between two model versions (called delta) can be extracted and stored. It can then be re-used independently of the models it was created from...

  19. Natural radionuclide concentrations in processed materials from Thai mineral industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyotha, S; Kranrod, C; Chankow, N; Kritsananuwat, R; Sriploy, P; Pangza, K

    2012-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) distributed in products, by-products and waste produced from Thai mineral industries were investigated. Samples were analysed for radioactivity concentrations of two principal NORM isotopes: (226)Ra and (228)Ra. The enrichment of NORM was found to occur during the treatment process of some minerals. The highest activity of (226)Ra (7 × 10(7) Bq kg(-1)) was in the scale from tantalum processing. The radium concentration in the discarded by-product material from metal ore dressing was also enriched by 3-10 times. Phosphogypsum, a waste produced from the production of phosphate fertilisers, contained 700 times the level of (226)Ra concentration found in phosphate ore. Hence, these residues were also sources of exposure to workers and the public, which needed to be controlled.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments from urban and industrial areas of Asaluyeh Harbor, Iran: distribution, potential source and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Alireza; Arfaeinia, Hossein; Seifi, Morteza; Shirzad-Siboni, Mehdi; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina

    The distribution and toxicity levels of 16 EPA priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of Asaluyeh shore, Iran were investigated. The total concentrations of the PAHs in surface sediments ranged from 1,054 to 17,448 ng/g dry weights with a mean concentration of 8,067 ng/g. The spatial distribution of PAHs showed that PAH levels are much higher in the industrial areas in comparison with urban areas. Based on diagnostic ratios, pyrogenic activities were dominant sources of PAHs pollution in sediments comparing petroleum sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ Carc) of PAHs ranged from 172 to 2,235 ng TEQ/g with mean value of 997.9. Toxicity levels were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Samples were collected from industrial and urban stations in Asaluyeh shores. According to SQGs, ΣPAHs concentrations in sediments of urban areas were below the ERL (effects range low), but the industrial samples had ΣPAHs concentrations between ERL and ERM (effects range median). Furthermore, ΣHPAHs (heavy PAHs) and some individual PAHs in some industrial stations exceeded ERM, indicating adverse ecological risk effects frequently occur. Findings demonstrate that the surface sediment from Asaluyeh shore is highly to very highly contaminated with PAHs.

  1. An overview of industrial employees' exposure to noise in sundry processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, Oyedepo S; Abdullahi, Saadu A

    2009-04-01

    In this work, an overview of industrial employees' noise exposure level in five selected processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin are evaluated and compared. Emphasis is given to noise emitted by individual industrial machinery from the selected industries. Event L(Aeq) and LN cycle were studied to identify the noisy machines and to generate baseline data. Findings show that, hammer mill machine from mineral crushing mills produced the highest average noise (98.4 dB(A), electric generator1 (95.6 dB(A) from soft drink bottling industry, electric generator (97.7 dB(A)) from beer brewing and bottling industry, vacuum pump (93.1 dB(A)) from tobacco making industry and electric generator 2 (94.1 dB(A) from mattress making industry. The highest and lowest average noise exposure levels are recorded in mineral crushing mills (93.16 dB(A)) and mattress making industry (84.69 dB(A)) respectively. The study shows that at 95% confidence level, there is significant difference (pbeer brewing and bottling industry (42.9%), tobacco making industry (71.4%), mattress making industry (11.1%) and minerals crushing mills (87.5%). In the past 20 years, the noise levels in soft drink bottling industry reduced by 0.58 dB(A) and that of beer brewing and bottling industry reduced by 9.66 dB(A). But that of mattress making industry increased by 2.69 dB(A). On the average, the noise level in these industries has reduced by 2.52 dB(A). The results of this study show that the noise control measures put in place have significant impact on the noise exposure level in the industries surveyed.

  2. Efficient planning and numerical analysis of industrial hemming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchitz, Igor; Fritsche, David; Grundmann, Göran; Hillmann, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    Hemming is a forming operation used in the automotive industry to join inner and outer components during the assembly of closures. These are typically opening parts of the body-in-white with additional requirements to their visual appearance. A suitable production concept of hemming operation which satisfies quality, capacity and cost requirements is determined during hemming planning activities. A digital tool to facilitate these activities and minimize the amount of trial and error iterations in try-out phase is presented in this paper. This tool can be used to define process plan, active tool surfaces and suitable process parameters for both die hemming and roll hemming operations. In case of early feasibility studies, when the die layout of the drawing operation is still not available, 3D part geometry is used directly to develop the concept of hemming process. Advanced validation studies, aimed at process optimization and controlling defects associated with hemming, can be based on complete simulation of all forming operations. Validation and analysis of developed concepts of hemming operation is done using the standard AutoForm-Incremental solver. Submesh strategy and special algorithm for contact description between inner and outer parts were implemented to ensure that accurate simulation results can be obtained within reasonable calculation time. Performance of the new software tool for hemming planning and accuracy of simulation results are demonstrated using several simple benchmarks and a real industrial part. It is shown that the new software tool can help to secure the efficient production launch by providing adequate support in try-out phase.

  3. Trace elements and petroleum hydrocarbons in the aquatic bird food chain of process water evaporation ponds at the Little America Refinery, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study determined the nature and extent of trace elements, metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons in evaporation ponds used for the disposal of process water from...

  4. Webinar Presentation: Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Childhood Obesity

  5. Multiblock PLS analysis of an industrial pharmaceutical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J A; Menezes, J C; Westerhuis, J A; Smilde, A K

    2002-11-20

    The performance of an industrial pharmaceutical process (production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient by fermentation, API) was modeled by multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). The most important process stages are inoculum production and API production fermentation. Thirty batches (runs) were produced according to an experimental planning. Rather than merging all these data into a single block of independent variables (as in ordinary PLS), four data blocks were used separately (manipulated and quality variables for each process stage). With the multiblock approach it was possible to calculate weights and scores for each independent block. It was found that the inoculum quality variables were highly correlated with API production for nominal fermentations. For the nonnominal fermentations, the manipulations of the fermentation stage explained the amount of API obtained (especially the pH and biomass concentration). Based on the above process analysis it was possible to select a smaller set of variables with which a new model was built. The amount of variance predicted of the final API concentration (cross-validation) for this model was 82.4%. The advantage of the multiblock model over the standard PLS model is that the contributions of the two main process stages to the API volumetric productivity were determined.

  6. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  7. Basic Evaluation of the Process of China's Industrial Modernization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaguiChen; QunhuiHuang

    2005-01-01

    As China will change from a large industrial power into a strong industrial power in the 21st century, the inevitable demand is for industrial modernization. This paper puts forward three criteria for judging the degree of realization of industrial modernization: industrial growth efficiency, industrial structure and industrial environment. Together with these, it constructs an indicator system and indices for evaluating the level of industrial modernization, and uses this indicator system to evaluate the level of China's industrial modernization at the tam of the century. The resulting comprehensive index of China's industrial modernization is 28. 72. This indicates that, through the rapid industrialization which has taken place over more than 20 years of reform and opening up, China has commenced its industrial modernization, which is now in the primary stage of development. The core of the strategy for further development should be to accelerate the process of industrial modernization.

  8. An Investment Decision Support System for Process Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周章玉; 成思危; 华贲; 曾敏刚; 尹清华

    2001-01-01

    Most studies on investment evaluation mainly focus on enterprise economic benefits only, without process operability and sustainability considered. In this paper, we suggest that investment evaluation in process industries should be executed under three strategic objectives--enterprise benefits, social benefits and customer benefits. A systematic investment evaluation and decision-making method with a four-step procedure based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed to evaluate various qualitative and quantitative elements with various criteria. At the first step, the decision hierarchy is constructed under the three strategic objectives. Second, pair-wise comparison is utilized to evaluate the weights of elements and criteria. Third, qualitative elements are quantified by pair-wise comparison and quantitative elements are re-scaled by a uniform criterion. At the last, the best choice is made through synthesizing values upward in the hierarchy. An investment decision support system (DSS) is developed based on Microsoft Excel, and applied to a retrofit investment of united fluid catalytic cracking(FCC) and liquefied gas separation process in a refinery plant.

  9. Explaining agro-industrial contract breaches: the case of Brazilian tomatoes processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Zylbersztajn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred small tomato growers located in Brazilian northeast states, supplied a processing industry. In view of the large number of contract hazards and weak enforcement of clauses, managers have decided to move to the Midwest, where a reduced number of larger farmers have been contracted. The industry blamed high transaction costs due to the weak mechanism of public enforcement of property rights. The industry blamed some farmers of selling the product at the market for fresh consumption. Also, farmers blamed the industry for taking advantage of asymmetric information related to quality. This study presents an analysis of contract architecture and an evaluation of effects of transaction costs related variables on the likelihood of contract breaches. A panel data study with 1,523 observations and limited dependent variable models has been formulated to test hypothesis based on transaction cost theory. Results show that opportunism and the absence of courts guarantees of property rights precluded the possibility of achieving a stable contract relationship in the region.Trezentos pequenos produtores de tomate no Nordeste do Brasil supriam uma indústria processadora. Em face do grande número de quebras contratuais, a indústria decidiu mudar-se para o Centro Oeste e operar com um número menor de contratos com empresários rurais de maior porte. Segundo a indústria, sua decisão foi motivada pelos altos custos de transação resultantes dos fracos mecanismos institucionais de proteção aos contratos. Os produtores, por outro lado, culparam a indústria pelo abuso na depreciação do preço pago pelo produto, com base na avaliação da sua qualidade. O estudo apresenta uma análise da arquitetura dos contratos e testa hipóteses com base na Economia dos Custos de Transação, explicativas das quebras contratuais. Um painel com 1523 observações foi utilizado e os resultados indicaram a significância de variáveis associadas aos incentivos

  10. Six Sigma in the process industries; Six Sigma in der Prozessindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberg, A. [Merck KgaA, Zentrale Verfahrensentwicklung, Darmstadt (Germany); Duennebier, G. [Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany); Jaeckle, C. [Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen (Germany); Kraemer, S. [INEOS Koeln GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Advanced Process Control, Engineering and Projects; Lamers, J. [Henkel KGaA, Duesseldorf (Germany); Piechottka, U. [Degussa AG, Hanau (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Six Sigma is an established methodology supporting process improvements which originated from manufacturing industries with a strong focus on statistical methods. Its general applicability in other industries, in particular production processes in process industries, is, also due to the limited prevalence, not obvious. This contribution therefore discusses after an initial introduction of the Six Sigma methodology the special requirements of process industries and some useful extensions of the Six Sigma toolbox. The theoretical part is followed by the discussion of three successful improvement projects from three different companies in the German chemical industries to illustrate the applicability in industrial reality. (orig.)

  11. Processes controlling water and hydrocarbon composition in seeps from the Salton Sea geothermal system, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik; Karlsen, Dag A.; Sturz, Anne; Backer-Owe, Kristian; Banks, David A.; Planke, Sverre

    2007-01-01

    Water-, mud-, gas-, and petroleum-bearing seeps are part of the Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS) in Southern California. Seeps in the Davis-Schrimpf seep field (˜14,000 m2) show considerable variations in water temperature, pH, density, and solute content. Water-rich springs have low densities (98 vol%). Halogen geochemistry of the waters indicates that mixing of deep and shallow waters occurs and that near-surface dissolution of halite may overprint the original fluid compositions. Carbon isotopic analyses suggest that hydrocarbon seep gases have a thermogenic origin. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of petroleum in a water-dominated spring, composed of 53% saturated compounds, 35% aromatics, and 12% polar compounds. The abundance of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and immature biomarkers suggests a hydrothermal formation of the petroleum, making the SSGS a relevant analogue to less accessible hydrothermal seep systems, e.g., the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California.

  12. Energy conservation in the meat-processing industry. Part 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, E.J.; Hendrickson, R.L.

    1979-06-30

    This summary covers the following aspects of the meat processing industry: hot boning and electrical stimulation, refrigeration energy - hot vs cold processing, the role of locational factors and industrial orientation, modeling energy consumption in the meat processing industry, and management considerations. (MHR)

  13. 76 FR 4360 - Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... the pharmaceutical industry on the elements of process validation for the manufacture of human and... pharmaceutical industry on the elements of process validation for the manufacture of human and animal drug and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Process Validation:...

  14. Solid hydrocarbon assisted reduction: a new process of generating micron scale metal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan M McCabe

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this research is to test a central hypothesis: that gas species generated by the thermal and/or catalytically assisted decomposition of hydrocarbons in an inert atmosphere can reduce metal oxides to a metallic state. It is postulated that the decomposition releases gas phase radicals that can bind with oxygen in the metal oxides, forming volatile, stable oxides such as CO2 and water. This research consisted of thermally dec...

  15. Cryogenic thermal storage system for discontinuous industrial vacuum processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaringella M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Materials are proposed for refrigerating systems in discontinuous industrial vacuum processes where temperatures as low as −140 ÷ −100°C are necessary within time-frames representing 10÷20% of total operating time. An application is proposed for cooling systems used in a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD apparatus. A prototype has been manufactured which couples a cryopump with a reservoir filled with MethylCycloPentane (MCP-C6H12 and a distribution line where nitrogen in the gaseous state is flowing. Preliminary tests show that temperatures of about −120°C are actually achieved within time windows compatible with PVD applications.

  16. Opportunities for electrical efficiency in the meat processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A.T.

    1991-01-16

    A study was carried out to assess the potential of improving energy efficiency in the meat processing industry, by means of a survey. It was found that opportunities for improving electrical efficiency include: heat recovery from refrigeration compressors for hot water and space heating; better insulation in cold spaces to reduce refrigeration load; load shifting electric water heaters to reduce maximum demand; efficient lighting in cold spaces; and electric stimulation of beef to reduce refrigerated aging time by up to 50%. The independent meat processors were very interested in opportunities for improving electrical efficiency, and with ca 100 meat processors in Ontario, total estimated load reduction is estimated at 480 kW, and electrical consumption can be reduced by ca 2,550 MWh each year. 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Management of Industrial Processes with Programmable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tufoi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a modern economy, automation (the control is primarily to raise the competitiveness of a product, either directly through price or quality, or indirectly through the improvement of working conditions of staff productive. The control of industrial processes involves the management of dynamic systems that have continuous states. These systems are described by differential equations and, in general, analog inputs and outputs. Management of these systems is achieved, in general, with classical automation, by automation or with analog computers which contains modules with input / output analog performance. If states, inputs and outputs of a system can be modeled using binary variables, then these systems can be driven with Programmable Logic Controller.

  18. Technology Transfer, Labour and Local Learning Processes in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    1999-01-01

    The transfer of technologies by the foreign electronic industries operating in Malaysia involves training of workers for various purposes. The upgrading of skills to assimilate the transferred technology aims at increasing productivity and product quality. Communicating awareness about work hazards...... is meant to reduce breakdowns in production and workers' accidents. How do the training paradigms, which transnationals introduce in their subsidiaries in Malaysia, interact with the preconditions of learning with the local labour force? In shaping local learning processes, what is the scope for workers...... and trade unions to articulate their interests and define the issues, in particular with regard to the working environment and the external environment? The paper will discuss these questions by exploring the significance of labour market structures, labour-management relations, concepts of knowledge...

  19. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...... are blended into end products to minimise the total operational costs under production and storage capacity limitations. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear model is developed for the problem. The model is applied on a data set collected from a real-life case. The trade-offs between capacity limitations...... and operational costs are analysed, and the effects of different types of cost parameters and capacity limitations on the selection of intermediates and end-product recipes are investigated....

  20. Remote control of the industry processes. POWERLINK protocol application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wóbel, A.; Paruzel, D.; Paszkiewicz, B.

    2017-08-01

    The present technological development enables the use of solutions characterized by a lower failure rate, and work with greater precision. This allows you to obtain the most efficient production, high speed production and reliability of individual components. The main scope of this article was POWERLINK protocol application for communication with the controller B & R through communication Ethernet for recording process parameters. This enables control of run production cycle using an internal network connected to the PC industry. Knowledge of the most important parameters of the production in real time allows detecting of a failure immediately after occurrence. For this purpose, the position of diagnostic use driver X20CP1301 B&R to record measurement data such as pressure, temperature valve between the parties and the torque required to change the valve setting was made. The use of POWERLINK protocol allows for the transmission of information on the status of every 200 μs.

  1. Experiences with industrial solar process steam generation in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dirk; Berger, Michael; Mokhtar, Marwan; Willwerth, Lisa; Zahler, Christian; Al-Najami, Mahmoud; Hennecke, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    At the Jordanian pharmaceuticals manufacturing company RAM Pharma a solar process heat supply has been constructed by Industrial Solar GmbH in March 2015 and operated since then (Figure 1). The collector field consists of 394 m² of linear Fresnel collectors supplying saturated steam to the steam network at RAM Pharma at about 6 bar gauge. In the frame of the SolSteam project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) the installation has been modified introducing an alternative way to separate water and steam by a cyclone. This paper describes the results of experiments with the cyclone and compares the operation with a steam drum. The steam production of the solar plant as well as the fuel demand of the steam boiler are continuously monitored and results are presented in this paper.

  2. Process improvement of knives production in a small scale industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Muktasim, Irfan

    2017-06-01

    Small scale industry that produces several kinds of knive should increase its capacity due to the demand from the market. Qualitatively, this case study consisted of formulating the problems, collecting and analyzing the necessary data, and determining the possible recommendations for the improvement. While the current capacity is only 9 (nine), it is expected that 20 units of knife will produced per month. The processes sequence are: profiling (a), truing (b), beveling (c), heat treatment (d), polishing (e), assembly (f), sharpening (g) and finishing (h). The first process (a) is held by out-house vendor company while other steps from (b) to (g) are executed by in-house vendor. However, there is a high dependency upon the high skilled operator who executes the in -house processes that are mostly held manually with several unbalance successive tasks, where the processing time of one or two tasks require longer duration than others since the operation is merely relied on the operator's skill. The idea is the improvement or change of the profiling and beveling process. Due to the poor surface quality and suboptimal hardness resulted from the laser cut machine for profiling, it is considered to subst itute this kind of process with wire cut that is capable to obtain good surface quality with certain range levels of roughness. Through simple cutting experiments on the samples, it is expected that the generated surface quality is adequate to omit the truing process (b). In addition, the cutting experiments on one, two, and four test samples resulted the shortest time that was obtained through four pieces in one cut. The technical parameters were set according to the recommendation of machine standard as referred to samples condition such as thickness and path length that affect ed the rate of wear. Meanwhile, in order to guarantee the uniformity of knife angles that are formed through beveling process (c), a grinding fixture was created. This kind of tool diminishes the

  3. 279 Watt Metal-Wrap-Through module using industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillevin, N.; Heurtault, B.; Geerligs, L.J.; Anker, J.; Van Aken, B.B.; Bennett, I.J.; Jansen, M.J.; Berkeveld, L.D.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Wenchao, Zhao; Jianming, Wang; Ziqian, Wang; Yingle, Chen; Yanlong, Shen; Zhiyan, Hu; Gaofei, Li; Jianhui, Chen; Bo, Yu; Shuquan, Tian; Jingfeng, Xiong [Yingli Solar, 3399 Chaoyang North Street, Baoding (China)

    2012-09-15

    This paper describes results of metal wrap through (MWT) cells produced from n-type Czochralski silicon wafers, and modules produced from those cells. The use of n-type silicon as base material allows for high efficiencies: for front emitter contacted industrial cells, efficiencies up to 20% have been reported. MWT cells allow even higher cell efficiency due to reduced front metal coverage, and additionally full back-contacting of the MWT cells in a module results in reduced cell to module (CTM) fill factor losses. MWT cells were produced by industrial process technologies. The efficiency of the MWT cells reproducibly exceeds the efficiency of front contact cells based on the same technology by about 0.2-0.3%, and routes for further improvement are analyzed. 60-cell modules were produced from both types of cells (MWT and H-pattern front emitter). In a direct module performance comparison, the MWT module, based on integrated backfoil, produced 3% higher power output than the comparable tabbed front emitter contact module. CTM current differences arise from the higher packing density, and in this experiment from a lower reflectance of the backfoil, in MWT modules. CTM FF differences are related to resistive losses in copper circuitry on the backfoil versus tabs. The CTM FF loss of the MWT module was reduced by 2.2%abs compared to the tabbed front emitter contact module. Finally, simple process optimizations were tested to improve the n-type MWT cell and module efficiency. A module made using MWT cells of 19.6% average efficiency resulted in a power output of 279W. The cell and module results are analyzed and routes for improvements are discussed.

  4. TonglingExtended Copper Intensive Processing Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Despite the adverse impacts including decline in copper price, in 2012, Tongling’s copper in-dustry development still made steady progress. The number of copper enterprises in Tongling with industrial output value above 100 million

  5. Process integration and pinch analysis in sugarcane industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Process integration techniques were applied, particularly through the Pinch Analysis method, to sugarcane industry. Research was performed upon harvest data from an agroindustrial complex which processes sugarcane plant in excess of 3.5 million metric tons per year, producing motor fuel grade ethanol, standard quality sugar, and delivering excess electric power to the grid. Pinch Analysis was used in assessing internal heat recovery as well as external utility demand targets, while keeping the lowest but economically achievable targets for entropy increase. Efficiency on the use of energy was evaluated for the plant as it was found (the base case) as well as for five selected process and/or plant design modifications, always with guidance of the method. The first alternative design (case 2) was proposed to evaluate equipment mean idle time in the base case, to support subsequent comparisons. Cases 3 and 4 were used to estimate the upper limits of combined heat and power generation while raw material supply of the base case is kept; both the cases did not prove worth implementing. Cases 5 and 6 were devised to deal with the bottleneck of the plant, namely boiler capacity, in order to allow for some production increment. Inexpensive, minor modifications considered in case 5 were found unable to produce reasonable outcome gain. Nevertheless, proper changes in cane juice evaporation section (case 6) could allow sugar and ethanol combined production to rise up to 9.1% relative to the base case, without dropping cogenerated power. (author)

  6. Multivariate Statistical Process Optimization in the Industrial Production of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna

    In modern biotech production, a massive number of diverse measurements, with a broad diversity in information content and quality, is stored in data historians. The potential of this enormous amount of data is currently under-employed in process optimization efforts. This is a result of the deman......In modern biotech production, a massive number of diverse measurements, with a broad diversity in information content and quality, is stored in data historians. The potential of this enormous amount of data is currently under-employed in process optimization efforts. This is a result...... and difficulties related to ‘recycling’ of historical data from a full-scale manufacturing of industrial enzymes. First, the crucial and tedious step of retrieving the data from the systems is presented. The prerequisites that need to be comprehended are discussed, such as sensors accuracy and reliability, aspects...... related to the actual measuring frequency and non-equidistance retaining strategies in data storage. Different regimes of data extraction can be employed, and some might introduce undesirable artifacts in the final analysis results (POSTER II1). Several signal processing techniques are also briefly...

  7. Enhanced Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heterocyclic PAHs in Industrially Contaminated Soil after Passive Dosing of a Competitive Sorbate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humel, Stefan; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Sumetzberger-Hasinger, Marion

    2017-01-01

    To assess the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is important to understand the binding mechanisms between specific soil constituents and the organic pollutant. In this study, sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) was applied to quantify the accessible PAH fraction...... in industrially contaminated soil with and without passive dosing of a competitive sorbate. SBE experiments revealed an accessible PAH fraction of 41 ± 1% (∑16 US EPA PAHs + 5 further PAHs). The passive dosing of toluene below its saturation level revealed competitive binding and resulted in an average increase.......4% PAH. We explain increased PAH desorption after addition of toluene by competitive adsorption to high-affinity sorption sites while acknowledging that toluene could additionally have increased PAH mobility within the soil matrix. Findings suggest that the presence of copollutants at contaminated sites...

  8. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, E. C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ross, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Sexton, D. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  9. Oils and fats: changes due to culinary and industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Muniz, F J

    2006-07-01

    Diets of developed countries contain substantial quantities of fat subjected to different processing and heat treatments. Heating in the presence of air produces oxidative and thermal degradations in the unsaturated acyl groups of triacylglycerols and in other unsaturated compounds present in the oils and fats. These changes modify the nutritional properties of culinary fat and lead to the formation of many oxidized and polymerized compounds that present higher polarity than that of the original triacylglycerols. Some aspects of lipid peroxidation that occur in heated and used frying oils will be briefly presented and discussed. This paper will focus on appropriate methodology for the assessment of fat alteration (e.g. chromatography) and the point at which any oil used for frying should be discarded. Polar material (PM) and triacylglycerol oligomer content (TOC) determinations constitute the basis of legislation for oil discarding in some European countries; we will try to open some debate on whether PM or TOC is preferred for oil discarding assessment. Correct frying performance helps to lengthen oil frying-life and to decrease the alteration content in the fried food. Because many factors are present in the culinary and industrial frying, the effect of the process itself and that of the food and the type of oil used will be reviewed. The present report analyses and describes a wide variety of topics related to frying performance, and their nutritional implications with a special focus on the behavior during frying of most consumed oils in Mediterranean countries.

  10. Thermal comfort study of plastics manufacturing industry in converting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of ergonomics factors that can create a significant impact to workers performance. For a better thermal comfort, several environment factors (air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity should be considered in this research. The object of the study is a building for converting process of plastics manufacturing industry located in Malang, Indonesia. The maximum air temperature inside the building can reach as high as 36°C. The result of this study shows that heat stress is dominantly caused by heat source from machine and wall building. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation is used to show the air characteristic through inside the building. By using the CFD simulation, some scenarios of solution are successfully presented. Employees thermal comfort was investigated based on predicted mean vote model (PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied model (PPD. Existing condition gives PMV in range from 1.83 to 2.82 and PPD in range from 68.9 to 98%. Meanwhile, modification of ventilation and replacing ceiling material from clear glass into reflective clear glass gave significant impact to reduce PMV into range from 1.63 to 2.18 and PPD into range from 58.2 to 84.2%. In sort, new design converting building process has more comfortable for workers.

  11. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EDIBLE TOMATO VARIETIES INTENDED FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the global production of tomatoes is used for tomato products. The fruits to be processed are evaluated on the basis of important technological quality parameters, such as the content of dry matter and organic acids. Recently, among important qualitative characteristics of fruits has been included colorant content, especially lycopene. Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of selected tomato varieties for industrial processing. Tested were varieties Uno Rosso, San Marzano 4, Brixol, Strombolino, UG. 8168, Diana and Nemarock cultivated in very hot and dry agro-climatic region. The dry matter content was determined by the gravimetric method, the content of organic acid by titration and the content of colorants spectrophotometrically. The dry matter content of the samples ranged from 4.65% (Nemarock to 5.93% (San Marzano 4. Content of organic acids ranged from 0.33% (Nemarock to 0.59% (Strombolino, content of carotenoids in tomato samples ranged from 111.288 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock to 198.365 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4. Lycopene was present in the amount of 99.438 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock to 192.687 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4. In terms of treatment the best properties showed San Marzano 4, which is characterized by high dry matter content, low organic acids and high content of colorants.

  12. Lipase catalyzed ester synthesis for food processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravindan Rajendran

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are one of the most important industrial biocatalyst which catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids. It can also reverse the reaction at minimum water activity. Because of this pliable nature, it is widely exploited to catalyze the diverse bioconversion reactions, such as hydrolysis, esterification, interesterification, alcoholysis, acidolysis and aminolysis. The property to synthesize the esters from the fatty acids and glycerol promotes its use in various ester synthesis. The esters synthesized by lipase finds applications in numerous fields such as biodiesel production, resolution of the recemic drugs, fat and lipid modification, flavour synthesis, synthesis of enantiopure pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. It plays a crucial role in the food processing industries since the process is unaffected by the unwanted side products. Lipase modifications such as the surfactant coating, molecular imprinting to suit for the non-aqueous ester synthesis have also been reported. This review deals with lipase catalyzed ester synthesis, esterification strategies, optimum conditions and their applications in food processing industries.Lipases são catalizadores industriais dos mais importantes, os quais catalizam a hidrólise de lipídeos. Também podem reverter a reação a um mínimo de atividade de água. Devido sua natureza flexível, é amplamente explorada para catalizar uma diversidade de reações de bioconversão como hidrólise, esterificação, interesterificação, alcoólise, acidólise e aminólise. A propriedade de síntese de esteres a partir de ácidos graxos e glicerol promoveu seu uso em várias sínteses de esteres. Os esteres sintetizados por lipases encontram aplicação em numerosos campos como a produção de biodiesel, resolução de drogas racêmicas, modificação de gorduras e lipídios, sintese de aromas, síntese de produtos farmacêuticos enantiopuro e nutracêuticos. As lipases possuem um papel crucial nas indústrias de

  13. Process analysis of eco-industrial park development - the case of Tianjin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Chang; de Jong, Martin; Dijkema, Gerard P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The variety of successful and unsuccessful eco-industrial parks (EIPs) have evoked a discussion on "how to intervene in the process of transforming an industrial park to an eco-industrial park". This study presents a process analysis approach that enables analysts to trace and structure the key acti

  14. 76 FR 28662 - Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AQ25; 2060-AO12 Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units AGENCY: Environmental... Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'' and ``Standards...

  15. Process analysis of eco-industrial park development - the case of Tianjin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Chang; de Jong, Martin; Dijkema, Gerard P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The variety of successful and unsuccessful eco-industrial parks (EIPs) have evoked a discussion on "how to intervene in the process of transforming an industrial park to an eco-industrial park". This study presents a process analysis approach that enables analysts to trace and structure the key acti

  16. Hydrocarbons in the Bay of Bengal and Central Indian Basin bottom sediments: Indicators of geochemical processes in the lithosphere

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chernova, T.G.; Paropkari, A.L.; Pikovskii, Yu.I.; Alekseeva, T.A.

    that the hydrocarbons are mostly derived from marine sources. Sharp increases fo hydrocarbons are found in the vicinity of the tectonically active region of the Central Indian Basin, particularly in the sediments collected from the fracture zone. The total concentration...

  17. Selection of Leading Industry in Anshun Experimental District Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process is selected according to the selection method of leading industries by both domestic and foreign scholars. Leading industries which can accelerate the overall economic development of Anshun Experimental District is taken as the target layer; and market demand, efficiency standards and local conditions are taken as the criterion layers, so as to construct the select model of leading industry and to choose the leading industry in Anshun Experimental District. Result shows that the priority order of the leading industry selection in Anshun Experimental District is as follows: tourism > pharmacy > transportation > energy > food processing > characteristic agriculture > package and printing > automobile industry > mining > electric engineering.

  18. Coke industry and steel metallurgy as the source of soil contamination by technogenic magnetic particles, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Magiera, Tadeusz; Wawer, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    Application of integrated magnetic, geochemical and mineralogical methods for qualitative and quantitative assessment of forest topsoils exposed to the industrial emissions was the objective of this manuscript. Volume magnetic susceptibility (κ) in three areas of southern Poland close to the coke and metallurgical plants was measured directly in the field. Representative topsoil samples were collected for further chemical and mineralogical analyses. Topsoil magnetic susceptibility in the studied areas depended mainly on the content of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) and decreased downwind at increasing distance from the emitters. In the vicinity of coking plants a high amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed, especially the most carcinogenic ones with four- and five-member rings. No significant concentration of TMPs (estimated on the base of κ values) and heavy metals (HM) was observed in area where the coke plant was the only pollution source. In areas with both coke and metallurgical industry, higher amounts of TMPs, PAHs and HM were detected. Morphological and mineralogical analyses of TMPs separated from contaminated soil samples revealed their high heterogeneity in respect of morphology, grain size, mineral and chemical constitution. Pollution load index and toxicity equivalent concentration of PAHs used for soil quality assessment indicated its high level of pollution.

  19. Advances in statistical monitoring of complex multivariate processes with applications in industrial process control

    CERN Document Server

    Kruger, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of multivariate statistical techniques in process monitoring has gained substantial interest over the past two decades in academia and industry alike.  Initially developed for monitoring and fault diagnosis in complex systems, such techniques have been refined and applied in various engineering areas, for example mechanical and manufacturing, chemical, electrical and electronic, and power engineering.  The recipe for the tremendous interest in multivariate statistical techniques lies in its simplicity and adaptability for developing monitoring applica

  20. Shanxi Will Build Aluminum Deep Processing Industrial Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a province with high coal output,Shanx boasts rich electrolytic aluminum resources.On January 7,the reporter learned from the Provincial Commission of Economy and Information Technology that in order to continually expand the size of aluminum industry,extend aluminum industrial chain,so

  1. Impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetutu, Eric M.; Ball, Andy S. [School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001 (Australia); Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Dandie, Catherine E. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: Albert.Juhasz@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was investigated in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The extent of {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation varied depending on the bioremediation strategy employed. Under enhanced natural attenuation conditions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation after 98 days was 8.5 {+-} 3.7% compared to < 1.2% without nitrogen and phosphorus additions. {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was further enhanced through Tween 80 amendments (28.9 {+-} 2.4%) which also promoted the growth of a Phanerochaete chyrsosporium fungal mat. Although fungal growth in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil could be promoted through supplementing additional carbon sources (Tween 80, sawdust, compost, pea straw), fungal {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was negligible when sodium azide was added to soil microcosms to inhibit bacterial activity. In contrast, when fungal activity was inhibited through nystatin additions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation ranged from 6.5 {+-} 0.2 to 35.8 {+-} 3.8% after 98 days depending on the supplied amendment. Bacteria inhibition with sodium azide resulted in a reduction in bacterial diversity (33-37%) compared to microcosms supplemented with nystatin or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. However, alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms, highlighting the important role of this bacterial group in {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The roles of different microbial groups in hydrocarbon mineralisation was assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting fungal growth did not affect {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting bacterial growth resulted in negligible {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms. Black

  2. The Ideal Criteria of Supplier Selection for SMEs Food Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Rohaizan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of good supplier is important to determine the performance and profitability of SMEs food processing industry. The lack of managerial capability on supplier selection in SMEs food processing industry affects the competitiveness of SMEs food processing industry. This research aims to determine the ideal criteria of supplier for food processing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The research was carried out in a quantitative method by distributing questionnaires to 50 SMEs food processing industries. The collected data analysed using Expert Choice software to rank the supplier selection criteria. The result shows that criteria for supplier selection are ranked by cost, quality, service, delivery and management and organisation while purchase cost, audit result, defect analysis, transportation cost and fast responsiveness are the first five sub-criteria. The result of this research intends to improve managerial capabilities of SMEs food processing industry in supplier selection.

  3. Controle estatístico do processo em pintura industrial = Process statistics control in industrial painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina de Lourdes Milani de Paula Soares

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo a aplicação das Ferramentas do Controle Estatístico em um setor de uma Indústria de Transformador. O característico de qualidade selecionada para o estudo, foi a espessura de tinta no transformador em suas várias partes (Corpo, Radiador, Tampa e Suporte. Determinado o setor e característico de qualidade, uma folha de verificação foi utilizada para a coleta dos dados, seguida pelo fluxograma, sugerindo uma nova metodologia para essa linha de produção. A metodologia proposta teve por base um Modelo apresentado por Soares (2001, p. 66, com modificações necessárias para se adequar a empresa em estudo. Para interpretação dos dados, utilizou os Gráficos de Controle X e AM, nas diversas partes do transformador. Da análise dos dados coletados resultaram vários planos de ação de melhoria no processo, culminando, em alguns casos, no controle estatístico do mesmo. Ao obter o controleestatístico do processo, estabeleceram-se os limites de controle que permitirão monitorar daqui para frente tais processos, bem como calcular seus índices de capacidade. A análise, na qual diagnosticou-se a permanência do processo fora de controle, será necessário continuar, com estudo das causas da variabilidade.This paper aimed at applying Statistics Control Tools in a Transformer Industry sector. The quality characteristic selected to this study was the thickness of painting in several parts of thetransformer (body, radiator, cover and support. After selecting the sector and the quality characteristic, a sheet of verification was used to collect the data. A new methodology was suggested to this production line. The methodology proposed has as base a Modelpresented by Soares (2001, p. 66, with necessary modifications to fit to the company under study. The data were analyzed by X and AM Control Graphs in several parts of the transformer. Many improvement plans resulted from the analysis and some of them in the

  4. The Key Principles of Process Manager Motivation in Production and Administration Processes in an Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromjakova Felicita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of sustainable development is that companies should completely re-evaluate their enterprise work logic and process organization. Most of the necessary changes concern employee stimulation and motivation. If we are truly interested in improving business results and the effectiveness of business processes – there would be no progress otherwise – we have to strive to break down the barriers between company management (leadership and employees in order to establish effective relationships between firms and customers. This paper presents research results of process manager activities in modern industrial enterprises, connected with a methodology proposal for the systematically-oriented process manager motivation of employees in accordance with the increased competitiveness of production and administration processes. It also presents an effective methodology of how to increase the positive effects of welldefined employee motivations from the process manager´s perspective. The core benefit of this methodology lies in the design of a systematic approach to the motivation process from the process manager side, allowing for radical performance improvement via production and administrative processes and the increased competitiveness of enterprise processes.

  5. Identification and determination of the contribution of iron-steel manufacturing industry to sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large shallow lake of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liu; Bai, Ya-Shu; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Tian-Hu; Yin, Da-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were determined in surface sediments collected from the Chaohu Lake (a large shallow lake in eastern China) and its tributaries. Both diagnostic ratios and a receptor model (positive matrix factorization, PMF) were applied to identify and determine the contribution of a local iron-steel manufacturing plant located in the Nanfei River (NFR) to the Chaohu Lake basin. The results show that sites located in the downstream of the steel plant contained concentrations of 17 PAH (Σ17PAH) approximately two orders of magnitudes higher than those from other sites. Five factors were identified by the PMF model, including industrial waste, wood/biomass burning, diagenetic origin, domestic coal combustion, and industrial combustion. Our findings suggest that sediments in the downstream of the plant and in the western part of the Chaohu Lake were predominantly affected by industrial coal combustion. A mixture of pyrolytic origins impacted urban sediments in the upstream of the plant, whereas diagenetic origins along with coal and biomass burning were suggested to influence the eastern part and rural tributaries of the lake. To assess the potential ecological risk and toxicity caused by the iron-steel plant, sediment toxicity was evaluated by the PMF model, sediment quality guideline, and toxic equivalent factors. All of the three approaches suggested PAH accumulation in the NFR sediments could produce significant adverse ecological effects and half of the sediment toxicity in the NFR may be attributed to the emissions from the iron-steel plant. Some rural locations also exhibited PAH concentrations above probable effects, most likely contributed by wood/biomass burning.

  6. Effects of Neutralization, Decoloration, and Deodorization on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons during Laboratory-Scale Oil Refining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of technological operations during oil refining process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils was investigated on the basis of laboratory-scale study. Under the best experimental conditions, benzo[a]pyrene decreased by 85.1%, 99.7%, and 40.8% in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils, respectively. Total of 16 analytes decreased by 55.7%, 87.5%, and 47.7%, respectively. Bleaching with activated charcoal was the most efficient procedure to reduce PAHs in crude oil. Neutralization had a modest influence on sixteen analytes; however, deodorization was only responsible for a slight decrease in the light PAHs and heavy PAHs contents. Data obtained in this study suggest that the use of activated carbon during oil refining process is highly recommended; moreover, these results provide a useful guidance for oil refining plant to reduce security risk and ensure the quality of the vegetable oil products.

  7. Status, source and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust of an industrial city, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yufeng; Hu, Xuefei; Yves, Uwamungu J; Zhan, Huiying; Wu, Yingqin

    2014-08-01

    The status, source and health risk of street-dust-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou of Northwest China were investigated. The total level of the 21 PAHs ranged from 1470 to 13,700 µg kg(-1) and that of the 16 priority PAHs from 1240 to 10,700 µg kg(-1). Higher levels of PAHs were mainly distributed in the Chengguan and Qilihe districts at Lanzhou central areas, and the lower levels were in Anning and Xigu districts. The level of seven potential carcinogenic PAHs generally accounted for 35-40 percent of total PAHs, and the PAHs contained two to four rings, mainly phenanthrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and fluoranthene. The total level of PAHs increased with the decreasing particle size in the street dust. The correlation analysis suggested that the total organic carbon (TOC) was only slightly affected the PAH accumulation in street dust. The isomer ratios and principal component analysis indicated that the dust-borne PAHs in the dust were derived primarily from the combustion of biomass, coal and petroleum emission. The toxic equivalent concentrations (BaP(eq)) of dust-borne PAHs ranged from 115 to 827 µg BaP(eq) kg(-1), with a mean of 300 µg BaP(eq) kg(-1). The 95 percent upper confidence limit of Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk due to human exposure to urban surface dust-borne PAHs in Lanzhou urban area was 2.031 × 10(-6) for children and 1.935 × 10(-6) for adults.

  8. Geochemical constraints on mixed source and hydrocarbon filling process in theYingjisu Sag, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Lingyun; CHANG Xiangchun; WANG Mingzhen; YU Xinghe; MA Lixin; DUAN Yunge

    2009-01-01

    The Yingjisu Sag was petroliferous for normal oil, condensate oil, reservoir bitumen and natural gases. Geochemical studies showed that natural gases in the Yingjisu Sag were a gas mixture consisting mainly of Cambrian pyrolysis gas, Jurassic condensate oil in well Yingnan 2 and normal oil in well Tadong 2, reflecting the characteristics of marine-phase gases and oils, while crude oils in well Longkou 1 demonstrated the characteristics of both marine and terrestrial oils, which were derived from lower algae and higher plants. Jurassic oils from wells Longkou 1 and Huayingcan 1 and Cambrian crude oils from well Tadong 2 were derived mainly from Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks. Jurassic and Silurian reservoir bitumens from well Yingnan 2 were biodegradated, suggesting they are of marine and terrestrial origins. The bitumens have similar geochemical characteristics, which are correlated well with Ordovician crude oils from well Tadong 2 and Jurassic condensate oil from well Yingnan 2. Based on the characteristics of tectonic evolution in this area and the analysis of hydrocarbon accumulation, the constraints on the mixed source and hydrocarbon filling process in the Yingjisu Sag were brought forward.

  9. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  10. Management of health, safety and environment in process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan; Fiévez, C.; Gerbec, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of industrial HSE management in a number of EU member states is reviewed, with a focus on the integration of health, safety and environment in single management systems. The review provides insight into the standards and paradigms adopted by industry, and it identifies trends...... and needs for improvement. It appears that most industries consider goal-based HSE management programs to be a success and believe them to contribute to the profitability of the industry. We conclude that HSE management would benefit greatly from guidance on how to use existing management systems...... efficiently and also from the further development of meaningful safety performance indicators that identify the conditions prior to accidents and incidents. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOT-MANIPULATOR SETUPS IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the most important aspects of industrial robot-manipulator setups implementation as an educational tool for the workshop part of advanced technologies in robotics and control engineering courses.

  12. Tongling’s Ambition for Copper Processing Industrial Leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Known as the "Copper Capital of Ancient China", Tongling’s copper industry posted sub-stantial growth as the domestic copper price rose. According to Wang Yijun, the Director of Tongling DPC, the local government was

  13. Industrial image processing visual quality control in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Demant, Christian; Garnica, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    This practical introduction focuses on how to build integrated solutions to industrial vision problems from individual algorithms. It gives a hands-on guide for setting up automated visual inspection systems using the NeuroCheck software package.

  14. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Assessing the Effects of Significant Manufacturing Process Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Significant Manufacturing Process Changes, Including Emerging Technologies, on the Safety and Regulatory... Industry: Assessing the Effects of Significant Manufacturing Process Changes, Including Emerging... current thinking on the factors to be considered when determining whether changes in manufacturing process...

  15. Energy saving processes for nitrogen removal in organic wastewater from food processing industries in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, N H; Suksawad, N; Balslev, P

    2004-01-01

    Nitrogen removal from organic wastewater is becoming a demand in developed communities. The use of nitrite as intermediate in the treatment of wastewater has been largely ignored, but is actually a relevant energy saving process compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification using nitrate as intermediate. Full-scale results and pilot-scale results using this process are presented. The process needs some additional process considerations and process control to be utilized. Especially under tropical conditions the nitritation process will round easily, and it must be expected that many AS treatment plants in the food industry already produce NO2-N. This uncontrolled nitrogen conversion can be the main cause for sludge bulking problems. It is expected that sludge bulking problems in many cases can be solved just by changing the process control in order to run a more consequent nitritation. Theoretically this process will decrease the oxygen consumption for oxidation by 25% and the use of carbon source for the reduction will be decreased by 40% compared to the conventional process.

  16. Strategy evaluation of industrial enterprises in business process reengineering in manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Taraniuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article discusses the issues of strategic evaluation of the industrial enterprises in reengineering business processes in production at the project level. The aim of the article is to improve methods of strategic assessment of an industrial enterprise, which aims to study the positive and negative aspects of the business process reengineering of industrial enterprise in the future. The results of the analysis. Author improved SWOT-analysis of business process reengineering, which is the clustering of business processes in the spheres of management of industrial enterprise and the development of appropriate indicators of economic data clusters. It is calculated the resulting weighted evaluation during SWOT-analysis of business process reengineering of industrial engineering industry. It was conducted the rank estimation of SWOT-analysis components of business process reengineering industry. The coefficients of concordance of Kendel defect components SWOT-analysis of business process reengineering. It is formed matrix interactions strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats during reengineering of business processes at industrial plants (project level. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The scientific value of advanced methodological tools is systematizing of business processes for activities of industrial enterprises in conducting SWOT- analysis of business process reengineering. Later these methodological tools can be supplemented by other methods of strategic evaluation of the company, such as 111-555, LOTS, PIMS-analysis.

  17. Natural Gas Consumption of Emerging Economies in the Industrialization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has become more and more important in the world energy market with the change of energy consumption structure and consumption subjects. This paper applies the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR model to study the nonlinear relationship between natural gas consumption and economic variables of emerging economies, and the empirical results show that: (1 There is a non-linear relationship among natural gas consumption, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization rate; (2 The optimal PSTR model is a two-regime model by using the lagged industrialization as a transition variable, and the impact of GDP per capita and of industrialization on natural gas consumption shows incomplete symmetry in low and high regime, respectively; (3 The result of time-varying elasticity analysis indicates that natural gas consumption is inelastic to GDP per capita, but elastic to both industrialization and urbanization. The elasticity of GDP per capita generally decrease with fluctuation, the elasticity of industrialization tends to rise, and the elasticity of urbanization is linear at high level; (4 Regional difference shows that there are 10 emerging economies are in first regime (below industrialization of 43.2%, and the remaining 6 are in second regime. This provides reference for countries in different transformation periods to make economic policies adapting to energy saving, energy structure optimization and other sustainable development strategies.

  18. Drying: a key-step of your industrial process; Le sechage: une etape cle de votre process industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques, ENSIACET, 31 - Toulouse (France); Leconte, J.M. [NEU Sechage Industriel, 59 - Templemars (France); Gayot, A. [Faculte de Pharmacie de Lille, 59 (France)] [and others

    2001-03-01

    This document brings together 13 testimonies of experts about the drying techniques used in industrial processes. The following points are approached: understanding and mastering of drying parameters: characterization of the products do be dried, affinity between product and solvent, humidity retaking, energy transfer..; domains of applications of the main drying techniques: conduction drying, atomization process, fluidized bed drying, microwave drying; which help drying engineering can provide to industrial processes (optimization and operation); industrial applications and case studies in pharmacy, chemistry and agriculture and food industry. (J.S.)

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR QUALITY AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT IN BUSINESS PROCESS SERVICE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Oludapo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to performance improvement process, literature abounds with lean, agile and lean-agile. Over the years, the implementation of the improvement processes of lean and agile had met with resounding success in the manufacturing, production, and construction industry. For this reason, there is an interest to develop a performance process for business process service industry incorporating the key aspect of lean and agile theory extracted from the extant literature. The researcher reviewed a total of 750 scholarly articles, grouped them according to the relationship to central theme - lean or agile, and thereafter uses factor analysis under principal component method to explain the relationship of the items. The result of this study showed that firms focusing on cost will minimize the investment of resources in business operations this, in turn, will lead to difficulties in responding to changing customer's requirements in terms of volume, delivery, and new product. The implication is that on the long run cost focus strategy negatively influence flexibility.

  20. Processing of Aluminum Dross: The Birth of a Closed Industrial Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingason, Helgi Thor; Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I.

    2014-11-01

    This is the history of a modern aluminum dross recycling company, from its beginnings in the last years of the twentieth century to the present day. The vision of the founders was to build a local recycling plant and take full responsibility for sensitive environmental issues by recycling aluminum dross locally rather than shipping it abroad. The paper tells the history of the company from the environmental perspective, and gives an overview of some of the challenges and the decisions that followed from this vision, for instance the selection of technology. The company developed a closed industrial process for the recycling of aluminum dross, and the paper discusses some of their laboratory experiments and industrial trials. An important milestone has now been reached as the process in its present form is recognized by the environmental authorities in the country. Furthermore, it seems realistic that in the near future the final product from this process will be comparable to the product delivered in the processing of salt cake in specialized chemical plants, but at a fraction of the cost.

  1. Complex evaluation of health status and life quality of employees occupied in mining and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Gimranova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A complex social-hygienic investigation for the assessment of health-related life quality and living standards among 1200 male workers occupied in mining and primary processing of hydrocarbon raw materials has been performed. The study included the method of the anonymous survey for the employee with using a questionnaire developed by WHO experts for the realization of Health, environment and social capital management in enterprises (HESME. The health risk factors’ prevalence associated with alcohol, smoking, low physical activity, poor nutrition, stress in the workplace has been established. The feeling of stress and nervousness is generated by the fear of dismissal (18 % of employees, conflicts with administration (4% and by financial problems. About 47% of persons are anxious about social and economic instability. Not more than 4% of employees consider that the health deterioration is directly related to harmful working conditions. The survey has revealed an inflated self-esteem regarding the health. Thus 59.00 % of employee considers their health status to be excellent or normal, while an objective assessment revealed only 29.7 % of healthy employee. Due to the employee’s opinion, the saving of health is conditioned by healthy lifestyle, but the practice of self-preservation behavior is poorly spread. Not more than 37 % of respondents follow the doctors’ recommendations. Among the positive process there are changes in dietary habits in everyday life, namely 60 % of the respondents have chosen the balanced diet. The obtained data regarding the quality and way of life of the employee, occupied in mining and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, should be taken into consideration when developing complex social development programs on an enterprise.

  2. Production process stability - core assumption of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromjakova, F.; Bobak, R.; Hrusecka, D.

    2017-06-01

    Today’s industrial enterprises are confronted by implementation of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept with basic problem - stabilised manufacturing and supporting processes. Through this phenomenon of stabilisation, they will achieve positive digital management of both processes and continuously throughput. There is required structural stability of horizontal (business) and vertical (digitized) manufacturing processes, supported through digitalised technologies of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept. Results presented in this paper based on the research results and survey realised in more industrial companies. Following will described basic model for structural process stabilisation in manufacturing environment.

  3. PAPER AND PAPERBOARD INDUSTRY IN EUROPEAN UNION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Cemil Akyüz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkey should benefit from its own resources by realizing their value in the period that it turned its face to Europe. Therefore, the economical potential of the country should be analyzed thoroughly. Knowing its own strength and taking the necessary steps to this effect in order to take the fullest advantage of the strength are of vital importance for the countries in attaining the development level. Within the existing potential, the necessary importance and support should be given to small and medium enterprises that are forming the most effective part of the economic life and to the forest products industry which has a significant position among these enterprises. In this study, certain product groups belonging to paper and paperboard industry situated in forest products industry were discussed what situation they are in Turkey and European Union countries and competition position. In this context, hierarchical cluster analysis and discriminant analysis being of multidimensional statistical methods were used.

  4. Development of software sensors for industrial processes by parametric estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Hadid, Baya

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was funded by the ANR through the Energy Efficiency and reduction of CO2 emissions in industrial systems program. The CHIC – CHaîne de mesure Innovante à bas Coût – project initiated and supported by EDF R&D aims to deve- lop and test an innovative low cost and non-intrusive measuring system to monitor and analyze the consumption of energy fluids used in industrial sites in order to detect consumption drifts with a measurement accuracy of about 5%. This thesis focuses on the soft sen...

  5. Recovery Processes of Organic Acids from Fermentation Broths in the Biomass-Based Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Zhu; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Feng, Xin-Jun; Wang, Ji-Ming; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The new movement towards green chemistry and renewable feedstocks makes microbial production of chemicals more competitive. Among the numerous chemicals, organic acids are more attractive targets for process development efforts in the renewable-based biorefinery industry. However, most of the production costs in microbial processes are higher than that in chemical processes, among which over 60% are generated by separation processes. Therefore, the research of separation and purification processes is important for a promising biorefinery industry. This review highlights the progress of recovery processes in the separation and purification of organic acids, including their advantages and disadvantages, current situation, and future prospects in terms of recovery yields and industrial application.

  6. Evaluation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulation in plants from typical industrial sites: potential candidate in phytoremediation for co-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Liao, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiulan; Zhu, Ganghui; Ma, Dong

    2014-11-01

    The heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were evaluated in surface soil and plant samples of 18 wild species collected from 3 typical industrial sites in South Central China. The accumulative characteristics of the plant species for both heavy metal and PAHs were discussed. The simultaneous accumulation of heavy metal and PAHs in plant and soil was observed at all the investigated sites, although disparities in spatial distributions among sites occurred. Both plant and soil samples were characterized by high accumulation for heavy metal at smelting site, moderate enrichment at coke power and coal mining sites, whereas high level of PAHs (16 priority pollutants according to US Environmental Protection Agency) at coke power site, followed sequentially by coal mining and smelting sites. Based on the differences of heavy metal and PAH accumulation behaviors of the studied plant species, heavy metal and PAH accumulation strategies were suggested: Pteris vittata L. and Pteris cretica L. for As and PAHs, Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud for Pb, As, and PAHs, and Miscanthus floridulu (Labnll.) Warb for Cu and PAHs. These native plant species could be proposed as promising materials for heavy metal and PAHs combined pollution remediation.

  7. A systems engineering perspective on process integration in industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Grievink, Johan; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Biotechnology has many applications in health care, agriculture, industry and the environment. By using renewable raw materials, biotechnology contributes to lowering greenhouse gas emissions and moving away from a petro-based towards a circular sustainable economy. However, major developments are

  8. Logistics outsourcing by Taiwanese and Dutch food processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsin-I Hsiao, L.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate outsourcing of different types of logistics activities in Taiwanese food industry, and benchmark with practices in The Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach – The outsourcing of four levels of logistics activities is investigated: transportation (level 1),

  9. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  10. Chemical dehumidification and thermal regeneration: Applications in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Longo, G.A.; Piccininni, F.

    1991-11-01

    Chemical dehumidification may be used in industrial dessiccation treatments operating with new air or closed cycle. The authors suggest a few schemes and analyze operation parameters and performance. Finally, comparisons are made with the most efficient systems that have been used so far: energy savings are between 25 and 40 per cent.

  11. Investment Appraisal Process in the Banking & Finance Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied how the banking and finance industry performs investment appraisal, measures subsequent follow-up and designates project success or failure. Furthermore, the authors looked into the extent of use of the new generation value management models. The result shows that firms a

  12. Investment Appraisal Process in the Banking & Finance Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied how the banking and finance industry performs investment appraisal, measures subsequent follow-up and designates project success or failure. Furthermore, the authors looked into the extent of use of the new generation value management models. The result shows that firms

  13. Availability and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Controlling processes and comparison of testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskam, G.D. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    We have studied the availability and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two contaminated materials, a tar-containing asphalt granulate (R16 US-EPA PAHs 3412 mg/kg) and gasworks soil (RPAHs 900 mg/kg), by comparing results from three typical types of leaching tests: a column, sequential batch, and two different availability tests. The sequential batch test was found to largely resemble the column test. However, the leaching of particularly the larger PAHs (>5 aromatic rings) was found to be enhanced in the batch test by up to an order of magnitude, probably due to their association with large DOC (dissolved organic carbon) molecules generated by the vigorous mixing. The release of PAHs in the two availability tests, in which the leaching is facilitated by either a high concentration of DOC or Tenax resin, was similar, although the latter test was easier to perform and yielded more repeatable results. The availability was much higher than the amount leached in the column and sequential batch tests. However, biodegradation had apparently occurred in the column test and the total amount of PAHs released by either leaching or biodegradation, 9% and 26% for asphalt granulate and gasworks soil, respectively, did equal the amount leached in the availability tests. Therefore, the availability was found to provide a relevant measure of the PAH fraction that can be released from the solid phase. These results stress the importance of using the available instead of the total amount of contaminant in the risk analysis of solid materials in utilization or disposal.

  14. Availability and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Controlling processes and comparison of testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Gerlinde D; Comans, Rob N J

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the availability and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two contaminated materials, a tar-containing asphalt granulate (Sigma16 US-EPA PAHs 3412mg/kg) and gasworks soil (SigmaPAHs 900mg/kg), by comparing results from three typical types of leaching tests: a column, sequential batch, and two different availability tests. The sequential batch test was found to largely resemble the column test. However, the leaching of particularly the larger PAHs (>5 aromatic rings) was found to be enhanced in the batch test by up to an order of magnitude, probably due to their association with large DOC (dissolved organic carbon) molecules generated by the vigorous mixing. The release of PAHs in the two availability tests, in which the leaching is facilitated by either a high concentration of DOC or Tenax resin, was similar, although the latter test was easier to perform and yielded more repeatable results. The availability was much higher than the amount leached in the column and sequential batch tests. However, biodegradation had apparently occurred in the column test and the total amount of PAHs released by either leaching or biodegradation, 9% and 26% for asphalt granulate and gasworks soil, respectively, did equal the amount leached in the availability tests. Therefore, the availability was found to provide a relevant measure of the PAH fraction that can be released from the solid phase. These results stress the importance of using the available instead of the total amount of contaminant in the risk analysis of solid materials in utilization or disposal.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption process to the "black carbon" (BC) component in river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    The importance of BC for the long term sequestration of organic carbon is actually discussed for mitigating climate change. In this context, the role of BC as a filter or source of nutrients or toxic chemicals is questioned. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is especially concerned. In this study, we have investigated the binding of PAH compounds, pyrene and phenanthrene, to Yangtze River sediments. For this purpose, the PAHs sorption to pristine and preheated sediments at 375°C was studied, which allow discriminating the contributions of amorphous organic carbon (AOC) and black carbon (BC) fractions to the PAH sorption extent. An analytical procedure for the determination of PAHs in the solution phase of the batch experiments has been developed with fluorescence spectroscopy. The PAHs sorption isotherms to pristine sediments were fitted by Freundlich and composite models as linear Langmuir model (LLM) and linear Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model (LPDMM). The sequential application of composite models LLM and LPDMM to the sorption isotherms allows assessing the partition of PAHs into AOC and its nonlinear adsorption in the porous structure of BC. The modelling results indicate that the PAHs sorption to minor BC component of sediments (molecular sieving plays an important role in the competitive PAHs sorption in a multi-solute system. J. Zhang, Ph.D. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, Germany, 2010 J. Zhang et al., Effects of organic carbon and clay fractions on the pyrene sorption and distribution in Yangtze River sediments (submitted). J. Zhang et al., Pyrene and phenanthrene sorptions to Yangtze River sediments and their components in single and binary solute systems (submitted)

  16. Biorefinery cascade processing for creating added value on tomato industrial by-products from Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Kehili, Mouna; Schmidt, Lisa Marie; Reynolds, Wienke; Zammel, Ayachi; Zetzl, Carsten; Smirnova, Irina; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Background In today’s consumer perception of industrial processes and food production, aspects like food quality, human health, environmental safety, and energy security have become the keywords. Therefore, much effort has been extended toward adding value to biowastes of agri-food industries through biorefinery processing approaches. This study focused, for the first time, on the valorization of tomato by-products of a Tunisian industry for the recovery of value-added compounds using biorefi...

  17. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs to sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Castelao, Renato Menezes; Del Rosso, Clarissa; Fillmann, Gilberto; Zamboni, Ademilson Josemar

    2005-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, is an area of environmental interest not only because of tourism, but also because of the presence of the second major port of Brazil, with the related industrial and shipping activities. Thus, potential hydrocarbon pollution was examined in this study. Sediment samples were collected at 10 sites in the estuary, extracted, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS for composition and concentration of the following organic geochemical markers: normal and isoprenoid alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 1.1 to 129.6 microg g(-1) for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 17.8 to 4510.6 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 3.2 to 1601.9 ng g(-1) for LABs, and from 37.7 to 11,779.9 ng g(-1) for PAHs. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from planktonic inputs due to a usual development of blooms in the estuary. Terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at sites located far from Rio Grande City and subject to stronger currents. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons are related to combustion/pyrolysis processes of fossil fuel, release of unburned oil products and domestic/industrial waste outfalls. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage). The overall concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons revealed moderate to high hydrocarbon pollution in the study area.

  18. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  19. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  20. A review of the use of asset information standards for collaboration in the process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan; Klingenberg, Warse; van Exel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this article the use of asset information standards for collaboration in the process industry is reviewed based on a survey of the literature and two case studies. The investigation shows that the process industry appears to have had only limited success in introducing such standards so far, desp

  1. Impact of the industrial freezing process on selected vegetables -Part II. Colour and bioactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzeo, Teresa; Paciulli, Maria; Chiavaro, Emma; Visconti, Attilio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ganino, Tommaso; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of the different steps (i.e. blanching, freezing, storage following the industrial freezing process and the final cooking prior to consumption) of the industrial freezing process was evaluated on colour, chlorophylls, lutein, polyphenols and ascorbic acid content

  2. Impact of the industrial freezing process on selected vegetables -Part II. Colour and bioactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzeo, Teresa; Paciulli, Maria; Chiavaro, Emma; Visconti, Attilio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ganino, Tommaso; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of the different steps (i.e. blanching, freezing, storage following the industrial freezing process and the final cooking prior to consumption) of the industrial freezing process was evaluated on colour, chlorophylls, lutein, polyphenols and ascorbic acid content

  3. A review of the use of asset information standards for collaboration in the process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan; Klingenberg, Warse; van Exel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this article the use of asset information standards for collaboration in the process industry is reviewed based on a survey of the literature and two case studies. The investigation shows that the process industry appears to have had only limited success in introducing such standards so far,

  4. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  5. Sorption dehumidification and heat recovery: applications in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-09-01

    A new sorption dehumidification plant is proposed for industrial drying. It works with a LiBr-H[sub 2]O mixture and it recovers a large fraction of sensible and latent heat from the exhaust air. It gives an energy saving higher than 25% if compared with a conventional air drying plant equipped with a heat recovery system. A scheme operating in a closed loop is also considered. (author).

  6. Strategic marketing types: Evidence from the European meat processing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Strandskov, Jesper; Hundahl, Lone; Laursen, Christina

    1999-01-01

    Executive summary 1. The discovery of a small number of generic strategies or competitive positions that would work equally well across product-markets, businesses and industries, would be an extremely important finding for business practicians. In particular the question of whether or why performance might differ between firms pursuing any strategy type has a strong academic and practical business interest. There is still a need to explore the basic question of whether generic types of marke...

  7. Strategic marketing types: Evidence from the European meat processing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Strandskov, Jesper; Hundahl, Lone; Laursen, Christina

    1999-01-01

    Executive summary 1. The discovery of a small number of generic strategies or competitive positions that would work equally well across product-markets, businesses and industries, would be an extremely important finding for business practicians. In particular the question of whether or why performance might differ between firms pursuing any strategy type has a strong academic and practical business interest. There is still a need to explore the basic question of whether generic types of mark ...

  8. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam). [NASA/industry relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Forty additional statements were added to the list of 150 problem/opportunity statements identifying possibilities for transfer of NASA technology to various manufacturing industries. Selected statements that are considered to have a high potential for transfer in the 1978 program year are presented in the form of goals and milestones. The transfer of a flux used in the stud welding of aluminum is reported. Candidate RTOP programs are identified.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATE PROVIDING WITH MANAGERIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri, A. H. Mahvi, M. Younesian, R. Nabizadeh, I. Hashemi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available At this study, an environmental impact assessment establishment of Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulted from establishment of the industrial estate were investigated, using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the environmental harmful impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done regarding to the amount and kind of predicted pollutions for industrial estate at the construction and operational phases. The environmental impact assessment of the investigated estate was studied at the three terms of immediate, direct and indirect impacts at the short, medium and long term. By expanding of Leopold Matrix to four parted matrix, in addition to amount, importance and extend of the impacts, the remaining duration of impact in the environment were assessed as a separate factor in environmental impact assessment. The results of the study with two alternatives, such as; No (performance of the project with no concern for environmental issue and as yes (performance of the project with application of the environmental harmful impacts were studied in construction and operation phases. The impact assessment of "NO" property resulted (-1065, therefore the execution of project was rejected, but after reducing the harmful impact performance which were resulted (+1095 has been accepted. Therefore, method of reducing harmful environmental impacts along with environmental management programs introduced and accepted in this study.

  10. «Security» in industrial frying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochhar, S. R.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available . It is well known that equipment design features can have a profound effect on the working life of a frying oil, and consequently on secure/safe operation of the industrial deep-frying at high temperatures. The design aspects of the cooker should eliminate known factors of heat degradation/oxidation in the frying oil while maintaining outputs of products of consistent quality. For instance, the pro-oxidant catalyst copper or brass valves/fittings must not be employed. Continuous removal of debris/sediment and the maintenance of uniform oil temperatures leads to the development of FFAs at a lower rate, better taste, colour and appearance of the product. Security thermostats are fitted to each heating element in many modern, small-scale catering fryers. These are designed to trip out if the primary thermostat fails to function. Also the current isolation switch cuts off the electrical supply if the element head is not placed correctly in the fryer. In both catering and industrial frying operations, smoke haze can be a problem. The volatile break-down products such as FFAs, etc. formed in the oil being heated at high temperatures give rise to smoke, which if not controlled can enhance fire hazards due to their lower flash point. The smoke point is of most benefit in assessing the quality of a frying oil, since it is mainly the FFAs produced in the frying operation which contribute to the smoke haze. Commercial frying oils as well as the entire frying installation including cooker design, must meet strict quality and safety requirements. These features become extremely important, especially in the industrial flash frying operation when the frying oil is heated to a higher temperature of 200°G. High oil quality and high smoke/flash point frying oils are essential characteristics of the flash frying operation. These days, two important features namely carbon dioxide blanketing system and a waste air cleaning system have become standard design items

  11. Bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil--effect of poultry droppings and natural rubber processing sludge application on biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okieimen, C O; Okieimen, F E

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory bioremediation experiments were carried out on crude oil-polluted soil samples by applying various amounts of poultry droppings and natural rubber processing sludge as nutrient supplements at 29 degrees and using slurry-phase and solid-phase biodegradation techniques. Changes in the total hydrocarbon content of the soil were determined using a spectrophotometric technique as a function of time. It was found that the extent of crude oil degradation in untreated soil samples was markedly lower (by up to 100%) than in the soil samples treated with nutrient supplements. Hydrocarbon degradation efficiency was higher in the slurry-phase than in the soil-phase technique.

  12. Water in the Mendoza, Argentina, food processing industry: water requirements and reuse potential of industrial effluents in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Elena Duek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the volume of water used by the Mendoza food processing industry considering different water efficiency scenarios. The potential for using food processing industry effluents for irrigation is also assessed. The methodology relies upon information collected from interviews with qualified informants from different organizations and food-processing plants in Mendoza selected from a targeted sample. Scenarios were developed using local and international secondary information sources. The results show that food processing plants in Mendoza use 19.65 hm3 of water per year; efficient water management practices would make it possible to reduce water use by 64%, i.e., to 7.11 hm3. At present, 70% of the water is used by the fruit and vegetable processing industry, 16% by wineries, 8% by mineral water bottling plants, and the remaining 6% by olive oil, beer and soft drink plants. The volume of effluents from the food processing plants in Mendoza has been estimated at 16.27 hm3 per year. Despite the seasonal variations of these effluents, and the high sodium concentration and electrical conductivity of some of them, it is possible to use them for irrigation purposes. However, because of these variables and their environmental impact, land treatment is required.

  13. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  14. Fundamentals of Alloy Solidification Applied to Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Solidification processes and phenomena, segregation, porosity, gravity effects, fluid flow, undercooling, as well as processing of materials in the microgravity environment of space, now available on space shuttle flights were discussed.

  15. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2004-08-01

    To improve phytoremediation processes, multiple techniques that comprise different aspects of contaminant removal from soils have been combined. Using creosote as a test contaminant, a multi-process phytoremediation system composed of physical (volatilization), photochemical (photooxidation) and microbial remediation, and phytoremediation (plant-assisted remediation) processes was developed. The techniques applied to realize these processes were land-farming (aeration and light exposure), introduction of contaminant degrading bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), and plant growth of contaminant-tolerant tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Over a 4-month period, the average efficiency of removal of 16 priority PAHs by the multi-process remediation system was twice that of land-farming, 50% more than bioremediation alone, and 45% more than phytoremediation by itself. Importantly, the multi-process system was capable of removing most of the highly hydrophobic, soil-bound PAHs from soil. The key elements for successful phytoremediation were the use of plant species that have the ability to proliferate in the presence of high levels of contaminants and strains of PGPR that increase plant tolerance to contaminants and accelerate plant growth in heavily contaminated soils. The synergistic use of these approaches resulted in rapid and massive biomass accumulation of plant tissue in contaminated soil, putatively providing more active metabolic processes, leading to more rapid and more complete removal of PAHs. - Persistent PAH contaminants in soils can be removed more completely and rapidly by using multiple remediation processes.

  16. Standardization of Information Systems Development Processes and Banking Industry Adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna Ozcer; Zuhal Tanrikulu

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall l...

  17. Development of Integrated Production Scheduling System in the Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a three-level hierarchical production planning and scheduling approach developed and implemented in a resin factory. Our approach proposes at the first level a mixed-integer linear programming for solving the aggregate planning model. At the second level, a weighted-integer goal-programming model is developed to disaggregate the developed aggregate plans. A sequencing algorithm is developed for the third level that tends to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Real industrial data is used to test and validate the proposed models.

  18. Photovoltaic industry process from 1980 to mid 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    The objective of this report is to describe PV insustry developments in 1985 and present forecasts for 1986. Information is presented on a regional basis (United States, Europe, Japan, other) to avoid disclosing company confidential data. Information was gleaned from several sources, including a review of technical literature and direct contacts with many PV manufacturers. prior to publishing the regional totals, all numbers were compared with those from other sources published in the United States and those supplied by Japanese industry through their solar energy organization.

  19. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  20. Exchange Rate Exposure Management: The Benchmarking Process of Industrial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    Based on a cross-case study of Danish industrial companies the paper analyzes the benchmarking of the optimal hedging strategy. A stock market approach is pursued but a serious question mark is put on the validity of the obtained information seen from a corporate value-adding point of view....... The conducted interviews show that empirical reasons behind actual hedging strategies vary considerably - some in accordance with mainstream finance theory, some resting on asymmetric information. The diversity of attitudes seems to be partly a result of different competitive environments, partly a result...

  1. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  2. Model-based process management and process optimisation of industrial steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, Wolfgang; Hampel, Rainer; Foerster, Tom; Freund, Matthias [Univ. of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). IPM; Haake, Dietmar; Kanisch, Heiko [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany); Altmann, Ulrich-Steffen; Mueller, Frank [CombTec GmbH, Zittau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of a joint project sponsored by BMBF the development of algorithms for the optimal process management of industrial steam generators was carried out. The research work was focussed on the reduction of high-temperature corrosion at the membrane walls of lignite-fired steam generators. In the result a system for demonstration of technology was installed successfully in a Vattenfall power plant in 2009. During the operation of the power plant the capability of the system to guarantee a stable and symmetric fire position was demonstrated. Current work is focussed on the further development and retrofitting of the system to apply it under real condition in a Vattenfall power plant. (orig.)

  3. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  4. Fundamental Theories and Key Technologies for Smart and Optimal Manufacturing in the Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the significant requirements for transforming and promoting the process industry, we present the major limitations of current petrochemical enterprises, including limitations in decision-making, production operation, efficiency and security, information integration, and so forth. To promote a vision of the process industry with efficient, green, and smart production, modern information technology should be utilized throughout the entire optimization process for production, management, and marketing. To focus on smart equipment in manufacturing processes, as well as on the adaptive intelligent optimization of the manufacturing process, operating mode, and supply chain management, we put forward several key scientific problems in engineering in a demand-driven and application-oriented manner, namely: ① intelligent sensing and integration of all process information, including production and management information; ② collaborative decision-making in the supply chain, industry chain, and value chain, driven by knowledge; ③ cooperative control and optimization of plant-wide production processes via human-cyber-physical interaction; and ④ life-cycle assessments for safety and environmental footprint monitoring, in addition to tracing analysis and risk control. In order to solve these limitations and core scientific problems, we further present fundamental theories and key technologies for smart and optimal manufacturing in the process industry. Although this paper discusses the process industry in China, the conclusions in this paper can be extended to the process industry around the world.

  5. Use of adsorption process to remove organic mercury thimerosal from industrial process wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicu, Magdalena; Fu, Hongxiang; Suri, Rominder P S; Woods, Kevin

    2007-09-30

    Carbon adsorption process is tested for removal of high concentration of organic mercury (thimerosal) from industrial process wastewater, in batch and continuously flow through column systems. The organic mercury concentration in the process wastewater is about 1123 mg/L due to the thimerosal compound. Four commercially available adsorbents are tested for mercury removal and they are: Calgon F-400 granular activated carbon (GAC), CB II GAC, Mersorb GAC and an ion-exchange resin Amberlite GT73. The adsorption capacity of each adsorbent is described by the Freundlich isotherm model at pH 3.0, 9.5 and 11.0 in batch isotherm experiments. Acidic pH was favorable for thimerosal adsorption onto the GACs. Columns-in-series experiments are conducted with 30-180 min empty bed contact times (EBCTs). Mercury breakthrough of 30 mg/L occurred after about 47 h (96 Bed Volume Fed (BVF)) of operation, and 97 h (197 BVF) with 120 min EBCT and 180 min EBCT, respectively. Most of the mercury removal is attributed to the 1st adsorbent column. Increase in contact time by additional adsorbent columns did not lower the effluent mercury concentration below 30 mg/L. However, at a lower influent wastewater pH 3, the mercury effluent concentration decreased to less than 7 mg/L for up to 90 h of column operation (183 BVF).

  6. Photo-reduction of CO{sub 2} into gaseous hydrocarbon through photocatalytic process. Paper no. IGEC-1-009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, S.S.; Zou, L.; Hu, E. [Deakin Univ., School of Engineering and Technology (Australia)]. E-mail: erichu@deakin.edu.au

    2005-07-01

    The present concern of the global warming has made the photoreduction of CO{sub 2} under the artificial conditions of vital interest. It has been established that CO{sub 2} could be transformed into hydrocarbons when it is in contact with water and catalysts (eg. titanium oxides) under the UV irradiation. However, the current efficiency of the artificial photoreduction of CO{sub 2} process is still quite low. This paper presents a new approach of heterogeneous photocatalysis involving gas-solid interfaces using titanium oxides pellets instead of immobilized photocatalysts on solid substrates. In this study, the CO{sub 2} mixed with H{sub 2}O vapour in saturation state was discharged into a quartz tube reactor composed of the UVC lamp illuminated for 48 hrs continuously. The reformed species collected were identified by gas chromatography. The results showed fairly good yield as compared with process using thin-film technique. The pellet form of catalyst was confirmed to be feasible and attractive for use in further investigation of CO{sub 2} reforming. (author)

  7. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols from coking wastewater by simultaneously synthesized organobentonite in a one-step process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua Wu; Lizhong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The optimal condition for a one-step process removing organic compounds from coiking wastewater by simultaneously synthesized organobentonite as a pretreatment was investigated.Results showed that sorption of organic compounds by organobentonite was positively correlated to the cation surfactant exchange on the bentonite and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of the solutes.With 0.75 g/L bentonite and 180 mg/L (60% of bentonite cation exchange capacity) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide,the removal efficiencies of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency in coking waste0water except naphthalene were more than 90%,and that of benzo(a)pyrene was 99.5%.At the same time,the removal efficiencies of CODCr,NH3-N,volatile phenols,colour and turbidity were 28.6%,13.2%,8.9%,55% and 84.3%,respectively,and the ratio of BOD5/CODcr increased from 0.31 to 0.41.These results indicated that the one-step process had high removal efficiency for toxic and refractory hydrophobic organic compounds,and could improve the biodegradability of the coking wastewater.Therefore it could be a promising technology for the pretreatment of toxic and refractory organic wastewater.

  8. Industrial processes and process-control - 2005 research programme; Industrielle und verfahrenstechnische Prozesse VTP. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettler, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a concise overview of research and development projects for the year 2005. Projects are listed in the areas process-integration / process optimisation, improving complex production processes and more efficient drying processes. Projects briefly described include modelling and optimisation of energy consumption in multi-purpose batch plants, energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry, energetic process integration in greenhouses, improving energy efficiency in the manufacture of bricks, improving efficiency in drying plant, solvent recycling in the chemical industry and eco-inventories of petrochemical solvents. National and international co-operation is discussed.

  9. Effects of different compost amendments on the abundance and composition of alkB harboring bacterial communities in a soil under industrial use contaminated with hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallisch, Stefanie; Gril, Tjasa; Dong, Xia; Welzl, Gerd; Bruns, Christian; Heath, Ester; Engel, Marion; Suhadolc, Marjetka; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alkane degrading microorganisms play an important role for the bioremediation of petrogenic contaminated environments. In this study, we investigated the effects of compost addition on the abundance and diversity of bacteria harboring the alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB) in an oil-contaminated soil originated from an industrial zone in Celje, Slovenia (Technosol). Soil without any amendments (control soil) and soil amended with two composts differing in their maturation stage and nutrient availability, were incubated under controlled conditions in a microcosm experiment and sampled after 0, 6, 12, and 36 weeks of incubation. As expected the addition of compost stimulated the degradation of alkanes in the investigated soil shortly after the addition. By using quantitative real-time PCR higher number of alkB genes were detected in soil samples amended with compost compared to the control soils. To get an insight into the composition of alkB harboring microbial communities, we performed next generation sequencing of amplicons of alkB gene fragment. Richness and diversity of alkB gene harboring prokaryotes was higher in soil mixed with compost compared to control soils with stronger effects of the less maturated, nutrient poor compost. The phylogenetic analysis of communities suggested that the addition of compost stimulated the abundance of alkB harboring Actinobacteria during the experiment independent from the maturation stage of the compost. AlkB harboring γ-proteobacteria like Shewanella or Hydrocarboniphaga as well as α-proteobacteria of the genus Agrobacterium responded also positively to the addition of compost to soil. The amendment of the less maturated, nutrient poor compost resulted in addition in a large increase of alkB harboring bacteria of the Cytophaga group (Microscilla) mainly at the early sampling time points. Our data indicates that compost amendments significantly change abundance and diversity pattern of alkB harboring microbes in Technosol and

  10. Environmental impacts assessment of industrial estate providing with managerial process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A.H.; Younesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Hashemi, I. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran)

    2007-07-01

    The existence of balance, coordination and required order among natural elements is one of the key factors in the ecosystem. If this balance is disturbed under certain circumstances, it will damage the structure of living existences and more specifically human beings. Since a half century ago, factors such as important economical and industrial activites, advanced technologies together with growing population and lack of concordance among different couhntries to take optimal advantage of the existing natural resources have distrubed the balance in the ecosystem. As a result, man has caused many problems such as high death tolls and arduous diseases due to the different pollutions in water, air, land, sound, temperature, etc and factors such as erosion, desert, expansion, floods, extinction of plant and animal species, ozone layer destruction, global warming, sea level rise and greenhouse gases increase. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is to recognize and assess systematic consequences of projects and programs on elements like physicochemical, biological, cultural, economical and social phenomena in th environment; in other words it is a way or method to determine the direction of predication and assessment of environmental impacts of activities on the environmental health of the ecosystem affecting human lives. In this study, and environmental impact assessment of the establishment of the Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulting from establishment of the indutrial estate were investigated using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the harmful environmental impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done in regard to the amount and kind of predicted pollution for the

  11. Cleanup of metals and hydrocarbons contaminated soils using the ChemTech process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.; Yan, V.; Lim, S. [Klohn-Crippen Consultants Ltd., Richmond, BC (Canada)

    1997-10-01

    The ChemTech soil treatment process, an on-site ex-situ system, comprised of a three-phase fluidized bed to scour, emulsify and chemically leach soil contaminants into a process water, was described. The cleaned soils are then removed from the process circuit by means of a hydrodynamic classifier. At this point they are suitable for return to the excavation site. The process was demonstrated on a pilot scale in January 1997 by Klohn-Crippen Consultants at a demonstration program of emerging and innovative technologies sponsored by the Bay Area Defence Conversion Action Team (BADCAT), to assist with the remediation of twelve closing military bases in the San Francisco area. The ChemTest demonstration involved the removal of copper, chromium, lead and zinc from the Hunter Point Naval Reserve, plus treatability tests on a number of other contaminated soil samples. The ChemTech process was selected by federal and state regulatory agencies from 21 proposed technologies on the basis of performance, effectiveness, low cost, and absence of secondary environmental impacts. This paper provides details of the demonstration program, addresses the applicability of the technology to other sites, and provides cost estimates of unit cleanup costs. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Business relationship digitalization:a case study from the steel processing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, J. (Jarmo)

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Although research into the digitalization of business has grown in recent years, the focus has predominantly been on the impacts of digitalization on business in general, and not on the business relationship digitalization process. In this dissertation, the author addresses how digitalization affects business relationships and provides an illustration of the process of business relationships digitalization in the steel processing industry context. Drawing from the Industrial Marke...

  13. A Critical Review on Processes and Energy Profile of the Australian Meat Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Hamawand

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article addresses wastewater treatment methods in the red meat processing industry. The focus is on conventional chemicals currently in use for abattoir wastewater treatment and energy related aspects. In addition, this article discusses the use of cleaning and sanitizing agents at the meat processing facilities and their effect on decision making in regard to selecting the treatment methods. This study shows that cleaning chemicals are currently used at a concentration of 2% to 3% which will further be diluted with the bulk wastewater. For example, for an abattoir that produces 3500 m3/day wastewater and uses around 200 L (3% acid and alkaline chemicals, the final concentration of these chemical will be around 0.00017%. For this reason, the effects of these chemicals on the treatment method and the environment are very limited. Chemical treatment is highly efficient in removing soluble and colloidal particles from the red meat processing industry wastewater. Actually, it is shown that, if chemical treatment has been applied, then biological treatment can only be included for the treatment of the solid waste by-product and/or for production of bioenergy. Chemical treatment is recommended in all cases and especially when the wastewater is required to be reused or released to water streams. This study also shows that energy consumption for chemical treatment units is insignificant while efficient compared to other physical or biological units. A combination of a main (ferric chloride and an aid coagulant has shown to be efficient and cost-effective in treating abattoir wastewater. The cost of using this combination per cubic meter wastewater treated is 0.055 USD/m3 compared to 0.11 USD/m3 for alum and the amount of sludge produced is 77% less than that produced by alum. In addition, the residues of these chemicals in the wastewater and the sludge have a positive or no impact on biological processes. Energy consumption from a small

  14. Collision processes of hydrocarbon species in hydrogen plasmas. Pt. 3. The Silane-family

    CERN Document Server

    Janev, R K

    2003-01-01

    Cross sections are provided for most important collision processes of the Silicon-Hydrides from the ''Silane-family'': SiH sub y (y = 1 - 4) molecules and their ions SiH sub y sup + , with (plasma) electrons and protons. The processes include: electron impact ionization and dissociation of SiH sub y , dissociative excitation, ionization and recombination of SiH sub y sup + ions with electrons, and charge - and atom - exchange in proton collisions with SiH sub y. All important channels of dissociative processes are considered. Information is also provided on the energetics (reactants/products energy loss / gain) of each individual reaction channel. Total and partial cross sections are presented in compact analytic forms. The critical assessment of data, derivation of new data and presentation of results follow closely the concepts of the recently published related databases for Carbon-Hydrides, namely for the Methane family, and for the Ethane- and the Propane families, respectively.

  15. Processing of tailings in Canadian oil sands industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Vast amounts of tailings are produced daily in bitumen extraction from the Athabasca oil sands. The coarse sand from the tailings stream is used to build dykes around the containment basin. The run-off slurry arrives at the water's edge in the tailings pond at a solids concentration of about 3%~8% by mass. Settling of the solids takes place "relatively fast", over several days, creating a "free water zone" that contains little solids. When the fine mineral solids concentration has reached about 15% by mass, the suspension develops non-Newtonian properties. After 2~3 years, the suspension concentration reaches a value of about 30% by mass at which the settling rate becomes extremely slow. Methods to handle the already created tailings ponds and new approaches to eliminate the creation of new ones will be discussed both from the industrial and fundamental prospective.

  16. Process Integration in the Danish Food Industry. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Qvale

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper describes the results from a case study in the Danish medium-size industry. A heat-recovery system, producing 120 m3 of hot water per working day, has been constructed and has been in operation since the beginning of the year 2000.

    In this study, simplified procedures and networks for heat recovery were combined with economic evaluations based on suppliers’ offers and the marginal values of the investments. By logical procedures described in an earlier paper, the problem was reduced to the design and optimisation of a network for production of hot water. A short description of the basic ideas is given in the Appendix.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS'00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000

  17. IT Support for Release Management Processes in the Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, D.; Herbst, J.; Hammori, M.; Reichert, M.U.; Dustdar, S.; Fiadeiro, J.L.; Sheth, A.

    2006-01-01

    Car development is based on long running, concurrently executed and highly dependent processes. The coordination and synchronization of these processes has become a complex and error-prone task due to the increasing number of functions and embedded systems in modern cars. These systems realize

  18. IT Support for Release Management Processes in the Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, D.; Herbst, J.; Hammori, M.; Reichert, M.U.; Dustdar, S.; Fiadeiro, J.L.; Sheth, A.

    2006-01-01

    Car development is based on long running, concurrently executed and highly dependent processes. The coordination and synchronization of these processes has become a complex and error-prone task due to the increasing number of functions and embedded systems in modern cars. These systems realize advan

  19. Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanrikulu, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

  20. Pre-Industry-Optimisation of the Laser Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui

    This dissertation documents the investigations into on-line monitoring the CO2 laser welding process and optimising the process parameters for achieving high quality welds. The requirements for realisation of an on-line control system are, first of all, a clear understanding of the dynamic...... phenomena of the laser welding process including the behaviour of the keyhole and plume, and the correlation between the adjustable process parameters: laser power, welding speed, focal point position, gas parameters etc. and the characteristics describing the quality of the weld: seam depth and width......, porosity etc. Secondly, a reliable monitoring system for sensing the laser-induced plasma and plume emission and detecting weld defects and process parameter deviations from the optimum conditions. Finally, an efficient control system with a fast signal processor and a precise feed-back controller...

  1. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS VALIDATION OF SOLID ORAL DASAGE FORM: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation is the important step in gaining and maintaining the quality of the final product. Validation of the individual steps of the processes is called the process validation. Different dosage forms have different validation protocols. Validation is therefore is one element of quality assurance programs and is associated with a particular process therefore word validation simply means “assessment of validity” or action of proving effectiveness. Validation thus provides a higher degree of assurance that the manufacturing process consistently meets the pre-determined specifications and the quality products output can be used to increase productivity, its consistent quality and decreasing the need for processing and market complaints of the drug product. This overview examines the need for pharmaceutical validation, the various approaches and steps involved.

  2. BACTERIAL POPULATION DYNAMICS IN WASTE OILY EMULSIONS FROM THE METAL-PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kaszycki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil-containing wastewaters are regarded as main industrial pollutants of soil and water environments. They can occur as free-floating oil, unstable or stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions, and in the case of extreme organic load, as water-in-oil (W/O emulsions. In this study two types of oily effluents, a typical O/W emulsion marked as E1 and a W/O emulsion E2, both discharged by local metal processing plants were examined to test their toxicity to microbial communities and the ability to serve as nutrient sources for bacterial growth. The organic contaminant load of the samples was evaluated on the basis of chemical oxygen demand (COD parameter values and was equal to 48 200 mg O2·dm-3 and >300 000 mg O2·dm-3 for E1 and E2, respectively.Both emulsions proved to be non toxic to bacterial communities and were shown to contain biodiverse autochthonous microflora consisting of several bacterial strains adapted to the presence of xenobiotics (the total of 1.36 · 106 CFU·cm-3 and 1.72 · 105 CFU·cm-3 was determined for E1 and E2, respectively. These indigenous bacteria as well as exogenously inoculated specialized allochthonous microorganisms were biostimulated so as to proliferate within the wastewater environment whose organic content served as the only source of carbon. The most favorable cultivation conditions were determined as fully aerobic growth at the temperature of 25 ºC. In 9 to 18 day-tests, autochthonous as well as bioaugmented allochthonous bacterial population dynamics were monitored. For both emulsions tested there was a dramatic increase (up to three orders of magnitude in bacterial frequency, as compared to the respective initial values. The resultant high biomass densities suggest that the effluents are susceptible to bioremediation. A preliminary xenobiotic biodegradation test confirmed that mixed auto- and allochthonous bacterial consortia obtained upon inoculation of the samples with microbiocenoses preselected for efficient

  3. Functional genes to assess nitrogen cycling and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: primers and processing matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ryan Penton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Targeting sequencing to genes involved in key environmental processes, i.e. ecofunctional genes, provides an opportunity to sample nature’s gene guilds to greater depth and help link community structure to process-level outcomes. Vastly different approaches have been implemented for sequence processing and, ultimately, for taxonomic placement of these gene reads. The overall quality of next generation sequence analysis of functional genes is dependent on multiple steps and assumptions of unknown diversity. To illustrate current issues surrounding amplicon read processing we provide examples for three ecofunctional gene groups. A combination of in-silico, environmental and cultured strain sequences was used to test new primers targeting the dioxin and dibenzofuran degrading genes dxnA1, dbfA1, and carAa. The majority of obtained environmental sequences were classified into novel sequence clusters, illustrating the discovery value of the approach. For the nitrite reductase step in denitrification, the well-known nirK primers exhibited deficiencies in reference database coverage, illustrating the need to refine primer-binding sites and/or to design multiple primers, while nirS primers exhibited bias against five phyla. Amino acid-based OTU clustering of these two N-cycle genes from soil samples yielded only 114 unique nirK and 45 unique nirS genus-level groupings, likely a reflection of constricted primer coverage. Finally, supervised and non-supervised OTU analysis methods were compared using the nifH gene of nitrogen fixation, with generally similar outcomes, but the clustering (non-supervised method yielded higher diversity estimates and stronger site-based differences. High throughput amplicon sequencing can provide inexpensive and rapid access to nature’s related sequences by circumventing the culturing barrier, but each unique gene requires individual considerations in terms of primer design and sequence processing and classification.

  4. Mechanization, the labor process, and injury risks in the Canadian meat packing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novek, J; Yassi, A; Spiegel, J

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, Canada's major manufacturing industries experienced considerable financial restructuring and technological transformation, largely in response to recessionary pressures. At the same time, the rate of lost-time injuries in Canadian manufacturing rose steadily. This article explores the relationship between these sets of factors. The meat packing industry has been selected as a case study of the interaction between industrial organization, the labor process, and the risk of workplace injuries. The authors suggest that the following factors have contributed to high and rising injury rates in the meat industry during the 1980s: consolidation into a smaller number of large, highly specialized, and mechanized plants; deteriorating labor relations in the face of falling profits; and an intensified labor process stressing line speedups and a growing risk of repetitive strain injuries. These observations are supported by a detailed analysis of the relationship between the labor process and workplace injuries at one packing plant considered typical for the industry.

  5. Improving Logistics Processes in Industry Using Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jánošík, Ján; Tanuška, Pavol; Václavová, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the concept of a system that takes advantage of web technologies and integrates them into the management process and management of internal stocks which may relate to external applications and creates the conditions to transform a Computerized Control of Warehouse Stock (CCWS) in the company. The importance of implementing CCWS is in the elimination of the claims caused by the human factor, as well as to allow the processing of information for analytical purposes and their subsequent use to improve internal processes. Using CCWS in the company would also facilitate better use of the potential tools Business Intelligence and Data Mining.

  6. Improving Logistics Processes in Industry Using Web Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jánošík Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose the concept of a system that takes advantage of web technologies and integrates them into the management process and management of internal stocks which may relate to external applications and creates the conditions to transform a Computerized Control of Warehouse Stock (CCWS in the company. The importance of implementing CCWS is in the elimination of the claims caused by the human factor, as well as to allow the processing of information for analytical purposes and their subsequent use to improve internal processes. Using CCWS in the company would also facilitate better use of the potential tools Business Intelligence and Data Mining.

  7. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  8. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  9. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; R. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala

    2003-02-14

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  10. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2006-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions is being conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute is partially supporting the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provides onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. During the course of this project, MTR has sold 13 commercial units related to the field test technology, and by the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for broader commercialization. A route to commercialization has been developed during this project and involves collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  11. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2004-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  12. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-30

    The objective of this project was to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions was conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute partially supported the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. During the course of this project, MTR has sold thirteen commercial units related to the field test technology. Revenue generated from new business is already more than four times the research dollars invested in this process by DOE. The process is ready for broader commercialization and the expectation is to pursue the commercialization plans developed during this project, including collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  13. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; K. A. Lokhandwala

    2005-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions is being conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute is partially supporting the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provided onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dewpoint and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. During the course of this project, MTR has sold 11 commercial units related to the field test technology, and by the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for broader commercialization. A route to commercialization has been developed during this project and involves collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  14. Fundamental research in the chemistry of industrial oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    The causes of low oil recovery from formations and physiochemical methods for increasing oil recovery are analyzed. A survey of results from research in this field at the chemical institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR is given. The primary concepts of interformation combustion are examined together with the possibilities for using this method to control the combustion processes and enhance oil recovery as well as to optimize combustion processes.

  15. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS VALIDATION OF TABLET DOSAGE FORM: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Surbhi; Saini Seema; Singh Gurpreet; Rana A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In pharmaceutical organizations, validation is a fundamental segment that supports a company commitment to quality assurance. Validation is a tool of quality assurance which provides confirmation of the quality in equipment systems, manufacturing processes, software and testing methods. Validation assures that products with pre-determined quality characteristics and attributes can be reproduced consistently/reproducibly within the established limits of the manufacturing process operation at t...

  16. How integrating industrial design in the product development process impacts on company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G; Leenders, MAAM

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing belief that investing in industrial design is beneficial to company performance. This article sheds more light on how and when integrating industrial design in the product development process can enhance a company's competitive position. The basic premise is that the impact of ind

  17. Leap-Forward Development of China’s Copper Processing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>In 2011, China’s copper processing industry bid farewell to the 11th Five-Year Plan Period and came to the 12th Five-Year Plan Period. The past 5 years was a short period for development of an industry, however, it was in this

  18. Chenzhou Dedicated to Create Intensive Processing Base in Global Nonferrous Metals Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Recently,Chenzhou government studied and unveiled the"Opinions on Vigorously Building Chenzhou into Hunan’s New Growth Pole",proposing to build nonferrous metals industry into intensive processing base,service and trading center of the global nonferrous metals industry.

  19. Knowledge lost in data : Organizational impediments to condition-based maintenance in the process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Roland; Akkermans, Henk; Noorderhaven, Niels; Zijm, H.; Klumpp, M.; Clausen, U.; Ten Hompel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we report on a pilot study of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) in the process industries, such as the steelmaking- and chemical industries, and propose a diagnostic instrument for systematically analysing the challenges to the successful implementation and execution of a CBM program

  20. Lean planning in the semi-process industry, a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Arnout; Wijngaard, Jacob; van der Zee, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The lean approach is an idealizing improvement approach that has an enormous impact in the field of operations management. It started in the automotive industry and has since been widely applied in discrete manufacturing. However, extensions to the (semi-) process industry have been much slower. Res

  1. How integrating industrial design in the product development process impacts on company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G; Leenders, MAAM

    There is a growing belief that investing in industrial design is beneficial to company performance. This article sheds more light on how and when integrating industrial design in the product development process can enhance a company's competitive position. The basic premise is that the impact of

  2. Mechatronics in monitoring, simulation, and diagnostics of industrial and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Natalia; Dobosz, Marek; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kościelny, Jan M.; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Pałko, Tadeusz; Putz, Barbara; Sitnik, Robert; Wnuk, Paweł; Woźniak, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The paper describes a number of research projects of the Faculty of Mechatronics of Warsaw University of Technology in order to illustrate the use of common mechatronics and optomechatronics approach in solving multidisciplinary technical problems. Projects on sensors development, measurement and industrial control systems, multimodal data capture and advance systems for monitoring and diagnostics of industrial processes are presented and discussed.

  3. Modeling Parameters of Reliability of Technological Processes of Hydrocarbon Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalay Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of methods of system analysis and parametric reliability theory, the mathematical modeling of processes of oil and gas equipment operation in reliability monitoring was conducted according to dispatching data. To check the quality of empiric distribution coordination , an algorithm and mathematical methods of analysis are worked out in the on-line mode in a changing operating conditions. An analysis of physical cause-and-effect relations mechanism between the key factors and changing parameters of technical systems of oil and gas facilities is made, the basic types of technical distribution parameters are defined. Evaluation of the adequacy the analyzed parameters of the type of distribution is provided by using a criterion A.Kolmogorov, as the most universal, accurate and adequate to verify the distribution of continuous processes of complex multiple-technical systems. Methods of calculation are provided for supervising by independent bodies for risk assessment and safety facilities.

  4. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, A. V., E-mail: ponomarev@ipc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Pershukov, V. A. [ROSATOM National Nuclear Corporation (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V. P. [CJSC “Nauka i Innovatsii” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  5. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions.

  6. Study of the Radical Chain Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Oxidation for In Situ Combustion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ushakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of in situ combustion models of oil oxidation, many of the effects are still beyond consideration. For example, until now, initial stages of oxidation were not considered from a position of radical chain process. This is a serious difficulty for the simulation of oil recovery process that involves air injection. To investigate the initial stages of oxidation, the paper considers the sequence of chemical reactions, including intermediate short-living compounds and radicals. We have attempted to correlate the main stages of the reaction with areas of heat release observed in the experiments. The system of differential equations based on the equations of oxidation reactions was solved. Time dependence of peroxides formation and start of heat release is analytically derived for the initial stages. We have considered the inhibition of initial oxidation stages by aromatic oil compounds and have studied the induction time in dependence on temperature. Chain ignition criteria for paraffins and crude oil in presence of core samples were obtained. The calculation results are compared with the stages of oxidation that arise by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry. According to experimental observations we have determined which reactions are important for the process and which can be omitted or combined into one as insignificant.

  7. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  8. Green biocides, a promising technology: current and future applications to industry and industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Ullah, Saleem; Ahmad, Irshad; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Balkhair, Khaled S; Abdur Rehman, Muhammad

    2014-02-01

    The study of biofilms has skyrocketed in recent years due to increased awareness of the pervasiveness and impact of biofilms. It costs the USA literally billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. But biofilms also offer huge potential for cleaning up hazardous waste sites, filtering municipal and industrial water and wastewater, and forming biobarriers to protect soil and groundwater from contamination. The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of emerging novel antimicrobial techniques, including those using myriad organic and inorganic products as well as genetic engineering techniques, the use of coordination complex molecules, composite materials and antimicrobial peptides and the use of lasers as such or their modified use in combination treatments. This review also addresses advanced and recent modifications, including methodological changes, and biocide efficacy enhancing strategies. This review will provide future planners of biofilm control technologies with a broad understanding and perspective on the use of biocides in the field of green developments for a sustainable future.

  9. Energy characterisation of ultrasonic systems for industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Raed A; Yusaf, Talal; Bowtell, Leslie; Aravinthan, Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Obtaining accurate power characteristics of ultrasonic treatment systems is an important step towards their industrial scalability. Calorimetric measurements are most commonly used for quantifying the dissipated ultrasonic power. However, accuracy of these measurements is affected by various heat losses, especially when working at high power densities. In this work, electrical power measurements were conducted at all locations in the piezoelectric ultrasonic system equipped with ½″ and ¾″ probes. A set of heat transfer calculations were developed to estimate the convection heat losses from the reaction solution. Chemical dosimeters represented by the oxidation of potassium iodide, Fricke solution and 4-nitrophenol were used to chemically correlate the effect of various electrical amplitudes and treatment regimes. This allowed estimation of sonochemical-efficiency (SE) and energy conversion (XUS) of the ultrasonic system. Results of this study showed overall conversion efficiencies of 60-70%. This correlated well with the chemical dosimeter yield curves of both organic and inorganic aqueous solutions. All dosimeters showed bubble shielding and coalescence effects at higher ultrasonic power levels, less pronounced for the ½″ probe case. SE and XUS values in the range of 10(-10) mol/J and 10(-3) J/J respectively confirmed that conversion of ultrasonic power to chemical yield declined with amplitude.

  10. Miniaturized FT-IR spectrometer for industrial process measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrala, Esko; Niemela, Pentti; Hannula, Tapio

    1990-08-01

    There have been made some attempts to transfer the advantages of FT-JR to industrial use. Commercially available research grade instruments have been large and rather expensive. However in many potential applications only medium resolution is required which means that the mirror displacement in a Michelson type interferometer remains short and computation of the Fourier transform can be executed by a small computer. Medium resolution gives also other advantages in spectrometer design simple source and detector optics less severe requirements for mirror transport and small size. We have used a Michelson type interferometer where the moving mirror is suspended by two flexures and driven by a coil actuator. Displacement of the mirror is monitored using moire transducer which is much smaller and has better thermal stability than the conventionally used HeNe laser. The beamsplitter is a standard CaF2/Si and a thermoelectrically cooled PbSe is used as the detector. In the present prototype data is transferred via parallel bus to a PC/AT compatible computer where the necessary mathematics is done. The spectral range is from 5000 to 1800 cm1 with resolution better than 8 cm1. Interferograins can be recorded several times per second and the computation time for a 2000 point spectrum is 10 seconds. Results of environmental tests carried out for the spectrometer will be presented. The results show that it is possible to construct a simple rugged and inexpensive FT-IR spectrometer

  11. Fuzzy-based HAZOP study for process industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Junkeon; Chang, Daejun, E-mail: djchang@kaist.edu

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • HAZOP is the important technique to evaluate system safety and its risks while process operations. • Fuzzy theory can handle the inherent uncertainties of process systems for the HAZOP. • Fuzzy-based HAZOP considers the aleatory and epistemic uncertainties and provides the risk level with less uncertainty. • Risk acceptance criteria should be considered regarding the transition region for each risk. - Abstract: This study proposed a fuzzy-based HAZOP for analyzing process hazards. Fuzzy theory was used to express uncertain states. This theory was found to be a useful approach to overcome the inherent uncertainty in HAZOP analyses. Fuzzy logic sharply contrasted with classical logic and provided diverse risk values according to its membership degree. Appropriate process parameters and guidewords were selected to describe the frequency and consequence of an accident. Fuzzy modeling calculated risks based on the relationship between the variables of an accident. The modeling was based on the mean expected value, trapezoidal fuzzy number, IF-THEN rules, and the center of gravity method. A cryogenic LNG (liquefied natural gas) testing facility was the objective process for the fuzzy-based and conventional HAZOPs. The most significant index is the frequency to determine risks. The comparison results showed that the fuzzy-based HAZOP provides better sophisticated risks than the conventional HAZOP. The fuzzy risk matrix presents the significance of risks, negligible risks, and necessity of risk reduction.

  12. [Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the paddy-soil system during the crop rotation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xing-chun; Ye, Chuan-yong; Chen, Su-hua; Yang, Yong-liang; Wu, Zhen-yan

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the paddy root-soil system were determined to study the dynamic and the influencing factors during crop rotation period. It showed that the dynamic of PAHs in paddy roots was most correlative with the factor of root surface area, but less correlated with PAHs in air and particles, which indicates that the physiological characters rather than the environment media are the main factors influencing the PAHs accumulation in paddy roots. According to the EPA risk standard about BaP and sigma PAHs, the PAHs accumulation in the paddy seeds won't decrease the food security to human being. The PAHs concentrations in paddy soil showed a declined trend during the period of paddy growth, which was affected not only by the processes of water elution and microbe degradation, but also depended on the absorption rate of paddy roots. When the crop rotation begins and paddy planting rolls into the next growing period, the PAHs in the paddy soil will again increase into a higher level which is correlated with the TOC content in the soil.

  13. Fenton process for degradation of selected chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons exemplified by trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene and chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimin QIANG; Weiwei BEN; ChinPao HUANG

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of selected chlorinated ali-phatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) exemplified by trichloroethy-lene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), and chloroform (CF) was investigated with Fenton oxidation process. The results indicate that the degradation rate was primarily affected by the chemical structures of organic contami-nants. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) preferred to attack the organic contaminants with an electron-rich structure such as chlorinated alkenes (i.e., TCE and DCE). The dosing mode of Fenton's reagent, particularly of Fe2+, significantly affected the degradation efficiency of studied organic compound. A new "time-squared" kinetic model, C = Coexp(-kobst2), was developed to express the degrada-tion kinetics of selected CAHs. This model was applicable to TCE and DCE, but inapplicable to CF due to their varied reaction rate constants towards ·OH. Chloride release was monitored to examine the degree of dechlorina- tion during the oxidation of selected CAHs. TCE was more easily dechlorinated than DCE and CF. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was identified as the major reaction intermediate in the oxidation of TCE, which could be completely removed as the reaction proceeded. No reaction intermedi- ates or byproducts were identified in the oxidation of DCE and CF. Based on the identified intermediate, the reaction mechanism of TCE with Fenton's reagent was proposed.

  14. Solid Hydrocarbon Assisted Reduction: A New Process of Generating Micron Scale Metal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    2C O2  2CO (2) This reaction is exothermic with a -32.808 kcal/mol change in standard free energy, and provides the heat needed for furnace...operation. The temperature can be controlled through the precise control of moisture in the supplied air, as it reacts endothermically in the manner...Rearranging this definition then yields the unknown X in Table 16. X  Keq 1 Keq  79.025 1 79.025  0.987 (20) This process shows that when a

  15. Efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Naddafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Remaining of crude oil in storage tanks usually results in accumulating oily sludge at the bottom of the tank, which should be treated and disposed of in a suitable manner. The efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated in the present study. Material and methods: The sludge was mixed with immature compost at the ratios of 1:0 (as control, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 (as dry basis with the initial C:N:P and moisture content of 100:5:1 and 55% respectively for a period of 10 weeks. The moisture adjustment and mixing process were done 3 times a day during the composting period. Sampling and analysis of TPH and pH were done every week and every two days, respectively. Results: TPH removal in the 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 composting reactors was 66.59, 73.19, 74.81, 80.20, and 79.91%, respectively. Thus, initial adjustment of sludge to immature compost ratios plays a great role in reduction of TPH. The results of the control reactors indicated that the main mechanism of TPH removal in the composting reactors was biological process. Conclusions: In-vessel composting by addition of immature compost as amendment is a viable choice for bioremediation of the bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

  16. Liquidity in diversification processes of industrial enterprises under crisis conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurenok, Oksana Romanivna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify the main patterns of diversification in findingthe solutions at some mechanical engineering enterprises under profit lack conditions.Accordingly for the risks minimization and providing the high economic potential whilerealizing some diversification projects aimed at production processes improvement under crisisconditions it's necessary to determine the basic influencing factors and their interconnections in thesystem of diversification decisions concerning the choice of the most optimum diversificationstrategy.The main objectives of the study are to solve the problem of production optimization undercrisis condition, to increase its survival and efficiency. The general characteristics of the non-profitmaking enterprise diversification process are considered. The research resulted in the theoreticaljustification of the liquidity indices within diversification processes at the manufacturing sectorenterprises under crisis conditions.

  17. Development of Thermophysical Hydrocarbon Wastes Pyrolysis Model (in the Case of Wood)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantarin, V. D.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-10-01

    The article is devoted to solving environmental problems in the operation in oil and gas industry objects. Reduction of environmental damage by pollution with hydrocarbons can be achieved by disposing oil-contaminated hydrocarbon wastes, using high-temperature pyrolysis process. Authors proposed a recycling method by which in the output there generates the maximum amount of syngas, which, in its turn, is an expensive resource

  18. Uptake and trans-membrane transport of petroleum hydrocarbons by microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Fei; Wang, Hong Qi

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum-based products are a primary energy source in the industry and daily life. During the exploration, processing, transport and storage of petroleum and petroleum products, water or soil pollution occurs regularly. Biodegradation of the hydrocarbon pollutants by indigenous microorganisms is one of the primary mechanisms of removal of petroleum compounds from the environment. However, the physical contact between microorganisms and hydrophobic hydrocarbons limits the biodegradation rate...

  19. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  20. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  1. On the enhancement of the efficiency of the energy complexes of crude hydrocarbon processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolotovskij, I. V.; Larin, E. A.; Dolotovskaja, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    A method for circuit-parametric analysis of the efficiency of the heat-and-power system of the energy complexes at gas and natural-gas condensate processing plants is proposed. An energy complex of an alternative structure with an independent source of thermal and electric energy integrated into the production line has been developed. The energy carriers are produced accompanied by recovery of the secondary energy resources, waste, and effluents. Using the developed information-analytical software, multicriterion assessment of the efficiency of the alternative energy complexes and its systems based on independent energy sources of the combined-cycle cogeneration plant type has been performed for the gas processing plant in Astrakhan and the most effective equipment composition variant has been determined. The effect of the basic technical and economic factors on the economic efficiency has been established. The investments in construction of the power- and water-supply system within the plant's energy complex pay off in 8-9 years.

  2. Decreasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emission from bitumen using alternative bitumen production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulzadeh, Y; Mortazavi, S B; Yousefi, A A; Khavanin, A

    2011-01-30

    In 1988, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that bitumen fumes should also be considered a potential occupational carcinogen and management practices such as engineering controls should be implemented. Changing the production process of bitumen, as a source control method, was investigated in our study. For the first time, a novel alternative process was used to produce paving grade bitumen with decreased PAH emissions as well as improved bitumen performance grade (PG). Post-consumer latex and natural bitumen (NB) were used as additives to obtain 60/70 modified bitumen directly from the vacuum bottom (VB) without any need for air-blowing. The emissions were produced by a laboratory fume generation rig and were sampled and analyzed by GC-Mass and GC-FID as described in NIOSH method 5515. The PG of the resulting modified 60/70 bitumen in this study covers a wider range of climatic conditions and has higher total resistance against deformation than conventional 60/70 bitumen. The total PAH emissions from modified 60/70 bitumen (100.2619 ng/g) were decreased approximately to 50% of PAHs emitted from conventional 60/70 bitumen (197.696 ng/g). Therefore, it is possible to obtain modified bitumen with lower PAH emissions and better quality than conventional bitumen via additives and without air-blowing.

  3. Process for separating C/sub 2+/ hydrocarbons from natural gas. Verfahren zur Abtrennung von C/sub 2+/-Kohlenwasserstoffen aus Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H.; Sapper, R.

    1987-03-05

    A process for separating C/sub 2+/ hydrocarbons from natural gas is claimed in which the natural gas is cooled, partially condensed, and separated into a liquid and a gaseous fraction. The liquid fraction is subcooled, expanded in the top region of a rectification column, and mixed with the expanded gaseous fraction. The rectification process produces a product flow containing C/sub 2+/ hydrocarbons, and a residual gas containing mostly lower-boiling constituents. The residual gas is heated up by indirect heat exchange with condensate and then by heat exchange with the gaseous fraction after partial condensation and with the natural gas led into the partial condensation process. The heated residual gas is expanded, producing work, and heated again by heat exchange with the natural gas to be cooled.

  4. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atungulu, Griffiths G; Pan, Zhongli

    2014-09-01

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention, depending on rice variety and original nutritional quality. In this article, modern and traditional premilling, milling, and postmilling processing methods of different rice types are comprehensively reviewed. The implications of industrial rice processing methods, especially milling, as well as techniques for nutrient extraction, transfer, and enhancement, such as rice parboiling, sprouting, and fortification, for macro- and micronutrient content and consumer acceptance of the products, are documented. Socioeconomic constraints facing various aspects of rice processing methods are also discussed. This article reviews up-to-date research on rice industrial processing worldwide and aims to benefit engineers dealing with food processing, nutritionists and dieticians, food companies, education and research institutions, and quality-control and safety managers.

  5. Regional Transformation Processes through the Universities-Institutions-Industry Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Lucio; Colombelli, Alessandra; Paleari, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is, first, to highlight the role of the relationships between universities, institutions and firms in different regional development processes working towards a knowledge economy, and, second, to draw some implications for local policy makers. Adopting the regional innovation system (RIS) approach, the authors analyse …

  6. Tennessee Eastman Plant-wide Industrial Process Challenge Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    of freedom (DoF) and the appropriate selection of variables to satisfy the DoF. Of major concern is the control of the process. The chapter considers the open-loop dynamics of the flowsheet as well as the closed loop responses. Plots show the reactor dynamic behaviour as well as stripper exit flowrates. All...

  7. Operator support and diagnostic reasoning in an industrial process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaker, O.

    1996-12-31

    Efficient use of energy in production plants requires that the various processes are well controlled. The main focus of this doctoral thesis is on detection of errors and malfunctions using analytical redundancy and on state estimation using an open loop nonlinear model. A ``residual`` is present if a system does not behave as expected, or if a certain rule is violated. ``Reasoning`` is the action of finding process malfunctions based on observed residuals. The thesis applies a new formalism for comparing diagnostic reasoning methods both in terms of what knowledge is used and how it is used, and suggests a formal model of what is known about the process. The formalism is used to illustrate the difference between diagnostic reasoning based on physically interconnected process units and streams, and reasoning about goals and functions for finding a diagnosis. As an example of application, results and experiences from a test implementation using an open loop model for operator support in a complex fertilizer factory are reported. 108 refs., 61 figs., 37 tabs.

  8. Production yield analysis in the poultry processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines a case study where the PYA-method (production yield analysis) was implemented at a poultry-slaughtering line, processing 9000 broiler chicks per hour. It was shown that the average live weight of a flock of broilers could be used to predict the maximum production yield of the part

  9. New Tax Rebate Policy Favorable to Aluminum Processing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>China has made the decision to increase export tax rebate rate for part of the non-ferrous products from April 1, 2009, among which the export tax rebate for aluminum alloy hollow profiles and other aluminum alloy profiles goes up to 13%. The new policy is a piece of good news for aluminum processing

  10. Performance engineering for industrial embedded data-processing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.; Verriet, J.; Basten, T.; Brassn, M.; Dankers, R.; Laan, R.; Lint, A.; Moneva, H.; Somers, L.; Willekens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Performance is a key aspect of many embedded systems, embedded data processing systems in particular. System performance can typically only be measured in the later stages of system development. To avoid expensive re-work in the final stages of development, it is essential to have accurate performan

  11. Greening Food Processing Industries in Vietnam: Opportunities and Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2006-01-01

    The food processing sector in Vietnam plays a vital role in its economic development, but its rapid growth seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Several decades of applying the conventional end-of-pipe approach made clear that it only deals with treating the symptoms. It is nece

  12. The JMB Applied Chemistry Syllabus--the Place of Case Studies and Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, G.; Hughes, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes two novel topics in the JMB Applied Chemistry Core Syllabus. These are the social and economic aspects of chemical technology, involving the use of six case studies, and industrial processes. (Author/GS)

  13. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  14. Oxford Summer School "Intelligent Front-End Signal Processing for Frontier Exploitation in Research and Industry"

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary Summer School on Intelligent Front-End Signal Processing for Frontier Exploitation in Research and Industry. For details about the school programme and registration, please visit: http://www.physics.ox.ac.uk/INFIERI2013/

  15. Administrative and operational strategies of the coffee processing industry department of Caldas (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Octavio Diaz Arango

    2016-07-01

    domestic and international markets. Furthermore, it was concluded that quality management depends on operating performance and productivity when it comes to increasing the competitiveness of the coffee processing industries in the Department of Caldas (Colombia.

  16. Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Butlewski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

  17. MODELLING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGRATION PROCESSES DIRECTION IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Tetyana Kublikova; Svetlana Stupak

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the economic interaction between organizations and enterprises within the system of cluster type and the direction of their investment and innovation transformation through the implementation of the integration processes in the bakery industry.

  18. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  19. {open_quotes}Industry views--timing/structure of consultative process{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volgelsberg, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines industry`s perspective on the issues concerning the politics and economics of climatic change. The climate change issue complexity goes beyond science and involves: technology, economics, lifestyle, population, intergenerational equity, etc. Industry resources should be actively involved in technology, timeframes, economic assessments, and the political process. Climate mitigation options should be viewed on a holistic or total impact basis. Technology and economic assessment should not create winners and losers. The climate change process is like peeling an onion - long timeframes are required for cultural and infrastructure changes, there are both short term small improvement and long term structural changes, and implementation may take generations. Interdisciplinary communications are critical, cutting across the fields of social science, physical science, economics, technology, demographics, etc. Finally, industry must play or be played - industry can either help shape or be left to live with policy.

  20. Analysis on Behaviour Differentiation and Motive of Rural Households in the Process of Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey data of fixed rural observation points in China,this paper researches the behaviour of rural households in the process of industrialization.It analyses the forcing of industrialization process on non-agricultural-transformation behaviour of rural households and motive in detail.The results show that with the development of industrialization,the rational farmers allocate resources according to the goal of income maximization,and the behaviour of rural households differentiates inchmeal.The forcing of industrialization on behaviour of rural households mainly comprises labour distribution of rural households,land inputs of rural households and employment of rural labour forces;the factors of forcing of industrialization on non-agricultural-transformation behaviour of rural households are largely reflected in pull and push.