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Sample records for hydrocarbon hydroxylase ahh

  1. Comparison of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase induction by polycyclic aromatic compounds in human and mouse cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, A K; Nebert, D W; Eisen, H W

    1985-08-01

    The human MCF-7 and the mouse Hepa-1 cell culture lines were compared for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase inducibility by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and benzo[a]anthracene (BA) and TCDD- and BA-specific binding in the cytosol and nucleus. The effective concentration of BA in the growth medium required to induce either enzyme to 50% of its maximally inducible activity (EC50) was the same (5-11 microM) in both MCF-7 and Hepa-1 cells. On the other hand, the EC50 for TCDD in MCF-7 cells (5-25 nM) was more than 40-fold greater than that in Hepa-1 cells (0.4 to 0.6 nM). P1-450- and P3-450-specific mouse cDNA probes were used to quantitate mRNA induction in the Hepa-1 cell line. P1-450 mRNA was induced markedly by TCDD and benzo[a] anthracene, whereas P3-450 mRNA was induced negligibly. A P1-450-specific human cDNA probe was used to quantitate P1-450 mRNA induction in the MCF-7 cell line. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inducibility by TCDD or BA always paralleled P1-450 mRNA inducibility in either the mouse or human line. Although the cytosolic Ah receptor in Hepa-1 cells was easily detected by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, gel permeation chromatography, and anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, the cytosolic receptor cannot be detected in MCF-7 cells. Following in vivo exposure of cultures to radiolabeled TCDD, the intranuclear concentration of inducer-receptor complex was at least fifty times greater in Hepa-1 than MCF-7 cultures. The complete lack of measurable cytosolic receptor and almost totally absent inducer-receptor complex in the nucleus of MCF-7 cells was, therefore, out of proportion to its capacity for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase inducibility. This MCF-7 line should provide an interesting model for a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug-metabolizing enzyme induction by polycyclic aromatic compounds, including the Ah receptor-mediated mechanism.

  2. Microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase comparison of the direct, indirect and radiometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, M.S.; Murray, M.; Wilkinson, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The direct fluorometric assay of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxlyase has been compared to the more commonly used indirect fluorometric and radiometric assays. Although rat hepatic microsomal activities measured by the direct assay were consistently higher than those obtained by the other assays, the relative changes in activity following enzyme induction and/or inhibition were similar. The direct assay provides an accurate and rapid measure of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and avoids several problems inherent in the indirect and radiometric assays. 2 tables

  3. Dose-response relationship of rat aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and epoxide hydratase induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, J.E.; Goujon, F.M.; Sele-Doyen, J.; Van Cantfort, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes our recent results supporting the hypothesis that different regulation mechanisms are involved in the control of AHH and EH activity and that the AHH induction in the extrahepatic tissues might also be affected by liver specific inducers. In the rat, lung and kidney AHH is highly sensitive to the inducers present in cigarette smoke and cigarette smoke condensate, the EH activity not being affected by the same agents. Phenobarbital is also able to protentiate the inducing action of low doses of benzo(a)pyrene on the lung AHH activity. In primary rat liver cells in culture, AHH and EH can be selectivly induced. Low doses of benz(a)anthracene preferentially enhance the AHH activity while trans-stilbene oxide an various antioxidants modify only the EH activity. Phenobarbital, which also induces the AHH activity in cell culture, produces a more than additive effect when added to the culture medium in a mixture with benz(a)anthracene. Trans-stilbene oxide prevents the AHH induction by phenobarbital and not by benz(a)anthracene. Our results suggest that, in addition to its own induction capacity, phenobarbital is also able to potentiate the action of chemicals belonging to a different class of inducers.

  4. Influence of some anti-inflammatory drugs on the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the cytochrome P450 content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, M.H.; Sheweita, S.A.; Abdel-Moneam, N.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt))

    1990-06-01

    The metabolism of benzo({alpha})pyrene is mediated by the mixed function oxidase system including the cytochrome P450-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. The data of the present study revealed the ability of various commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs to alter the activity of this enzyme system, where all the tested drugs, namely phenyl butazone, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and acetaminophen, caused an increase in both the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the cytochrome P450 content whether administered as a single dose or as a repeated dose for 6 consecutive days. The percentage of change for all drugs except phenyl butazone was proportional to the duration of drug administration. On the other hand, pyrazole which is chemically related to phenyl butazone, had no significant effect when administered as a single dose but caused a decrease in both studied parameters when administered as a repeated dose for 6 consecutive days. The mechanisms by which these commonly used drugs modify the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and the cytochrome p450 content are discussed in the text.

  5. Induction of hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and epoxide hydrase in Wistar rats pretreated with oral methadone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellward, G D; Gontovnick, L S; Otten, M

    1977-01-01

    Methadone-HCl added to the drinking water of adult female Wistar rats for 4 weeks produced an increase in the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity of the hepatic microsomal fraction to 222% of control levels. No change was seen in epoxide hydrase activity. In contrast, when male rats were treated similarly, there was an increase in epoxide hydrase activity to 212% of controls with no change in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. No such changes were observed when the subcutaneous route of administration or chronic, low-dose, intraperitoneal injections were used. There were no differences in hepatic cytochrome P-450 or protein concentrations in treated animals as compared to their respective control groups. Control studies were carried out with quinine sulfate in the drinking water to decrease water intake to the level of the methadone-treated group. No elevation in either enzyme activity occurred in this control group. Similarly, paired-feeding studies showed the elevation of enzyme activity to be due to the methadone, not food deprivation. The effects of concurrent therapy of methadone with phenobarbital sodium or 3-methylcholanthrene were compared.

  6. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant-producing Alcanivorax strains: hydrocarbon accession strategies and alkane hydroxylase gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, Nelda L; Nievas, Marina L; Lozada, Mariana; Del Prado, Guillermo; Dionisi, Hebe M; Siñeriz, Faustino

    2009-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria belonging to the genera Alcanivorax, Cobetia and Halomonas were isolated from marine sediments with a history of hydrocarbon exposure (Aristizábal and Gravina Peninsulas, Argentina). Two Alcanivorax isolates were found to form naturally occurring consortia with strains closely related to Pseudomonas putida and Microbacterium esteraromaticum. Alkane hydroxylase gene analysis in these two Alcanivorax strains resulted in the identification of two novel alkB genes, showing 86% and 60% deduced amino acid sequence identity with those of Alcanivorax sp. A-11-3 and Alcanivorax dieselolei P40, respectively. In addition, a gene homologous to alkB2 from Alcanivorax borkumensis was present in one of the strains. The consortium formed by this strain, Alcanivorax sp. PA2 (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with A. borkumensis SK2(T)) and P. putida PA1 was characterized in detail. These strains form cell aggregates when growing as mixed culture, though only PA2 was responsible for biosurfactant activity. During exponential growth phase of PA2, cells showed high hydrophobicity and adherence to hydrocarbon droplets. Biosurfactant production was only detectable at late growth and stationary phases, suggesting that it is not involved in initiating oil degradation and that direct interfacial adhesion is the main hydrocarbon accession mode of PA2. This strain could be useful for biotechnological applications due to its biosurfactant production, catabolic and aggregation properties.

  7. The radioprotective effects of carboxy fullerene C3 on AHH-1 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Husheng; Cai, Jianming; Huang, Yuecheng; Cui, Jianguo; Liu, Hanchen; Sun, Ding; Zhao, Fang; Dong, Junru; Li, Bailong

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the radioprotective effects of carboxy fullerene C 3 on AHH-1 cell and it's prospective as a novel radioprotectant. Materials and Methods: Carboxy fullerene C 3 was prepared by chemical synthesis and trypan blue rejection test was performed to detect its cytotoxicity to AHH-1 cell. Then different concentration of C 3 was used to treat AHH-1 cells after radiated with 60 Coγ ray. Annexin-V/PI staining and flow cytometry assay were applied to assess the cell proliferation and apoptosis after irradiation. Results: C 3 showed little toxicity to AHH-1 cells with little change of trypan blue rejection rate during the drug concentration range 0-400 mg/L (P>0.05). We found in this study C 3 had good radioprotective effects to AHH-1 cell radiated with 1-8 Gy γ-ray. When the concentration was 10 mg/L, C 3 showed protection effects to AHH-1 cell irradiated with 4 Gy γ -ray, which was enhanced with increase of C 3 concentration. When the final concentration reached 200-400 mg/L, the cell survival rate after irradiation was similar to that of non-irradiated control cells(P >0.05). And the irradiation induced apoptosis and death rate were significantly lower than that of single radiation group cells(P 3 were time-dependant, and the best protection effects were observed when the C 3 was administered before irradiation (0-24 h). Conclusion: Carboxy fullerene C 3 has good radioprotective effects to AHH-1 cell, which is dose-dependent, and the higher concentration of C 3 is, the better protective effects it shows. In the effective drug concentration range of this study, C 3 do little harm on the survival rate of AHH-1 cell, which suggest that C 3 as a novel promising radioprotectant deserve to be further investigated. (author)

  8. Effect of dioxins on regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression by aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a neurotoxicology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akahoshi Eiichi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dioxins and related compounds are suspected of causing neurological disruption. Epidemiological studies indicated that exposure to these compounds caused neurodevelopmental disturbances such as learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which are thought to be closely related to dopaminergic dysfunction. Although the molecular mechanism of their actions has not been fully investigated, a major participant in the process is aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. This study focused on the effect of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD exposure on the regulation of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme of dopamine synthesis, gene expression by AhR. Methods N2a-Rβ cells were established by transfecting murine neuroblastoma Neuro2a with the rat AhR cDNA. TH expression induced by TCDD was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Participation of AhR in TCDD-induced TH gene expression was confirmed by suppressing AhR expression using the siRNA method. Catecholamines including dopamine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A reporter gene assay was used to identify regulatory motifs in the promoter region of TH gene. Binding of AhR with the regulatory motif was confirmed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Results Induction of TH by TCDD through AhR activation was detected at mRNA and protein levels. Induced TH protein was functional and its expression increased dopamine synthesis. The reporter gene assay and EMSA indicated that AhR directly regulated TH gene expression. Regulatory sequence called aryl hydrocarbon receptor responsive element III (AHRE-III was identified upstream of the TH gene from -285 bp to -167 bp. Under TCDD exposure, an AhR complex was bound to AHRE-III as well as the xenobiotic response element (XRE, though AHRE-III was not identical to XRE, the conventional AhR-binding motif. Conclusion Our results suggest TCDD directly regulate the dopamine system by TH gene

  9. Nutrients Can Enhance the Abundance and Expression of Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in the Rhizosphere of Ryegrass Planted in Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Afzal, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K) in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:25360680

  10. Nutrients can enhance the abundance and expression of alkane hydroxylase CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass planted in hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arslan

    Full Text Available Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination.

  11. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  12. Dose-effect of ionizing radiation-induced PIG3 gene expression alteration in human lymphoblastoid AHH-1 cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Jie; Zhang, De-Qin; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Feng, Jiang-Bin; Lu, Xue; Wang, Xin-Ru; Li, Kun-Peng; Chen, De-Qing; Mu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Shuang; Gao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    To identify new ionizing radiation (IR)-sensitive genes and observe the dose-effect of gene expression alteration (GEA) induced by IR. Microarray was used to screen the differentially expressed genes in human lymphoblastoid cells (AHH-1) using three doses of (60)Co γ-rays (0.5-8 Gy at 1 Gy/min). Given that p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) was consistently upregulated, the GEA of PIG3 in AHH-1 cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) induced by γ-rays (1 Gy/min) was measured at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. The GEA of PIG3 in AHH-1 cells exposed to neutron radiation (californium-252, 0.073 Gy/min) was also quantified. PIG3 was one of the seven differentially expressed genes found in the microarray analysis. The PIG3 mRNA and protein levels in AHH-1 cells were significantly increased from 1-10 Gy of γ-rays 8-72 h or 8-168 h after exposure, respectively. The enhancement was also observed in AHH-1 cells from 0.4-1.6 Gy of neutrons 48 h post-irradiation. The PIG3 mRNA levels (mRNA copy numbers) in HPBL were significantly increased from 1-8 Gy of γ-rays within 4-24 h post-irradiation, but the highest increase in signal-to-noise responsiveness is approximately two-fold, which was less than that of AHH-1 (approximately 20-fold). IR can upregulate the PIG3 gene expression in AHH-1 and HPBL in the early phase after exposure; however, the IR induced expression levels of PIG3 are greater in AHH-1 than HPBL.

  13. 1,4-benzoquinone-induced STAT-3 hypomethylation in AHH-1 cells: Role of oxidative stress

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    Jing Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzene, a known occupational and environmental contaminant, is associated with increased risk of leukemia. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of the hypomethylated STAT3 involved in benzene toxicity in vitro. As 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ is one of benzene’s major toxic metabolites, AHH-1 cells were treated by 1,4-BQ for 24 h with or without pretreatment of the antioxidant a-LA or the methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2′ deoxycytidine (5-aza. The cell viability was investigated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. ROS was determined via 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA flow cytometric assays. The level of oxidative stress marker 8-OHdG was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Methylation-specific PCR was used to detect the methylation status of STAT3. Results indicated the significantly increasing expression of ROS and 8-OHdG which accompanied with STAT3 hypomethylation in 1,4-BQ-treated AHH-1 cells. α-LA suppressed the expression of both ROS and 8-OHdG, simultaneously reversed 1,4-BQ-induced STAT3 hypomethylation. However, although the methylation inhibitor, 5-aza reduced the expression level of ROS and 8-OHdG, but had no obvious inhibiting effect on STAT3 methylation level. Taken together, oxidative stress are involved 1,4-BQ-induced STAT3 methylation expression.

  14. Sublethal detoxification responses to contaminant exposure associated with offshore production platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S. J.; Willett, K. L.; Thomsen, J.; Beatty, K. B.; Connor, K.; Narasimhan, T. R.; Erickson, C. M.; Safe, S. H. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Several fish and invertebrate species were evaluated for their responses to contamination associated with petroleum and gas development and production in the Gulf of Mexico. Sampling was done at 100 and 3000 m from the center of three platforms. No significant near/far station differences were observed in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity for invertebrate species. Similarly, no AHH activity, or cytochrome P450 mRNA levels, or biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolite concentrations were detected in 16 fish species. There were, however, some species-specific differences in AHH and biliary PAH metabolite levels. 78 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adrenal hyperplasias that impair hormone production and disrupt sexual development. 21-hydroxylase deficiency is responsible for about 95 ... excess production of androgens leads to abnormalities of sexual development in people with 21-hydroxylase deficiency . A lack ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions TH deficiency Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is a disorder that primarily ...

  17. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydrolase (AHH) Data, 1988-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to determine the current status of and detect any long-term trends in the environmental quality of U.S. nearshore waters, NOAA initiated the National Status...

  18. Seventeen Alpha-hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew-Lee Wong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen a-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in which defects in the biosynthesis of cortisol and sex steroid result in mineralocorticoid excess, hypokalemic hypertension and sexual abnormalities such as pseudohermaphroditism in males, and sexual infantilism in females. The disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and is caused by mutations in the gene encoding cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17, which is the single polypeptide that mediates both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. We report the case of a 15-year-old patient with 17OHD who had a female phenotype but male karyotype (46,XY. The diagnosis was made based on classical clinical features, biochemical data and molecular genetic study. Two mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing, including a S106P point mutation in exon 2 and a 9-bp (GACTCTTTC deletion from nucleotide position 1519 in exon 8 of CYP17. The first of these mutations was found in the father and the second in the mother, and both have been previously reported in Asia. The patient's hypertension and hypokalemia resolved after glucocorticoid replacement and treatment with potassium-sparing diuretics. Sex hormone replacement was prescribed for induction of sexual development and reduction of the final height. Prophylactic gonadectomy was scheduled. In summary, 17OHD should be suspected in patients with hypokalemic hypertension and lack of secondary sexual development so that appropriate therapy can be implemented.

  19. Diversity of alkane hydroxylase genes on the rhizoplane of grasses planted in petroleum-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboi, Shun; Yamamura, Shigeki; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the diversity and genotypic features of alkane hydroxylase genes on rhizoplanes of grasses planted in artificial petroleum-contaminated soils to acquire new insights into the bacterial communities responsible for petroleum degradation in phytoremediation. Four types of grass (Cynodon dactylon, two phenotypes of Zoysia japonica, and Z. matrella) were used. The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon effectively decreased in the grass-planted systems compared with t...

  20. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

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    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  1. An investigation into the activation and deactivation of chlorinated hydrocarbons to genotoxins in metabolically competent human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, A T; Ellard, S; Parry, E M; Parry, J M

    1996-05-01

    We have investigated the induction of micronuclei by 15 chlorinated hydrocarbons in the cytochalasin B-blocked micronucleus assay utilizing genetically engineered cell lines. The human lymphoblastoid cell line AHH-1, with native cytochrome CYP1A1 activity, the MCL-5 cell line, which stably expresses cDNAs encoding human CYP1A2, 2A6, 3A4, 2E1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and the h2E1 cell line, containing a cDNA for CYP2E1, were used in this study. We have demonstrated the induction of kinetochore-positive micronuclei by two chlorinated solvents, 2,3-dichlorobutane and 1,1, 2-trichloroethane, in the metabolically competent cell lines MCL-5 and h2E1. The MCL-5 and h2E1 cell lines have in addition shown the capacity to produce metabolites in the presence of methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, tetrachloroethylene, toluene and n-hexane, wich yield elevated micronucleus frequencies compared with the parental cell line AHH-1. Hexachloroethane failed to induce micronuclei in any of the cell lines and 1,2-dichloroethane and 1-chlorohexane induced micronuclei without the requirement for metabolic activation in all three cell lines. The MCL-5 cell line exhibited reduced micronucleus frequencies compared with the AHH-1 and h2E1 cell lines following exposure to 1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,1, 1-trichloroethane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The methodology used has shown the ability of metabolically competent cell lines expressing cDNAs encoding the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes to metabolize halogenated hydrocarbons to genotoxic species, including both clastogens and aneugens. The biotransformation of chemicals to aneugenic species has not previously been demonstrated.

  2. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  3. Morphological Features of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current immunohistochemical study used the antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to observe the immunoreactive elements in the mouse pancreas. The results indicated the presence of immunoreactive nerve fibers and endocrine cells. The immunopositive nerve fibers appeared as thick and thin bundles; thick ...

  4. Alkane Hydroxylase Gene (alkB Phylotype Composition and Diversity in Northern Gulf of Mexico Bacterioplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Blake Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic activities introduce alkanes into marine systems where they are degraded by alkane hydroxylases expressed by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Partial sequences for alkB, one of the structural genes of alkane hydroxylase, have been used to assess the composition of alkane-degrading communities, and to determine their responses to hydrocarbon inputs. We present here the first spatially extensive analysis of alkB in bacterioplankton of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM, a region that experiences numerous hydrocarbon inputs. We have analyzed 401 partial alkB gene sequences amplified from genomic extracts collected during March 2010 from 17 water column samples that included surface waters and bathypelagic depths. Previous analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences for these and related samples have shown that nGoM bacterial community composition and structure stratify strongly with depth, with distinctly different communities above and below 100 m. Although we hypothesized that alkB gene sequences would exhibit a similar pattern, PCA analyses of operational protein units (OPU indicated that community composition did not vary consistently with depth or other major physical-chemical variables. We observed 22 distinct OPUs, one of which was ubiquitous and accounted for 57% of all sequences. This OPU clustered with alkB sequences from known hydrocarbon oxidizers (e.g., Alcanivorax and Marinobacter. Some OPUs could not be associated with known alkane degraders, however, and perhaps represent novel hydrocarbon-oxidizing populations or genes. These results indicate that the capacity for alkane hydrolysis occurs widely in the nGoM, but that alkane degrader diversity varies substantially among sites and responds differently than bulk communities to physical-chemical variables.

  5. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN DOPAMINE BETA-HYDROXYLASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A crystalline form of dopamine β-hydroxylase is provided. X-ray crystallography reveals the space group and cell dimensions, as well as the atomic coordinates. The information can be used for identifying one or more modulators of dopamine β-hydroxylase, which can then be chemically synthesised...... and used in treatment. A process for preparing the crystalline form of human dopamine β-hydroxylase is also provided....

  6. Structural and biochemical characterization of 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montersino, S.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the characterization of a new flavoprotein hydroxylase 3 hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase (3HB6H) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. 3HB6H is able to insert exclusively oxygen in para-position and the enzyme has been chosen to study the structural basis of such regioselectivity. As

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  8. Heterogeneous expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and sterol 27- hydroxylase genes in the rat liver lobulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, J.; Hoekman, M.F.M.; Mager, W.H.; Moorman, A.F.M.; Boer, P.A.J. de; Scheja, L.; Princen, H.M.G.; Gebhardt, R.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the lobular localization and molecular level of expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase, two key enzymes in bile acid synthesis, in isolated periportal and pericentral hepatocytes and by in situ hybridization of rat liver. Enzyme activity, mRNA, and gene

  9. Acetanilide 4-hydroxylase and acetanilide 2-hydroxylase activity in hepatic microsomes from induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, M; Chui, Y C; Levi, P; Hodgson, E

    1991-02-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the separation of 14C-labelled acetanilide, 4-hydroxyacetanilide, 3-hydroxyacetanilide and 2-hydroxyacetanilide was developed using thin-layer chromatography. This separation is the basis for the assay of acetanilide 4-hydroxylase and acetanilide 2-hydroxylase activity in liver microsomes from DBA2/N male mice that had been treated with phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene, isosafrole or n-butylbenzodioxole. Microsomes were incubated with [14C]acetanilide and extracted with benzene and ethyl acetate. The extract was applied to silica gel plates and developed with a hexane/isopropanol/ammonium hydroxide/water solvent system. The radiolabelled phenolic metabolites and the parent compound were detected using a Berthold Automatic TLC Linear Analyzer. Although the 4-hydroxylated metabolite was the primary product detected, this method can be used to detect other phenolic metabolites.

  10. Organization and evolution of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.R.; Coker, G.T. III; O'Malley, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the organization of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and compares its structure with the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Both genes are single copy and contain 13 exons separated by 12 introns. Remarkably, the positions of 10 out 12 intron/exon boundaries are identical for the two genes. These results support the idea that these hydroxylases genes are members of a gene family which has a common evolutionary origin. The authors predict that this ancestral gene would have encoded exons similar to those of TH prior to evolutionary drift to other members of this gene family

  11. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common features include an unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) and muscle weakness. Related Information What ... Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Washington Univeristy, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (1 ...

  12. Treatment of Nonclassic 11-Hydroxylase Deficiency with Ashwagandha Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Powell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An elderly woman presented with acne and male pattern alopecia, which upon diagnostic evaluation was found to be due to nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency. We previously reported that Ashwagandha root ameliorates nonclassic 3-β-ol dehydrogenase and aldosterone synthase deficiencies. This is the first report of its use being associated with amelioration of nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency, where its apparent effects appear to be dose-related.

  13. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  14. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  15. Prenatal induction of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylases in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, D.; Tapken, S.

    1988-01-01

    1. Benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activity was measured in homogenates of fetal liver (day 18) or of whole-embryos of mice on day 9, 10 or 12 of gestation after maternal pretreatment with B(a)P on 3 consecutive days. A 3 H-liberation assay with 3 H-B(a)P labelled either generally or at the 6-position was used. The values obtained with the embryonic/fetal tissues were compared with those found in maternal liver. 2. Three oral doses of 17.5 mg B(a)P/kg body wt were found to just significantly induce BPH in maternal liver. An induction was observed after pretreatment with 24 mg B(a)P/kg body wt in 9, 10 or 12-day-old whole-embryos, but the V max reached was only 10-20% (1% on day 9) of that of adult non-induced liver. The K m (6-hydroxylation) for all tissues tested were in the same range (600-900 nM). The induction was demonstrable in embryos at tissue levels about one order of magnitude lower than those required for induction in maternal liver. 3. Treatment with 25 mg B(a)P/kg body wt on 3 consecutive days was required to induce BPH in fetal liver on day 18 of gestation. The required B(a)P tissue concentrations were about one half of those necessary for induction in maternal liver. 4. Among a variety of other polycyclic hydrocarbons only chrysene showed an inducing potency similar to that of B(a)P in adult and fetal liver. For all compounds tested there was no correlation found in the inducing potency between adult and fetal liver (e.g. coronene). 5. The doses required to induce BPH in the maternal or fetal liver or in whole embryos of rodents are significantly higher (mg range) than those of usual average human exposure or those taken up by smokers (ng range). (orig.)

  16. Novel Mutations in the Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene in the First Czech Patient with Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Szentiványi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency manifests mainly in early childhood and includes two clinical phenotypes: an infantile progressive hypokinetic-rigid syndrome with dystonia (type A and a neonatal complex encephalopathy (type B. The biochemical diagnostics is exclusively based on the quantitative determination of the neurotransmitters or their metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The implementation of neurotransmitter analysis in clinical praxis is necessary for early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Neurotransmitter metabolites in CSF were analyzed in 82 children (at the age 1 month to 17 years with clinical suspicion for neurometabolic disorders using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with electrochemical detection. The CSF level of homovanillic acid (HVA was markedly decreased in three children (64, 79 and 94 nmol/l in comparison to age related controls (lower limit 218–450 nmol/l. Neurological findings including severe psychomotor retardation, quadruspasticity and microcephaly accompanied with marked dystonia, excessive sweating in the first patient was compatible with the diagnosis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH deficiency (type B and subsequent molecular analysis revealed two novel heterozygous mutations c.636A>C and c.1124G>C in the TH gene. The treatment with L-DOPA/carbidopa resulted in the improvement of dystonia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in two other patients with microcephaly revealed postischaemic brain damage, therefore secondary HVA deficit was considered in these children. Diagnostic work-up in patients with neurometabolic disorders should include analysis of neurotransmitter metabolites in CSF.

  17. Expression of the vitamin D receptor, 25-hydroxylases, 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase in the human kidney and renal clear cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Andersen, Claus B.; Nielsen, John E

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR), CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 are expressed in the human kidney, but the segmental expression of the 25-hydroxylases is unknown. A comprehensive analysis of CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1 expression in normal kidney and renal clear cell cancer (CCc) would reveal...

  18. Minoxidil specifically decreases the expression of lysine hydroxylase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, T; Heikkinen, J; Kivirikko, K I; Myllylä, R

    1992-01-01

    The levels of lysine hydroxylase protein and the levels of the mRNAs for lysine hydroxylase and the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase were measured in cultured human skin fibroblasts treated with 1 mM-minoxidil. The data demonstrate that minoxidil decreases the amount of lysine hydroxylase protein, this being due to a decrease in the level of lysine hydroxylase mRNA. The effect of minoxidil appears to be highly specific, as no changes were observed in the amounts of mRNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1314568

  19. Expression and purification of the metal-containing monooxygenases tryptophan hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Pernille Efferbach

    -hyperactive disorder (ADHD) among others. Since all these diseases are the cause of huge economical and personal costs it is very important to gain more knowledge of TPH and DβH since these two enzymes could be possible targets for medicine against the diseases mentioned above. TPH a three-domain, iron......-containing enzyme which belongs to the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase (AAAH) family. It exist in two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, which are expressed in different tissues and have different properties. TPH is known as a very diffcult protein to work with especially due to instability and only truncated forms of TPH1...... have been purified and crystallized. This project concern the human neuronal TPH or TPH2. In an attempt to overcome the problems with recombinant TPH two stability and solubility optimized variants of TPH2 are designed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression strains for these variants and full length...

  20. The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on phenylalanine hydroxylase expression in rat liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D S; Dahl, H H; Mercer, J F; Green, A K; Fisher, M J

    1989-01-01

    The impact of experimentally induced diabetes on the expression of rat liver phenylalanine hydroxylase has been investigated. A significant elevation in maximal enzymic activity was observed in diabetes. This was associated with significant increases in the amount of enzyme, the phenylalanine hydroxylase-specific translational activity of hepatic RNA and the abundance of phenylalanine hydroxylase-specific mRNA. These changes in phenylalanine hydroxylase expression were not observed when diabe...

  1. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  2. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  3. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  4. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  5. Lipoprotein cholesterol uptake mediates upregulation of bile acid synthesis by increasing cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase but not sterol 27- hydroxylase gene expression in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, S.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van der Fits, L.T.E.; Wit, E.C.M.; Hoekman, M.F.M.; Mager, W.H.; Princen, H.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Lipoproteins may supply substrate for the formation of bile acids, and the amount of hepatic cholesterol can regulate bile-acid synthesis and increase cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase expression. However, the effect of lipoprotein cholesterol on sterol 27-hydroxylase expression and the role of different

  6. A unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Gaskell

    Full Text Available The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces L-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to L-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s of these bi-functional enzymes during host infection are discussed.

  7. Effects of brussels sprouts, indole 3-carbinol and phenobarbital on xenobiotic metabolism and in vivo DNA binding of aflatoxin B1 in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbe, A.D.; Bjeldanes, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables have been shown to be potent inducers of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the rat and this may offer protection against chemical carcinogenesis. Adult, male, SD rats were fed on purified diets supplemented with 25% freeze-dried Brussels sprouts or 250 ppm idole 3-carbinol (I3C) for 2 weeks, or given phenobarbital (PB, 1 mg/ml) in the drinking water for 7 days prior to killing. Brussels sprouts caused a 50% decrease (p 3 H] aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) to liver DNA, and increased intestinal and hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. Hepatic monooxygenase activity was not altered in this group but greater than 2-fold increases in intestinal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECD) activities were found. I3C did not decrease AFB 1 binding, nor did it increase hepatic or intestinal GST activity. I3C did increase both intestinal AHH and ECD activities. PB treatment significantly decreased AFB 1 binding by 60%, and significantly elevated hepatic but not intestinal GST activity. Hepatic AHH and ECD activities were also elevated in this group, while intestinal AHH and ECD activities were decreased. These results emphasize the importance of GST activity in the detoxification of AFB 1 and suggest a less important role for intestinal monooxygenase activity in the metabolism of this hepatocarcinogen

  8. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  9. Characterization of carotenoid hydroxylase gene promoter in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, C X; Wei, W; Su, Z- L; Qin, S

    2006-10-01

    Astaxanthin, a high-value ketocarotenoid is mainly used in fish aquaculture. It also has potential in human health due to its higher antioxidant capacity than beta-carotene and vitamin E. The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis is known to accumulate astaxanthin in response to environmental stresses, such as high light intensity and salt stress. Carotenoid hydroxylase plays a key role in astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. In this paper, we report the characterization of a promoter-like region (-378 to -22 bp) of carotenoid hydroxylase gene by cloning, sequence analysis and functional verification of its 919 bp 5'-flanking region in H. pluvialis. The 5'-flanking region was characterized using micro-particle bombardment method and transient expression of LacZ reporter gene. Results of sequence analysis showed that the 5'-flanking region might have putative cis-acting elements, such as ABA (abscisic acid)-responsive element (ABRE), C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (C-repeat/DRE), ethylene-responsive element (ERE), heat-shock element (HSE), wound-responsive element (WUN-motif), gibberellin-responsive element (P-box), MYB-binding site (MBS) etc., except for typical TATA and CCAAT boxes. Results of 5' deletions construct and beta-galactosidase assays revealed that a highest promoter-like region might exist from -378 to -22 bp and some negative regulatory elements might lie in the region from -919 to -378 bp. Results of site-directed mutagenesis of a putative C-repeat/DRE and an ABRE-like motif in the promoter-like region (-378 to -22 bp) indicated that the putative C-repeat/DRE and ABRE-like motif might be important for expression of carotenoid hydroxylase gene.

  10. Further RFLPs at the human tyrosine hydroxylase locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, J; Uhlhaas, S; Propping, P; Gal, A [Institut fuer Humangenetik der Universitaet, Bonn (West Germany); Mallet, J [CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1988-09-26

    The human cDNA clone (Ty7) of tyrosine hydroxylase was used. A two-allele (C1 and C2) Bg1II RFLP has been described recently with bands either at 6.9 or 8.4 kb (2). In addition, a faint invariant band appears at 9.0 kb. A third Bg1II allele (C3) with a band at 8.0 kb was detected. The allele frequency was studied in 35 and 39 unrelated Caucasians. Co-dominant inheritance for both RFLPs described here was demonstrated in 6 nuclear kindreds. RFLPs were observed under normal hybridization and wash stringencies.

  11. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase.

  12. Rat-liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantfort, J. van; Renson, J.; Gielen, J.

    1975-01-01

    A new assay is described to measure the activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and compared to the conventional 14 C method used by other investigators. This method is based on the mechanism of the enzymic hydroxylation, i.e. a direct and stereospecific substitution of the 7α-hydrogen by a hydroxyl group. [7α- 3 H]cholesterol is incubated at 37 0 C and in the presence of molecular O 2 , in a medium buffered by potassium phosphate at pH 7.4 and containing liver microsomes (or 9,000 x g supernatant), NADPH, MgCl 2 and cysteamine. Tween-80 (1.5 mg/ml) is used to introduce enough substrate (300 μM) in the incubation mixture to saturate the ezyme (K(m) = 100 μM). Under these conditions the tritiated water released into the incubation medium reflects accurately the enzymic activity. The results obtained with this method are similar to the one obtained with a [4- 14 C]cholesterol technique (r = 0.96; P 3 H]cholesterol method is a complete independence from further metabolism of the first enzymic product, the 7α-hydroxycholesterol, the tritiated water representing the entire cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity. (orig.) [de

  13. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  14. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  16. Regulation and Functional Expression of Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase from Parsley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Edda; Logemann, Elke; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    A previously isolated parsley (Petroselinum crispum) cDNA with high sequence similarity to cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) cDNAs from several plant sources was expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) containing a plant NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and verified as encoding a functional C4H (CYP73A10). Low genomic complexity and the occurrence of a single type of cDNA suggest the existence of only one C4H gene in parsley. The encoded mRNA and protein, in contrast to those of a functionally related NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, were strictly coregulated with phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA and protein, respectively, as demonstrated by coinduction under various conditions and colocalization in situ in cross-sections from several different parsley tissues. These results support the hypothesis that the genes encoding the core reactions of phenylpropanoid metabolism form a tight regulatory unit. PMID:9880345

  17. Prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes: important regulators of cancer metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ming Yang,1 Huizhong Su,1 Tomoyoshi Soga,2 Kamil R Kranc,3 Patrick J Pollard1 1Cancer Biology and Metabolism Group, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Mizukami, Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan; 3MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs regulate the stability of HIF protein by post-translational hydroxylation of two conserved prolyl residues in its α subunit in an oxygen-dependent manner. Trans-4-prolyl hydroxylation of HIFα under normal oxygen (O2 availability enables its association with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor pVHL E3 ligase complex, leading to the degradation of HIFα via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Due to the obligatory requirement of molecular O2 as a co-substrate, the activity of PHDs is inhibited under hypoxic conditions, resulting in stabilized HIFα, which dimerizes with HIFβ and, together with transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300, activates the transcription of its target genes. As a key molecular regulator of adaptive response to hypoxia, HIF plays important roles in multiple cellular processes and its overexpression has been detected in various cancers. The HIF1α isoform in particular has a strong impact on cellular metabolism, most notably by promoting anaerobic, whilst inhibiting O2-dependent, metabolism of glucose. The PHD enzymes also seem to have HIF-independent functions and are subject to regulation by factors other than O2, such as by metabolic status, oxidative stress, and abnormal levels of endogenous metabolites (oncometabolites that have been observed in some types of cancers. In this review, we aim to summarize current understandings of the function and regulation of PHDs in cancer with an emphasis on their roles in metabolism. Keywords: prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD

  18. Regulation of HIF prolyl hydroxylases by hypoxia-inducible factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprelikova, Olga; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Wood, Matthew; Vasselli, James R; Riss, Joseph; Maranchie, Jodi K; Linehan, W Marston; Barrett, J Carl

    2004-06-01

    Hypoxia and induction of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha) is a hallmark of many tumors. Under normal oxygen tension HIF-alpha subunits are rapidly degraded through prolyl hydroxylase dependent interaction with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein, a component of E3 ubuiquitin ligase complex. Using microarray analysis of VHL mutated and re-introduced cells, we found that one of the prolyl hydroxylases (PHD3) is coordinately expressed with known HIF target genes, while the other two family members (PHD1 and 2) did not respond to VHL. We further tested the regulation of these genes by HIF-1 and HIF-2 and found that siRNA targeted degradation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha results in decreased hypoxia-induced PHD3 expression. Ectopic overexpression of HIF-2alpha in two different cell lines provided a much better induction of PHD3 gene than HIF-1alpha. In contrast, we demonstrate that PHD2 is not affected by overexpression or downregulation of HIF-2alpha. However, induction of PHD2 by hypoxia has HIF-1-independent and -dependent components. Short-term hypoxia (4 h) results in induction of PHD2 independent of HIF-1, while PHD2 accumulation by prolonged hypoxia (16 h) was decreased by siRNA-mediated degradation of HIF-1alpha subunit. These data further advance our understanding of the differential role of HIF factors and putative feedback loop in HIF regulation. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Metabolic and phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities during phytoremediation of soil contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmroth, Marja R T; Koskinen, Perttu E P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Münster, Uwe; Pichtel, John; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2007-12-01

    In the current study, the microbial ecology of weathered hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soil undergoing phytoremediation was studied. The relationship of functional diversity, measured as carbon source utilisation in Biolog plates and extracellular enzymatic activities, and genetic diversity of bacteria was evaluated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used for community analyses at the species level. Bulk soil and rhizosphere soil from pine and poplar plantations were analysed separately to determine if the plant rhizosphere impacted hydrocarbon degradation. Prevailing microbial communities in the field site were both genetically and metabolically diverse. Furthermore, both tree rhizosphere and fertilisation affected the compositions of these communities and increased activities of extracellular aminopeptidases. In addition, the abundance of alkane hydroxylase and naphthalene dioxygenase genes in the communities was low, but the prevalence of these genes was increased by the addition of bioavailable hydrocarbons. Tree rhizosphere communities had greater hydrocarbon degradation potential than those of bulk soil. Hydrocarbon utilising communities were dominated generally by the species Ralstonia eutropha and bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia. Despite the presence of viable hydrocarbon-degrading microbiota, decomposition of hydrocarbons from weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil over four years, regardless of the presence of vegetation, was low in unfertilised soil. Compost addition enhanced the removal of hydrocarbons.

  20. Identification and optimization of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in Mucuna pruriens DC. var. utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Singh, Satendra

    2010-05-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase, an iron containing tetrahydrobiopterin dependent monooxygenase (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase; EC 1.14.16.2), catalyzes the rate-limiting step in which L: -dopa is formed from the substrate L-tyrosine. L-Dopa concentration and activity of L-tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme were measured in roots, stem, leaves, pods, and immature seeds of Mucuna pruriens. Immature seeds contained maximum L-dopa content and mature leaves possessed maximum catalytic activity of tyrosine hydroxylase. Tyrosine hydroxylase from leaf homogenate was characterized as a 55 kDa protein by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot analysis with monoclonal mouse IgG2a tyrosine hydroxylase antibody. The conditions for maximum tyrosine hydroxylase activity from the leaf extract were optimized with respect to temperature, pH, cofactor 6-MPH(4), and divalent metal ions. The tyrosine hydroxylase from leaf extract possessed a K (m) value of 808.63 microM for L-tyrosine at 37 degrees C and pH 6.0. The activity of the enzyme was slightly inhibited at 2,000 microM L-tyrosine. Higher concentrations of the cofactor 6-MPH(4), however, completely inhibited the synthesis of L-dopa. Tyrosine hydroxylase converted specific monophenols such as L-tyrosine (808.63 microM) and tyramine (K (m) 1.1 mM) to diphenols L-dopa and dopamine, respectively. Fe(II) activated the enzyme while higher concentration of other divalent metals reduced its activity. For the first time, tyrosine hydroxylase from M. pruriens is being reported in this study.

  1. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  2. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency caused by a single base substitution in an exon of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichter-Konecki, U.; Konecki, D.S.; DiLella, A.G.; Brayton, K.; Marvit, J.; Hahn, T.M.; Trefz, E.K.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1988-01-01

    A novel restriction fragment length polymorphism in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus generated by the restriction endonuclease MspI was observed in a German phenylketonuria (PKU) patient. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analyses revealed that the MspI polymorphism was created by a T to C transition in exon 9 of the human PAH gene, which also resulted in the conversion of a leucine codon to proline codon. The effect of the amino acid substitution was investigated by creating a corresponding mutation in a full-length human PAD cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis followed by expression analysis in cultured mammalian cells. Results demonstrate that the mutation in the gene causes the synthesis of an unstable protein in the cell corresponding to a CRM - phenotype. Together with the other mutations recently reported in the PAH gene,the data support previous biochemical and clinical observations that PKU is a heterogeneous disorder at the gene level

  3. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency caused by a single base substitution in an exon of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichter-Konecki, U.; Konecki, D.S.; DiLella, A.G.; Brayton, K.; Marvit, J.; Hahn, T.M.; Trefz, E.K.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1988-04-19

    A novel restriction fragment length polymorphism in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus generated by the restriction endonuclease MspI was observed in a German phenylketonuria (PKU) patient. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analyses revealed that the MspI polymorphism was created by a T to C transition in exon 9 of the human PAH gene, which also resulted in the conversion of a leucine codon to proline codon. The effect of the amino acid substitution was investigated by creating a corresponding mutation in a full-length human PAD cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis followed by expression analysis in cultured mammalian cells. Results demonstrate that the mutation in the gene causes the synthesis of an unstable protein in the cell corresponding to a CRM/sup -/ phenotype. Together with the other mutations recently reported in the PAH gene,the data support previous biochemical and clinical observations that PKU is a heterogeneous disorder at the gene level.

  4. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  5. Studies on estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, C.N.

    1985-03-01

    A sensitive and specific radio-enzymatic assay was used to study estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes and in microsomes obtained from 6 discrete brain areas of the rat. Kinetic parameters were determined for these enzyme activities. The effects of different P-450 inhibitors on estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in brain and liver microsomes were also studied. In both organs these enzyme activities were found to be located mainly in the microsomal fraction and were inhibited by the 3 P-450 inhibitors tested. The hepatic estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in adult male rats was significantly higher than that of females, but the enzyme activity in the brain did not exhibit a similar sex difference. Furthermore, estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat liver was strongly induced by phenobarbitone treatment, but not in the brain. The phenobarbitone-induced activity in male and female rats exhibited significant kinetic differences. In female rats sexual maturation was associated with significant changes in the apparent Km of estradiol-2/4-hydroxylases in the liver and hypothalamus. Evidence was found that the in vitro estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activity in rat brain and liver is due to more than one form of microsomal P-450. Kinetic studies showed important differences between the estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activities in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Significant differences in estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase activities were observed in the 6 brain areas studied, with the hippocampus showing the highest, and the hypothalamus the lowest activity at all developmental stages in both male and female rats

  6. Tyrosine hydroxylase polymorphism (C-824T) and hypertension: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren J; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity is present in a large proportion of the hypertensive population and precedes the development of established hypertension. Variations in the proximal promoter of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene have been shown to influence biochemical and physiologi......Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity is present in a large proportion of the hypertensive population and precedes the development of established hypertension. Variations in the proximal promoter of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene have been shown to influence biochemical...

  7. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.

  8. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human α 1 -antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the α 1 antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes

  9. Characterization of mutations at the mouse phenylalanine hydroxylase locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.D.; Charlton, C.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Two genetic mouse models for human phenylketonuria have been characterized by DNA sequence analysis. For each, a distinct mutation was identified within the protein coding sequence of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. This establishes that the mutated locus is the same as that causing human phenylketonuria and allows a comparison between these mouse phenylketonuria models and the human disease. A genotype/phenotype relationship that is strikingly similar to the human disease emerges, underscoring the similarity of phenylketonuria in mouse and man. In PAH{sup ENU1}, the phenotype is mild. The Pah{sup enu1} mutation predicts a conservative valine to alanine amino acid substitution and is located in exon 3, a gene region where serious mutations are rare in humans. In PAH{sup ENU2} the phenotype is severe. The Pah{sup enu2} mutation predicts a radical phenylalanine to serine substitution and is located in exon 7, a gene region where serious mutations are common in humans. In PAH{sup ENU2}, the sequence information was used to devise a direct genotyping system based on the creation of a new Alw26I restriction endonuclease site. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Assessment of deoxyhypusine hydroxylase as a putative, novel drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerscher, B; Nzukou, E; Kaiser, A

    2010-02-01

    Antimalarial drug resistance has nowadays reached each drug class on the market for longer than 10 years. The focus on validated, classical targets has severe drawbacks. If resistance is arising or already present in the field, a target-based High-Throughput-Screening (HTS) with the respective target involves the risk of identifying compounds to which field populations are also resistant. Thus, it appears that a rewarding albeit demanding challenge for target-based drug discovery is to identify novel drug targets. In the search for new targets for antimalarials, we have investigated the biosynthesis of hypusine, present in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), which has recently been cloned and expressed from P. falciparum, completes the modification of eIF5A through hydroxylation. Here, we assess the present druggable data on Plasmodium DOHH and its human counterpart. Plasmodium DOHH arose from a cyanobacterial phycobilin lyase by loss of function. It has a low FASTA score of 27 to its human counterpart. The HEAT-like repeats present in the parasite DOHH differ in number and amino acid identity from its human ortholog and might be of considerable interest for inhibitor design.

  11. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  12. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  13. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  14. A novel mutation in the lysyl hydroxylase 1 gene causes decreased lysyl hydroxylase activity in an ehlers-danlos VIA patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, L.C.; Overstreet, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.; Paepe, A. de; Ceylaner, G.; Malfait, F.; Symoens, S.; Atsawasuwan, P.; Yamauchi, M.; Ceylaner, S.; Bank, R.A.; Yeowell, H.N.

    2005-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of a patient with the phenotype of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI was confirmed biochemically by the severely diminished level of lysyl hydroxylase (LH) activity in the patient's skin fibroblasts. A novel homozygous mutation, a single base change of T1360 → G in exon 13 of the

  15. Leukotriene B4 omega-hydroxylase in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Suicidal inactivation by acetylenic fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, S; Reich, N O; Goldstein, I M; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1985-10-25

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) not only generate and respond to leukotriene B4 (LTB4), but also catabolize this mediator of inflammation rapidly and specifically by omega-oxidation (probably due to the action of a cytochrome P-450 enzyme). To develop pharmacologically useful inhibitors of the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in human PMN, we devised a general scheme for synthesizing terminal acetylenic fatty acids based on the "acetylenic zipper" reaction. We found that the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in intact PMN and in PMN sonicates is inactivated in a concentration-dependent fashion by terminal acetylenic analogues of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acids (i.e. 11-dodecynoic, 15-hexadecynoic, and 17-octadecynoic acids). Consistent with a suicidal process, inactivation of the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase requires molecular oxygen and NADPH, is time-dependent, and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Inactivation of the omega-hydroxylase by acetylenic fatty acids also is dependent on the terminal acetylenic moiety and the carbon chain length. Saturated fatty acids lacking a terminal acetylenic moiety do not inactivate the omega-hydroxylase. In addition, the two long-chain (C16, C18) acetylenic fatty acids inactivate the omega-hydroxylase at much lower concentrations (less than 5.0 microM) than those required for inactivation by the short-chain (C12) terminal acetylenic fatty acid (100 microM). Potent suicidal inhibitors of the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in human PMN will help elucidate the roles played by LTB4 and its omega-oxidation products in regulating PMN function and in mediating inflammation.

  16. Development of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cullins, S.; Rashada, S.; Gray, T.K.; Free, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have determined the ontogeny of vitamin D 3 25-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes. Microsomes from fetuses, neonates, and their mothers were incubated with 44 nM 3 H-vitamin D 3 in the presence of an NADPH generating system, oxygen, KCl, and MgCl 2 . Lipid extracts of the incubation samples were partially purified by thin-layer chromatography. Tritiated 25-hydroxy vitamin D 3 (250HD 3 ) was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography using 94/6 hexane/isopropanol. Production rate for 250HD 3 in the mothers ranged from 0.22 to 0.30 pmol/mg protein/hr. Activities in the fetuses and neonates were 2.1, 12.9, 32.0, 35.8, and 71.0% of that of their mothers at -3, 0, 2, 7, and 15 days of age. The cytosolic fraction protected the substrate from degradation, stimulated the vitamin D 3 25-hydroxylase reaction in neonates and mothers (1.4 to 1.7 fold increase), and was absolutely required for 25-hydroxylase activity in fetuses. These data suggest that microsomal vitamin D 3 25-hydroxylase activity develops slowly and approaches full activity near the weaning stage. A cytosolic factor present as early as -3 days of age stimulates the activity of the microsomal vitamin D 3 25-hydroxylase

  17. Clinical, genetic, and structural basis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Haider, Shozeb; Kumar, Ameet; Dhawan, Samarth; Alam, Dauood; Romero, Raquel; Burns, James; Li, Di; Estatico, Jessica; Rahi, Simran; Fatima, Saleel; Alzahrani, Ali; Hafez, Mona; Musa, Noha; Razzghy Azar, Maryam; Khaloul, Najoua; Gribaa, Moez; Saad, Ali; Charfeddine, Ilhem Ben; Bilharinho de Mendonça, Berenice; Belgorosky, Alicia; Dumic, Katja; Dumic, Miroslav; Aisenberg, Javier; Kandemir, Nurgun; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Ozon, Alev; Gonc, Nazli; Cheng, Tina; Kuhnle-Krahl, Ursula; Cappa, Marco; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Nour, Munier A; Pacaud, Daniele; Holtzman, Assaf; Li, Sun; Zaidi, Mone; Yuen, Tony; New, Maria I

    2017-03-07

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), resulting from mutations in CYP11B1 , a gene encoding 11β-hydroxylase, represents a rare autosomal recessive Mendelian disorder of aberrant sex steroid production. Unlike CAH caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency, the disease is far more common in the Middle East and North Africa, where consanguinity is common often resulting in identical mutations. Clinically, affected female newborns are profoundly virilized (Prader score of 4/5), and both genders display significantly advanced bone ages and are oftentimes hypertensive. We find that 11-deoxycortisol, not frequently measured, is the most robust biochemical marker for diagnosing 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. Finally, computational modeling of 25 missense mutations of CYP11B1 revealed that specific modifications in the heme-binding (R374W and R448C) or substrate-binding (W116C) site of 11β-hydroxylase, or alterations in its stability (L299P and G267S), may predict severe disease. Thus, we report clinical, genetic, hormonal, and structural effects of CYP11B1 gene mutations in the largest international cohort of 108 patients with steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency CAH.

  18. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  19. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  20. Deoxysarpagine hydroxylase--a novel enzyme closing a short side pathway of alkaloid biosynthesis in Rauvolfia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingwu; Ruppert, Martin; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2002-08-01

    Microsomal preparations from cell suspension cultures of the Indian plant Rauvolfia serpentina catalyze the hydroxylation of deoxysarpagine under formation of sarpagine. The newly discovered enzyme is dependent on NADPH and oxygen. It can be inhibited by typical cytochrome P450 inhibitors such as cytochrome c, ketoconazole, metyrapone, tetcyclacis and carbon monoxide. The CO-effect is reversible with light (450 nm). The data indicate that deoxysarpagine hydroxylase is a novel cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase. A pH optimum of 8.0 and a temperature optimum of 35 degrees C were determined. K(m) values were 25 microM for NADPH and 7.4 microM for deoxysarpagine. Deoxysarpagine hydroxylase activity was stable in presence of 20% sucrose at -25 degrees C for >3 months. The analysis of presence of the hydroxylase in nine cell cultures of seven different families indicates a very limited taxonomic distribution of this enzyme.

  1. The crystal structure of tryptophan hydroxylase with bound amino acid substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Petersen, Charlotte Rode; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2008-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme, which catalyzes the reaction between tryptophan, O2, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) to produce 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin. This is the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmi......Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme, which catalyzes the reaction between tryptophan, O2, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) to produce 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin. This is the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis...... acid hydroxylase with bound natural amino acid substrate. The iron coordination can be described as distorted trigonal bipyramidal coordination with His273, His278, and Glu318 (partially bidentate) and one imidazole as ligands. The tryptophan stacks against Pro269 with a distance of 3.9 Å between...

  2. Role of ascorbic acid on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the adrenal gland of guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y; Sanada, H; Suzue, R; Kawada, S [National Inst. of Nutrition, Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    The decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenal homogenate in scurvy was recovered after the administration of ascorbic acid. The causes of the increase in the enzyme activity after the administration of ascorbic acid have been studied. 1. No significant elevation in the enzyme activity was observed after the administration of reserpine to the scorbutic guinea pig. 2. A dose of metal chelating agent, ..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..'-dipyridyl, prevented the ascorbic acid-induced or reserpine-induced increase in enzyme activity in the scorbutic and the nonscorbutic guinea pigs, respectively. 3. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was partially recovered by the administration of FeSO/sub 4/ to the scorbutic guinea pig. From these results, it became clear that the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase which was not observed in scurvy was due to the deficiency of Fe/sup 2 +/. These results suggested that ascorbic acid affected the induction of this enzyme via Fe/sup 2 +/.

  3. Role of ascorbic acid on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the adrenal gland of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Yoko; Sanada, Hiroo; Suzue, Ryokuero; Kawada, Shoji

    1976-01-01

    The decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenal homogenate in scurvy was recovered after the administration of ascorbic acid. The causes of the increase in the enzyme activity after the administration of ascorbic acid have been studied. 1. No significant elevation in the enzyme activity was observed after the administration of reserpine to the scorbutic guinea pig. 2. A dose of metal chelating agent, α, α'-dipyridyl, prevented the ascorbic acid-induced or reserpine-induced increase in enzyme activity in the scorbutic and the nonscorbutic guinea pigs, respectively. 3. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was partially recovered by the administration of FeSO 4 to the scorbutic guinea pig. From these results, it became clear that the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase which was not observed in scurvy was due to the deficiency of Fe 2+ . These results suggested that ascorbic acid affected the induction of this enzyme via Fe 2+ . (auth.)

  4. High frequency of cytolytic 21-Hydroxylase specific CD8+ T cells in autoimmune Addison’s disease patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoodji, Amina; Chen, Ji-Li; Shepherd, Dawn; Dalin, Frida; Tarlton, Andrea; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Penna-Martinez, Marissa; Meyer, Gesine; Mitchell, Anna L; Gan, Earn H; Bratland, Eirik; Bensing, Sophie; Husebye, Eystein; Pearce, Simon H.; Badenhoop, Klaus; Kämpe, Olle; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the destruction of the adrenal glands in autoimmune Addison’s disease remain unclear. Autoantibodies against steroid 21-hydroxylase, an intracellular key enzyme of the adrenal cortex, are found in over 90% of patients, but these autoantibodies are not thought to mediate the disease. Here we demonstrate highly frequent 21-hydroxylase specific T cells detectable in 20 patients with Addison’s disease. Using overlapping 18aa peptides spanning the full length of 21-hydroxylase, we identified immunodominant CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses in a large proportion of Addison’s patients both ex-vivo and after in-vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes up to 20 years after diagnosis. In a large proportion of patients, CD8+ 21-hydroxylase specific T cells and CD4+ 21-hydroxylase specific T cells were very abundant and detectable in ex-vivo assays. HLA class-I tetramer-guided isolation of 21-hydroxylase specific CD8+ T cells showed their ability to lyse 21-hydroxylase positive target cells, consistent with a potential mechanism for disease pathogenesis. These data indicate strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to 21-hydroxylase often occur in-vivo, and that reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes have substantial proliferative and cytolytic potential. These results have implications for earlier diagnosis of adrenal failure and ultimately a potential target for therapeutic intervention and induction of immunity against adrenal cortex cancer. PMID:25063864

  5. Suppression of sterol 27-hydroxylase mRNA and transcriptional activity by bile acids in cultured rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, J.; Wit, E.C.M. de; Princen, H.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In previous work we have demonstrated suppression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase by bile acids at the level of mRNA and transcription, resulting in a similar decline in bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes. In view of the substantial contribution of the 'alternative' or '27-hydroxylase'

  6. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  7. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  8. Mechanism-based inactivation of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase by aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, L.S.; Lu, J.Y.L.; Alworth, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxgenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene, 3-ethynylperylene, 2-ethynylfluorene, methyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene, cis- and trans-1-(2-bromovinyl)pyrene, and 1-allylpyrene serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, while 1-vinylpyrene and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes (suicide destruction). The suicide inhibition by these aryl acetylenes therefore does not involve covalent binding to the heme moiety of the monooxygenase. Nevertheless, in the presence of NADPH, 3 H-labeled 1-ethynylpyrene becomes covalently attached to the cytochrome P-450 protein; the measured stoichiometry of binding is one 1-ethynylpyrene per P-450 heme unit. The authors conclude that the inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase produced by 1-ethynylpyrene may be related to the mechanism of suicide inhibition of P-450 activity by chloramphenicol rather than the mechanism of suicide destruction of P-450 previously described for acetylene and propyne

  9. Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) F5H gene that encodes ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Kenaf is well known as a fast growing dicotyledonous plant, which makes it a valuable biomass plant. The ...

  10. Novel vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase gene mutations in a Chinese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... known as vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase deficiency or pseu- dovitamin D ... amplicons of the 378 bp were digested with restriction enzyme PvuI and ... have no enzymatic activity; a missense mutation c.473T>C. (p.L158P) in the ...

  11. The Role of Oxygen Sensors, Hydroxylases, and HIF in Cardiac Function and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Davin Townley-Tilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Oxygen-sensing proteins are critical components of the physiological response to hypoxia and reperfusion injury, but the role of oxygen and oxygen-mediated effects is complex in that they can be cardioprotective or deleterious to the cardiac tissue. Over 200 oxygen-sensing proteins mediate the effects of oxygen tension and use oxygen as a substrate for posttranslational modification of other proteins. Hydroxylases are an essential component of these oxygen-sensing proteins. While a major role of hydroxylases is regulating the transcription factor HIF, we investigate the increasing scope of hydroxylase substrates. This review discusses the importance of oxygen-mediated effects in the heart as well as how the field of oxygen-sensing proteins is expanding, providing a more complete picture into how these enzymes play a multifaceted role in cardiac function and disease. We also review how oxygen-sensing proteins and hydroxylase function could prove to be invaluable in drug design and therapeutic targets for heart disease.

  12. The crystal structure of human dopamine  β-hydroxylase at 2.9 Å resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Trine Vammen; Harris, Pernille; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    , Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and cocaine dependence. We report the crystal structure of human dopamine β-hydroxylase, which is the enzyme converting dopamine to norepinephrine. The structure of the DOMON (dopamine β-monooxygenase N-terminal) domain, also found in >1600...

  13. Phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase activity is induced by phytanic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, A. W.; Jansen, G. A.; van der Burg, B.; Verhoeven, N. M.; Jakobs, C.; van der Saag, P. T.; Wanders, R. J.; Poll-The, B. T.

    2000-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched-chain fatty acid present in various dietary products such as milk, cheese and fish. In patients with Refsum disease, accumulation of phytanic acid occurs due to a deficiency of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, a peroxisomal enzyme

  14. Detection of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neuron cell using gold nanoparticles-based barcode DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong Woo

    2013-04-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosysthesis, is predominantly expressed in several cell groups within the brain, including the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. We evaluated the efficacy of this protein-detection method in detecting tyrosine hydroxylase in normal and oxidative stress damaged dopaminergic cells. In this study, a coupling of DNA barcode and bead-based immnunoassay for detecting tyrosine hydroxylaser with PCR-like sensitivity is reported. The method relies on magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the nanoparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes were identified by PCR analysis. The concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic cell can be easily and rapidly detected using bio-barcode assay. The bio-barcode assay is a rapid and high-throughput screening tool to detect of neurotransmitter such as dopamine.

  15. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2012-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 +\\/- 2.6 and 38.8 +\\/- 6.7% (n=16; P<\\/=0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  16. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2011-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 ± 2.6 and 38.8 ± 6.7% (n=16; P≤0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  17. Recent advances in biochemical and molecular analysis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH covers a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in one of the steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of cortisol or aldosterone from cholesterol in the adrenal glands. Approximately 95% of all CAH cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency encoded by the CYP21A2 gene. The disorder is categorized into classical forms, including the salt-wasting and the simple virilizing types, and nonclassical forms based on the severity of the disease. The severity of the clinical features varies according to the level of residual 21-hydroxylase activity. Newborn screening for CAH is performed in many countries to prevent salt-wasting crises in the neonatal period, to prevent male sex assignment in affected females, and to reduce long-term morbidities, such as short stature, gender confusion, and psychosexual disturbances. 17α-hydroxyprogesterone is a marker for 21-hydroxylase deficiency and is measured using a radioimmunoassay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or a fluoroimmunoassay. Recently, liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for rapid, highly specific, and sensitive analysis of multiple analytes. Urinary steroid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry also provides qualitative and quantitative data on the excretion of steroid hormone metabolites. Molecular analysis of CYP21A2 is useful for genetic counseling, confirming diagnosis, and predicting prognoses. In conclusion, early detection using neonatal screening tests and treatment can prevent the worst outcomes of 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

  18. SUBSTRATE-SPECIFICITY OF THE ALKANE HYDROXYLASE SYSTEM OF PSEUDOMONAS-OLEOVORANS GPO1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, J.B.; Kingma, Jacob; Witholt, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the hydroxylation of a wide range of linear, branched and cyclic alkanes and alkylbenzenes by the alkane hydroxylase system of Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1 in vivo and in vitro. In vivo hydroxylation was determined with whole cells of the recombinant PpS8141; P. putida PpS81 carrying

  19. Immunochemically identical hydrophilic and amphiphilic forms of the bovine adrenomedullary dopamine beta-hydroxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Ole Jannik; Helle, K B; Bock, Elisabeth Marianne

    1979-01-01

    . The dopamine beta-hydroxylases of the buffer and membrane fractions were antigenically identical, but differed in their amphiphilicity, as demonstrated by the change in precipitation patterns on removal of Triton X-100 from the gel, on charge-shift crossed immunoelectrophoresis and on crossed hydrophobic...

  20. Adrenal scan in 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency: false indication of adrenal adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Newman, T.J.; Friedman, A.; Bargman, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    A patient who was thought to have testicular feminization syndrome and primary aldosteronism had an adrenal scan that suggested an adrenal adenoma. After later diagnosis of 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, she was treated with glucocorticoids rather than surgery. Her clinical course and a repeat adrenal scan confirmed she did not have a tumor

  1. Expression and functional analysis of citrus carotene hydroxylases: unravelling the xanthophyll biosynthesis in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Yungyuen, Witchulada; Tsukamoto, Issei; Iijima, Natsumi; Oikawa, Michiru; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Kato, Masaya

    2016-06-29

    Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids and fulfill critical roles in plant growth and development. In plants, two different types of carotene hydroxylases, non-heme di-iron and heme-containing cytochrome P450, were reported to be involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophyll. Citrus fruits accumulate a high amount of xanthophylls, especially β,β-xanthophylls. To date, however, the roles of carotene hydroxylases in regulating xanthophyll content and composition have not been elucidated. In the present study, the roles of four carotene hydroxylase genes (CitHYb, CitCYP97A, CitCYP97B, and CitCYP97C) in the biosynthesis of xanthophyll in citrus fruits were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four citrus carotene hydroxylases presented in four distinct clusters which have been identified in higher plants. CitHYb was a non-heme di-iron carotene hydroxylase, while CitCYP97A, CitCYP97B, and CitCYP97C were heme-containing cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylases. Gene expression results showed that the expression of CitHYb increased in the flavedo and juice sacs during the ripening process, which was well consistent with the accumulation of β,β-xanthophyll in citrus fruits. The expression of CitCYP97A and CitCYP97C increased with a peak in November, which might lead to an increase of lutein in the juice sacs during the ripening process. The expression level of CitCYP97B was much lower than that of CitHYb, CitCYP97A, and CitCYP97C in the juice sacs during the ripening process. Functional analysis showed that the CitHYb was able to catalyze the hydroxylation of the β-rings of β-carotene and α-carotene in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Meanwhile, when CitHYb was co-expressed with CitCYP97C, α-carotene was hydroxylated on the β-ring and ε-ring sequentially to produce lutein. CitHYb was a key gene for β,β-xanthophyll biosynthesis in citrus fruits. CitCYP97C functioned as an ε-ring hydroxylase to produce lutein using zeinoxanthin as a substrate

  2. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  3. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  4. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  5. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  6. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  7. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  8. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  9. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  10. Mapping the functional landscape of frequent phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotypes promotes personalised medicine in phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danecka, Marta K; Woidy, Mathias; Zschocke, Johannes; Feillet, François; Muntau, Ania C; Gersting, Søren W

    2015-03-01

    In phenylketonuria, genetic heterogeneity, frequent compound heterozygosity, and the lack of functional data for phenylalanine hydroxylase genotypes hamper reliable phenotype prediction and individualised treatment. A literature search revealed 690 different phenylalanine hydroxylase genotypes in 3066 phenylketonuria patients from Europe and the Middle East. We determined phenylalanine hydroxylase function of 30 frequent homozygous and compound heterozygous genotypes covering 55% of the study population, generated activity landscapes, and assessed the phenylalanine hydroxylase working range in the metabolic (phenylalanine) and therapeutic (tetrahydrobiopterin) space. Shared patterns in genotype-specific functional landscapes were linked to biochemical and pharmacological phenotypes, where (1) residual activity below 3.5% was associated with classical phenylketonuria unresponsive to pharmacological treatment; (2) lack of defined peak activity induced loss of response to tetrahydrobiopterin; (3) a higher cofactor need was linked to inconsistent clinical phenotypes and low rates of tetrahydrobiopterin response; and (4) residual activity above 5%, a defined peak of activity, and a normal cofactor need were associated with pharmacologically treatable mild phenotypes. In addition, we provide a web application for retrieving country-specific information on genotypes and genotype-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase function that warrants continuous extension, updates, and research on demand. The combination of genotype-specific functional analyses with biochemical, clinical, and therapeutic data of individual patients may serve as a powerful tool to enable phenotype prediction and to establish personalised medicine strategies for dietary regimens and pharmacological treatment in phenylketonuria. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. 1α-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in colonic cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagishetty, Venu; Chun, Rene F.; Liu, Nancy Q.; Lisse, Thomas S.; Adams, John S.; Hewison, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D-insufficiency is a prevalent condition in populations throughout the world, with low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) linked to a variety of human health concerns including cancer, autoimmune disease and infection. Current data suggest that 25OHD action involves localized extra-renal conversion to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) via tissue-specific expression of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase). In cells such as macrophages, expression of 1α-hydroxylase is intimately associated with toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogens. However, this mechanism may not be exclusive to extra-renal generation of 1,25(OH)2D. To investigate the relationship between TLR-mediated pathogen recognition and vitamin D-induced antibacterial activity, intracrine responses to 25OHD metabolism were explored in vitro using the established colonic cell lines Caco-2 and Caco-2 clone BBe. Analysis of antibacterial factors such as cathelicidin (LL37) and β-defensin-4 (DEFB4) was carried out following co-treatment with TLR ligands. Data indicate that, unlike macrophages, Caco-2 and BBe colonic cell lines are unresponsive to TLR-induced 1α-hydroxylase. Alternative activators of 1α-hydroxylase such as transforming growth factor β were also ineffective at priming intracrine responses to 25OHD. Thus, in common with other barrier sites such as the skin or placenta, colonic epithelial cells may require specific factors to initiate intracrine responses to vitamin D. PMID:20152900

  12. 1alpha-hydroxylase and innate immune responses to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in colonic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagishetty, Venu; Chun, Rene F; Liu, Nancy Q; Lisse, Thomas S; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Vitamin D-insufficiency is a prevalent condition in populations throughout the world, with low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) linked to a variety of human health concerns including cancer, autoimmune disease and infection. Current data suggest that 25OHD action involves localized extra-renal conversion to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) via tissue-specific expression of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase). In cells such as macrophages, expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase is intimately associated with toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogens. However, this mechanism may not be exclusive to extra-renal generation of 1,25(OH)2D. To investigate the relationship between TLR-mediated pathogen recognition and vitamin D-induced antibacterial activity, intracrine responses to 25OHD metabolism were explored in vitro using the established colonic cell lines Caco-2 and Caco-2 clone BBe. Analysis of antibacterial factors such as cathelicidin (LL37) and beta-defensin-4 (DEFB4) was carried out following co-treatment with TLR ligands. Data indicate that, unlike macrophages, Caco-2 and BBe colonic cell lines are unresponsive to TLR-induced 1alpha-hydroxylase. Alternative activators of 1alpha-hydroxylase such as transforming growth factor beta were also ineffective at priming intracrine responses to 25OHD. Thus, in common with other barrier sites such as the skin or placenta, colonic epithelial cells may require specific factors to initiate intracrine responses to vitamin D. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of cytochrome P450 IA2 in acetanilide 4-hydroxylation as determined with cDNA expression and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Gelboin, H V; Myers, M J

    1991-02-01

    The role of P450 IA2 in the hydroxylation of acetanilide was examined using an inhibitory monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1-7-1 and vaccinia cDNA expression producing murine P450 IA1 (mIA1), murine P450 IA2 (mIA2), or human P450 IA2 (hIA2). Acetanilide hydroxylase (AcOH) activity was measured using an HPLC method with more than 500-fold greater sensitivity than previously described procedures. This method, which does not require the use of radioactive acetanilide, was achieved by optimizing both the gradient system and the amount of enzyme needed to achieve detection by uv light. MAb 1-7-1 inhibits up to 80% of the AcOH activity in both rat liver microsomes and cDNA expressed mouse and human P450 IA2. MAb 1-7-1, which recognizes both P450 IA1 and P450 IA2, completely inhibits the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity of cDNA expressed in IA1. The inhibition of only 80% of the AHH activity present in MC liver microsomes by MAb 1-7-1 suggests that additional P450 forms are contributing to the overall AHH activity present in methylcholanthrene (MC)-liver microsomes as MAb 1-7-1 almost completely inhibits the AHH activity of expressed mIA1. Maximal inhibition of IA2 by 1-7-1 results in an 80% decrease in acetanilide hydroxylase activity in both liver microsomes and expressed mouse and human IA2. The capacity of MAb 1-7-1 to produce identical levels of inhibition of acetanilide hydroxylase activity in rat MC microsomes (80%) and in expressed mouse (81%) and human P450 IA2 (80%) strongly suggests that P450 IA2 is the major and perhaps the only enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetanilide. These results demonstrate the complementary utility of monoclonal antibodies and cDNA expression for defining the contribution of specific P450 enzymes to the metabolism of a given substrate. This complementary approach allows for a more precise determination of the inhibitory capacity of MAb with respect to the metabolic capacity of the target P450.

  14. High frequency of cytolytic 21-hydroxylase-specific CD8+ T cells in autoimmune Addison's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoodji, Amina; Chen, Ji-Li; Shepherd, Dawn; Dalin, Frida; Tarlton, Andrea; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Penna-Martinez, Marissa; Meyer, Gesine; Mitchell, Anna L; Gan, Earn H; Bratland, Eirik; Bensing, Sophie; Husebye, Eystein S; Pearce, Simon H; Badenhoop, Klaus; Kämpe, Olle; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms behind destruction of the adrenal glands in autoimmune Addison's disease remain unclear. Autoantibodies against steroid 21-hydroxylase, an intracellular key enzyme of the adrenal cortex, are found in >90% of patients, but these autoantibodies are not thought to mediate the disease. In this article, we demonstrate highly frequent 21-hydroxylase-specific T cells detectable in 20 patients with Addison's disease. Using overlapping 18-aa peptides spanning the full length of 21-hydroxylase, we identified immunodominant CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses in a large proportion of Addison's patients both ex vivo and after in vitro culture of PBLs ≤20 y after diagnosis. In a large proportion of patients, CD8(+) and CD4(+) 21-hydroxylase-specific T cells were very abundant and detectable in ex vivo assays. HLA class I tetramer-guided isolation of 21-hydroxylase-specific CD8(+) T cells showed their ability to lyse 21-hydroxylase-positive target cells, consistent with a potential mechanism for disease pathogenesis. These data indicate that strong CTL responses to 21-hydroxylase often occur in vivo, and that reactive CTLs have substantial proliferative and cytolytic potential. These results have implications for earlier diagnosis of adrenal failure and ultimately a potential target for therapeutic intervention and induction of immunity against adrenal cortex cancer. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Brain catecholamine depletion and motor impairment in a Th knock-in mouse with type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, Germaine; Noain, Daniela; Ying, Ming; Hole, Magnus; Flydal, Marte I; Scherer, Tanja; Allegri, Gabriella; Rassi, Anahita; Fingerhut, Ralph; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Pillai, Samyuktha; Wueest, Stephan; Konrad, Daniel; Lauber-Biason, Anna; Baumann, Christian R; Bindoff, Laurence A; Martinez, Aurora; Thöny, Beat

    2015-10-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyses the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to l-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines. Mutations in the TH gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase are associated with the autosomal recessive disorder tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency, which manifests phenotypes varying from infantile parkinsonism and DOPA-responsive dystonia, also termed type A, to complex encephalopathy with perinatal onset, termed type B. We generated homozygous Th knock-in mice with the mutation Th-p.R203H, equivalent to the most recurrent human mutation associated with type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency (TH-p.R233H), often unresponsive to l-DOPA treatment. The Th knock-in mice showed normal survival and food intake, but hypotension, hypokinesia, reduced motor coordination, wide-based gate and catalepsy. This phenotype was associated with a gradual loss of central catecholamines and the serious manifestations of motor impairment presented diurnal fluctuation but did not improve with standard l-DOPA treatment. The mutant tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme was unstable and exhibited deficient stabilization by catecholamines, leading to decline of brain tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in the Th knock-in mice. In fact the substantia nigra presented an almost normal level of mutant tyrosine hydroxylase protein but distinct absence of the enzyme was observed in the striatum, indicating a mutation-associated mislocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nigrostriatal pathway. This hypomorphic mouse model thus provides understanding on pathomechanisms in type B tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency and a platform for the evaluation of novel therapeutics for movement disorders with loss of dopaminergic input to the striatum. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Restricted expression of Neuroglobin in the mouse retina and co-localization with Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, C A; Fahrenkrug, J; Luuk, H

    2012-01-01

    level of Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase were investigated in Ngb-null mice. Ngb-immunoreactivity was found in a few neurons of the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers co-expressing Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase, respectively. Ngb deficiency neither affected the level of Melanopsin...... and Tyrosine Hydroxylase proteins nor the intactness of PACAP-positive retinohypothalamic projections in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Based on the present results, it seems unlikely that Ngb could have a major role in retinal oxygen homeostasis and neuronal survival under normal conditions. The present study...

  17. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  18. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  19. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  20. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  1. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  2. Quantitative radioautographic determination of brain tyrosine hydroxylase after direct transfer into nitro-cellulose and immunochemical detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissmann, D.; Labatut, R.; Gillon, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    An improved quantitative immuno chemical determination of tyrosine hydroxylase brain concentrations was designed by using direct transfer into nitro-cellulose from 20 μm thick brain sections followed by immuno-detection and quantitative radioautography [fr

  3. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  4. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  5. Mechanism of Cytochrome P450 17A1-Catalyzed Hydroxylase and Lyase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Jorgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) catalyzes C17 hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone and the subsequent C17–C20 bond cleavage (lyase reaction) to form androgen precursors. Compound I (Cpd I) and peroxo anion (POA) are the heme-reactive species underlying the two reactions. We have characte...... the concept that the selectivity of the steroidogenic CYPs is ruled by direct interactions with the enzyme, in contrast to the selectivity of drug-metabolizing CYPs, where the reactivity of the substrates dominates....... characterized the reaction path for both the hydroxylase and lyase reactions using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the enzyme–substrate interactions by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Activation barriers for positions subject to hydroxylase reaction have values close to each other and span...

  6. Exome sequencing and SNP analysis detect novel compound heterozygosity in fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Tyler Mark; Simeonov, Dimitre R; Sincan, Murat; Adams, David A; Markello, Thomas; Golas, Gretchen; Fuentes-Fajardo, Karin; Hansen, Nancy F; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Cruz, Pedro; Blackstone, Craig; Tifft, Cynthia; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration due to fatty acid 2-hydroxylase deficiency presents with a wide range of phenotypes including spastic paraplegia, leukodystrophy, and/or brain iron deposition. All previously described families with this disorder were consanguineous, with homozygous mutations in the probands. We describe a 10-year-old male, from a non-consanguineous family, with progressive spastic paraplegia, dystonia, ataxia, and cognitive decline associated with a sural axonal neuropathy. The use of high-throughput sequencing techniques combined with SNP array analyses revealed a novel paternally derived missense mutation and an overlapping novel maternally derived ∼28-kb genomic deletion in FA2H. This patient provides further insight into the consistent features of this disorder and expands our understanding of its phenotypic presentation. The presence of a sural nerve axonal neuropathy had not been previously associated with this disorder and so may extend the phenotype. PMID:22146942

  7. Effects of biogenic aldehydes and aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors on rat brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, G E; Tottmar, O

    1987-04-21

    The effect of indole-3-acetaldehyde, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetaldehyde, disulfiram, diethyldithiocarbamate, coprine, and 1-amino-cyclopropanol on tryptophan hydroxylase activity was studied in vitro using high performance liquid chromatography with electro-chemical detection. With the analytical method developed, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid could be measured simultaneously. Indole-3-acetaldehyde (12-1200 microM) was found to cause a 6-33% inhibition of the enzyme. Dependent upon the nature of the sulfhydryl- or reducing-agent (dithiotreitol, glutathione, or ascorbate) present in the incubates, the degree of inhibition by disulfiram varied, probably due to the formation of various mixed disulfides. Also the presence of diethyldithiocarbamate (160-1600 microM) was found to inhibit tryptophan hydroxylase (28-91%), while 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetaldehyde, coprine, or 1-aminocyclopropanol appeared to have no effect on the enzyme activity.

  8. A sandwich immunoassay for human prolyl 4-hydroxylase using monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shinichi

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody was used in a sandwich enzyme immunoassay and in a radioimmunoassay for human serum immunoreactive prolyl 4-hydroxylase. The enzyme immunoassay utilized a monoclonal antibody as a solid phase and horseradish peroxidase-labeled rabbit antibody to human prolyl 4-hydroxylase as a conjugate. Sensitivity was 0.1 ng of enzyme per tube. With a conjugate purified by an enzyme-bound affinity column, sensitivity was increased to 0.01 ng per tube, and linearity was obtained between 0.01 to 30 ng per tube. The radioimmunoassay used a 125 I-labeled rabbit antibody (IgG) as the conjugate. Sensitivity of this technique was 0.4 ng of enzyme per tube. (Auth.)

  9. Functional analysis of Antirrhinum kelloggii flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes; critical role in flower color and evolution in the genus Antirrhinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Kanako; Taniguchi, Masumi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2012-05-01

    The enzymes flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) play an important role in flower color by determining the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of anthocyanins, the major floral pigments. F3'5'H is necessary for biosynthesis of the delphinidin-based anthocyanins that confer a violet or blue color to most plants. Antirrhinum majus does not produce delphinidin and lacks violet flower colour while A. kelloggii produces violet flowers containing delphinidin. To understand the cause of this inter-specific difference in the Antirrhinum genus, we isolated one F3'H and two F3'5'H homologues from the A. kelloggii petal cDNA library. Their amino acid sequences showed high identities to F3'Hs and F3'5'Hs of closely related species. Transgenic petunia expressing these genes had elevated amounts of cyanidin and delphinidin respectively, and flower color changes in the transgenics reflected the type of accumulated anthocyanidins. The results indicate that the homologs encode F3'H and F3'5'H, respectively, and that the ancestor of A. majus lost F3'5'H activity after its speciation from the ancestor of A. kelloggii.

  10. Effect of halogenated benzenes on acetanilide esterase, acetanilide hydroxylase and procaine esterase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, G P; Dziezak, J D; Johnson, K M

    1979-07-01

    1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, 1,2,4-tribromobenzene, 1,3,5-tribromobenzene and hexabromobenzene were compared for their abilities to induce acetanilide esterase, acentailide hydroxylase and procaine esterase. Except for hexabromobenzene all induced acetanilide esterase whereas the hydroxylation of acetanilide was seen only with the fully halogenated benzenes and with 1,3,5-tribromobenzene. Hepatic procaine esterase activity was increased by the three chlorinated benzenes and 1,2,4-tribromobenzene.

  11. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  12. From "Ugh" to "Ahh": The Power of Sketchbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Pam

    2010-01-01

    "Art history? Ugh!" is often the response of high-school visual arts students when faced with an art-history assignment. With the exception of very few students who might have an affection for the historical aspects of art, getting art history into the hearts and minds of high-school students can be a challenge. In this article, the author shares…

  13. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin-induced sympathectomy in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lonce, S.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin (DHIT) is an antibody-targeted noradrenergic lesioning tool comprised of a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, conjugated to saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. Noradrenergic-neuron specificity and completeness and functionality of sympathectomy were assessed. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 28.5, 85.7, 142 or 285 micrograms/kg DHIT i.v. Three days after injection, a 6% to 73% decrease in the neurons was found in the superior cervical ganglia of the animals. No loss of sensory, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, neurons was observed at the highest dose of DHIT. In contrast, the immunotoxin, 192-saporin (142 micrograms/kg), lesioned all three ganglia. To assess the sympathectomy, 2 wk after treatment (285 micrograms/kg), rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) and cannulated in the femoral artery and vein. DHIT-treated animals' basal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower than controls. Basal plasma norepinephrine levels were 41% lower in DHIT-treated animals than controls. Tyramine-stimulated release of norepinephrine in DHIT-treated rats was 27% of controls. Plasma epinephrine levels of DHIT animals were not reduced. DHIT-treated animals exhibited a 2-fold hypersensitivity to the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. We conclude that DHIT selectively delivered saporin to noradrenergic neurons resulting in destruction of these neurons. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin administration produces a rapid, irreversible sympathectomy.

  14. 24-Hydroxylase in Cancer: Impact on Vitamin D-based Anticancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    The active vitamin D hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) plays a major role in regulating calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization. 1,25(OH)2D3 also modulates cellular proliferation and differentiation in a variety of cell types. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme which converts 1,25(OH)2D3 to less active calcitroic acid. Nearly all cell types express 24-hydroxylase, the highest activity being observed in the kidney. There is increasing evidence linking the incidence and prognosis of certain cancers to low serum 25 (OH)D3 levels and high expression of vitamin D 24-hydroxylase supporting the idea that elevated CYP24A1 expression may stimulate degradation of vitamin D metabolites including 25-(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3. The over expression of CYP24A1 in cancer cells may be a factor affecting 1,25(OH)2D3 bioavailability and anti-proliferative activity pre-clinically and clinically. The combination of 1,25(OH)2D3 with CYP24A1 inhibitors enhances 1,25(OH)2D3 mediated signaling and anti-proliferative effects and may be useful in overcoming effects of aberrant CYP24 expression. PMID:23059474

  15. Structural Insights into Diversity and n-Alkane Biodegradation Mechanisms of Alkane Hydroxylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurui eJi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental microbes utilize four degradation pathways for the oxidation of n-alkanes. Although the enzymes degrading n-alkanes in different microbes may vary, enzymes functioning in the first step in the aerobic degradation of alkanes all belong to the alkane hydroxylases. Alkane hydroxylases are a class of enzymes that insert oxygen atoms derived from molecular oxygen into different sites of the alkane terminus (or termini depending on the type of enzymes. In this review, we summarize the different types of alkane hydroxylases, their degrading steps and compare typical enzymes from various classes with regard to their three dimensional structures, in order to provide insights into how the enzymes mediate their different roles in the degradation of n-alkanes and what determines their different substrate ranges. Through the above analyses, the degrading mechanisms of enzymes can be elucidated and molecular biological methods can be utilized to expand their catalytic roles in the petrochemical industry or in bioremediation of oil-contaminated environments.

  16. Electronic structure description of the cis-MoOS unit in models for molybdenum hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Christian J; Rubie, Nick D; Peariso, Katrina; Harris, Hugh H; Knottenbelt, Sushilla Z; George, Graham N; Young, Charles G; Kirk, Martin L

    2008-01-09

    The molybdenum hydroxylases catalyze the oxidation of numerous aromatic heterocycles and simple organics and, unlike other hydroxylases, utilize water as the source of oxygen incorporated into the product. The electronic structures of the cis-MoOS units in CoCp2[TpiPrMoVOS(OPh)] and TpiPrMoVIOS(OPh) (TpiPr = hydrotris(3-isopropylpyrazol-1-yl)borate), new models for molybdenum hydroxylases, have been studied in detail using S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, and detailed bonding calculations. The results show a highly delocalized Mo=S pi* LUMO redox orbital that is formally Mo(dxy) with approximately 35% sulfido ligand character. Vibrational spectroscopy has been used to quantitate Mo-Ssulfido bond order changes in the cis-MoOS units as a function of redox state. Results support a redox active molecular orbital that has a profound influence on MoOS bonding through changes to the relative electro/nucleophilicity of the terminal sulfido ligand accompanying oxidation state changes. The bonding description for these model cis-MoOS systems supports enzyme mechanisms that are under orbital control and dominantly influenced by the unique electronic structure of the cis-MoOS site. The electronic structure of the oxidized enzyme site is postulated to play a role in polarizing a substrate carbon center for nucleophilic attack by metal activated water and acting as an electron sink in the two-electron oxidation of substrates.

  17. Kinetic mechanism and isotope effects of Pseudomonas cepacia 3-hydroxybenzoate-t-hydroxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.H.; Yu, Y.; Hamzah, R.Y.; Tu, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetic mechanism of Pseudomonas cepacia 3-hydroxybenzoate-6-hydroxylase has been delineated. Double reciprocal plots of initial rate versus m-hydroxybenzoate concentration at a constant level of oxygen and several fixed concentrations of NADH yielded a set of converging lines. Similar reciprocal plots of velocity versus NADH concentration at a constant oxygen level and several fixed m-hydroxybenzoate concentrations also showed converging lines. In contrast, double reciprocal plots of initial rate versus NADH concentration at a fixed m-hydroxybenzoate level and several oxygen concentrations showed a series of parallel lines. Parallel lines were also obtained from double reciprocal plots of initial rate versus m-hydroxybenzoate concentration at a fixed NADH level and varying oxygen concentrations. These results suggest a sequential binding of m-hydroxybenzoate and NADH by the hydroxylase. The enzyme-bound FAD is reduced and NAD is released. The reduced enzyme subsequently reacts with oxygen leading to the formation of other products. This hydroxylase exhibited a primary isotope effect of /sup D/V = 3.5 for (4R)-[4- 2 H] NADH but no isotope effect was observed with (4S)-[4- 2 H]NADH. An isotope effect of /sup T/V/K = 5.0 was also observed using (4R)-[4- 3 H]NADH. This tritium isotope effect was apparently independent of m-hydroxybenzoate concentration

  18. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  19. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  20. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  1. Evidence of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in chemosynthetic mussels from the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, K.; Thomsen, J.; Wilson, C.; McDonald, S.; Safe, S.

    1995-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls expression of various genes including cytochrome P450. Polynuclear aromatic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are agonists for the AhR in fish and mammalian species. Previously, a homologous AhR has not been identified in marine invertebrate species. Chemosynthetic mussels were collected from gas and petroleum seeps in the Gulf of Mexico to investigate the presence of the AhR and the induction of the cytochrome P450 system. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the gill and hepatopancreas were elevated in the petroleum seep mussels relative to those from the gas seep. A nuclear AhR in the hepatopancreas was detected in both mussel populations after treatment with [ 3 H]-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tcdd) followed by sucrose density gradient analysis. Gel mobility shift assays using a labeled dioxin responsive element (DRE) oligonucleotide and tcdd-transformed mussel cytosol showed a retarded band which could be competed with excess unlabeled DRE. Results from gel shifts indicated specific binding of the tcdd-mussel AhR complex to its responsible element. Finally, PCR primers designed to amplify a 700 base pair region of the human AhR detected AhR mRNA in both mussel populations. The sequence of this PCR product is being determined. The presence of the AhR in marine invertebrates has important implications in the evolutionary age of the AhR

  2. Characterization and Two-Dimensional Crystallization of Membrane Component AlkB of the Medium-Chain Alkane Hydroxylase System from Pseudomonas putida GPo1

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Hernan; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The alkane hydroxylase system of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 allows it to use alkanes as the sole source of carbon and energy. Bacterial alkane hydroxylases have tremendous potential as biocatalysts for the stereo- and regioselective transformation of a wide range of chemically inert unreactive alkanes into valuable reactive chemical precursors. We have produced and characterized the first 2-dimensional crystals of the integral membrane component of the P. putida alkane hydroxylase system, the no...

  3. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  4. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  5. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  6. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  7. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  8. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  10. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  12. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  13. Expression of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase and reductase in Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernetics, Árpád; Tóth, Eszter; Farkas, Anita; Nagy, Gábor; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Papp, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    Carotenoids are natural pigments that act as powerful antioxidants and have various beneficial effects on human and animal health. Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina) is a carotenoid producing zygomycetes fungus, which accumulates β-carotene as the main carotenoid but also able to produce the hydroxylated derivatives of β-carotene (i.e. zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) in low amount. These xanthophylls, together with the ketolated derivatives of β-carotene (such as canthaxanthin, echinenone and astaxanthin) have better antioxidant activity than β-carotene. In this study our aim was to modify and enhance the xanthophyll production of the M. circinelloides by expression of heterologous genes responsible for the astaxanthin biosynthesis. The crtS and crtR genes, encoding the cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase and reductase, respectively, of wild-type and astaxanthin overproducing mutant Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains were amplified from cDNA and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared to each other. Introduction of the crtS on autonomously replicating plasmid in the wild-type M. circinelloides resulted enhanced zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin accumulation and the presence of canthaxanthin, echinenone and astaxanthin in low amount; the β-carotene hydroxylase and ketolase activity of the X. dendrorhous cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase in M. circinelloides was verified. Increased canthaxanthin and echinenone production was observed by expression of the gene in a canthaxanthin producing mutant M. circinelloides. Co-expression of the crtR and crtS genes led to increase in the total carotenoid and slight change in xanthophyll accumulation in comparison with transformants harbouring the single crtS gene.

  14. Therapeutic treatment with a novel hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylase inhibitor (TRC160334 ameliorates murine colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ram Gupta,1 Anita R Chaudhary,2 Binita N Shah,1 Avinash V Jadhav,3 Shitalkumar P Zambad,1 Ramesh Chandra Gupta,4 Shailesh Deshpande,4 Vijay Chauthaiwale,4 Chaitanya Dutt4 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Cellular and Molecular Biology, 3Preclinical Safety Evaluation, 4Discovery, Torrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India Background and aim: Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD can be achieved by improvement of intestinal barrier protection. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF has been identified as a critical factor for barrier protection during mucosal insult and is linked with improvement in symptoms of colitis. Although prophylactic efficacy of HIF hydroxylase inhibitors in murine colitis have been established, its therapeutic efficacy in clinically relevant therapeutic settings have not been established. In the present study we aim to establish therapeutic efficacy of TRC160334, a novel HIF hydroxylase inhibitor, in animal models of colitis. Methods: The efficacy of TRC160334 was evaluated in two different mouse models of colitis by oral route. A prophylactic efficacy study was performed in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced mouse model of colitis representing human Crohn's disease pathology. Additionally, a therapeutic efficacy study was performed in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of colitis, a model simulating human ulcerative colitis. Results: TRC160334 treatment resulted in significant improvement in disease end points in both models of colitis. TRC160334 treatment resulted into cytoprotective heatshock protein 70 induction in inflamed colon. TRC160334 successfully attenuated the rate of fall in body weight, disease activity index, and macroscopic and microscopic scores of colonic damage leading to overall improvement in study outcome. Conclusion: Our findings are the first to demonstrate that therapeutic intervention with a HIF hydroxylase inhibitor

  15. Prolyl hydroxylase-1 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis in an NF-κB-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Susan F.; Fábián, Zsolt; Schaible, Bettina; Lenihan, Colin R.; Schwarzl, Thomas [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Rodriguez, Javier [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Zheng, Xingnan; Li, Zongwei [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tambuwala, Murtaza M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Higgins, Desmond G.; O' Meara, Yvonne [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Slattery, Craig [School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Manresa, Mario C. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Fraisl, Peter; Bruning, Ulrike [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Baes, Myriam [Laboratory for Cell Metabolism, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven (Belgium); Carmeliet, Peter; Doherty, Glen [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Kriegsheim, Alex von [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cummins, Eoin P. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); and others

    2016-06-03

    Hepatocyte death is an important contributing factor in a number of diseases of the liver. PHD1 confers hypoxic sensitivity upon transcription factors including the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Reduced PHD1 activity is linked to decreased apoptosis. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) in hepatocytes. Basal NF-κB activity was elevated in PHD1{sup −/−} hepatocytes compared to wild type controls. ChIP-seq analysis confirmed enhanced binding of NF-κB to chromatin in regions proximal to the promoters of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB (but not knock-out of HIF-1 or HIF-2) reversed the anti-apoptotic effects of pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition. We hypothesize that PHD1 inhibition leads to altered expression of NF-κB-dependent genes resulting in reduced apoptosis. This study provides new information relating to the possible mechanism of therapeutic action of hydroxylase inhibitors that has been reported in pre-clinical models of intestinal and hepatic disease. -- Highlights: •Genetic ablation of PHD1 upregulates NF-kappaB (NF-κB) in hepatocytes. •Activation of NF-κB leads to differential DNA-binding of p50/p65 and results in differential regulation of apoptotic genes. •We identified proline 191 in the beta subunit of the I-kappaB kinase as a target for PHD1-mediated hydroxylation. •Blockade of prolyl-4-hydroxylases has been found cytoprotective in liver cells.

  16. 17-α-Hydroxylase deficiency: An unusual case with primary amenorrhea and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl presented with acute onset quadriparesis and newly detected hypertension. Parental consanguinity, delayed puberty with normal stature form the additional information. Hypokalemia with metabolic alkalosis, low cortisol, high ACTH and FSH pointed to the possibility of CAH with 17α hydroxylase deficiency. 46XX karyotype and high progesterone supported this. Normalization of hypokalemia and hypertension with glucocorticoid treatment confirmed the diagnosis. In summary, the possibility of 17 OHD should be suspected in patients with hypokalemic myopathy, Hypertension and hypogonadism so that appropriate therapy can be implemented.

  17. Biochemical and genetic characterization of three molybdenum cofactor hydroxylases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Tine; Frandsen, Gitte Inselmann; Rocher, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases and xanthine dehydrogenases/oxidases belong to the molybdenum cofactor dependent hydroxylase class of enzymes. Zymograms show that Arabidopsis thaliana has at least three different aldehyde oxidases and one xanthine oxidase. Three different cDNA clones encoding putative aldehyde...... oxidases (AtAO1, 2, 3) were isolated. An aldehyde oxidase is the last step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. AtAO1 is mainly expressed in seeds and roots which might reflect that it is involved in ABA biosynthesis....

  18. Self-hydroxylation of the splicing factor lysyl hydroxylase, JMJD6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, M.; Webby, C.J.; Loik, N.D.

    2012-01-01

    The lysyl 5S-hydroxylase, JMJD6 acts on proteins involved in RNA splicing. We find that in the absence of substrate JMJD6 catalyses turnover of 2OG to succinate. H-NMR analyses demonstrate that consumption of 2OG is coupled to succinate formation. MS analyses reveal that JMJD6 undergoes self......-hydroxylation in the presence of Fe(ii) and 2OG resulting in production of 5S-hydroxylysine residues. JMJD6 in human cells is also found to be hydroxylated. Self-hydroxylation of JMJD6 may play a regulatory role in modulating the hydroxylation status of proteins involved in RNA splicing. This journal is...

  19. Involvement of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to tic disorder in Chinese Han population

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Ping; Li, Erzhen; Wang, Jianhua; Cui, Xiaodai; Wang, Liwen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is a potential candidate gene for screening tic disorder (TD). Methods A case–control study was performed to examine the association between the TPH2 gene and TD. The Sequenom® Mass ARRAY iPLEX GOLD System was used to genotype two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TPH2 gene in 149 TD children and in 125 normal controls. Results For rs4565946, individuals with the TT genotype showed a significantly higher risk of TD than those wit...

  20. The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain tissue of Parkinsons disease rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuan; Lian, Yajun; Ma, Yunqing; Wu, Chuanjie; Zheng, Yake; Xie, Nanchang

    2017-01-01

    The expression and significance of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissue of rats with Parkinson's disease (PD) were explored and analyzed. A total of 120 clean-grade and healthy adult Wistar rats weighing 180–240 g were randomly divided equally into four groups according to the random number table method. Rats were sacrificed before and after the model establishment for 3, 6 or 8 weeks. The number of revolutions in rats was observed and the relative expression of TH mRNA in brain tissue w...

  1. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of t...

  2. Human hair follicle benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene 7, 8-diol metabolism: effect of exposure to a coal tar-containing shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, H.F.; Mukhtar, H.; Kaufmann, I.; Das, M.; Bickers, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Hair follicles are a readily available source of human epithelial tissue and offer an excellent system with which to study carcinogen metabolism in human populations. In this study hair follicles were employed to measure the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP), benzo(a)pyrene - 7,8-diol (BP 7,8-diol) and the enzyme mediated binding of /sup 3/H-BP to DNA. The effect of human exposure to a crude coal tar (CCT) - containing shampoo, a preparation rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on these parameters was also evaluated. It was found that aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity increased after use of the shampoo and enhancement of enzyme-mediated binding of BP to DNA was detected in most subjects. Hair follicles were shown to convert BP to several metabolic species and BP, 7,8-diol was also metabolised. Clotrimazole, a known inhibitor of the metabolism of BP was found to inhibit AHH and the metabolism of BP and BP 7,8-diol in human hair follicles, as were other imidazole compounds. The studies show that hair follicles represent an accessible tissue suitable for assessing the extent of PAH carcinogen metabolism in human subjects. Furthermore enzyme activity critical to cancer induction by PAHs was shown to be inducible following the use of a CCT-containing shampoo. Imidazole compounds were shown to be possible effective anti-carcinogens in human populations. 29 refs.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  4. Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Hieracium piloselloides: Their Potential for Hydrocarbon-Utilizing and Plant Growth-Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of 18 crude-oil-degrading endophytic bacteria for removal of hydrocarbons and promotion of plant growth. Strains were isolated from Hieracium piloselloides (tall hawkweed), which grows in soil heavily polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. Bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas were abundant among the isolates. The potential for hydrocarbon degradation was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of the genes alkB, alkH, C23O, P450, and pah. It was found that 88.89% of the endophytic bacteria contained gene-encoding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) initial dioxygenase, 61% possessed the 2,3-catechol dioxygenase gene, and 39% of strains that were tested had the cytochrome P-450 hydroxylase gene. All isolates were capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid (1.8-76.4 μg/ml). Only 17% of them were able to produce siderophores, excrete cellulase, and solubilize phosphate. Hydrogen cyanide synthesis occurred in 33% of endophytic bacteria. The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity in isolates that were screened was in the range of 2.6 to 74.1 μmol α-ketobutyrate/mg/h. This feature of the bacteria indicated that isolates may enhance the phytoremediation process. Data suggest that crude-oil-degrading endophytic bacteria possess potential to be promising candidates for enhancement of phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Further evaluation of these bacteria is needed in order to assess the role played in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  5. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of sorghum [Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench] gene SbC4H1 restricts lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first hydroxylase enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and its content and activity affects the lignin synthesis. In this study, we isolated a C4H gene SbC4H1 from the suppression subtractive hybridization library of brown midrib (bmr) mutants of Sorghum b...

  6. Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yanmin; Wang, Yingdian; Capell, Teresa; Shi, Lianxuan; Ni, Xiuzhen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2015-01-01

    The assignment of functions to genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is necessary to understand how the pathway is regulated and to obtain the basic information required for metabolic engineering. Few carotenoid ε-hydroxylases have been functionally characterized in plants although this would provide insight into the hydroxylation steps in the pathway. We therefore isolated mRNA from the endosperm of maize (Zea mays L., inbred line B73) and cloned a full-length cDNA encoding CYP97C19, a putative heme-containing carotenoid ε hydroxylase and member of the cytochrome P450 family. The corresponding CYP97C19 genomic locus on chromosome 1 was found to comprise a single-copy gene with nine introns. We expressed CYP97C19 cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut1 knockout mutant, which lacks a functional CYP97C1 (LUT1) gene. The analysis of carotenoid levels and composition showed that lutein accumulated to high levels in the rosette leaves of the transgenic lines but not in the untransformed lut1 mutants. These results allowed the unambiguous functional annotation of maize CYP97C19 as an enzyme with strong zeinoxanthin ε-ring hydroxylation activity. PMID:26030746

  7. [Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase from Pseudostellariae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Long, Deng-Kai; Zhou, Tao; Ding, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Wei-Ke

    2016-07-01

    Abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase was one of key enzymes genes in the metabolism of abscisic acid (ABA). Seven menbers of abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase were identified from Pseudostellaria heterophylla transcriptome sequencing results by using sequence homology. The expression profiles of these genes were analyzed by transcriptome data. The coding sequence of ABA8ox1 was cloned and analyzed by informational technology. The full-length cDNA of ABA8ox1 was 1 401 bp,with 480 encoded amino acids. The predicated isoelectric point (pI) and relative molecular mass (MW) were 8.55 and 53 kDa,respectively. Transmembrane structure analysis showed that there were 21 amino acids in-side and 445 amino acids out-side. High level of transcripts can detect in bark of root and fibrous root. Multi-alignment and phylogenetic analysis both show that ABA8ox1 had a high similarity with the CYP707As from other plants,especially with AtCYP707A1 and AtCYP707A3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. These results lay a foundation for molecular mechanism of tuberous root expanding and response to adversity stress. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Lack of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 in mice results in gait abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidan, Georgette L; Duerschmied, Daniel; Dillon, Gregory M; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Hampton, Thomas G; Wong, Siu Ling; Voorhees, Jaymie R; Wagner, Denisa D

    2013-01-01

    The role of peripheral serotonin in nervous system development is poorly understood. Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) is expressed by non-neuronal cells including enterochromaffin cells of the gut, mast cells and the pineal gland and is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of peripheral serotonin. Serotonin released into circulation is taken up by platelets via the serotonin transporter and stored in dense granules. It has been previously reported that mouse embryos removed from Tph1-deficient mothers present abnormal nervous system morphology. The goal of this study was to assess whether Tph1-deficiency results in behavioral abnormalities. We did not find any differences between Tph1-deficient and wild-type mice in general motor behavior as tested by rotarod, grip-strength test, open field and beam walk. However, here we report that Tph1 (-/-) mice display altered gait dynamics and deficits in rearing behavior compared to wild-type (WT) suggesting that tryptophan hydroxylase-1 expression has an impact on the nervous system.

  9. Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough,M.; Li, V.; Flashman, E.; Chowdhury, R.; Mohr, C.; Lienard, B.; Zondlo, J.; Oldham, N.; Clifton, I.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-{alpha} subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Angstroms resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded {beta}-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

  10. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-05-25

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H.

  11. The effects of Urtica dioica L. leaf extract on aniline 4-hydroxylase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Tevfik; Korkmaz, Halil

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol-20% water) extract of Urtica dioica L. on microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase (A4H) were investigated in the liver of Swiss albino mice (8- 10-weeks-old) treated with two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, given orally for 14 days ). The activities of A4H showed a significant increase in the liver at both dose levels of extract treatment. The hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica induced the activities of A4H that had been increased by treatment of metal ions (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and the mixture of cofactors (NADH and NADPH). At saturated concentration of cofactor, microsomal A4H exhibited significantly even higher activities in the presence of the mixture of cofactors than NADPH and NADH. Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions acted as stimulants in vitro. The present results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica may have modalatory effect on aniline hydroxylase at least in part and enhance the activity of A4H adding metals ions and cofactors.

  12. Biochemical characterization of the prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1.cartilage-associated protein.cyclophilin B complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Wirz, Jackie; Vranka, Janice A; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2009-06-26

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein complex consisting of prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1), cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), and cyclophilin B (CypB) can be isolated from chick embryos on a gelatin-Sepharose column, indicating some involvement in the biosynthesis of procollagens. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 modifies a single proline residue in the alpha chains of type I, II, and III collagens to (3S)-hydroxyproline. The peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of cyclophilin B was shown previously to catalyze the rate of triple helix formation. Here we show that cyclophilin B in the complex shows peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity and that the P3H1.CRTAP.CypB complex has another important function: it acts as a chaperone molecule when tested with two classical chaperone assays. The P3H1.CRTAP.CypB complex inhibited the thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and was active in the denatured rhodanese refolding and aggregation assay. The chaperone activity of the complex was higher than that of protein-disulfide isomerase, a well characterized chaperone. The P3H1.CRTAP.CypB complex also delayed the in vitro fibril formation of type I collagen, indicating that this complex is also able to interact with triple helical collagen and acts as a collagen chaperone.

  13. Tyrosine hydroxylase positive nerves and mast cells in the porcine gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stefanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the localisation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH positive nerve fibres (THN and distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase positive mast cells (THMC in the wall of porcine gallbladder. THN were observed as single fibres, nerve fibres forming perivascular plexuses and nerve fibres grouped within the nerve fascicles. In the gallbladder`s fundus, body and neck, the TH+ fibres formed mucosal, muscular and serosal nonganglionated nerve plexuses. Toluidine blue (TB staining was used to confirm that the TH positive cells were mast cells. The number of THMC in the propria of gallbladder`s fundus, body and neck was significantly higher than in the muscular and serosal layers in both genders. The number of mast cells in the musculature was higher than in the serosa. The density and location of the THMC were similar to the TB positive (with gamma meta-chromasia mast cells in both males and females, and statistically significant difference was not established. In conclusion, original data concerning the existence and localisation of catecholaminergic nerves and THMC distribution in the porcine gallbladder’s wall are presented. The results could con-tribute to the body of knowledge of functional communication between autonomic nerves and mast cells in the gallbladder.

  14. Combination growth hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analog therapy in 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Kabra, Madhulika; Menon, P S N

    2006-06-01

    Diagnosis of 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency was made in a boy at the age of 2 1/2 years on the basis of peripheral precocious puberty, growth acceleration (height standard deviation score +4.4) with advanced skeletal maturation (bone age 8.4 years) and elevated deoxycortisol levels. Glucocorticoid supplementation led to normalization of blood pressure but was associated with progression to central precocious puberty and increase in bone age resulting in decrease in predicted adult height to 133.7 cm (target height 163 cm). The child was started on GnRH analog (triptorelin 3.75 mg every 28 days), which led to improvement in predicted adult height by 3.1 cm over 15 months. Addition of growth hormone (0.1 IU/kg/day) resulted in improvement in predicted adult height (151 cm) and height deficit (12 cm) over the next 3.6 years. Final height (151 cm) exceeded predicted height at the initiation of GnRH analog treatment by 17.3 cm. This report suggests that combination GH and GnRH analog treatment may be useful in improving height outcome in children with 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency and compromised final height.

  15. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  17. Expression and DNA methylation levels of prolyl hydroxylases PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and asparaginyl hydroxylase FIH in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawluszko, Agnieszka A; Bujnicka, Katarzyna E; Horbacka, Karolina; Krokowicz, Piotr; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and comprehensively studied malignancies. Hypoxic conditions during formation of CRC may support the development of more aggressive cancers. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a major player in cancerous tissue adaptation to hypoxia, is negatively regulated by the family of prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1, PHD2, PHD3) and asparaginyl hydroxylase, called factor inhibiting HIF (FIH). PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH gene expression was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting in primary colonic adenocarcinoma and adjacent histopathologically unchanged colonic mucosa from patients who underwent radical surgical resection of the colon (n = 90), and the same methods were used for assessment of PHD3 gene expression in HCT116 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines. DNA methylation levels of the CpG island in the promoter regulatory region of PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH were assessed using bisulfite DNA sequencing and high resolution melting analysis (HRM) for patients and HRM analysis for CRC cell lines. We found significantly lower levels of PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 transcripts (p = 0.00026; p < 0.00001; p < 0.00001) and proteins (p = 0.004164; p = 0.0071; p < 0.00001) in primary cancerous than in histopathologically unchanged tissues. Despite this, we did not observe statistically significant differences in FIH transcript levels between cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue, but we found a significantly increased level of FIH protein in CRC (p = 0.0169). The reduced PHD3 expression was correlated with significantly increased DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD3 promoter regulatory region (p < 0.0001). We did not observe DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD1, PHD2 or FIH promoter in cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue. We also showed that 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation leading to increased PHD3 transcript and protein level in HCT116 cells. We

  18. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  19. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  20. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  1. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  2. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  3. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  4. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  5. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  6. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  7. Biosynthesis of caffeic acid in Escherichia coli using its endogenous hydroxylase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid is a natural phenolic compound derived from the plant phenylpropanoid pathway. Caffeic acid and its phenethyl ester (CAPE have attracted increasing attention for their various pharmaceutical properties and health-promoting effects. Nowadays, large-scale production of drugs or drug precursors via microbial approaches provides a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and extraction from plant sources. Results We first identified that an Escherichia coli native hydroxylase complex previously characterized as the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (4HPA3H was able to convert p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid efficiently. This critical enzymatic step catalyzed in plants by a membrane-associated cytochrome P450 enzyme, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H, is difficult to be functionally expressed in prokaryotic systems. Moreover, the performances of two tyrosine ammonia lyases (TALs from Rhodobacter species were compared after overexpression in E. coli. The results indicated that the TAL from R. capsulatus (Rc possesses higher activity towards both tyrosine and L-dopa. Based on these findings, we further designed a dual pathway leading from tyrosine to caffeic acid consisting of the enzymes 4HPA3H and RcTAL. This heterologous pathway extended E. coli native tyrosine biosynthesis machinery and was able to produce caffeic acid (12.1 mg/L in minimal salt medium. Further improvement in production was accomplished by boosting tyrosine biosynthesis in E. coli, which involved the alleviation of tyrosine-induced feedback inhibition and carbon flux redirection. Finally, the titer of caffeic acid reached 50.2 mg/L in shake flasks after 48-hour cultivation. Conclusion We have successfully established a novel pathway and constructed an E. coli strain for the production of caffeic acid. This work forms a basis for further improvement in production, as well as opens the possibility of microbial synthesis

  8. Ehlers Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type due to Lysyl Hydroxylase 1 deficiency in two children without congenital or early onset kyphoscoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Fleur S.; Mancini, Grazia M. S.; Maugeri, Alessandra; Cobben, Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    We report two children with Ehlers Danlos, kyphoscoliotic type confirmed by Lysyl Hydroxylase 1 deficiency due to bi-allelic PLOD1 mutations (kEDS-PLOD1) who were initially thought to have either a diagnosis of classical EDS (cEDS) or a neuromuscular disorder due to absence of (congenital)

  9. A quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical study of the hydroxylation of phenol and halogeneted derivatives by phenol hydroxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, L.; Mulholland, A.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Vervoort, J.

    2000-01-01

    A combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method (AM1/CHARMM) was used to investigate the mechanism of the aromatic hydroxylation of phenol by a flavin dependent phenol hydroxylase (PH), an essential reaction in the degradation of a wide range of aromatic compounds. The model

  10. Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical reaction pathway calculation for aromatic hydroxylation by p-hydroxybenzoate-3-hydroxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, L.; Mulholland, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Vervoort, J.

    1999-01-01

    The reaction pathway for the aromatic 3-hydroxylation of p-hydroxybenzoate by the reactive C4a-hydroperoxyflavin cofactor intermediate in p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) has been investigated by a combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method. A structural model for the

  11. Restricted expression of Neuroglobin in the mouse retina and co-localization with Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundahl, C.A.; Fahrenkrug, J.; Luuk, H.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Hannibal, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Restricted Neuroglobin expression in the mouse retina. ► Antibody validation using Neuroglobin-null mice. ► Co-expression of Neuroglobin with Melanopsin and tyrosine hydroxylase. ► No effect of Neuroglobin deficiency on neuronal survival. -- Abstract: Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuronal specific oxygen binding heme-globin, reported to be expressed at high levels in most layers of the murine retina. Ngb’s function is presently unknown, but based on its high expression level and oxygen binding capabilities Ngb was proposed to function as an oxygen reservoir facilitating oxygen metabolism in highly active neurons or to function as a neuroprotectant. In the present study, we re-examined the expression pattern of Ngb in the retina using a highly validated antibody. Furthermore, intactness of retino-hypothalamic projections and the retinal expression level of Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase were investigated in Ngb-null mice. Ngb-immunoreactivity was found in a few neurons of the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers co-expressing Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase, respectively. Ngb deficiency neither affected the level of Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase proteins nor the intactness of PACAP-positive retinohypothalamic projections in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Based on the present results, it seems unlikely that Ngb could have a major role in retinal oxygen homeostasis and neuronal survival under normal conditions. The present study suggests that a number of previously published reports have relied on antibodies with dubious specificity.

  12. Functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase (C3’H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated or characterized i...

  13. Increased protein expression of LHCG receptor and 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase in human polycystic ovaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comim, F.V.; Teerds, K.J.; Hardy, K.; Franks, S.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the expression of LHCG receptor (LHCGR) protein and key enzymes in the androgen biosynthetic pathway differ in normal human versus polycystic ovarian tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER LHCGR and 17a-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase (CYP17A1) protein levels are increased in polycystic ovaries (PCOs).

  14. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  15. Recent Advances in Developing Inhibitors for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylases and Their Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yeon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs are members of the 2-oxoglutarate dependent non-heme iron dioxygenases. Due to their physiological roles in regulation of HIF-1α stability, many efforts have been focused on searching for selective PHD inhibitors to control HIF-1α levels for therapeutic applications. In this review, we first describe the structure of PHD2 as a molecular basis for structure-based drug design (SBDD and various experimental methods developed for measuring PHD activity. We further discuss the current status of the development of PHD inhibitors enabled by combining SBDD approaches with high-throughput screening. Finally, we highlight the clinical implications of small molecule PHD inhibitors.

  16. Sequence variation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the British Isles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyfield, L.A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom); Stephenson, A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cockburn, F. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Using mutation and haplotype analysis, we have examined the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the phenylketonuria populations of four geographical areas of the British Isles: the west of Scotland, southern Wales, and southwestern and southeastern England. The enormous genetic diversity of this locus within the British Isles is demonstrated in the large number of different mutations characterized and in the variety of genetic backgrounds on which individual mutations are found. Allele frequencies of the more common mutations exhibited significant nonrandom distribution in a north/south differentiation. Differences between the west of Scotland and southwestern England may be related to different events in the recent and past histories of their respective populations. Similarities between southern Wales and southeastern England are likely to reflect the heterogeneity that is seen in and around two large capital cities. Finally, comparison with more recently colonized areas of the world corroborates the genealogical origin by range expansion of several mutations. 38 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Noradrenergic lesioning with an anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Sympathectomy has been achieved by a variety of methods but each has its limitations. These include lack of tissue specificity, incomplete lesioning, and the age range of susceptibility to the lesioning. To circumvent these drawbacks, an immunotoxin was constructed using a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic specific enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) coupled via a disulfide bond to saporin, a ribosomal inactivating protein. Three days after intravenous injection of the anti-D beta H immunotoxin (50 micrograms) into adult Sprague-Dawley rats, 66% of neurons in the superior cervical ganglia were chromatolytic. Superior cervical ganglia neurons were poisoned in 1 day old and 1 week old (86% of neurons) neonatal rats following subcutaneous injection of 3.75 and 15 micrograms, respectively. The anti-D beta H immunotoxin will be a useful tool in the study of the peripheral noradrenergic system in adult and neonatal animals.

  18. Estradiol or fluoxetine alters depressive behavior and tryptophan hydroxylase in rat raphe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Zhong; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Cai, Yi-Yun; Shi, Shen-Xun

    2010-03-10

    The effects of 17beta-estradiol and fluoxetine on behavior of ovariectomized rats subjected to the forced swimming test and the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in dorsal and median raphe were investigated, respectively through time sampling technique of behavior scoring and immunohistochemistry. Both estradiol and fluoxetine increased swimming and decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. The forced swimming stress decreased integrated optical density of TPH-positive regions in dorsal and median raphe. Both estradiol and fluoxetine administration prevented integrated optical density of TPH-positive regions from being decreased by forced swimming stress. These observations suggest that both estradiol and fluoxetine have protective bearing on ovariectomized rats enduring forced swimming stress.

  19. Modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the central nervous system visualized by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berod, A.; Biguet, N.F.; Dumas, S.; Bloch, B.; Mallet, J.

    1987-01-01

    cDNA probe was used for in situ hybridization studies on histological sections through the locus coeruleus, substantia nigra, and the ventral tegmental area of the rat brain. Experimental conditions were established that yielded no background and no signal when pBR322 was used as control probe. Using the tyrosine hydroxylase probe, the authors ascertained the specificity of the labeling over catecholaminergic cells by denervation experiments and comparison of the hybridization pattern with that of immunoreactivity. The use of 35 S-labeled probe enabled the hybridization signal to be resolved at the cellular level. A single injection of reserpine into the rat led to an increase of the intensity of the autoradiographic signal over the locus coeruleus area, confirming an RNA gel blot analysis. The potential of in situ hybridization to analyze patterns of modulation of gene activity as a result of nervous activity is discussed

  20. To Cheat or Not To Cheat: Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 SNP Variants Contribute to Dishonest Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qiang; Teo, Meijun; Winter, Eyal; Hart, Einav; Chew, Soo H; Ebstein, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    Although, lying (bear false witness) is explicitly prohibited in the Decalogue and a focus of interest in philosophy and theology, more recently the behavioral and neural mechanisms of deception are gaining increasing attention from diverse fields especially economics, psychology, and neuroscience. Despite the considerable role of heredity in explaining individual differences in deceptive behavior, few studies have investigated which specific genes contribute to the heterogeneity of lying behavior across individuals. Also, little is known concerning which specific neurotransmitter pathways underlie deception. Toward addressing these two key questions, we implemented a neurogenetic strategy and modeled deception by an incentivized die-under-cup task in a laboratory setting. The results of this exploratory study provide provisional evidence that SNP variants across the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene, that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of brain serotonin, contribute to individual differences in deceptive behavior.

  1. To cheat or not to cheat: Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 SNP variants contribute to dishonest behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang eShen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although lying (bear false witness is explicitly prohibited in the Decalogue and a focus of interest in philosophy and theology, more recently the behavioral and neural mechanisms of deception are gaining increasing attention from diverse fields especially economics, psychology and neuroscience. Despite the considerable role of heredity in explaining individual differences in deceptive behavior, few studies have investigated which specific genes contribute to the heterogeneity of lying behavior across individuals. Also, little is known concerning which specific neurotransmitter pathways underlie deception. Towards addressing these two key questions, we implemented a neurogenetic strategy and modeled deception by an incentivized die-under-cup task in a laboratory setting. The results of this exploratory study provide provisional evidence that SNP variants across the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 gene, that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of brain serotonin, contribute to individual differences in deceptive behavior.

  2. Reproductive outcomes of female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase defi ciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Feki Mnif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD appears to be reduced, especially in women with the classic salt-wasting type. Several factors have been suggested to contribute to this subfertility such as androgen excess, adrenal progesterone hypersecretion, consequences of genital reconstructive surgery, secondary polycystic ovaries syndrome, and psychosexual factors. In contrast to this subfertility, pregnancies are commonly normal and uneventful. Adequate glucocorticoid therapy and improvement of surgical and psychological management could contribute to optimize fertility in CAH female patients, even among women with the classic variant. This review provides current information regarding the reproductive outcomes of women with CAH due to 21-OHD and the fertility and pregnancy issues in this population.

  3. Bacillus anthracis Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Interacts with and Modifies Elongation Factor Tu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnicker, Nicholas J. [Department; Razzaghi, Mortezaali [Department; Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta [Department; Chakravarthy, Srinivas [Biophysics; Dey, Mishtu [Department

    2017-10-17

    Prolyl hydroxylation is a very common post-translational modification and plays many roles in eukaryotes such as collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and controlling protein transcription and translation. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that prokaryotes contain prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) homologous to the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes that act on elongation factor Tu (EFTu) and are likely involved in the regulation of bacterial translation. Recent biochemical and structural studies with a PHD from Pseudomonas putida (PPHD) determined that it forms a complex with EFTu and hydroxylates a prolyl residue of EFTu. Moreover, while animal, plant, and viral P4Hs act on peptidyl proline, most prokaryotic P4Hs have been known to target free l-proline; the exceptions include PPHD and a P4H from Bacillus anthracis (BaP4H) that modifies collagen-like proline-rich peptides. Here we use biophysical and mass spectrometric methods to demonstrate that BaP4H recognizes full-length BaEFTu and a BaEFTu 9-mer peptide for site-specific proline hydroxylation. Using size-exclusion chromatography coupled small-angle X-ray scattering (SEC–SAXS) and binding studies, we determined that BaP4H forms a 1:1 heterodimeric complex with BaEFTu. The SEC–SAXS studies reveal dissociation of BaP4H dimeric subunits upon interaction with BaEFTu. While BaP4H is unusual within bacteria in that it is structurally and functionally similar to the animal PHDs and collagen P4Hs, respectively, this work provides further evidence of its promiscuous substrate recognition. It is possible that the enzyme might have evolved to hydroxylate a universally conserved protein in prokaryotes, similar to the PHDs, and implies a functional role in B. anthracis.

  4. Effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, corticosterone, and hippocampal tyrosine hydroxylase in adolescent and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struntz, Katelyn H; Siegel, Jessica A

    2018-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a psychomotor stimulant drug that can alter behavior, the stress response system, and the dopaminergic system. The effects of MA can be modulated by age, however relatively little research has examined the acute effects of MA in adolescents and how the effects compare to those found in adults. The hippocampal dopamine system is altered by MA exposure and can modulate anxiety-like behavior, but the effects of MA on the hippocampal dopamine system have not been well studied, especially in adolescent animals. In order to assess potential age differences in the effects of MA exposure, this research examined the effects of acute MA exposure on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, plasma corticosterone levels, and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6 J mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and was used as a marker of the hippocampal dopaminergic system. Mice were exposed to saline or 4 mg/kg MA and locomotor and anxiety-like behavior were measured in the open field test. Serum and brains were collected immediately after testing and plasma corticosterone and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels measured. MA-exposed mice showed increased locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test compared with saline controls, regardless of age. There was no effect of MA on plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in either adolescent or adult mice. These data suggest that acute MA exposure during adolescence and adulthood increases locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior but does not alter plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels, and that these effects are not modulated by age

  5. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  6. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  7. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  8. Enrichment and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from petroleum refinery waste as potent bioaugmentation agent for in situ bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Poulomi; Roy, Ajoy; Pal, Siddhartha; Mohapatra, Balaram; Kazy, Sufia K; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sar, Pinaki

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic biodegradation potential of bacteria from petroleum refinery waste was investigated through isolation of cultivable strains and their characterization. Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. populated the normal cultivable taxa while prolonged enrichment with hydrocarbons and crude oil yielded hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria of genera Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Kocuria, Pandoraea, etc. Strains isolated through enrichment showed assemblages of superior metabolic properties: utilization of aliphatic (C6-C22) and polyaromatic compounds, anaerobic growth with multiple terminal electron acceptors and higher biosurfactant production. Biodegradation of dodecane was studied thoroughly by GC-MS along with detection of gene encoding alkane hydroxylase (alkB). Microcosms bioaugmented with Enterobacter, Pandoraea and Burkholderia strains showed efficient biodegradation (98% TPH removal) well fitted in first order kinetic model with low rate constants and decreased half-life. This study proves that catabolically efficient bacteria resides naturally in complex petroleum refinery wastes and those can be useful for bioaugmentation based bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  10. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  11. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  12. Quantification of tumour initiating effect of jute batching oil and its distillates over mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R; Kumar, S; Shukla, Y; Antony, M; Mehrotra, N K

    1985-09-30

    In order to identify the tumour initiating constituent(s) of a mineral oil, jute batching oil (JBO), used in the processing of jute fibres, it was fractionally distilled in various boiling range fractions. The latter were then subjected to in vivo assessment of their aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) inducing potential in mouse epidermis. Fractions with almost similar AHH inducing potential were regrouped and studied for their tumour initiating potential over mouse skin following two-stage initiation-promotion protocol and using 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as tumour promoter. It was noticed that: (1) JBO as initiator, provoked local development of benign skin tumours over mouse back; (2) fractions of JBO boiling below 335 degrees C and above 399 degrees C accounted for most of the tumour initiating potential of the oil; (3) the histological features of the tumours (i.e. benign papillomas and keratoacanthomas) initiated by these fractions were similar to those developed after being initiated with unfractionated or reconstituted JBO; (4) removal of these fractions from JBO may be attempted which could decontaminate the batch oil from most of its tumorigenic components and make it safer for industrial use.

  13. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  14. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  15. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  16. Cytochrome P450 1A expression in midwater fishes: Potential effects of chemical contaminants in remote oceanic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, John J.; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.; Craddock, James E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction is a robust marker for exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that are aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. We examined CYP1A expression in mesopelagic fishes from the western North Atlantic. Individuals in 22 species were obtained from slope water and the Sargasso Sea in 1977, 1978, and 1993. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), a CYP1A activity, was detected in liver from all species in 1977/78. In some, including Gonostoma elongatum, AHH was inhibited by the CYP1A inhibitor ??-naphthoflavone. CYP1A-dependent ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) was detected in liver microsomes of all species in 1993; rates were highest in G. elongatum and Argyropelecus aculeatus. Immunoblot analysis with the CYP1A-specific monoclonal antibody 1-12-3 detected a single microsomal protein band in most 1993 samples; the highest content was in G. elongatum. Immunohistochemical analysis showed CYP1A staining in gill, heart, kidney, and/or liver of several species. Extracts of the 1993 G. elongatum and A. aculeatus, when applied to fish hepatoma cells (PLHC-1) in culture, elicited a significant induction of EROD in those cells. The capacity of the extracts to induce CYP1A correlated with the content of PCBs measured in the same fish (2-4.6 ng/g total body weight). Mesopelagic fish in the western North Atlantic, which experience no direct exposure to surface waters or sediments, are exposed chronically to inducers of CYP1A at levels that appear to be biochemically active in those fish.Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction is a robust marker for exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that are awl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. We examined CYP1A expression in mesopelagic fishes from the western North Atlantic. Individuals in 22 species were obtained from slope water and the Sargasso Sea in 1977, 1978, and 1993. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), a CYP1A

  17. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  18. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  20. Magnetic circular dichroism studies on microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase: comparison with cytochrome b/sub 5/ and cytochrome P-450/sub cam/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, L; Salmon, A; Sauer, K

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism spectra are reported for the visible and near ultraviolet spectral regions of liver microsomes from dimethylbenzanthracene-treated rats. The sequential addition of NADH, dithionite, and carbon monoxide enables us to determine contributions to the magnetic circular dichroism by cytochromes b/sub 5/ and P-450, which dominate the spectra. The magnetic circular dichroism of the microsomal preparation is compared with that of purified oxidized and reduced cytochrome b/sub 5/ from pig liver and with the camphor-complexed and camphor-free oxidized, reduced, and reduced carbonmonoxy cytochrome P-450/sub cam/ from Pseudomonas putida. The magnetic circular dichroism spectra of the membrane bound cytochrome b/sub 5/ are similar to those of the purified protein, indicating that little or no alteration in the environment of the heme occurs during the isolation procedure. The soluble bacterial cytochrome P-450/sub cam/ also appears to be a suitable model for microsomal P-450, although differences in the magnetic circular dichroism intensity are observed for the two enzymes. No effect of dimethylbenzanthracene on the magnetic circular dichroism spectra of induced compared to control rat microsomes could be observed.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor I enhances proenkephalin synthesis and dopamine β-hydroxylase activity in adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased both the contents of proenkephalin derived enkephalin-containing peptides and the activity of dopamine β-hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. These increases in dopamine β-hydroxylase and enkephalin-containing peptides continued for at least 8 days. The half-maximal IGF-I concentration for these effects was ∼ 1 nM, with maximal effects observed at 10-30 nM. In contrast, insulin was 1,000-fold less potent. Pretreatment of chromaffin cells with IGF-I increased the rate of [ 35 S]proenkephalin synthesis 4-fold compared to untreated cells. Total protein synthesis increased only 1.5-fold under these conditions. These results suggest that IGF-I may be a normal regulator of chromaffin cell function

  2. Insulin-like growth factor I enhances proenkephalin synthesis and dopamine. beta. -hydroxylase activity in adrenal chromaffin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, S.P. (Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased both the contents of proenkephalin derived enkephalin-containing peptides and the activity of dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. These increases in dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase and enkephalin-containing peptides continued for at least 8 days. The half-maximal IGF-I concentration for these effects was {approximately} 1 nM, with maximal effects observed at 10-30 nM. In contrast, insulin was 1,000-fold less potent. Pretreatment of chromaffin cells with IGF-I increased the rate of ({sup 35}S)proenkephalin synthesis 4-fold compared to untreated cells. Total protein synthesis increased only 1.5-fold under these conditions. These results suggest that IGF-I may be a normal regulator of chromaffin cell function.

  3. Structural and Kinetic Studies of Novel Cytochrome P450 Small-Alkane Hydroxylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-02-27

    The goals of this project are to investigate (1) the kinetics and stabilities of engineered cytochrome P450 (P450) small alkane hydroxylases and their evolutionary intermediates, (2) the structural basis for catalytic proficiency on small alkanes of these engineered P450s, and (3) the changes in redox control resulting from protein engineering. To reach these goals, we have established new methods for determining the kinetics and stabilities of multicomponent P450s such as CYP153A6. Using these, we were able to determine that CYP153A6 is proficient for hydroxylation of alkanes as small as ethane, an activity that has never been observed previously in any natural P450. To elucidate the structures of the engineered P450s, we obtained x-ray diffraction data for two variants in the P450PMO (propane monooxygenase) lineage and a preliminary structure for the most evolved variant. This structure shows changes in the substrate binding regions of the enzyme and a reduction in active site volume that are consistent with the observed changes in substrate specificity from fatty acids in the native enzyme to small alkanes in P450PMO. We also constructed semi-rational designed libraries mutating only residues in the enzyme active site that in one round of mutagenesis and screening produced variants that achieved nearly half of the activity of the most evolved enzymes of the P450PMO lineage. Finally, we found that changes in redox properties of the laboratory-evolved P450 alkane hydroxylases did not reflect the improvement in their electron transfer efficiency. The heme redox potential remained constant throughout evolution, while activity increased and coupling efficiency improved from 10% to 90%. The lack of correlation between heme redox potential and enzyme activity and coupling efficiency led us to search for other enzyme properties that could be better predictors for activity towards small alkanes, specifically methane. We investigated the oxidation potential of the radical

  4. Fox-2 protein regulates the alternative splicing of scleroderma-associated lysyl hydroxylase 2 messenger RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puneet; Yeowell, Heather N

    2010-04-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]) is a complex connective tissue disorder characterized by hardening and thickening of the skin. One hallmark of scleroderma is excessive accumulation of collagen accompanied by increased levels of pyridinoline collagen crosslinks derived from hydroxylysine residues in the collagen telopeptide domains. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), an important alternatively spliced enzyme in collagen biosynthesis, acts as a collagen telopeptide hydroxylase. Changes in the pattern of LH2 alternative splicing, favoring increased inclusion of the alternatively spliced LH2 exon 13A, thereby increasing the levels of the long transcript of LH2 (LH2[long]), are linked to scleroderma disease. This study was undertaken to examine the role played by RNA binding protein Fox-2 in regulating exon 13A inclusion, which leads to the generation of scleroderma-associated LH2(long) messenger RNA (mRNA). Phylogenetic sequence analysis of introns flanking exon 13A was performed. A tetracycline-inducible system in T-Rex 293 cells was used to induce Fox-2 protein, and endogenous LH2(long) mRNA was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. An LH2 minigene was designed, validated, and used in Fox-2 overexpression and mutagenesis experiments. Knockdown of Fox-2 was performed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from SSc patients. Overexpression of Fox-2 enhanced the inclusion of exon 13A and increased the generation of LH2(long) mRNA, whereas knockdown of Fox-2 decreased LH2(long) transcripts. Mutational analysis of an LH2 minigene demonstrated that 2 of the 4 Fox binding motifs flanking LH2 exon 13A are required for inclusion of exon 13A. In early passage fibroblasts derived from patients with scleroderma, the knockdown of Fox-2 protein significantly decreased the endogenous levels of LH2(long) mRNA. Our findings indicate that Fox-2 plays an integral role in the regulation of LH2 splicing. Knockdown of Fox-2 and other methods to decrease

  5. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase-Dependent Stimulation of Renal Klotho Expression by Spironolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Alesutan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Klotho, a transmembrane protein, protease and hormone mainly expressed in kidney, is required for the suppression of 1,25(OH2D3-generating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1 by FGF23. Conversely, 1,25(OH2D3 stimulates, by activating the vitamin D3 receptor (Vdr, the expression of klotho, thus establishing a negative feedback loop. Klotho protects against renal and vascular injury. Klotho deficiency accelerates aging and early death, effects at least partially due to excessive formation of 1,25(OH2D3 and subsequent hyperphosphatemia. Klotho expression is inhibited by aldosterone. The present study explored the interaction of aldosterone and DOCA as well as the moderately selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone on klotho expression. Methods: mRNA levels were determined utilizing quantitative RT-PCR in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 or in renal tissues from mice without or with prior mineralocorticoid (aldosterone or DOCA and/or spironolactone treatment. In HEK293 cells, protein levels were determined by western blotting. The experiments in HEK293 cells were performed without or with silencing of CYP27B1, of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR or of mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2. Results: In HEK293 cells aldosterone and in mice DOCA significantly decreased KLOTHO gene expression, effects opposed by spironolactone treatment. Spironolactone treatment alone significantly increased KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in HEK293 cells (24 hours and mice (8 hours or 5 days. Moreover, spironolactone significantly increased klotho and CYP27B1 protein levels in HEK293 cells (48 hours. Reduced NR3C2 expression following silencing did not significantly affect KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in presence or absence of spironolactone. Silencing of CYP27B1 and VDR significantly blunted the stimulating effect of spironolactone on KLOTHO mRNA levels in HEK293 cells. Conclusion: Besides blocking the effects of

  6. Inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase decreases muscle fibrosis following chronic rotator cuff tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumucio, J P; Flood, M D; Bedi, A; Kramer, H F; Russell, A J; Mendias, C L

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are among the most frequent upper extremity injuries. Current treatment strategies do not address the poor quality of the muscle and tendon following chronic rotator cuff tears. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that activates many genes that are important in skeletal muscle regeneration. HIF-1α is inhibited under normal physiological conditions by the HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (PHDs). In this study, we used a pharmacological PHD inhibitor, GSK1120360A, to enhance the activity of HIF-1α following the repair of a chronic cuff tear, and measured muscle fibre contractility, fibrosis, gene expression, and enthesis mechanics. Chronic supraspinatus tears were induced in adult rats, and repaired 28 days later. Rats received 0 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg GSK1120360A daily. Collagen content, contractility, fibre type distribution and size, the expression of genes involved in fibrosis, lipid accumulation, atrophy and inflammation, and the mechanical properties of the enthesis were then assessed two weeks following surgical repair. At two weeks following repair, treatment groups showed increased muscle mass but there was a 15% decrease in force production in the 10 mg/kg group from controls, and no difference between the 0 mg/kg and the 3 mg/kg groups. There was a decrease in the expression of several gene transcripts related to matrix accumulation and fibrosis, and a 50% decrease in collagen content in both treated groups compared with controls. Additionally, the expression of inflammatory genes was reduced in the treated groups compared with controls. Finally, PHD inhibition improved the maximum stress and displacement to failure in repaired tendons. GSK1120360A resulted in improved enthesis mechanics with variable effects on muscle function. PHD inhibition may be beneficial for connective tissue injuries in which muscle atrophy has not occurred.Cite this article: J. P. Gumucio, M. D. Flood, A. Bedi, H. F. Kramer, A. J

  7. Tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area of rams with high or low libido-A role for dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A C; Mirto, A J; Austin, K J; Roselli, C E; Alexander, B M

    2017-12-01

    Dopamine synthesis in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is necessary for the reinforcement of sexual behavior. The objective of this study determined if sexual stimuli initiates reward, and whether reward is attenuated in sexually inactive rams. Sexually active rams were exposed to urine from estrous (n=4) or ovariectomized (n=3) ewes with inactive rams (n=3) exposed to urine from estrous ewes. Following exposure, rams were exsanguinated and brains perfused. Alternating sections of the VTA were stained for Fos related antigens (FRA), tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity. Forebrain tissue, mid-sagittal ventral to the anterior corpus callosum, was stained for dopamine D 2 receptors. Concentrations of cortisol was determined prior to and following exposure. Exposure to ovariectomized-ewe urine in sexually active rams did not influence (P=0.6) FRA expression, but fewer (PSexually inactive rams had fewer (Psexually active rams following exposure to estrous ewe urine. VTA neurons staining positive for dopamine beta-hydroxylase did not differ by sexual activity (P=0.44) or urine exposure (P=0.07). Exposure to stimulus did not influence (P=0.46) numbers of forebrain neurons staining positive for dopamine D2 receptors in sexually active rams, but fewer (P=0.04) neurons stain positive in inactive rams. Serum concentrations of cortisol did not differ (P≥0.52) among rams prior to or following stimulus. In conclusion sexual inactivity is unlikely due to stress, but may be partially a result of decreased tyrosine hydroxylase and/or the response to dopamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of transgenic expression of dopamine beta hydroxylase (Dbh) gene on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Landa, Vladimír; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Šilhavý, Jan; Mir, S.A.; Vaingankar, S. M.; Wang, J.; Kurtz, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2016), s. 1039-1044 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/0696; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02010013 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spontaneously hypertensive rat * transgenic * dopamine beta hydroxylase * catecholamines * blood pressure * left ventricular mass Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  9. Lignification in transgenics deficient in 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)or the associated hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Takuya Akiyama; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Sally A. Ralph; Clint Chapple; Ramesh B. Nair; Armin Wagner; Fang Chen; M.S. Srinivasa Reddy; Richard A Dixon; Heather D. Coleman; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2006-01-01

    Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in angiosperms massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to the normally dominant syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units. Alfalfa stem levels of up to ~65% P (from wild-type (WT) levels of ~1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were measured by...

  10. Improvement of semen quality in an infertile man with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, suppressed serum gonadotropins and testicular adrenal rest tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report improvement of semen quality in a 30-year-old man with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) because of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, bilateral testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) and a 1.5-year infertility history. His adrenal substitution therapy was changed from hydrocortisone 10...... for the presence of TART and disturbed reproductive hormones levels, leading to impaired semen quality. Optimizing the medical treatment may at least in some cases improve fecundity....

  11. Leukotriene B4 omega-hydroxylase in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Partial purification and identification as a cytochrome P-450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, S; Goldstein, I M

    1985-09-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) not only synthesize and respond to leukotriene B4 (LTB4), but also catabolize this mediator of inflammation rapidly and specifically by omega-oxidation. To characterize the enzyme(s) responsible for omega-oxidation of LTB4, human PMN were disrupted by sonication and subjected to differential centrifugation to yield membrane, granule, and cytosol fractions (identified by biochemical markers). LTB4 omega-hydroxylase activity was concentrated (together with NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity) only in the membrane fraction (specific activity increased 10-fold as compared to whole sonicates, 41% recovery). Negligible activity was detected in granule or cytosol fractions. LTB4 omega-hydroxylase activity in isolated PMN membranes was linear with respect to duration of incubation and protein concentration, was maximal at pH 7.4, had a Km for LTB4 of 0.6 microM, and was dependent on oxygen and on reduced pyridine nucleotides (apparent Km for NADPH = 0.5 microM; apparent Km for NADH = 223 microM). The LTB4 omega-hydroxylase was inhibited significantly by carbon monoxide, ferricytochrome c, SKF-525A, and Triton X-100, but was not affected by alpha-naphthoflavone, azide, cyanide, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Finally, isolated PMN membranes exhibited a carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a peak at 452 nm. Thus, we have partially purified the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in human PMN and identified the enzyme as a membrane-associated, NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450.

  12. Restricted expression of Neuroglobin in the mouse retina and co-localization with Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundahl, C.A., E-mail: c.hundahl@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Centre of Excellence for Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fahrenkrug, J. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Luuk, H. [Centre of Excellence for Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Hay-Schmidt, A. [Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hannibal, J. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Restricted Neuroglobin expression in the mouse retina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody validation using Neuroglobin-null mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-expression of Neuroglobin with Melanopsin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No effect of Neuroglobin deficiency on neuronal survival. -- Abstract: Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuronal specific oxygen binding heme-globin, reported to be expressed at high levels in most layers of the murine retina. Ngb's function is presently unknown, but based on its high expression level and oxygen binding capabilities Ngb was proposed to function as an oxygen reservoir facilitating oxygen metabolism in highly active neurons or to function as a neuroprotectant. In the present study, we re-examined the expression pattern of Ngb in the retina using a highly validated antibody. Furthermore, intactness of retino-hypothalamic projections and the retinal expression level of Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase were investigated in Ngb-null mice. Ngb-immunoreactivity was found in a few neurons of the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers co-expressing Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase, respectively. Ngb deficiency neither affected the level of Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase proteins nor the intactness of PACAP-positive retinohypothalamic projections in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Based on the present results, it seems unlikely that Ngb could have a major role in retinal oxygen homeostasis and neuronal survival under normal conditions. The present study suggests that a number of previously published reports have relied on antibodies with dubious specificity.

  13. Genesis by meiotic unequal crossover of a de novo deletion that contributes to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnott, P.; Collier, S.; Dyer, P.A.; Harris, R.; Strachan, T.; Costigan, C.

    1990-01-01

    The HLA-linked human steroid 21-hydroxylase gene CYP21B and its closely homologous pseudogene CYP21A are each normally located centromeric to a fourth component of complement (C4) gene, C4B and C4A, respectively, in an organization suggesting tandem duplication of a ca. 30-kilobase DNA unit containing a CYP21 gene and a C4 gene. Such an organization has been considered to facilitate gene deletion and addition events by unequal crossover between the tandem repeats. The authors have identified a steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency patient who has a maternally inherited disease haplotype that carries a de novo deletion of a ca. 30-kilobase repeat unit including the CYP21B gene and associated C4B gene. This disease haplotype appears to have been generated as a result of meiotic unequal crossover between maternal homologous chromosomes. One of the maternal haplotypes is the frequently occurring HLA-DR3,B8,A1 haplotype that normally carries a deletion of a ca. 30-kilobase unit including the CYP21A gene and C4A gene. Haplotypes of this type may possible act as premutations, increasing the susceptibility of developing a 21-hydroxylase deficiency mutation by facilitating unequal chromosome pairing

  14. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  15. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  16. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  17. Hydrocarbon degradation potential and plant growth-promoting activity of culturable endophytic bacteria of Lotus corniculatus and Oenothera biennis from a long-term polluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Cania, Barbara; Thijs, Sofie; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-08-01

    Many endophytic bacteria exert beneficial effects on their host, but still little is known about the bacteria associated with plants growing in areas heavily polluted by hydrocarbons. The aim of the study was characterization of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading endophytic bacteria associated with Lotus corniculatus L. and Oenothera biennis L. collected in long-term petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted site using culture-dependent and molecular approaches. A total of 26 hydrocarbon-degrading endophytes from these plants were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses classified the isolates into the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The majority of strains belonged to the genera Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Rhodococcus. More than 90% of the isolates could grow on medium with diesel oil, approximately 20% could use n-hexadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR analysis revealed that 40% of the isolates possessed the P450 gene encoding for cytochrome P450-type alkane hydroxylase (CYP153). In in vitro tests, all endophytic strains demonstrated a wide range of plant growth-promoting traits such as production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and phosphate solubilization. More than 40% of the bacteria carried the gene encoding for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (acdS). Our study shows that the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in tested plants was different. The results revealed also that the investigated plants were colonized by endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting features and a clear potential to degrade hydrocarbons. The properties of isolated endophytes indicate that they have the high potential to improve phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils.

  18. A Tyrosine-Hydroxylase Characterization of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Honey Bee Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanus R. Tedjakumala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA plays a fundamental role in insect behavior as it acts both as a general modulator of behavior and as a value system in associative learning where it mediates the reinforcing properties of unconditioned stimuli (US. Here we aimed at characterizing the dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the honey bee, an insect that serves as an established model for the study of learning and memory. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity (ir to ensure that the neurons detected synthesize DA endogenously. We found three main dopaminergic clusters, C1–C3, which had been previously described; the C1 cluster is located in a small region adjacent to the esophagus (ES and the antennal lobe (AL; the C2 cluster is situated above the C1 cluster, between the AL and the vertical lobe (VL of the mushroom body (MB; the C3 cluster is located below the calyces (CA of the MB. In addition, we found a novel dopaminergic cluster, C4, located above the dorsomedial border of the lobula, which innervates the visual neuropils of the bee brain. Additional smaller processes and clusters were found and are described. The profuse dopaminergic innervation of the entire bee brain and the specific connectivity of DA neurons, with visual, olfactory and gustatory circuits, provide a foundation for a deeper understanding of how these sensory modules are modulated by DA, and the DA-dependent value-based associations that occur during associative learning.

  19. Stable preparations of tyrosine hydroxylase provide the solution structure of the full-length enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezem, Maria T.; Baumann, Anne; Skjærven, Lars; Meyer, Romain; Kursula, Petri; Martinez, Aurora; Flydal, Marte I.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. TH is a highly complex enzyme at mechanistic, structural, and regulatory levels, and the preparation of kinetically and conformationally stable enzyme for structural characterization has been challenging. Here, we report on improved protocols for purification of recombinant human TH isoform 1 (TH1), which provide large amounts of pure, stable, active TH1 with an intact N-terminus. TH1 purified through fusion with a His-tagged maltose-binding protein on amylose resin was representative of the iron-bound functional enzyme, showing high activity and stabilization by the natural feedback inhibitor dopamine. TH1 purified through fusion with a His-tagged ZZ domain on TALON is remarkably stable, as it was partially inhibited by resin-derived cobalt. This more stable enzyme preparation provided high-quality small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data and reliable structural models of full-length tetrameric TH1. The SAXS-derived model reveals an elongated conformation (Dmax = 20 nm) for TH1, different arrangement of the catalytic domains compared with the crystal structure of truncated forms, and an N-terminal region with an unstructured tail that hosts the phosphorylation sites and a separated Ala-rich helical motif that may have a role in regulation of TH by interacting with binding partners. PMID:27462005

  20. Effect of Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 rs7305115 SNP on suicide attempts risk in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuqi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide and major depressive disorders (MDD are strongly associated, and genetic factors are responsible for at least part of the variability in suicide risk. We investigated whether variation at the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 gene rs7305115 SNP may predispose to suicide attempts in MDD. Methods We genotyped TPH2 gene rs7305115 SNP in 215 MDD patients with suicide and matched MDD patients without suicide. Differences in behavioral and personality traits according to genotypic variation were investigated by logistic regression analysis. Results There were no significant differences between MDD patients with suicide and controls in genotypic (AG and GG frequencies for rs7305115 SNP, but the distribution of AA genotype differed significantly (14.4% vs. 29.3%, p p p Conclusions The study suggested that hopelessness, negative life events and family history of suicide were risk factors of attempted suicide in MDD while the TPH2 rs7305115A remained a significant protective predictor of suicide attempts.

  1. Tissue Specific Expression of Cre in Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine Active Transporter-Positive Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyi; Brown, Andrew; Fisher, Dan; Wu, Yumei; Warren, Joe; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The rat is a preferred model system over the mouse for neurological studies, and cell type-specific Cre expression in the rat enables precise ablation of gene function in neurons of interest, which is especially valuable for neurodegenerative disease modeling and optogenetics. Yet, few such Cre rats are available. Here we report the characterization of two Cre rats, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre and dopamine active transporter (DAT or Slc6a3)-Cre, by using a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as well as a fluorescent reporter for Cre activity. We detected Cre expression in expected neurons in both Cre lines. Interestingly, we also found that in Th-Cre rats, but not DAT-Cre rats, Cre is expressed in female germ cells, allowing germline excision of the floxed allele and hence the generation of whole-body knockout rats. In summary, our data demonstrate that targeted integration of Cre cassette lead to faithful recapitulation of expression pattern of the endogenous promoter, and mRNA FISH, in addition to IHC, is an effective method for the analysis of the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns in the rat brain, alleviating the dependence on high quality antibodies that are often not available against rat proteins. The Th-Cre and the DAT-Cre rat lines express Cre in selective subsets of dopaminergic neurons and should be particularly useful for researches on Parkinson's disease.

  2. Hepatic Cholesterol-25-Hydroxylase Overexpression Improves Systemic Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Noebauer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for several diseases including diabetes, heart disease, and some forms of cancer and due to its rapidly increasing prevalence it has become one of the biggest problems medicine is facing today. All the more surprising, a substantial percentage of obese patients are metabolically healthy when classified based on insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Oxysterols are naturally occurring molecules that play important role in various metabolic and inflammatory processes and their levels are elevated in patients suffering from obesity and diabetes. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC is produced in cells from cholesterol by the enzyme cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (Ch25h and is involved in lipid metabolism, inflammatory processes, and cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of hepatic Ch25h in the transition from metabolically healthy obesity to insulin resistance and diabetes. Using several different experimental approaches, we demonstrated the significance of Ch25h on the border of “healthy” and “diseased” states of obesity. Adenovirus-mediated Ch25h overexpression in mice improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and lowered HOMA-IR. Our data suggest that low hepatic Ch25h levels could be considered a risk marker for unhealthy obesity.

  3. High Myopia Caused by a Mutation in LEPREL1, Encoding Prolyl 3-Hydroxylase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordechai, Shikma; Gradstein, Libe; Pasanen, Annika; Ofir, Rivka; El Amour, Khalil; Levy, Jaime; Belfair, Nadav; Lifshitz, Tova; Joshua, Sara; Narkis, Ginat; Elbedour, Khalil; Myllyharju, Johanna; Birk, Ohad S.

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive high-grade axial myopia was diagnosed in Bedouin Israeli consanguineous kindred. Some affected individuals also had variable expressivity of early-onset cataracts, peripheral vitreo-retinal degeneration, and secondary sight loss due to severe retinal detachments. Through genome-wide linkage analysis, the disease-associated gene was mapped to ∼1.7 Mb on chromosome 3q28 (the maximum LOD score was 11.5 at θ = 0 for marker D3S1314). Sequencing of the entire coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of the six genes within the defined locus identified a single mutation (c.1523G>T) in exon 10 of LEPREL1, encoding prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 (P3H2), a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that hydroxylates collagens. The mutation affects a glycine that is conserved within P3H isozymes. Analysis of wild-type and p.Gly508Val (c.1523G>T) mutant recombinant P3H2 polypeptides expressed in insect cells showed that the mutation led to complete inactivation of P3H2. PMID:21885030

  4. Highly sensitive assay for tyrosine hydroxylase activity by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, T; Oka, K; Kato, T

    1979-07-21

    A highly sensitive assay for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with amperometric detection was devised based on the rapid isolation of enzymatically formed DOPA by a double-column procedure, the columns fitted together sequentially (the top column of Amberlite CG-50 and the bottom column of aluminium oxide). DOPA was adsorbed on the second aluminium oxide column, then eluted with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid, and assayed by HPLC with amperometric detection. D-Tyrosine was used for the control. alpha-Methyldopa was added to the incubation mixture as an internal standard after incubation. This assay was more sensitive than radioassays and 5 pmol of DOPA formed enzymatically could be measured in the presence of saturating concentrations of tyrosine and 6-methyltetrahydropterin. The TH activity in 2 mg of human putamen could be easily measured, and this method was found to be particularly suitable for the assay of TH activity in a small number of nuclei from animal and human brain.

  5. Tryptophan hydroxylase Is Required for Eye Melanogenesis in the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramwell G Lambrus

    Full Text Available Melanins are ubiquitous and biologically important pigments, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate their synthesis and biochemical composition are not fully understood. Here we present a study that supports a role for serotonin in melanin synthesis in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We characterize the tryptophan hydroxylase (tph gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, and demonstrate by RNA interference that tph is essential for melanin production in the pigment cups of the planarian photoreceptors. We exploit this phenotype to investigate the biological function of pigment cups using a quantitative light-avoidance behavioral assay. Planarians lacking eye pigment remain phototactic, indicating that eye pigmentation is not essential for light avoidance in S. mediterranea, though it improves the efficiency of the photophobic response. Finally, we show that the eye pigmentation defect observed in tph knockdown animals can be rescued by injection of either the product of TPH, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, or serotonin. Together, these results highlight a role for serotonin in melanogenesis, perhaps as a regulatory signal or as a pigment substrate. To our knowledge, this is the first example of this relationship to be reported outside of mammalian systems.

  6. Incorporation of a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor into scaffolds: a strategy for stimulating vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Adeline; Martinez, Eliana C; Beyer, Sebastian; Trau, Dieter W; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Clinical applications of tissue engineering are constrained by the ability of the implanted construct to invoke vascularization in adequate extent and velocity. To overcome the current limitations presented by local delivery of single angiogenic factors, we explored the incorporation of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHIs) into scaffolds as an alternative vascularization strategy. PHIs are small molecule drugs that can stabilize the alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a key transcription factor that regulates a variety of angiogenic mechanisms. In this study, we conjugated the PHI pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) through amide bonds to a gelatin sponge (Gelfoam(®)). Fibroblasts cultured on PDCA-Gelfoam were able to infiltrate and proliferate in these scaffolds while secreting significantly more vascular endothelial growth factor than cells grown on Gelfoam without PDCA. Reporter cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged HIF-1α exhibited dose-dependent stabilization of this angiogenic transcription factor when growing within PDCA-Gelfoam constructs. Subsequently, we implanted PDCA-Gelfoam scaffolds into the perirenal fat tissue of Sprague Dawley rats for 8 days. Immunostaining of explants revealed that the PDCA-Gelfoam scaffolds were amply infiltrated by cells and promoted vascular ingrowth in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the incorporation of PHIs into scaffolds appears to be a feasible strategy for improving vascularization in regenerative medicine applications.

  7. Regional mapping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and the phenylketonuria locus in the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidsky, A.S.; Law, M.L.; Morse, H.G.; Kao, F.T.; Rabin, M.; Ruddle, F.H.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1985-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. To define the regional map position of the disease locus and the PAH gene on human chromosome 12, DNA was isolated from human-hamster somatic cell hybrids with various deletions of human chromosome 12 and was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using the human cDNA PAH clone as a hybridization probe. From these results, together with detailed biochemical and cytogenetic characterization of the hybrid cells, the region on chromosome 12 containing the human PAH gene has been defined as 12q14.3..-->..qter. The PAH map position on chromosome 12 was further localized by in situ hybridization of /sup 125/I-labeled human PAH cDNA to chromosomes prepared from a human lymphoblastoid cell line. Results of these experiments demonstrated that the region on chromosome 12 containing the PAH gene and the PKU locus in man is 12q22..-->..12q24.1. These results not only provide a regionalized map position for a major human disease locus but also can serve as a reference point for linkage analysis with other DNA markers on human chromosome 12.

  8. Regional mapping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and the phenylketonuria locus in the human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidsky, A.S.; Law, M.L.; Morse, H.G.; Kao, F.T.; Rabin, M.; Ruddle, F.H.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. To define the regional map position of the disease locus and the PAH gene on human chromosome 12, DNA was isolated from human-hamster somatic cell hybrids with various deletions of human chromosome 12 and was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using the human cDNA PAH clone as a hybridization probe. From these results, together with detailed biochemical and cytogenetic characterization of the hybrid cells, the region on chromosome 12 containing the human PAH gene has been defined as 12q14.3→qter. The PAH map position on chromosome 12 was further localized by in situ hybridization of 125 I-labeled human PAH cDNA to chromosomes prepared from a human lymphoblastoid cell line. Results of these experiments demonstrated that the region on chromosome 12 containing the PAH gene and the PKU locus in man is 12q22→12q24.1. These results not only provide a regionalized map position for a major human disease locus but also can serve as a reference point for linkage analysis with other DNA markers on human chromosome 12

  9. Gypsy Phenylketonuria: A point mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Gypsy families from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalanin, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experical Medicine, Praha (Czechoslovakia); Takarada, Y. [Toyobo Research Center, Shiga (Japan); Kagawa, S.; Yamashita, K.; Ohtsuka, N.; Matsuoka, A. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1994-01-15

    A direct mutational analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in Gypsy families with phenylketonuria (PKU) has not yet been presented. However, they obviously represent a group at high risk for this inherited disease. The authors analyzed the PAH loci of 65 Gypsies originating from Eastern Slovakia by a combination of PCR amplification, direct sequencing and ASO hybridization. These studies uncovered 10 {open_quotes}classical PKU{close_quotes} patients to be homozygous for a R252W (CGG-TGG) transition, and 29 heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Fifteen control Caucasoid PKU patients from the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected. In this group they detected R252W mutation in two subjects (6.67% of all mutant alleles). Both were compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Previous haplotype studies of Welsh Gypsies with PKU were uninformative in the determination of heterozygosity. ASO hybridization served effectively for the consequent analyses in Gypsy PKU-related families and to identify the carriers among the unrelated subjects. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Putaminal mosaic visualized by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in the human neostriatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma eMorigaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, the putamen plays a critical role in the ‘motor’ circuits that control voluntary movements and motor learning. The human neostriatum comprises two functional subdivisions known as the striosome (patch and matrix compartments. Accumulating evidence suggests that compartment-specific dysregulations of dopamine activity might be involved in the disease-specific pathology and symptoms of human striatal diseases including movement disorders. This study was undertaken to examine whether or how striatal dopaminergic innervations are organized into the compartmentalized architecture found in the putamen of adult human brains. For this purpose, we used a highly sensitive immunohistochemistry technique to identify tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, EC 1.14.16.2, a marker for striatal dopaminergic axons and terminals, in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from autopsied human brains. Herein, we report that discrete compartmentalization of TH-labeled innervations occurs in the putamen, as in the caudate nucleus, with a higher density of TH labeling in the matrix compared to the striosomes. Our results provide anatomical evidence to support the hypothesis that compartment-specific dysfunction of the striosome-matrix dopaminergic systems might contribute to the genesis of movement disorders.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene by glucocorticoid and cyclic AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.J.; Harrington, C.A.; Chikaraishi, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and cyclic AMP increase tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and mRNA levels in pheochromocytoma cultures. The transcriptional activity of the TH gene, as measured by nuclear run-on assay, is also increased when cultures are treated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone or agents that increase intracellular cyclic AMP, such as forskolin and 8-BrcAMP. Both inducers effect transcriptional changes within 10 min after treatment and are maximal after 30 min for forskolin and after 60 min for dexamethasone. The 5' flanking sequences of the TH gene were fused to the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and the hybrid gene was transfected into pheochromocytoma cultures and GH 4 pituitary cells. In both cell lines, a region of the TH gene containing bases -272 to +27 conferred induction of CAT by cyclic AMP, but not by glucocorticoid. The same results were found when a region of the TH gene containing -773 to + 27 was used. Thus, the sequences required for induction of TH by cyclic AMP are contained within 272 bases of 5' flanking sequence, but sequences sufficient for glucocorticoid regulation are not contained with 773 bases

  12. Sex-dependent differences in phenobarbitane-induced oestradiol-2-hydroxylase activity in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, C.N.; Neethling, A.C.; Taljaard, J.J.F. (Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Pathology)

    1981-08-15

    Oestradiol-2-hydroxylase (E/sub 2/-OH) activity was measured in liver and brain microsomes of 6-8-week-old Wistar rats. Phenobarbitone (75 mg/kg daily for 3 days) significantly increased enzyme activity in the liver of males and females, but there were striking differences between the two sexes. In males the enzyme activity was increased by 37% over control values and in females by 200%. The total microsomol cytochrome P-450 content was increased by 75% in males and by 82% in females. The apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)) of E/sub 2/-OH for 17..beta..-oestradiol in untreated males (9,8 ..mu..M) and females (9,2 ..mu..M) did not differ significantly. Phenobarbitone treatment, however, tended to reduce the apparent K(m) in males (8,2 ..mu..M) and to increase it in females (18,7 ..mu..M). E/sub 2/-OH activity was also detected in brain tissue of both sexes, but it was 50-200-fold lower than in the liver and was not increased by phenobarbitone.

  13. Signaling hypoxia by hypoxia-inducible factor protein hydroxylases: a historical overview and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Tammie; Ratcliffe, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    By the early 1900s, the close matching of oxygen supply with demand was recognized to be a fundamental requirement for physiological function, and multiple adaptive responses to environment hypoxia had been described. Nevertheless, the widespread operation of mechanisms that directly sense and respond to levels of oxygen in animal cells was not appreciated for most of the twentieth century with investigators generally stressing the regulatory importance of metabolic products. Work over the last 25 years has overturned that paradigm. It has revealed the existence of a set of “oxygen-sensing” 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases that catalyze the hydroxylation of specific amino acid residues and thereby control the stability and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor. The hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylase pathway regulates a massive transcriptional cascade that is operative in essentially all animal cells. It transduces a wide range of responses to hypoxia, extending well beyond the classical boundaries of hypoxia physiology. Here we review the discovery and elucidation of these pathways, and consider the opportunities and challenges that have been brought into focus by the findings, including new implications for the integrated physiology of hypoxia and therapeutic approaches to ischemic/hypoxic disease. PMID:27774477

  14. Tyrosine hydroxylase regulatory domain as indicator of enzyme sensitivity to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafayeva, N.N.; Alieva, I.N.; Aliev, Ds.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: At the present time contra dictionary and variously kind opinions concern to effect of different level of irradiation on the structure and functional activity of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the key a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines are discussed in this study. To date, the effect of the irradiation on the both catalytic and N-terminal regulatory domains of TH localized in the different parts of the brain has been established. Th is responsible for dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline catecholamines neuro mediators biosynthesis, so a number of pathological changes in an organism has been induced by the structural reorganization different parts of the TH domains under pathological effect of environment. The available conformational states of the human TH type 1 (hTH1) regulatory domain, the activity of which is regulated by the feedback inhibition of the catecholamine products including dopamine has been established by the method of molecular mechanics. It is shown that N-terminal sequence Met30-Ser40 of hTH1 located between the two a-helices (residues 16-29 and residues 41-59) has a number of low-energy conformational states. The most available structures consists of b-turn type II on the pentapeptide fragment of hTH1. This fragment distortion under pathological factors effect, i.e. irradiation may lead to global reorganization in enzyme structure as well as at the enzyme catalytic and regulatory functions

  15. The Factor Inhibiting HIF Asparaginyl Hydroxylase Regulates Oxidative Metabolism and Accelerates Metabolic Adaptation to Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jingwei; Cowburn, Andrew S; Palazon, Asis; Madhu, Basetti; Tyrakis, Petros A; Macías, David; Bargiela, David M; Pietsch, Sandra; Gralla, Michael; Evans, Colin E; Kittipassorn, Thaksaon; Chey, Yu C J; Branco, Cristina M; Rundqvist, Helene; Peet, Daniel J; Johnson, Randall S

    2018-04-03

    Animals require an immediate response to oxygen availability to allow rapid shifts between oxidative and glycolytic metabolism. These metabolic shifts are highly regulated by the HIF transcription factor. The factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) is an asparaginyl hydroxylase that controls HIF transcriptional activity in an oxygen-dependent manner. We show here that FIH loss increases oxidative metabolism, while also increasing glycolytic capacity, and that this gives rise to an increase in oxygen consumption. We further show that the loss of FIH acts to accelerate the cellular metabolic response to hypoxia. Skeletal muscle expresses 50-fold higher levels of FIH than other tissues: we analyzed skeletal muscle FIH mutants and found a decreased metabolic efficiency, correlated with an increased oxidative rate and an increased rate of hypoxic response. We find that FIH, through its regulation of oxidation, acts in concert with the PHD/vHL pathway to accelerate HIF-mediated metabolic responses to hypoxia. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase Gene from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonggeun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.. Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84, is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78% with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48 h, wounding (24 h, cold (24 h, abscisic acid (24 h, and methyl jasmonate (24 h.

  17. Maternal and infantile hypercalcemia caused by vitamin-D-hydroxylase mutations and vitamin D intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Dganit; Davidovits, Miriam; Aviner, Shraga; Ganon, Liat; Michael, Leonid; Modan-Moses, Dalit; Vered, Iris; Bibi, Haim; Frishberg, Yaacov; Holtzman, Eli J

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is caused by many different conditions and may lead to severe complications. Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1, encoding vitamin D-24-hydroxylase, have recently been identified in idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia and in adult kidney stone disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetics and clinical features of both infantile and maternal hypercalcemia. We studied members of four unrelated Israeli families with hypercalcemia, namely, one woman during pregnancy and after delivery and three infants. Clinical and biochemical data were obtained from probands' medical charts. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and CYP24A1 was sequenced. Typical symptoms of hypercalcemia associated with the intake of recommended doses of vitamin D developed in the infants and pregnant woman. Four different loss-of-function CYP24A1 mutations were identified, two of which are reported here for the first time (p.Trp134Gly and p.Glu315*). The infants from families 1 and 2, respectively, were found to be compound heterozygotes, and the infant from family 3 and the pregnant woman were found to be homozygous. This is the first report of maternal hypercalcemia caused by a CYP24A1 mutation, showing that not only infants are at risk for this complication. Our findings emphasize the importance of recognition, genetic diagnosis and proper treatment of this recently identified hypercalcemic disorder in this era of widespread vitamin D supplements.

  18. Regulation of cholesterol 25-hydroxylase expression by vitamin D3 metabolites in human prostate stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-H.; Tuohimaa, Pentti

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin D 3 plays an important role in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is an enzyme converting cholesterol into 25-hydroxycholesterol. Vitamin D 3 as well as 25-hydroxycholesterol has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce cell apoptosis. Here we show that 10 nM 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and 500 nM 25OHD 3 upregulate CH25H mRNA expression in human primary prostate stromal cells (P29SN). Protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide does not block 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 mediated upregulation of CH25H mRNA. Transcription inhibitor actinomycin D blocks basal level as well as 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 induced CH25H mRNA expression. 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 has no effect on CH25H mRNA stability. 25-Hydroxycholesterol significantly decreased the P29SN cell number. A CH25H enzyme inhibitor, desmosterol, increases basal cell number but has no significant effect on vitamin D 3 treated cells. Our data suggest that ch25h could be a vitamin D 3 target gene and may partly mediate anti-proliferative action of vitamin D 3 in human primary prostate stromal cells

  19. CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56: a fascinating norisoprenoid and sesquiterpene hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thuy T B; Khatri, Yogan; Zapp, Josef; Hutter, Michael C; Bernhardt, Rita

    2012-07-01

    Many terpenes and terpenoid compounds are known as bioactive substances with desirable fragrance and medicinal activities. Modification of such compounds to yield new derivatives with desired properties is particularly attractive. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are potential enzymes for these reactions due to their capability of performing different reactions on a variety of substrates. We report here the characterization of CYP264B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 as a novel sesquiterpene hydroxylase. CYP264B1 was able to convert various sesquiterpenes including nootkatone and norisoprenoids (α-ionone and β-ionone). Nootkatone, an important grapefruit aromatic sesquiterpenoid, was hydroxylated mainly at position C-13. The product has been shown to have the highest antiproliferative activity compared with other nootkatone derivatives. In addition, CYP264B1 was found to hydroxylate α- and β-ionone, important aroma compounds of floral scents, regioselectively at position C-3. The products, 3-hydroxy-β-ionone and 13-hydroxy-nootkatone, were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The kinetics of the product formation was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the K ( m ) and k (cat) values were calculated. The results of docking α-/β-ionone and nootkatone into a homology model of CYP264B1 revealed insights into the structural basis of these selective hydroxylations.

  20. Sex-dependent differences in phenobarbitane-induced oestradiol-2-hydroxylase activity in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, C.N.; Neethling, A.C.; Taljaard, J.J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Oestradiol-2-hydroxylase (E 2 -OH) activity was measured in liver and brain microsomes of 6-8-week-old Wistar rats. Phenobarbitone (75 mg/kg daily for 3 days) significantly increased enzyme activity in the liver of males and females, but there were striking differences between the two sexes. In males the enzyme activity was increased by 37% over control values and in females by 200%. The total microsomol cytochrome P-450 content was increased by 75% in males and by 82% in females. The apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)) of E 2 -OH for 17β-oestradiol in untreated males (9,8 μM) and females (9,2 μM) did not differ significantly. Phenobarbitone treatment, however, tended to reduce the apparent K(m) in males (8,2 μM) and to increase it in females (18,7 μM). E 2 -OH activity was also detected in brain tissue of both sexes, but it was 50-200-fold lower than in the liver and was not increased by phenobarbitone

  1. Detection of methyl salicylate using bi-enzyme electrochemical sensor consisting salicylate hydroxylase and tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Bullock, Hannah; Lee, Sarah A; Sekar, Narendran; Eiteman, Mark A; Whitman, William B; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P

    2016-11-15

    Volatile organic compounds have been recognized as important marker chemicals to detect plant diseases caused by pathogens. Methyl salicylate has been identified as one of the most important volatile organic compounds released by plants during a biotic stress event such as fungal pathogen infection. Advanced detection of these marker chemicals could help in early identification of plant diseases and has huge significance for agricultural industry. This work describes the development of a novel bi-enzyme based electrochemical biosensor consisting of salicylate hydroxylase and tyrosinase enzymes immobilized on carbon nanotube modified electrodes. The amperometric detection using the bi-enzyme platform was realized through a series of cascade reactions that terminate in an electrochemical reduction reaction. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the sensitivity of the bi-enzyme sensor was 30.6±2.7µAcm(-2)µM(-1) and the limit of detection and limit of quantification were 13nM (1.80ppb) and 39nM (5.39ppb) respectively. Interference studies showed no significant interference from the other common plant volatile compounds. Synthetic analyte studies revealed that the bi-enzyme based biosensor can be used to reliably detect methyl salicylate released by unhealthy plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. FoxO1 in dopaminergic neurons regulates energy homeostasis and targets tyrosine hydroxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Khanh V.; Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Ko, Chang Mann; Moh, Sang Hyun; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Inki; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Yoon, Seul Gi; Kim, Il Yong; Seong, Je Kyung; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KODAT) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis. Moreover, FoxO1 KODAT mice exhibit an increased sucrose preference in concomitance with higher dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Finally, we found that FoxO1 directly targets and negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis, delineating a mechanism for the KO phenotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO1 in DA neurons is an important transcriptional factor that directs the coordinated control of energy balance, thermogenesis and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:27681312

  3. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  4. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  5. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  6. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  7. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  8. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  9. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  10. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  11. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  12. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  13. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  14. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  15. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  16. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  17. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  18. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  19. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  20. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  1. Déficit de 21-hidroxilasa: aspectos actuales Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase: current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi Licourt Otero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita (HSC es una de las alteraciones autosómicas recesivas más frecuentes, caracterizada por un defecto enzimático en la síntesis de cortisol, la causa es en el 95% de los casos, la deficiencia de la enzima 21-hidroxilasa (21-OH. La 17-OH progesterona, precursor del cortisol, presenta valores elevados, marcadores del diagnóstico. Esta enfermedad presenta diferentes formas clínicas: las clásicas o graves comienzan desde el período neonatal, con síntomas debidos al exceso de andrógenos suprarrenales como virilidad y ambigüedad de los genitales externos de las niñas afectadas. En más del 70% de los casos se asocia con pérdida salina (deficiencia de aldosterona, potencialmente letal en varones que no se diagnostican precozmente. Resumimos las diferentes formas de presentación de la deficiencia de 21-OH, y describimos el diagnóstico y tratamiento. Los programas de detección precoz evitan la asignación incorrecta de sexo en la recién nacida y pueden salvar la vida de los varones con formas graves y pérdida salina. Comentamos el diagnóstico genético-molecular del CYP21A2 (cromosoma 6p 21.3. Revisamos las directrices futuras para el estudio y el tratamiento de esta enfermedad, incluyendo diversos tratamientos como la hormona de crecimiento, los antagonistas de las gonadotropinas y otros. El diagnóstico y tratamiento prenatales del feto femenino afectado son posibles, y los resultados son alentadores. Comentamos también, el abordaje hacia la transición y edad adulta, y la relevancia del control de la mujer con HAC durante la gestación.Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is one of the most frequent autosomal recessive disorders. It is characterized by a deficiency of an enzyme involved in cortisol synthesis and in 95% of patients the cause is 21-hydroxylase deficiency. A diagnostic marker is elevated levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, a precursor of cortisol. CAH has several clinical forms, and

  2. Involvement of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to tic disorder in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; Li, Erzhen; Wang, Jianhua; Cui, Xiaodai; Wang, Liwen

    2013-01-29

    Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is a potential candidate gene for screening tic disorder (TD). A case-control study was performed to examine the association between the TPH2 gene and TD. The Sequenom® Mass ARRAY iPLEX GOLD System was used to genotype two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TPH2 gene in 149 TD children and in 125 normal controls. For rs4565946, individuals with the TT genotype showed a significantly higher risk of TD than those with TC plus CC genotypes [odds ratio (OR) =3.077, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.273-7.437; P = 0.009], as did male TD children with the TT genotype (OR = 3.228, 95% CI: 1.153-9.040; P = 0.020). The G allele of rs4570625 was significantly more frequent in TD children with higher levels of tic symptoms (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, YGTSS) than those in controls among the male children (OR = 1.684, 95%: 1.097-2.583; P = 0.017]. TD children with severe tic symptoms had significantly higher frequencies of rs4546946 TT genotype than did normal controls in boys (OR = 3.292, 95% CI: 1.139-9.513; P = 0.022). We also found that genotype distributions of both SNPs were different between the Asian and European populations. Our results indicated that the TT genotype of rs4565946 is a potential genetic risk factor for TD, and the allele G of rs4570625 might be associated with the severity of tic symptoms in boys. These polymorphisms might be susceptibility loci for TD in the Chinese Han population. Because of the confounding of co-existing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),these findings need to be confirmed by studies in much larger samples.

  3. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Anne; Václavů, Lena; Meerhoff, Gideon F; Reneman, Liesbeth; Lucassen, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a) effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b) effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c) whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d) whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+) cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+), revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  4. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klomp

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+ cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+, revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  5. Cloning of cDNA encoding steroid 11β-hydroxylase (P450c11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, S.C.; Szabo, P.; Vitek, A.; Grzeschik, K.H.; John, M.; White, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated bovine and human adrenal cDNA clones encoding the adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for 11β-hydroxylation (P450c11). A bovine adrenal cDNA library constructed in the bacteriophage λ vector gt10 was probed with a previously isolated cDNA clone corresponding to part of the 3' untranslated region of the 4.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA encoding P450c11. Several clones with 3.2-kb cDNA inserts were isolated. Sequence analysis showed that they overlapped the original probe by 300 base pairs (bp). Combined cDNA and RNA sequence data demonstrated a continuous open reading frame of 1509 bases. P450c11 is predicted to contain 479 amino acid residues in the mature protein in addition to a 24-residue amino-terminal mitochondrial signal sequence. A bovine clone was used to isolate a homologous clone with a 3.5-kb insert from a human adrenal cDNA library. A region of 1100 bp was 81% homologous to 769 bp of the coding sequence of the bovine cDNA except for a 400-bp segment presumed to be an unprocessed intron. Hybridization of the human cDNA to DNA from a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines and in situ hybridization to metaphase spreads of human chromosomes localized the gene to the middle of the long arm of chromosome 8. These data should be useful in developing reagents for heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, the second most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  6. Chronic Inhibition of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Facilitates Behavioral Responses to Cocaine in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Liles, Larry Cameron; Iuvone, Paul Michael; Weinshenker, David

    2012-01-01

    The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse), decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh −/−) mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/−) and Dbh −/− mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh −/− mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/− mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/− mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh −/− mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor) enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors. PMID:23209785

  7. Light response and potential interacting proteins of a grape flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), a member of cytochrome P450 protein family, introduces B-ring hydroxyl group in the 3' position of the flavonoid. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a F3'H gene (VviF3'H), which contains an open reading frame of 1530 bp encoding a polypeptide of 509 amino acids, was cloned and characterized from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. VviF3'H showed high homology to known F3'H genes, especially F3'Hs from the V. vinifera reference genome (Pinot Noir) and lotus. Expression profiling analysis using real-time PCR revealed that VviF3'H was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues including berries, leaves, flowers, roots, stems and tendrils, suggesting its important physiological role in plant growth and development. Moreover, the transcript level of VviF3'H gene in grape berries was relatively higher at early developmental stages and gradually decreased during véraison, and then increased in the mature phase. In addition, the promoter of VviF3'H was isolated by using TAIL-PCR. Yeast one-hybrid screening of the Cabernet Sauvignon cDNA library and subsequent in vivo/vitro validations revealed the interaction between VviF3'H promoter and several transcription factors, including members of HD-Zip, NAC, MYB and EIN families. A transcriptional regulation mechanism of VviF3'H expression is proposed for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting the onset of Addison's disease: ACTH, renin, cortisol and 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Peter R.; Nanduri, Priyaanka; Gottlieb, Peter A.; Yu, Liping; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Eisenbarth, George S.; Barker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Context Autoantibodies to 21-hydroxylase (21OH-AA) precede onset of autoimmune Addison's disease (AD). Progression to AD can take months to years, and early detection of metabolic decompensation may prevent morbidity and mortality. Objective To define optimal methods of predicting progression to overt AD (defined by subnormal peak cortisol response to Cosyntropin) in 21OH-AA+ individuals. Design, Setting and Participants Individuals were screened for 21OH-AA at the Barbara Davis Center from 1993 to 2011. Subjects positive for 21OH-AA (n = 87) were tested, and the majority prospectively followed for the development of Addison's disease, including seven diagnosed with AD upon 21OH-AA discovery (discovered), seven who progressed to AD (progressors) and 73 nonprogressors. Main Outcome Measured Plasma renin activity (PRA), ACTH, baseline cortisol, peak cortisol and 21OH-AA were measured at various time points relative to diagnosis of AD or last AD-free follow-up. Results Compared with nonprogressors, in the time period 2 months–2 years prior to the onset of AD, progressors were significantly more likely to have elevated ACTH (11–22 pm, P < 1E-4), with no significant differences in mean PRA (P = 0·07) or baseline cortisol (P = 0·08), and significant but less distinct differences seen with 21OH-AA levels (P < 1E-4) and poststimulation cortisol levels (P = 6E-3). Conclusion Moderately elevated ACTH is a more useful early indicator of impending AD than 21OH-AA, PRA or peak cortisol, in the 2 months–2 years preceding the onset of AD. PMID:22066755

  9. Mutations of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in patients with phenylketonuria in Shanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-An Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The variation in mutations in exons 3, 6, 7, 11 and 12 of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH gene was investigated in 59 children with phenylketonuria (PKU and 100 normal children. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected by sequence analysis. The mutational frequencies of cDNA 696, cDNA 735 and cDNA 1155 in patients were 96.2%, 76.1% and 7.6%, respectively, whereas in healthy children the corresponding frequencies were 97.0%, 77.3% and 8.3%. In addition, 81 mutations accounted for 61.0% of the mutant alleles. R111X, H64 > TfsX9 and S70 del accounted for 5.1%, 0.8% and 0.8% mutation of alleles in exon 3, whereas EX6-96A > G accounted for 10.2% mutation of alleles in exon 6. R243Q had the highest incidence in exon 7 (12.7%, followed by Ivs7 +2T>A (5.1% and T278I (2.5%. G247V, R252Q, L255S, R261Q and E280K accounted for 0.8% while Y356X and V399V accounted for 5.9% and 5.1%, respectively, in exon 11. R413P and A434D accounted for 5.9% and 2.5%, respectively, in exon 12. Seventy-two variant alleles accounted for the 16 mutations observed here. The mutation characteristics and distributions demonstrated that EX6-96A > G and R243Q were the hot regions for mutations in the PAH gene in Shanxi patients with PKU.

  10. Phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutations in the United States: Report from the maternal PKU collaborative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guldberg, P.; Henriksen, K.F.; Guettler, F. [John F. Kennedy Inst., Glostrup (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia is mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The known mutations have been identified primarily in European patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of mutations responsible for PAH deficiency in the United States. One hundred forty-nine patients enrolled in the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study were subjects for clinical and molecular investigations. PAH gene mutations associated with phenylketonuria (PKU) or mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) were identified on 279 of 294 independent mutant chromosomes, a diagnostic efficiency of 95%. The spectrum is composed of 71 different mutations, including 47 missense mutations, 11 splice mutations, 5 nonsense mutations, and 8 microdeletions. Sixteen previously unreported mutations were identified. Among the novel mutations, five were found in patients with MHP, and the remainder were found in patients with PKU. The most common mutations were R408W, IVS12nt1g{r_arrow}a, and Y414C, accounting for 18.7%, 7.8% and 5.4% of the mutant chromosomes, respectively. Thirteen mutations had relative frequencies of 1%-5%, and 55 mutations each had frequencies {le}1%. The mutational spectrum corresponded to that observed for the European ancestry of the U.S. population. To evaluate the extent of allelic variation at the PAH locus within the United States in comparison with other populations, we used allele frequencies to calculate the homozygosity for 11 populations where >90% ascertainment has been obtained. The United States was shown to contain one of the most heterogeneous populations, with homozygosity values similar to Sicily and ethnically mixed sample populations in Europe. The extent of allelic heterogeneity must be a major determining factor in the choice of mutation-detection methodology for molecular diagnosis in PAH deficiency. 47 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Associations between mutations and a VNTR in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goltsov, A.A.; Eisensmith, R.C.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Konecki, D.S.; Lichter-Konecki, U.

    1992-09-01

    The HindIII RFLP in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene is caused by the presence of an AT-rich (70%) minisatellite region. This region contains various multiples of 30-bp tandem repeats and is located 3 kb downstream of the final exon of the gene. PCR-mediated amplification of this region from haplotyped PAH chromosomes indicates that the previously reported 4.0-kb HindIII allele contains three of these repeats, while the 4.4-kb HindIII allele contains 12 of these repeats. The 4.2-kb HindIII fragment can contain six, seven, eight, or nine copies of this repeat. These variations permit more detailed analysis of mutant haplotypes 1, 5, 6, and, possibly, others. Kindred analysis in phenylketonuria families demonstrates Mendelian segregation of these VNTR alleles, as well as associations between theses alleles and certain PAH mutations. The R261Q mutation, associated with haplotype 1, is associated almost exclusively with an allele containing eight repeats; the R408W mutation, when occurring on a haplotype 1 background, may also be associated with the eight-repeat VNTR allele. Other PAH mutations associated with haplotype 1, R252W and P281L, do not appear to segregate with specific VNTR alleles. The IVS-10 mutation, when associated with haplotype 6, is associated exclusively with an allele containing seven repeats. The combined use of this VNTR system and the existing RFLP haplotype system will increase the performance of prenatal diagnostic tests based on haplotype analysis. In addition, this VNTR may prove useful in studies concerning the origins and distributions of PAH mutations in different human populations. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Gaval-Cruz

    Full Text Available The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse, decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH, the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA to norepinephrine (NE in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh -/- mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh -/- mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/- mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/- mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh -/- mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors.

  13. Tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 variants modulate severity and outcome of addictive behaviors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, Roberto; Benfante, Roberta; Asselta, Rosanna; Marabini, Laura; Cereda, Emanuele; Siri, Chiara; Pezzoli, Gianni; Goldwurm, Stefano; Fornasari, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Impulse control disorders and compulsive medication intake may occur in a minority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesize that genetic polymorphisms associated with addiction in the general population may increase the risk for addictive behaviors also in PD. Sixteen polymorphisms in candidate genes belonging to five neurotransmitter systems (dopaminergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, opioidergic) and the BDNF were screened in 154 PD patients with addictive behaviors and 288 PD control subjects. Multivariate analysis investigated clinical and genetic predictors of outcome (remission vs. persistence/relapse) after 1 year and at the last follow-up (5.1 ± 2.5 years). Addictive behaviors were associated with tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 (TPH2) and dopamine transporter gene variants. A subsequent analysis within the group of cases showed a robust association between TPH2 genotype and the severity of addictive behaviors, which survived Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. At multivariate analysis, TPH2 genotype resulted the strongest predictor of no remission at the last follow-up (OR[95%CI], 7.4[3.27-16.78] and 13.2[3.89-44.98] in heterozygous and homozygous carriers, respectively, p medication dose reduction was not a predictor. TPH2 haplotype analysis confirmed the association with more severe symptoms and lower remission rates in the short- and the long-term (p addictive behaviors in PD, modulating the severity of symptoms and the rate of remission at follow-up. If confirmed in larger independent cohorts, TPH2 genotype may become a useful biomarker for the identification of at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethnic disparity in 21-hydroxylase gene mutations identified in Pakistani congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Abdul

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in the steroid 21 hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2. We studied the spectrum of mutations in CYP21A2 gene in a multi-ethnic population in Pakistan to explore the genetics of CAH. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted for the identification of mutations CYP21A2 and their phenotypic associations in CAH using ARMS-PCR assay. Results Overall, 29 patients were analyzed for nine different mutations. The group consisted of two major forms of CAH including 17 salt wasters and 12 simple virilizers. There were 14 phenotypic males and 15 females representing all the major ethnic groups of Pakistan. Parental consanguinity was reported in 65% cases and was equally distributed in the major ethnic groups. Among 58 chromosomes analyzed, mutations were identified in 45 (78.6% chromosomes. The most frequent mutation was I2 splice (27% followed by Ile173Asn (26%, Arg 357 Trp (19%, Gln319stop, 16% and Leu308InsT (12%, whereas Val282Leu was not observed in this study. Homozygosity was seen in 44% and heterozygosity in 34% cases. I2 splice mutation was found to be associated with SW in the homozygous. The Ile173Asn mutation was identified in both SW and SV forms. Moreover, Arg357Trp manifested SW in compound heterozygous state. Conclusion Our study showed that CAH exists in our population with ethnic difference in the prevalence of mutations examined.

  15. Mobilisation of store Ca2+ activates tyrosine hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, S.; Marley, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Many receptor agonists are able to activate tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The majority of these are dependent on extracellular Ca 2+ for this action. Entry of extracellular Ca 2+ through voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels is very effective at activating TOH. The contribution of the intracellular Ca 2+ stores to TOH activation however is not known. Previous studies have shown that mobilisation of intracellular Ca 2+ stores is effective at increasing phosphorylation of TOH, but its effect on TOH activity has not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of mobilisation of store Ca 2+ on TOH activity was investigated using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were prepared from abattoir tissue and cultured for 3-6 days. TOH activity was determined over 10 minutes, measuring the 14 CO 2 produced following the hydroxylation and rapid decarboxylation of 14 C-tyrosine offered to intact cells. Caffeine increased TOH activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum response of 100% increase at 20mM. This effect was not due to osmolarity since 20mM sucrose had no effect.Nor was it due to inhibition of phosphodiesterases, since the effect of caffeine was still seen in the presence of 1mM IBMX. However,caffeine-induced TOH activation was substantially reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . The results suggest that TOH activity can be increased by mobilising intracellular Ca 2+ stores, but that this effect involves extracellular Ca 2+ influx, possibly through store-operated channels. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  16. Minoxidil Induction of VEGF Is Mediated by Inhibition of HIF-Prolyl Hydroxylase

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    Soohwan Yum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topical application of minoxidil may achieve millimolar concentrations in the skin. We investigated whether millimolar minoxidil could induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a possible effector for minoxidil-mediated hair growth, and how it occurred at the molecular level. Cell-based experiments were performed to investigate a molecular mechanism underlying the millimolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. The inhibitory effect of minoxidil on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2 was tested by an in vitro von Hippel–Lindau protein (VHL binding assay. To examine the angiogenic potential of millimolar minoxidil, a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay was used. In human keratinocytes and dermal papilla cells, millimolar minoxidil increased the secretion of VEGF, which was not attenuated by a specific adenosine receptor antagonist that inhibits the micromolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. Millimolar minoxidil induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, and the induction of VEGF was dependent on HIF-1. Moreover, minoxidil applied to the dorsal area of mice increased HIF-1α and VEGF in the skin. In an in vitro VHL binding assay, minoxidil directly inhibited PHD-2, thus preventing the hydroxylation of cellular HIF-1α and VHL-dependent proteasome degradation and resulting in the stabilization of HIF-1α protein. Minoxidil inhibition of PHD-2 was reversed by ascorbate, a cofactor of PHD-2, and the minoxidil induction of cellular HIF-1α was abrogated by the cofactor. Millimolar minoxidil promoted angiogenesis in the CAM assay, an in vivo angiogenic test, and this was nullified by the specific inhibition of VEGF. Our data demonstrate that PHD may be the molecular target for millimolar minoxidil-mediated VEGF induction via HIF-1.

  17. Minoxidil Induction of VEGF Is Mediated by Inhibition of HIF-Prolyl Hydroxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soohwan; Jeong, Seongkeun; Kim, Dohoon; Lee, Sunyoung; Kim, Wooseong; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Dae-Duk; Min, Do Sik; Jung, Yunjin

    2017-01-01

    The topical application of minoxidil may achieve millimolar concentrations in the skin. We investigated whether millimolar minoxidil could induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a possible effector for minoxidil-mediated hair growth, and how it occurred at the molecular level. Cell-based experiments were performed to investigate a molecular mechanism underlying the millimolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. The inhibitory effect of minoxidil on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2) was tested by an in vitro von Hippel–Lindau protein (VHL) binding assay. To examine the angiogenic potential of millimolar minoxidil, a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used. In human keratinocytes and dermal papilla cells, millimolar minoxidil increased the secretion of VEGF, which was not attenuated by a specific adenosine receptor antagonist that inhibits the micromolar minoxidil induction of VEGF. Millimolar minoxidil induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and the induction of VEGF was dependent on HIF-1. Moreover, minoxidil applied to the dorsal area of mice increased HIF-1α and VEGF in the skin. In an in vitro VHL binding assay, minoxidil directly inhibited PHD-2, thus preventing the hydroxylation of cellular HIF-1α and VHL-dependent proteasome degradation and resulting in the stabilization of HIF-1α protein. Minoxidil inhibition of PHD-2 was reversed by ascorbate, a cofactor of PHD-2, and the minoxidil induction of cellular HIF-1α was abrogated by the cofactor. Millimolar minoxidil promoted angiogenesis in the CAM assay, an in vivo angiogenic test, and this was nullified by the specific inhibition of VEGF. Our data demonstrate that PHD may be the molecular target for millimolar minoxidil-mediated VEGF induction via HIF-1. PMID:29295567

  18. Gender role across development in adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dominique N; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the degree of femininity and masculinity at different developmental stages in a group of adult women, some of whom were exposed to elevated prenatal adrenal androgens as a result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21 hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency. Women who had presented to the Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for treatment of CAH due to 21-OH deficiency were included. The control group consisted of sisters of CAH participants and women referred for evaluation of polycystic ovary syndrome. Study participants were given a questionnaire asking them to indicate their degree of masculinity and femininity during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In addition, participants were asked questions related to their play behavior during childhood, including playmate preferences, toy preferences, and admiration of male or female characters during fantasy play. Across participant groups, self-reported femininity decreased in a dose response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure. For all groups, femininity increased through developmental stages. Women with salt-losing CAH remained less feminine than controls into adulthood. Conversely, self-reported masculinity increased in a dose-response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure, across participant groups. Women with CAH showed a decrease in masculinity across developmental stages, such that by adulthood, there were no significant differences in masculinity between controls and the women with CAH. Women with salt-losing CAH were more likely to recall preferences for boy playmates, male-typical toys, and admiration for male characters during childhood than other study participants. Our data support the effect of both prenatal androgen exposure and socialization on gender role behavior in adult women with CAH due to 21-OH deficiency.

  19. Species differences in the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in Cnemidophorus whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Sarah C; Crews, David

    2004-09-05

    Evolution of behavioral phenotype involves changes in the underlying neural substrates. Cnemidophorus whiptail lizards enable the study of behavioral and neural evolution because ancestral species involved in producing unisexual, hybrid species still exist. Catecholaminergic systems modulate the expression of social behaviors in a number of vertebrates, including whiptails, and therefore we investigated how changes in catecholamine production correlated with evolutionary changes in behavioral phenotype by measuring the size and number of catecholamine producing (tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive, or TH-ir) cells across the reproductive cycle in females from two related whiptail species. Cnemidophorusuniparens is a triploid, parthenogenetic species that arose from hybridization events involving the diploid, sexual species C. inornatus. Prior to ovulation, females from both species display femalelike receptive behaviors. However, after ovulation, only parthenogenetic individuals display malelike mounting behavior. In all nuclei measured, we found larger TH-ir cells in the parthenogen, a difference consistent with species differences in ploidy. In contrast, species differences in the number of TH-ir cells were nucleus specific. In the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, parthenogens had fewer TH-ir cells than females of the sexual species. Reproductive state only affected TH-ir cell number in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and C. uniparens individuals had more TH-ir cells after ovulation than when previtellogenic. Thus, species differences over the reproductive cycle in the SNpc are correlated with species differences in behavior, and it appears that the process of speciation may have produced a novel neural and behavioral phenotype in the parthenogen.

  20. PPARα activators down-regulate CYP2C7, a retinoic acid and testosterone hydroxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Liqun; Brown-Borg, Holly; Brown, Sherri; Westin, Stefan; Mode, Agneta; Corton, J. Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators (PP) are a large class of structurally diverse chemicals that mediate their effects in the liver mainly through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Exposure to PP results in down-regulation of CYP2C family members under control of growth hormone and sex steroids including CYP2C11 and CYP2C12. We hypothesized that PP exposure would also lead to similar changes in CYP2C7, a retinoic acid and testosterone hydroxylase. CYP2C7 gene expression was dramatically down-regulated in the livers of rats treated for 13 weeks by WY-14,643 (WY; 500 ppm) or gemfibrozil (GEM; 8000 ppm). In the same tissues, exposure to WY and GEM and to a lesser extent di-n-butyl phthalate (20 000 ppm) led to decreases in CYP2C7 protein levels in both male and female rats. An examination of the time and dose dependence of CYP2C7 protein changes after PP exposure revealed that CYP2C7 was more sensitive to compound exposure compared to other CYP2C family members. Protein expression was decreased after 1, 5 and 13 weeks of PP treatment. CYP2C7 protein expression was completely abolished at 5 ppm WY, the lowest dose tested. GEM and DBP exhibited dose-dependent decreases in CYP2C7 protein expression, becoming significant at 1000 ppm or 5000 ppm and above, respectively. These results show that PP exposure leads to changes in CYP2C7 mRNA and protein levels. Thus, in addition to known effects on steroid metabolism, exposure to PP may alter retinoic acid metabolism

  1. DOPAMINE BETA HYDROXYLASE: ITS RELEVANCE IN THE ETIOLOGY OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipa Bhaduri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Though symptoms of hyperactivity diminish with age, inattention and impulsivity persists through adulthood and often leads to behavioral as well as cognitive deficits. Majority of the patients respond to psychostimulants which forms the first line of therapy for ADHD. Some cases however fail to do so and treatment targeting the norepinephrine (NE system has been found to be an alternative for them. Dopamine (DA is metabolized to NE by the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH and availability of these neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortex is regulated by DβH. The enzyme is encoded by the DBH gene and polymorphisms in DBH have been found to exert independent influence on the enzymatic activity. We have explored association between DBH and two functional genetic polymorphisms, rs1611115 and rs1108580, in families with ADHD probands and compared with ethnically matched control individuals. Genomic DNA was subjected to PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Plasma DβH activity was measured using a photometric assay. Age-wise DβH activity and its correlation with genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in ADHD subjects. Data obtained were subjected to statistical evaluations. Though the genotypes failed to show any statistically significant association individually, strong correlation was observed between DβH activity and the studied SNPs. Statistically significant correlation between the rs1108580 “A” allele and hyperactive/oppositional traits were also noticed. The present investigation thus supports a role of DBH in the etiology of ADHD.

  2. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  3. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  4. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  5. Regulation of rabbit lung cytochrome P-450 prostaglandin omega-hydroxylase (P-450/sub PG-omega/) during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muerhoff, A.S.; Williams, D.E.; Jackson, V.; Leithauser, M.T.; Waterman, M.R.; Johnson, E.F.; Masters, B.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of induction during pregnancy of a rabbit lung prostaglandin omega-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 has been investigated. This activity has been demonstrated to be induced over 100-fold in 28-day pregnant rabbits, as compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The induction is reflected by an increase in the amount of P-450/sub PG-omega/ protein as measured by Western blotting. P-450/sub PG-omega/ microsomal protein increases throughout gestation concomitant with an increase in PGE 1 omega-hydroxylase activity. Elucidation of the level of induction involved extraction of RNA from rabbit lungs obtained at various days of gestation followed by in vitro translation of the RNA in the presence of 35 S-methionine. Immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized P-450 and analysis of the immunoisolates by SDS-PAGE, autoradiography and densitometry of the P-450/sub PG-omega/ band revealed that the P-450/sub PG-omega/ mRNA levels followed the gestational time-dependent increase observed for both PGE 1 omega-hydroxylase activity and P-450/sub PG-omega/ protein, i.e., a gradual increase peaking at 28-days, dropping precipitously to near control levels following parturition. These data suggest that control of P-450/sub PG-omega expression occurs at the transcriptional level. Western blots of human lung bronchioloalveolar-carcinoma cell lines NCL-H322 and NCL-H358 utilizing a guinea pig IgG to P-450/sub PG-omega/ detect a cross-reactive species

  6. Childhood asthma and spirometric indices are associated with polymorphic markers of two vitamin D 25-hydroxylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting Fan; Wang, Susan Shuxin; Tang, Man Fung; Kong, Alice Pik-Shan; Sy, Hing Yee; Hon, Kam Lun; Chan, Juliana Chung-ngor; Wong, Gary Wing-kin

    2015-06-01

    Polymorphic markers of vitamin D pathway genes have been associated with asthma traits in different White populations. This study investigated the relationship between asthma phenotypes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D binding protein (GC), two 25-hydroxylases (CYP2R1 and CYP27A1), and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in Hong Kong Chinese children. 23 SNPs of the five vitamin D pathway genes were successfully genotyped in 914 asthmatic children and 1231 non-allergic controls. Genotypic and haplotypic associations with asthma phenotypes (diagnosis, spirometric indices, total IgE, and eosinophil percentage) were analyzed by multivariate regression. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction was used to detect epistatic interactions between SNPs for asthma phenotypes. Several SNPs of CYP27A1, CYP27B1, GC, and CYP2R1 were associated with asthma or spirometric indices, although only the association between FEV1 and CYP2R1 rs7935792 passed Bonferroni correction (p = 2.73 × 10(-4) ). Patients with CC genotype of rs7935792 had higher FEV1 than those with the other two genotypes. Asthma was also associated with TT haplotype of CYP27A1 and AGGATA haplotype of CYP2R1 (p = 0.021 and 0.024, respectively). Besides, strong association was found between FEV1 and GATAG of CYP2R1 (β = 13.37, p = 4.83 × 10(-4) ). GMDR failed to identify any 2-locus to 4-locus interaction that modulated asthma or spirometric indices. Several SNPs and haplotypes of CYP2R1 are associated with asthma diagnosis and FEV1 in children. Asthma is also modestly associated with a CYP27A1 haplotype. These two 25-hydroxylase genes may be genetic determinants for asthma phenotypes in children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets Type 1B (25-Hydroxylase Deficiency): A Rare Condition or a Misdiagnosed Condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Arnaud; Wiedemann, Arnaud; Demers, Nick; Kaufmann, Martin; Do Cao, Jérémy; Mainard, Laurent; Dousset, Brigitte; Journeau, Pierre; Abeguile, Geneviève; Coudray, Nadia; Mittre, Hervé; Richard, Nicolas; Weryha, Georges; Sorlin, Arthur; Jones, Glenville; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Feillet, Francois

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin D requires a two-step activation by hydroxylation: The first step is catalyzed by hepatic 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1, 11p15.2) and the second one is catalyzed by renal 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1, 12q13.1), which produces the active hormonal form of 1,25-(OH) 2 D. Mutations of CYP2R1 have been associated with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1B (VDDR1B), a very rare condition that has only been reported to affect 4 families to date. We describe 7 patients from 2 unrelated families who presented with homozygous loss-of-function mutations of CYP2R1. Heterozygous mutations were present in their normal parents. We identified a new c.124_138delinsCGG (p.Gly42_Leu46delinsArg) variation and the previously published c.296T>C (p.Leu99Pro) mutation. Functional in vitro studies confirmed loss-of-function enzymatic activity in both cases. We discuss the difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis and the specific biochemical pattern, namely, very low 25-OH-D suggestive of classical vitamin D deficiency, in the face of normal/high concentrations of 1,25-(OH) 2 D. Siblings exhibited the three stages of rickets based on biochemical and radiographic findings. Interestingly, adult patients were able to maintain normal mineral metabolism without vitamin D supplementation. One index case presented with a partial improvement with 1alfa-hydroxyvitamin D 3 or alfacalcidol (1α-OH-D 3 ) treatment, and we observed a dramatic increase in the 1,25-(OH) 2 D serum concentration, which indicated the role of accessory 25-hydroxylase enzymes. Lastly, in patients who received calcifediol (25-OH-D 3 ), we documented normal 24-hydroxylase activity (CYP24A1). For the first time, and according to the concept of personalized medicine, we demonstrate dramatic improvements in patients who were given 25-OH-D therapy (clinical symptoms, biochemical data, and bone densitometry). In conclusion, the current study further expands the CYP2R1 mutation spectrum. We note that VDDR1B could be easily

  8. An artificial TCA cycle selects for efficient α-ketoglutarate dependent hydroxylase catalysis in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou, Eleni; Breisch, Marina; Julsing, Mattijs K; Falcioni, Francesco; Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Amino acid hydroxylases depend directly on the cellular TCA cycle via their cosubstrate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and are highly useful for the selective biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of amino acids. This study evaluates TCA cycle engineering strategies to force and increase α-KG flux through proline-4-hydroxylase (P4H). The genes sucA (α-KG dehydrogenase E1 subunit) and sucC (succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit) were alternately deleted together with aceA (isocitrate lyase) in proline degradation-deficient Escherichia coli strains (ΔputA) expressing the p4h gene. Whereas, the ΔsucCΔaceAΔputA strain grew in minimal medium in the absence of P4H, relying on the activity of fumarate reductase, growth of the ΔsucAΔaceAΔputA strictly depended on P4H activity, thus coupling growth to proline hydroxylation. P4H restored growth, even when proline was not externally added. However, the reduced succinyl-CoA pool caused a 27% decrease of the average cell size compared to the wildtype strain. Medium supplementation partially restored the morphology and, in some cases, enhanced proline hydroxylation activity. The specific proline hydroxylation rate doubled when putP, encoding the Na + /l-proline transporter, was overexpressed in the ΔsucAΔaceAΔputA strain. This is in contrast to wildtype and ΔputA single-knock out strains, in which α-KG availability obviously limited proline hydroxylation. Such α-KG limitation was relieved in the ΔsucAΔaceAΔputA strain. Furthermore, the ΔsucAΔaceAΔputA strain was used to demonstrate an agar plate-based method for the identification and selection of active α-KG dependent hydroxylases. This together with the possibility to waive selection pressure and overcome α-KG limitation in respective hydroxylation processes based on living cells emphasizes the potential of TCA cycle engineering for the productive application of α-KG dependent hydroxylases. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1511-1520. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of nerve activity on transport of nerve growth factor and dopamine β-hydroxylase antibodies in sympathetic neurones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, G.; Chubb, I.; Freeman, C.; Geffen, L.; Rush, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of nerve activity on the uptake and retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) antibodies was studied by injecting 125 I-labelled NGF and anti-DBH into the anterior eye chamber of guinea-pigs. Decentralization of the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG) had no significant effect on the retrograde transport of either NGF or anti-DBH. Phenoxybenzamine produced a 50% increase in anti-DBH but not NGF accumulation and this effect was prevented by prior decentralization. This demonstrates that NGF is taken up independently of the retrieval of synaptic vesicle components. (Auth.)

  10. Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls

    OpenAIRE

    Misawa, Norihiko

    2011-01-01

    Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C40-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4′)-ketolase (4(4′)-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3′)-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene fo...

  11. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  12. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  13. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  14. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  15. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  16. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  17. Allosteric activation of midazolam CYP3A5 hydroxylase activity by icotinib - Enhancement by ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, XiaoMei; Zhang, TianHong; Yue, SiJia; Wang, Juan; Luo, Huan; Zhang, YunXia; Li, Zheng; Che, JinJing; Yang, HaiYing; Li, Hua; Zhu, MingShe; Lu, Chuang

    2016-12-01

    Icotinib (ICO), a novel small molecule and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was developed and approved recently in China for non-small cell lung cancer. During screening for CYP inhibition potential in human liver microsomes (HLM), heterotropic activation toward CYP3A5 was revealed. Activation by icotinib was observed with CYP3A-mediated midazolam hydroxylase activity in HLM (∼40% over the baseline) or recombinant human CYP3A5 (rhCYP3A5) (∼70% over the baseline), but not in the other major CYPs including rhCYP3A4. When co-incubated with selective CYP3A4 inhibitor CYP3cide or monoclonal human CYP3A4 inhibitory antibody in HLM, the activation was extended to ∼60%, suggesting CYP3A5 might be the isozyme involved. Further, the relative activation was enhanced to ∼270% in rhCYP3A5 in the presence of ketoconazole. The activation was substrate and pathway dependent and observed only in the formation of 1'-OH-midazolam, and not 4-OH-midazolam, 6β-OH-testosterone, or oxidized nifedipine. The activation requires the presence of cytochrome b5 and it is only observed in the liver microsomes of dogs, monkeys, and humans, but not in rats and mice. Kinetic analyses of 1'-OH-midazolam formation showed that ICO increased the V max values in HLM and rhCYP3A5 with no significant changes in K m values. By adding CYP3cide with ICO to the incubation, the V max values increased 2-fold over the CYP3cide control. Addition of ketoconazole with ICO alone or ICO plus CYP3cide resulted in an increase in V max values and decrease in K m values compared to their controls. This phenomenon may be attributed to a new mechanism of CYP3A5 heterotropic activation, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  19. Effect of tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphism on aggression in major depressive disorder and undifferentiated somatoform disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Kim, Chan Hyung; Choi, Eun Hee; Lee, Young-joon; Seo, Won Youl

    2012-05-01

    Aggression and anger have been linked with depression, and anger suppression has been linked with somatic symptoms of somatoform disorders. However, the relationship between aggression or anger and genes in patients with depression and somatoform disorders has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of serotonin-related gene polymorphism on aggression in depressive disorders and somatoform disorders. A serotonin-related polymorphic marker was assessed by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. 106 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 102 outpatients with undifferentiated somatoform disorder, and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and May 2008. Diagnoses were made according to the Korean version of the Structured Clinical Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. The allele and genotype frequencies of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) A218C were compared between groups. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Aggression Questionnaire were used for psychological assessment. Each of the 2 disorder groups scored significantly higher on all the Aggression Questionnaire subscales and on the total Aggression Questionnaire score than the healthy subjects (P sex and age. However, no significant differences were found in TPH1 C allele and CC homozygote frequencies between the undifferentiated somatoform disorder patients and the healthy subjects. TPH1 CC homozygote in the MDD group scored significantly higher in terms of verbal aggression (P = .03) and total Aggression Questionnaire score (P = .04) than A-carrier genotypes, regardless of sex and age. However, no significant differences were found in the scores of all the Aggression Questionnaire subscales and the total Aggression Questionnaire score between TPH1 CC homozygote and A-carrier genotypes in the undifferentiated somatoform disorder group and the control group, respectively. Aggression in MDD patients is more susceptible to an

  20. Involvement of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to tic disorder in Chinese Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 is a potential candidate gene for screening tic disorder (TD. Methods A case–control study was performed to examine the association between the TPH2 gene and TD. The Sequenom® Mass ARRAY iPLEX GOLD System was used to genotype two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the TPH2 gene in 149 TD children and in 125 normal controls. Results For rs4565946, individuals with the TT genotype showed a significantly higher risk of TD than those with TC plus CC genotypes [odds ratio (OR =3.077, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.273–7.437; P = 0.009], as did male TD children with the TT genotype (OR = 3.228, 95% CI: 1.153–9.040; P = 0.020. The G allele of rs4570625 was significantly more frequent in TD children with higher levels of tic symptoms (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, YGTSS than those in controls among the male children (OR = 1.684, 95%: 1.097–2.583; P = 0.017]. TD children with severe tic symptoms had significantly higher frequencies of rs4546946 TT genotype than did normal controls in boys (OR = 3.292, 95% CI: 1.139–9.513; P = 0.022. We also found that genotype distributions of both SNPs were different between the Asian and European populations. Conclusions Our results indicated that the TT genotype of rs4565946 is a potential genetic risk factor for TD, and the allele G of rs4570625 might be associated with the severity of tic symptoms in boys. These polymorphisms might be susceptibility loci for TD in the Chinese Han population. Because of the confounding of co-existing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD,these findings need to be confirmed by studies in much larger samples.

  1. Sandwich ELISA for quantitative detection of human collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myllyharju Johanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe a method for specific, quantitative and quick detection of human collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase (C-P4H, the key enzyme for collagen prolyl-4 hydroxylation, in crude samples based on a sandwich ELISA principle. The method is relevant to active C-P4H level monitoring during recombinant C-P4H and collagen production in different expression systems. The assay proves to be specific for the active C-P4H α2β2 tetramer due to the use of antibodies against its both subunits. Thus in keeping with the method C-P4H is captured by coupled to an anti-α subunit antibody magnetic beads and an anti-β subunit antibody binds to the PDI/β subunit of the protein. Then the following holoenzyme detection is accomplished by a goat anti-rabbit IgG labeled with alkaline phosphatase which AP catalyzes the reaction of a substrate transformation with fluorescent signal generation. Results We applied an experimental design approach for the optimization of the antibody concentrations used in the sandwich ELISA. The assay sensitivity was 0.1 ng of C-P4H. The method was utilized for the analysis of C-P4H accumulation in crude cell extracts of E. coli overexpressing C-P4H. The sandwich ELISA signals obtained demonstrated a very good correlation with the detected protein activity levels measured with the standard radioactive assay. The developed assay was applied to optimize C-P4H production in E. coli Origami in a system where the C-P4H subunits expression acted under control by different promoters. The experiments performed in a shake flask fed-batch system (EnBase® verified earlier observations that cell density and oxygen supply are critical factors for the use of the inducer anhydrotetracycline and thus for the soluble C-P4H yield. Conclusions Here we show an example of sandwich ELISA usage for quantifying multimeric proteins. The method was developed for monitoring the amount of recombinant C-P4H tetramer in crude E. coli extracts. Due

  2. Isolation and antisense suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase modifies flower pigments and colour in cyclamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Deepa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclamen is a popular and economically significant pot plant crop in several countries. Molecular breeding technologies provide opportunities to metabolically engineer the well-characterized flavonoid biosynthetic pathway for altered anthocyanin profile and hence the colour of the flower. Previously we reported on a genetic transformation system for cyclamen. Our aim in this study was to change pigment profiles and flower colours in cyclamen through the suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase, an enzyme in the flavonoid pathway that plays a determining role in the colour of anthocyanin pigments. Results A full-length cDNA putatively identified as a F3'5'H (CpF3'5'H was isolated from cyclamen flower tissue. Amino acid and phylogeny analyses indicated the CpF3'5'H encodes a F3'5'H enzyme. Two cultivars of minicyclamen were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an antisense CpF3'5'H construct. Flowers of the transgenic lines showed modified colour and this correlated positively with the loss of endogenous F3'5'H transcript. Changes in observed colour were confirmed by colorimeter measurements, with an overall loss in intensity of colour (C in the transgenic lines and a shift in hue from purple to red/pink in one cultivar. HPLC analysis showed that delphinidin-derived pigment levels were reduced in transgenic lines relative to control lines while the percentage of cyanidin-derived pigments increased. Total anthocyanin concentration was reduced up to 80% in some transgenic lines and a smaller increase in flavonol concentration was recorded. Differences were also seen in the ratio of flavonol types that accumulated. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report of genetic modification of the anthocyanin pathway in the commercially important species cyclamen. The effects of suppressing a key enzyme, F3'5'H, were wide ranging, extending from anthocyanins to other branches of the flavonoid pathway. The results

  3. Functional characterization of 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylases in Rhodococcus ruber strain chol-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Govinda; Heras, Laura Fernández de Las; Perera, Julián; Llorens, Juana María Navarro

    2017-09-01

    The 3-Ketosteroid-9α-Hydroxylase, also known as KshAB [androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (9α-hydroxylating); EC 1.14.13.142)], is a key enzyme in the general scheme of the bacterial steroid catabolism in combination with a 3-ketosteroid-Δ 1 -dehydrogenase activity (KstD), being both responsible of the steroid nucleus (rings A/B) breakage. KshAB initiates the opening of the steroid ring by the 9α-hydroxylation of the C9 carbon of 4-ene-3-oxosteroids (e.g. AD) or 1,4-diene-3-oxosteroids (e.g. ADD), transforming them into 9α-hydroxy-4-androsten-3,17-dione (9OHAD) or 9α-hydroxy-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (9OHADD), respectively. The redundancy of these enzymes in the actinobacterial genomes results in a serious difficulty for metabolic engineering this catabolic pathway to obtain intermediates of industrial interest. In this work, we have identified three homologous kshA genes and one kshB gen in different genomic regions of R. ruber strain Chol-4. We present a set of data that helps to understand their specific roles in this strain, including: i) description of the KshAB enzymes ii) construction and characterization of ΔkshB and single, double and triple ΔkshA mutants in R. ruber iii) growth studies of the above strains on different substrates and iv) genetic complementation and biotransformation assays with those strains. Our results show that KshA2 isoform is needed for the degradation of steroid substrates with short side chain, while KshA3 works on those molecules with longer side chains. KshA1 is a more versatile enzyme related to the cholic acid catabolism, although it also collaborates with KshA2 or KshA3 activities in the catabolism of steroids. Accordingly to what it is described for other Rhodococcus strains, our results also suggest that the side chain degradation is KshAB-independent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongli; Yu, Xiaona; Wang, Yan; Cui, Yulin; Li, Xueqin; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2013-07-08

    Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of green algae and higher plants

  5. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  6. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  7. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  8. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  9. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  10. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  11. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  12. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  13. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  14. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  15. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  16. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  17. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  18. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  19. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  20. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  1. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  2. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the reductase component of p-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonanant, Worrapoj; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Yuvaniyama, Jirundon

    2012-01-01

    The reductase component of p-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase from A. baumannii was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.3 Å resolution. p-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (HPAH) from Acinetobacter baumannii catalyzes the hydroxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA) at the ortho position to yield 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate (DHPA). HPAH from A. baumannii is a two-component flavoprotein consisting of a smaller reductase (C 1 ) component and a larger oxygenase (C 2 ) component. The C 1 component supplies a reduced flavin in its free form to the C 2 counterpart for hydroxylation. In addition, HPA can bind to C 1 and enhance the flavin-reduction rate without becoming hydroxylated. The recombinant C 1 component was purified and crystallized using the microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation on the BL13B1 beamline at NSRRC, Taiwan. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 47.78, b = 59.92, c = 211.85 Å, and contained two molecules of C 1 per asymmetric unit

  4. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer of human phenylalanine hydroxylase into NIH 3T3 and hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledley, F.D.; Grenett, H.E.; McGinnis-Shelnutt, M.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). A full-length human PAH cDNA sequence has been inserted into pzip-neoSV(X), which is a retroviral vector containing the bacterial neo gene. The recombinant has been transfected into Psi2 cells, which provide synthesis of the retroviral capsid. Recombinant virus was detected in the culture medium of the transfected Psi2 cells, which is capable of transmitting the human PAH gene into mouse NIH 3T3 cells by infection leading to stable incorporation of the recombinant provirus. Infected cells express PAH mRNA, immunoreactive PAH protein, and exhibit pterin-dependent phenylaline hydroxylase activity. The recombinant virus is also capable of infecting a mouse hepatoma cell line that does not normal synthesize PAH. PAH activity is present in the cellular extracts and the entire hydroxylation system is reconstituted in the hepatoma cells infected with the recombinant viruses. Thus, recombinant viruses containing human PAH cDNA provide a means for introducing functional PAH into mammalian cells of hepatic origin and can potentially be introduced into whole animals as a model for somatic gene therapy for PKU.

  5. Biochemical Characterization of the Prolyl 3-Hydroxylase 1·Cartilage-associated Protein·Cyclophilin B Complex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Wirz, Jackie; Vranka, Janice A.; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein complex consisting of prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1), cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), and cyclophilin B (CypB) can be isolated from chick embryos on a gelatin-Sepharose column, indicating some involvement in the biosynthesis of procollagens. Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 modifies a single proline residue in the α chains of type I, II, and III collagens to (3S)-hydroxyproline. The peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of cyclophilin B was shown previously to catalyze the rate of triple helix formation. Here we show that cyclophilin B in the complex shows peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity and that the P3H1·CRTAP·CypB complex has another important function: it acts as a chaperone molecule when tested with two classical chaperone assays. The P3H1·CRTAP·CypB complex inhibited the thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and was active in the denatured rhodanese refolding and aggregation assay. The chaperone activity of the complex was higher than that of protein-disulfide isomerase, a well characterized chaperone. The P3H1·CRTAP·CypB complex also delayed the in vitro fibril formation of type I collagen, indicating that this complex is also able to interact with triple helical collagen and acts as a collagen chaperone. PMID:19419969

  6. Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Norihiko

    2011-01-01

    Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C40-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4′)-ketolase (4(4′)-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3′)-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2′)-hydroxylase (CrtG). This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2′)-hydroxylated carotenoids). PMID:21673887

  7. Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Misawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C40-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4′-ketolase (4(4′-oxygenase; CrtW and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3′-hydroxylase (CrtZ. In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2′-hydroxylase (CrtG. This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s-2(2′-hydroxylated carotenoids.

  8. Carotenoid β-ring hydroxylase and ketolase from marine bacteria-promiscuous enzymes for synthesizing functional xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Norihiko

    2011-01-01

    Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C₄₀-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4')-ketolase (4(4')-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3')-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2')-hydroxylase (CrtG). This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2')-hydroxylated carotenoids).

  9. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  10. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  11. Vitamin D regulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression: N-cadherin a possible mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X; Pertile, R; Liu, P; Eyles, D W

    2015-09-24

    Vitamin D is a neuroactive steroid. Its genomic actions are mediated via the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR emerges in the rat mesencephalon at embryonic day 12, representing the peak period of dopaminergic cell birth. Our prior studies reveal that developmental vitamin D (DVD)-deficiency alters the ontogeny of dopaminergic neurons in the developing mesencephalon. There is also consistent evidence from others that 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in models of dopaminergic toxicity. In both developmental and toxicological studies it has been proposed that 1,25(OH)2D3 may modulate the differentiation and maturation of dopaminergic neurons; however, to date there is lack of direct evidence. The aim of the current study is to investigate this both in vitro using a human SH-SY5Y cell line transfected with rodent VDR and in vivo using a DVD-deficient model. Here we show that in VDR-expressing SH-SY5Y cells, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly increased production of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. This effect was dose- and time-dependent, but was not due to an increase in TH-positive cell number, nor was it due to the production of trophic survival factors for dopamine neurons such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In accordance with 1,25(OH)2D3's anti-proliferative actions in the brain, 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced the percentage of dividing cells from approximately 15-10%. Given the recently reported role of N-cadherin in the direct differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, we examined here whether it may be elevated by 1,25(OH)2D3. We confirmed this in vitro and more importantly, we showed DVD-deficiency decreases N-cadherin expression in the embryonic mesencephalon. In summary, in our in vitro model we have shown 1,25(OH)2D3 increases TH expression, decreases proliferation and elevates N-cadherin, a potential factor that mediates these processes

  12. Clinical phenotype and genetic mutation of fatty acid hydroxylase - associated neurodegeneration: analysis of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-jun HUANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report 4 cases of fatty acid hydroxylase - associated neurodegeneration (FAHN and to summarize the clinical and genetic characteristics of FAHN by literatures review.  Methods Four cases of FAHN patients' clinical and family data were collected in detail. The gDNA of patients and their parents were extracted from peripheral blood. FA2H gene was conducted and followed by Sanger sequencing.  Results Among the 4 cases, 3 cases (Case 2, Case 3, Case 4 presented typical manifestations of FAHN while the other (Case 1 was atypical. Genetic sequencing showed FA2H gene mutation in all affected patients. Compound heterozygous mutation c.461G > A (p.Arg154His and c.794T > G (p.Phe265Cys were seen in Case 1. In Case 2, only one documented heterozygous mutation c.703C > T (p.Arg235Cys was found, and dificit mutation was not found in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip test of the patient and her mother. Compound heterozygous mutation c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys and insertion mutation c.172_173insGGGCCAGGAC (p.Ile58ArgfsX47 were presented in Case 3. In Case 4, compound heterozygous mutation c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys, c.968C > A (p.Pro323Gln and c.976G > A (p. Gly326Asp were seen, while his father was the carrier of c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys mutation and his mother was the carrier of c.968C > A (p.Pro323Gln and c.976G > A (p.Gly326Asp mutation. According to the standard of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG, c.461G > A (p.Arg154His and c.794T > G (p.Phe265Cys in Case 1, and c.703C > T (p.Arg235Cys in Case 2 were considered as "likely pathogenic", while FA2H gene compound heterozygous mutation c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys, insertion mutation c.172_173insGGGCCAGGAC (p.Ile58ArgfsX47 in Case 3 was as "pathogenic", and in Case 4, the FA2H gene mutation c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys and c.968C > A (p.Pro323Gln were "pathogenic" and c.976G > A (p.Gly326Asp was "likely pathogenic".  Conclusions FAHN has highly clinical and genetic

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  14. Increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in paraventricular and supraoptic neurons in illnesses with prolonged osmotic or nonosmotic stimulation of vasopressin release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayotacopoulou, Maria T.; Malidelis, Yiannis I.; Fliers, Eric; Bouras, Constantin; Ravid, Rivka; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that in the human para-ventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) - the first and rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis - is localized mainly in magnocellular neurons and that antemortem factors regulate its expression. The

  15. Regulation of gene expression by dietary Ca2+ in kidneys of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Chon, H.; Gkika, D.; Bluyssen, H.A.; Holstege, F.C.; St. Arnaud, R.; Braam, B.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets (PDDR) is an autosomal disease, characterized by undetectable levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), rickets and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Mice in which the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase (1 alpha-OHase) gene was inactivated,

  16. Association between A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene, harm avoidance and binge eating behavior in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Martiadis, Vassilis; Serino, Ismene; Di Filippo, Carmela; Maj, Mario

    2007-06-21

    Genes involved in serotonin transmission are likely involved in the biological predisposition to bulimia nervosa. We investigated whether the A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene was associated to bulimia nervosa and/or to some phenotypic aspects of the disorder. One hundred eighty Caucasian women (91 patients with bulimia nervosa and 89 healthy controls) were enrolled into the study. They underwent a blood sample collection for A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 genotyping and a clinical evaluation assessing comorbidity for Axis I and II psychiatric disorders, harm avoidance personality dimension and bulimic symptoms. The distribution of both tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C genotypes and alleles did not significantly differ between patients and controls. Bulimic women with the AA genotype exhibited a more severe binge eating behavior and higher harm avoidance scores than those with CC genotype. These findings support the idea that tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C polymorphism does not play a part in the genetic susceptibility to bulimia nervosa, but it seems to be involved in predisposing bulimic patients to a more disturbed eating behavior and higher harm avoidance.

  17. Differential feedback regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA and transcriptional activity by rat bile acids in primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, J.; Lehmann, E.M.; Princen, H.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    We have used primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes to study the effects of physiological concentrations of various bile acids, commonly found in bile of normal rats, on the mechanism of regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and bile acid synthesis. Addition of taurocholic acid, the most

  18. The alpha(2)-adrenoceptors do not modify the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, corticoliberine, and neuropeptide Y producing hypothalamic magnocellular neurons ion the Long Evans and Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundzikova, J; Pirnik, Z; Zelena, D

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei are activated by body salt-fluid variations. Stimulation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors by an agonist-xylazine (XYL) activates oxytocinergic but not vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons. In this study, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), cort...

  19. Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM 43269 3-Ketosteroid 9 alpha-Hydroxylase, a Two-Component Iron-Sulfur-Containing Monooxygenase with Subtle Steroid Substrate Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusma, M.; Dijkhuizen, L.; van der Geize, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the biochemical characterization of a purified and reconstituted two-component 3-ketosteroid 9 alpha-hydroxylase (KSH). KSH of Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM 43269, consisting of a ferredoxin reductase (KshB) and a terminal oxygenase (KshA), was heterologously expressed in

  20. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor binding, but not mGluR2, is increased in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 decrease-of-function mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christinna Vangsgaard; Jacobsen, Jacob P; Caron, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mice with a knock-in (KI) of a tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) R439H mutation, analogous to the Tph2 R441H single-nucleotide polymorphism originally identified in a late life depression cohort, have markedly reduced levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). These Tph2KI mice are therefore...

  1. Serotonin and Early Cognitive Development: Variation in the Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Is Associated with Visual Attention in 7-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Jukka M.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Puura, Kaija; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Mononen, Nina; Lehtimaki, Terho

    2011-01-01

    Background: Allelic variation in the promoter region of a gene that encodes tryptophan hydroxylase isoform 2 (TPH2), a rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis in the central nervous system, has been associated with variations in cognitive function and vulnerability to affective spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effects of this gene…

  2. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  3. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  6. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  7. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  8. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  9. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  10. [Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of classic forms of 21-hydroxylase-deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Amparo; Ezquieta, Begoña; Labarta, José Igancio; Clemente, María; Espino, Rafael; Rodriguez, Amaia; Escribano, Aranzazu

    2017-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. Cortisol and aldosterone synthesis are impaired in the classic forms (adrenal insufficiency and salt-wasting crisis). Females affected are virilised at birth, and are at risk for genital ambiguity. In this article we give recommendations for an early as possible diagnosis and an appropriate and individualised treatment. A patient and family genetic study is essential for the diagnosis of the patient, and allows genetic counselling, as well as a prenatal diagnosis and treatment for future pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Strategies for Successful Long-Term Engagement of Adults With Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Deficiency Returning to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Thomas MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half of all patients diagnosed with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH deficiency, also known as phenylketonuria, are lost to follow-up (LTFU; most are adults who stopped attending clinic after the age of 18 years. To understand why adult patients with PAH deficiency disengage from their clinic, a focus group of 8 adults with PAH deficiency who had been LTFU for 2 or more years was held in March 2016. Ten clinicians observed the focus group and discussed strategies for successfully reengaging adult patients and encouraging lifelong management of PAH deficiency. Four strategies were proposed: (1 create a safe, supportive environment, (2 acknowledge patients as partners in their care, (3 develop individualized management plans, and (4 provide patients with additional resources. These strategies provide a framework to motivate change in clinical practice to meet the unique needs of adults with PAH deficiency.

  12. Zebrafish have an ethanol-inducible hepatic 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase that is not CYP2E1-like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H; Kozal, Jordan S; Di Giulio, Richard T; Meyer, Joel N

    2017-09-01

    Zebrafish are an attractive model organism for toxicology; however, an important consideration in translating between species is xenobiotic metabolism/bioactivation. CYP2E1 metabolizes small hydrophobic molecules, e.g. ethanol, cigarette smoke, and diesel exhaust components. CYP2E1 is thought to only be conserved in mammals, but recent reports identified homologous zebrafish cytochrome P450s. Herein, ex vivo biochemical measurements show that unlike mammals, zebrafish possess a low-affinity 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase (K m ∼0.6 mM) in hepatic microsomes and mitochondria that is inducible only 1.5- to 2-fold by ethanol and is insensitive to 4-methylpyrazole inhibition. In closing, we suggest creating improved models to study CYP2E1 in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lack of Association between Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH 19-bp Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Risk of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour shakiba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interaction between genetic and environmental factors is considered as major factors in Schizophrenia (SCZ. It has been shown that dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission dysfunction play an essential role in the SCZ pathogenesis.This study aimed to find the impact of functional 19-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del polymorphism in dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH gene on SCZ risk in a sample of Iranian population.Method: This case-control study was conducted on 109 SCZ patients and 116 matched healthy subjects. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood cells using salting out method. Genotyping of 19-bp ins/del DBH polymorphism was done using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method.Results: Neither the overall chi-square comparison of cases and controls (

  14. Splicing of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) exon 11 is vulnerable - Molecular pathology of mutations in PAH exon 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    as a vulnerable exon and used patient derived lymphoblast cell lines and PAH minigenes to study the molecular defect that impacted pre-mRNA processing. We showed that the c.1144T>C and c.1066-3C>T mutations cause exon 11 skipping, while the c.1139C>T mutation is neutral or slightly beneficial. The c.1144T......In about 20-30% of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, phenylalanine (Phe) levels can be controlled by cofactor 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) administration. The phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotype has a predictive value concerning BH(4)-response and therefore a correct assessment of the mutation...... molecular pathology is important. Mutations that disturb the splicing of exons (e.g. interplay between splice site strength and regulatory sequences like exon splicing enhancers (ESEs)/exon splicing silencers (ESSs)) may cause different severity of PKU. In this study, we identified PAH exon 11...

  15. Occurrence of diverse alkane hydroxylase alkB genes in indigenous oil-degrading bacteria of Baltic Sea surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggor, Signe; Jõesaar, Merike; Vedler, Eve; Kiiker, Riinu; Pärnpuu, Liis; Heinaru, Ain

    2015-12-30

    Formation of specific oil degrading bacterial communities in diesel fuel, crude oil, heptane and hexadecane supplemented microcosms of the Baltic Sea surface water samples was revealed. The 475 sequences from constructed alkane hydroxylase alkB gene clone libraries were grouped into 30 OPFs. The two largest groups were most similar to Pedobacter sp. (245 from 475) and Limnobacter sp. (112 from 475) alkB gene sequences. From 56 alkane-degrading bacterial strains 41 belonged to the Pseudomonas spp. and 8 to the Rhodococcus spp. having redundant alkB genes. Together 68 alkB gene sequences were identified. These genes grouped into 20 OPFs, half of them being specific only to the isolated strains. Altogether 543 diverse alkB genes were characterized in the brackish Baltic Sea water; some of them representing novel lineages having very low sequence identities with corresponding genes of the reference strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Manganese (II) induces chemical hypoxia by inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylase: Implication in manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeongoh; Lee, Jong-Suk; Choi, Daekyu; Lee, Youna; Hong, Sungchae; Choi, Jungyun; Han, Songyi; Ko, Yujin; Kim, Jung-Ae; Mi Kim, Young; Jung, Yunjin

    2009-01-01

    Manganese (II), a transition metal, causes pulmonary inflammation upon environmental or occupational inhalation in excess. We investigated a potential molecular mechanism underlying manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation. Manganese (II) delayed HIF-1α protein disappearance, which occurred by inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (HPH), the key enzyme for HIF-1α hydroxylation and subsequent von Hippel-Lindau(VHL)-dependent HIF-1α degradation. HPH inhibition by manganese (II) was neutralized significantly by elevated dose of iron. Consistent with this, the induction of cellular HIF-1α protein by manganese (II) was abolished by pretreatment with iron. Manganese (II) induced the HIF-1 target gene involved in pulmonary inflammation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in lung carcinoma cell lines. The induction of VEGF was dependent on HIF-1. Manganese-induced VEGF promoted tube formation of HUVEC. Taken together, these data suggest that HIF-1 may be a potential mediator of manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation

  17. Effect of runway training on rat brain tyrosine hydroxylase: differential effect of continuous and partial reinforcement schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarder, M R; Feldon, J; Gray, J A; Fillenz, M

    1979-12-01

    Previous experiments have implicated ascending noradrenergic systems in the development of the behavioural responses to different patterns of reward. In this report food deprived male Sprague--Dawley rats were trained to run a straight alley for good reward on a continuous reinforcement (CRF) or a partial reinforcement (PRF) schedule. Tyrosine hydroxylase measured in a partially solubilized preparation from hippocampus and hypothalamus at the end of acquisition was not different from controls, indicating that enzyme induction does not occur during either training schedules. However, hippocampal synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylation rates from the CRF group was significantly higher than from either the PRF group or the handled controls. This indicates that at the end of the acquisition schedule the noradrenergic projection to hippocampus was more active in the CRF group than with the PRF group or the handled control.

  18. Characterisation of tryptic peptides of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase by high-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Mark E.; Dickson, Phillip W.; Dunkley, Peter R.; Nagy-Felsobuki, Ellak I. von

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is involved in the biosynthesis of catecholamines and is activated by phosphorylation. Phosphorylated TH was analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC ESI-MS). Two mass scanning methods were used to detect tryptic cleavage products of TH. In the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+), the peptides that contain the phosphorylation sites of TH were identified. In the alternative method, a phosphopeptide was detected in the negative electrospray ionisation mode (ESI-) using single ion monitoring in combination with a sequential ESI+ switching experiment. A raised baseline interfered with detection of hydrophilic peptides in ESI-, with the signal-to-noise ratio indicating that the method was operating near the limit of detection for a conventional electrospray source. The switching method improved the certainty of identification of phosphopeptides

  19. Deduction of kinetic mechanism in multisubstrate enzyme reactions from tritium isotope effects. Application to dopamine beta-hydroxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinman, J.P.; Humphries, H.; Voet, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Primary tritium isotope effects have been measured for the hydroxylation of [2-3H] dopamine catalyzed by dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Experimental values vary from 8.8 +/- 1.4 at 0.02 mM oxygen to 4.1 +/- 0.6 at 1.0 mM oxygen. It is shown that the observed dependence of the isotope effect on oxygen concentration provides unequivocal evidence for a kinetically significant dissociation of both dopamine and oxygen from enzyme, ternary complex. This approach, which is applicable to any multisubstrate enzyme characterized by detectable kinetic isotope effects, provides an alternate to classical methods for the elucidation of kinetic order in enzyme-catalyzed reactions

  20. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  1. Overexpression of a tea flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene confers tolerance to salt stress and Alternaria solani in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Monika; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Flavan-3-ols are the major flavonoids present in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves. These are known to have antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties in vitro. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase is considered to be an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway leading to accumulation of flavan-3-ols in tea. Expression analysis revealed the upregulation in transcript levels of C. sinensis flavanone 3-hydroxylase (CsF3H) encoding gene under salt stress. In this study, the biotechnological potential of CsF3H was evaluated by gene overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Overexpression of CsF3H cDNA increased the content of flavan-3-ols in tobacco and conferred tolerance to salt stress and fungus Alternaria solani infection. Transgenic tobaccos were observed for increase in primary root length, number of lateral roots, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme expression and their activities. Also, they showed lesser malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage compared to control tobacco plants. Further, transgenic plants produced higher degree of pectin methyl esterification via decreasing pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity in roots and leaves under unstressed and salt stressed conditions. The effect of flavan-3-ols on pectin methyl esterification under salt stressed conditions was further validated through in vitro experiments in which non-transgenic (wild) tobacco seedlings were exposed to salt stress in presence of flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and epigallocatechin. The in vitro exposed seedlings showed similar trend of increase in pectin methyl esterification through decreasing PME activity as observed in CsF3H transgenic lines. Taken together, overexpression of CsF3H provided tolerance to salt stress and fungus A. solani infection to transgenic tobacco through improved antioxidant system and enhanced pectin methyl esterification.

  2. Loss of ferulate 5-hydroxylase leads to Mediator-dependent inhibition of soluble phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Nickolas; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Nyffeler, Kayleigh E.; Chapple, Clint

    2015-06-05

    Phenylpropanoids are phenylalanine-derived specialized metabolites and include important structural components of plant cell walls, such as lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as ultraviolet and visible light-absorbing pigments, such as hydroxycinnamate esters (HCEs) and anthocyanins. Previous work has revealed a remarkable degree of plasticity in HCE biosynthesis, such that most Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with blockages in the pathway simply redirect carbon flux to atypical HCEs. In contrast, the ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) mutant accumulates greatly reduced levels of HCEs, suggesting that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may be repressed in response to the loss of FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE (F5H) activity. Here, we show that in fah1 mutant plants, the activity of HCE biosynthetic enzymes is not limiting for HCE accumulation, nor is phenylpropanoid flux diverted to the synthesis of cell wall components or flavonol glycosides. We further show that anthocyanin accumulation is also repressed in fah1 mutants and that this repression is specific to tissues in which F5H is normally expressed. Finally, we show that repression of both HCE and anthocyanin biosynthesis in fah1 mutants is dependent on the MED5a/5b subunits of the transcriptional coregulatory complex Mediator, which are similarly required for the repression of lignin biosynthesis and the stunted growth of the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant reduced epidermal fluorescence8. Taken together, these observations show that the synthesis of HCEs and anthocyanins is actively repressed in a MEDIATOR-dependent manner in Arabidopsis fah1 mutants and support an emerging model in which MED5a/5b act as central players in the homeostatic repression of phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  3. Essential roles of insulin, AMPK signaling and lysyl and prolyl hydroxylases in the biosynthesis and multimerization of adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ming-Ming; Corcoran, Marie; Zhang, Shaoping; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-01-05

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the adiponectin molecule are essential for its full bioactivity, and defects in PTMs leading to its defective production and multimerization have been linked to the mechanisms of insulin resistance, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Here we observed that, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, decreased insulin signaling caused by blocking of insulin receptors (InsR) with an anti-InsR blocking antibody, increased rates of adiponectin secretion, whereas concomitant elevations in insulin levels counteracted this effect. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling regulated adiponectin production by modulating the expression of adiponectin receptors, the secretion of adiponectin, and eventually the expression of adiponectin itself. We found that lysyl hydroxylases (LHs) and prolyl hydroxylases (PHs) were expressed in white-adipose tissue of ob/ob mice, wherein LH3 levels were increased compared with controls. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, both non-specific inhibition of LHs and PHs by dipyridyl, and specific inhibition of LHs by minoxidil and of P4H with ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, caused significant suppression of adiponectin production, more particularly of the higher-order isoforms. Transient gene knock-down of LH3 (Plod3) caused a suppressive effect, especially on the high molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms. These data indicate that PHs and LHs are both required for physiological adiponectin production and in particular are essential for the formation/secretion of the HMW isoforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  5. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  6. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  7. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  8. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  9. Culture-dependent characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARNEST

    Hydrocarbons interact with the environment and micro- organisms determining the .... it is pertinent to study the community dynamics of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria ... Chikere CB (2013). Application of molecular microbiology techniques in.

  10. Response of microalgae from mud-flats to petroleum hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer ... the hydrocarbon, there was delayed nutrient uptake. ... waters, but the use of inorganic of organic nitrogen in ... ment, fish kills as oxygen is depleted, offensive odour.

  11. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  12. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  13. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  14. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  15. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  16. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  17. Identifying specific interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Malloci, Giuliano; Porceddu, Ignazio

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to be ubiquitous for more than twenty years, yet no single species in this class has been identified in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to date. The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and forthcoming Herschel observations in the far infrared spectral range will offer a unique way out of this embarrassing impasse

  18. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  19. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  20. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  1. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  3. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  4. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  5. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  6. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  8. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  9. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  10. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate

  11. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  12. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  13. Producing light hydrocarbons by destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlen, J H

    1928-06-20

    A method of obtaining light hydrocarbons from fuels and natural or industrial carbonaceous materials by cracking under pressure from 5 to 200 atmospheres and within a temperature range of 200 to 1,000/sup 0/C, the cracking operation being assisted by the presence of catalysts such as metallic halides, simultaneously, with hydrogenation by means of nascent hydrogen in the reaction chamber.

  14. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.75 x 107 to 0.98 x 107 ...

  15. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  16. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  17. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  18. Process of converting heavy hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, F C

    1921-05-27

    A modification is described of the process of the principal Patent 373,060 for splitting and converting heavy hydrocarbons into low-boiling lighter products or into cylinder oil, characterized in that, in place of petroleum, brown-coal oil, shale oil, or the like is distilled in the presence of hydrosilicate as a catalyzer or is heated with refluxing.

  19. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  20. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolation and surfactant influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbons are substantially insoluble in water, often remaining partitioned in the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). However, there had been little or no attempts to advance the bioavailability of hydrocarbons through the use of surfactants. This study was conducted based on the need to isolate hydrocarbon degrading ...

  1. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  2. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  3. Russia and China hydrocarbon relations. A building block toward international hydrocarbon regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine; Abbas, Mehdi; Rossiaud, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    This article is a first step of a research agenda on international hydrocarbon regulations. With regards to both: i) the new wealth and power equilibrium in the international political economy and ii) the new political economy of carbon that is emerging from The Paris agreement on Climate changes, this research agenda aims at analysing the changing national structures of governance and the ways these changes lead to international, bilateral, pluri-lateral or multilateral hydrocarbon regulation

  4. Novel deletion alleles carrying CYP21A1P/A2 chimeric genes in Brazilian patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra-Júnior Gil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is caused by deletions, large gene conversions or mutations in CYP21A2 gene. The human gene is located at 6p21.3 within a locus containing the genes for putative serine/threonine Kinase RP, complement C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21 tenascin TNX, normally, in a duplicated cluster known as RCCX module. The CYP21 extra copy is a pseudogene (CYP21A1P. In Brazil, 30-kb deletion forming monomodular alleles that carry chimeric CYP21A1P/A2 genes corresponds to ~9% of disease-causing alleles. Such alleles are considered to result from unequal crossovers within the bimodular C4/CYP21 locus. Depending on the localization of recombination breakpoint, different alleles can be generated conferring the locus high degree of allelic variability. The purpose of the study was to investigate the variability of deleted alleles in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Methods We used different techniques to investigate the variability of 30-kb deletion alleles in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Alleles were first selected after Southern blotting. The composition of CYP21A1P/A2 chimeric genes was investigated by ASO-PCR and MLPA analyses followed by sequencing to refine the location of recombination breakpoints. Twenty patients carrying at least one allele with C4/CYP21 30-kb deletion were included in the study. Results An allele carrying a CYP21A1P/A2 chimeric gene was found unusually associated to a C4B/C4A Taq I 6.4-kb fragment, generally associated to C4B and CYP21A1P deletions. A novel haplotype bearing both p.P34L and p.H62L, novel and rare mutations, respectively, was identified in exon 1, however p.P30L, the most frequent pseudogene-derived mutation in this exon, was absent. Four unrelated patients showed this haplotype. Absence of p.P34L in CYP21A1P of normal controls indicated that it is not derived from pseudogene. In addition, the combination of different

  5. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  6. Abscinazole-F1, a conformationally restricted analogue of the plant growth retardant uniconazole and an inhibitor of ABA 8'-hydroxylase CYP707A with no growth-retardant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Kyotaro; Shirakura, Minaho; Aoyama, Hikaru; Takatori, Kokichi; Nimitkeatkai, Hataitip; Jin, Mei-Hong; Hiramatsu, Saori; Ueno, Kotomi; Kondo, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaharu; Hirai, Nobuhiro

    2009-09-15

    To develop a specific inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the catabolism of ABA, a plant hormone involved in stress tolerance, seed dormancy, and other various physiological events, we designed and synthesized conformationally restricted analogues of uniconazole (UNI), a well-known plant growth retardant, which inhibits a biosynthetic enzyme (ent-kaurene oxidase) of gibberellin as well as ABA 8'-hydroxylase. Although most of these analogues were less effective than UNI in inhibition of ABA 8'-hydroxylase and rice seedling growth, we found that a lactol-bridged analogue with an imidazole is a potent inhibitor of ABA 8'-hydroxylase but not of plant growth. This compound, abscinazole-F1, induced drought tolerance in apple seedlings upon spray treatment with a 10 microM solution.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using both endogenous and exogenous [4-14C]cholesterol as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylemon, P.B.; Studer, E.J.; Pandak, W.M.; Heuman, D.M.; Vlahcevic, Z.R.; Chiang, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The HPLC-spectrophotometric method for measuring cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was modified by using a C-18 reverse-phase column to separate 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 4-cholesten-3-one and by adding 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol to each reaction mixture as an internal recovery standard. With this method, we were able to simultaneously measure cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity using endogenous cholesterol and exogenous [4- 14 C]cholesterol as substrate. Rat liver cytosol differentially stimulated (286%) the 7 alpha-hydroxylation of exogenous [4- 14 C]-cholesterol. In contrast, total cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was stimulated only 35% by cytosol. This method should prove useful for studying mechanisms of cholesterol delivery to cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase

  8. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  9. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  10. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  11. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  12. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  13. Induction by phenobarbital of aniline-p-hydroxylase in mouse liver under the influence of X-irradiation and 2,4,6-triethyleneimino-1,3,5-triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erger, M.; Hollatz, R.; Tempel, K.

    1977-01-01

    The phenobarbital-induced activity of aniline-p-hydroxylase in livers of mice was enhanced additionally when the animals were X-irradiated 4-16 hours before the administration of the inducer. The same effect could be demonstrated after repeated irradiation with low doses. 2,4,6-triethyleneimino-1,3,5-triazine (tretamine) inhibited the induction of aniline-p-hydroxylase only when administered in extremely high doses. Lower doses resulted in 'superinduciton'. (orig.) [de

  14. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the treatment of non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Amir; Thomas, Nithin; Sacerdote, Alan; Bahtiyar, Gül

    2013-03-18

    Non-classic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) has been associated with insulin resistance (IR). Therapies such as metformin, thiazolidinediones and lifestyle alterations improve IR and also ameliorate the biochemical and clinical abnormalities of NCAH, much as they do in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). More recently, bariatric surgery, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), has also been associated with improvement in IR and amelioration of PCOS and may, therefore, be beneficial in NCAH. We report a case of a 39-year-old, deaf-mute, obese woman with NCAH due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency who underwent RYGBP followed by improvement of NCAH manifestations. She was initially treated with metformin and pioglitazone, which lowered serum 11-deoxycortisol from 198 ng/dl (irregular menses normalised as well. We conclude that RYGBP, like other interventions that reduce IR, may be another way of treating non-classic 11-hydroxylase deficiency in selected patients.

  15. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  16. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  17. Aging and a long-term diabetes mellitus increase expression of 1 α-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptors in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuica, Ana; Ferhatović Hamzić, Lejla; Vukojević, Katarina; Jerić, Milka; Puljak, Livia; Grković, Ivica; Filipović, Natalija

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder associated with serious liver complications. As a metabolic chronic disease, DM is very common in the elderly. Recent studies suggest ameliorating effects of vitamin D on metabolic and oxidative stress in the liver tissue in an experimental model of DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) and 1α-hydroxylase, the key enzyme for the production of active vitamin D form (calcitriol) in the liver during long-term diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) in aging rats. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of liver expression of 1α-hydroxylase and VDRs during aging in long-term streptozotocin-induced DM1. 1α-Hydroxylase was identified in the monocyte/macrophage system of the liver. In addition to the nuclear expression, we also observed the expression of VDR in membranes of lipid droplets within hepatocytes. Aging and long-term DM1 resulted in significant increases in the number of 1α-hydroxylase immunoreactive cells, as well as the percentage of strongly positive VDR hepatocytes. In conclusion, the liver has the capacity for active vitamin D synthesis in its monocyte/macrophage system that is substantially increased in aging and long-term diabetes mellitus. These conditions are also characterized by significant increases in vitamin D receptor expression in hepatocytes. The present study suggests that VDR signaling system could be a potential target in prevention of liver complications caused by diabetes and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-independent downregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in mice treated with lead nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Misaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2005-10-01

    We previously reported that lead nitrate (LN), an inducer of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), downregulated gene expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. Herein, to clarify the role of TNF-alpha in LN-induced downregulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, effects of LN on gene expression of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) in TNF-alpha-knockout (KO) and TNF-alpha-wild-type (WT) mice were comparatively examined. Gene expression of hepatic Cyp7a1 in both WT and KO mice decreased to less than 5% of the corresponding controls at 6-12 h after treatment with LN (100 mumol/kg body weight, iv). Levels of hepatic TNF-alpha protein in either WT or KO mice were below the detection limit, although expression levels of the TNF-alpha gene markedly increased at 6 h in WT mice by LN treatment, but not in KO mice. In contrast, in both WT and KO mice, levels of hepatic IL-1beta protein, which is known to be a suppressor of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in hamsters, were significantly increased 3-6 h after LN treatment. Furthermore, LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene did not necessarily result from altered gene expression of hepatic transcription factors, including positive regulators (liver X receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, fetoprotein transcription factor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) and a negative regulator small heterodimer partner responsible for expression of the Cyp7a1 gene. The present findings indicated that LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene in mice did not necessarily occur through a TNF-alpha-dependent pathway and might occur mainly through an IL-1beta-dependent pathway.

  19. Differential Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Protein and Apoptosis-Related Genes in Differentiated and Undifferentiated SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with MPP+

    OpenAIRE

    Khwanraj, Kawinthra; Phruksaniyom, Chareerut; Madlah, Suriyat; Dharmasaroja, Permphan

    2015-01-01

    The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line has been used as a dopaminergic cell model for Parkinson's disease research. Whether undifferentiated or differentiated SH-SY5Y cells are more suitable remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related mRNAs activated by MPP+ and evaluate the differential expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in undifferentiated and retinoic acid- (RA-) induced differentiated cells. The western blot results showed a gradual decre...

  20. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alqahtani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260∗, resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260∗ was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database. In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P-450 dependent benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity by acetylenic and olefinic polycyclic arylhydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene (EP), 3-ethynylperylene (EPL), cis- and trans-1-(2-bromo-vinyl)pyrene (c-BVP and t-BVP), and 1-allylpyrene (AP) serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) hydroxylase, while 1-vinyl-pyrene (VP) and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene (PPA) do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of the BP hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of BP hydroxylase activity caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes. In the presence of NADPH, 3 H-labeled EP covalently attached to P-450 isozymes with a measured stoichiometry of one mole of EP per mole of the P-450 heme. The results of the effects of these aryl derivatives in the mammalian cell-mediated mutagenesis assay and toxicity assay show that none of the compounds examined nor any of the their metabolites produced in the incubation system are cytotoxic to V79 cells

  2. Effects of methyl jasmonate, on stevioside and rebaudioside A content and expression of the ent-Kaurenoic acid 13-hydroxylase gene in Stevia rebaudiana Bert. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Behmanesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycosides are a form of secondary metabolites that consist variety compounds and in some cases can play a role in primary metabolism. Steviol is lipophilic skeleton of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A, two main glycosides of Stevia rebuadiana. Steviol glycosides which are synthesized in S.rebaudiana have important medical and nutritional values as high intensity natural sweeteners. Steviol is synthesized from Kaurenoic acid in chloroplastic Terpenoid pathway that mediated by Kaurenoic acid 13-hydroxylase. In this study, HPLC method and RT-PCR were performed for quantification of glycosides and gene expression (ent-Kaurenoic acid 13-hydroxylase respectively. Methyl jasmonate treatment (at 20 micromolar in vitro induced glycoside biosynthesis significantly (P≤0.05 whereas higher concentration of Methyl jasmonate (100 µM caused a decrease in glycoside production and growth. The most glycoside content of the plant was three days after treatment. Also Methyl jasmonate treatment caused an increase in ent-Kaurenoic 13-hydroxylase gene expression from 6 hours to 48 hours (after treatment Results showed that biosynthesis of Stevia glycosides was probably a defense mechanism against pathogens and herbivore insects. Also we found that different concentrations of Methyl jasmonate, alter the ratio between glycosides rather than the increase in glycoside contents.

  3. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of monoterpene hydrocarbons in rural atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, M.W.; Westberg, H.H.; Zimmerman, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of monoterpenes from a rural forested site in the northwestern United States is described. Use of a glass capillary column provided excellent resolution of the hydrocarbons. Increased sensitivity and specificity of the mass spectrometer detector over the flame ionization detector were demonstrated for trace (parts per trillion) atmospheric hydrocarbons. As little as 10 ppt of compound was detectable in 100-cc air samples. Two analytical methods (cryogenic and solid adsorbent--Tenax-GC) were used in the collection of ambient air. Analytical results from the two techniques compared very well. Rural concentrations of the monoterpenes varied considerably depending upon location within the forest canopy. The concentration of individual species never exceeded 1 ppb of compound during a 10-month sampling period. The monoterpene total for all samples fell in the range of 0.5- to 16-ppb compound for C 10 terpene

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  6. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  7. Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1980-11-01

    We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

  8. Desorption and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the extent and pattern of contaminant biodegradation during bioremediation of four industrially-contaminated soils were examined to determine which factors control the ultimate extent of biodegradation and which limit the success of biological treatment. It was noted that although bioremediation is inexpensive and has low environmental impact, it often fails to completely remove the hydrocarbons in soils because of the complex interactions between contaminants, the soil environment, and the active microorganisms. In this study, the competency of the microorganisms in the soil to degrade the contaminants was examined. The equilibrium partitioning of the contaminants between the soil and the aqueous phase was also examined along with the transport of contaminants out of soil particles. The role of diffusion of compounds in the soil and the importance of direct contact between microorganisms and the hydrocarbons was determined. Methods for selecting suitable sites for biological treatment were also described

  9. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1978-06-01

    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  10. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  11. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  12. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Characterisation of unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Mark Adrian

    1989-01-01

    Metadata merged with duplicate record (http://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/666) on 20.12.2016 by CS (TIS). This is a digitised version of a thesis that was deposited in the University Library. If you are the author please contact PEARL Admin () to discuss options. The hydrocarbons of Recent Polluted.., sediments, in-reservoir and laboratory biodegraded crude oils, and certain petroleum products (e. g. lubricating oils) often display "humps" or Unresolved Complex...

  14. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  15. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  16. Adaptive dynamics of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajpurohit, S.; Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Behrman, E. L.; Bergland, A. O.; Petrov, D.; Cvačka, Josef; Schmidt, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 66-80 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/1093 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * Drosophila * experimental evolution * spatiotemporal variation * thermal plasticity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jeb.12988/full

  17. Electrochemical Routes towards Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future is electro...... in the future. In spite of this, it is important to research and develop as many viable sustainable energy technologies as economical possible. © 2012 ECS - The Electrochemical Society  ...

  18. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge; Maria-Monika Metallinou; Arjen Kraaijeveld; Torgrim Log

    2017-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation met...

  19. Continuous process for converting hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-05-01

    A continuous process is disclosed for converting hydrocarbons, liquid, semi-liquid, and solid, of all origins and kinds, into incondensable gases, without carbon deposits, characterized by the fact that an intimate mixture of the material and superheated steam before cracking is passed through a contact mass. The contact mass consists of all metals, metal alloys, and mineral salts which, at the reaction temperature, are fused and do not react with the water vapor or gaseous products.

  20. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Transformations of aromatic hydrocarbons over zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voláková, Martina; Žilková, Naděžda; Čejka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 5-7 (2008), s. 439-454 ISSN 0922-6168 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0197; GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA AV ČR KJB4040402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : aromatic hydrocarbons * zeolites * alkylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2008

  2. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  3. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, S.; Swyripa, M.; Peddle, J.; Jeffries, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Suspended sediment and water samples collected from twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess the sources and transport of hydrocarbons entering the Arctic Ocean. Three stations on the Mackenzie River and one station near the mouth of eleven other northern rivers were selected for sampling. Samples were collected on the Mackenzie River on four occasions to characterize spring, summer and fall flow conditions and once on the remaining eleven rivers during high flow conditions. The Mackenzie River is distinctively different then the other eleven rivers. Naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes, diagenic PAHs, petrogenic alkanes, and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens. Anthropogenic inputs of PAHs are low as indicated by low concentrations of combustion PAHs. Alkyl PAH distributions indicate that a significant component of the lower molecular weight PAH fraction is petrogenic. The majority of the high molecular weight PAHs, together with the petrogenic PAHs have a principal source in the Mackenzie River

  4. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  5. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  6. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  7. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  8. Biotransformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline are environmental pollutants of particular concern since they are relatively soluble in water, many are toxic, and some are confirmed carcinogens, (e.g., benzene). Although most gasoline constituents are readily degraded in aerobic surface water systems, the groundwater environment associated with hydrocarbon spills is typically anaerobic, thus precluding aerobic degradation pathways. In the absence of oxygen, degradation of gasoline components can take place only with the utilization of alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and possibly ferric iron or other metal oxides. Benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers were completely degraded by aquifer- or sewage sludge-derived microorganisms under dentrifying and methanogenic conditions. Recently, a pure culture was found to degrade toluene and m-xylene nitrate or nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. This paper presents initial results of ongoing study to develop and characterize microbial consortia capable of transforming aromatic hydrocarbons under nitrate-reducing conditions, and understand the effect of environmental factors on the biotransformation processes

  9. Effects of SO/sub 2/ or NOx on toxic and genotoxic properties of chemical carcinogens. II. Short term in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, B L; Brendler, S; Klein, R G; Monarca, S; Pasquini, R; Schmezer, P; Zeller, W J

    1988-07-01

    Short term in vivo studies were performed to study biological effects of the common air pollutants SO2 or NOx and their influence on the genotoxic activities of nitrosamines. Hepatocytes and lung cells were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats which had inhaled 50 p.p.m. of SO2 or NOx for 2 weeks. After incubating the cells for 1 h, genotoxicity was determined in hepatocytes by measuring DNA single-strand breaks induced by N-nitroso-acetoxymethylmethylamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Parameters of toxicity (trypan blue exclusion and leakage of serum enzymes) were determined in both liver and lung cells also following 1 h incubation. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-D) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were determined in subcellular microsomal fractions isolated from lung and liver tissues. Finally, as a measure of overall toxicity, the activities of various serum enzymes were determined in the blood serum of the rats. It was found that the induction of DNA single-strand breaks by three nitrosamines was decreased in hepatocytes from SO2-treated animals. The viability of rat hepatocytes and of rat lung cells, as determined by trypan blue exclusion, was similar in all three treatment groups immediately after isolation, as well as after 1 h incubation with DMSO or with the nitrosamines. In contrast, the leakage of enzymes was different in hepatocytes of SO2-treated rats, since lactate dehydrogenase activity was decreased. Leakage of enzymes from the lung cells did not differ from group to group, but was lower than from hepatocytes. Foreign compound metabolizing enzymes were mainly decreased in NOx-treated animals, namely AHH, NDMA-D and GST in liver and GST in the lung. For SO2-treated animals NDMA-D was increased in liver and GST was decreased in lung.

  10. Transient knockdown of tyrosine hydroxylase during development has persistent effects on behaviour in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Formella

    Full Text Available Abnormal dopamine (DA signaling is often suggested as causative in schizophrenia. The other prominent hypothesis for this disorder, largely driven by epidemiological data, is that certain adverse events during the early stages of brain development increase an individual's risk of developing schizophrenia later in life. However, the clinical and preclinical literature consistently implicates behavioural, cognitive, and pharmacological abnormalities, implying that DA signaling is abnormal in the adult brain. How can we reconcile these two major hypotheses underlying much of the clinical and basic research into schizophrenia? In this study we have transiently knocked down tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate limiting enzyme in DA synthesis gene expression in the early stages of brain development in zebrafish using morpholinos. We show that by adulthood, TH and DA levels have returned to normal and basic DA-mediated behaviours, such as locomotion, are also normal. However, when they were exposed to a novel environment the levels of freezing and immediate positioning in deeper zones were significantly reduced in these adult fish. The neurochemistry underlying these behaviours is complex, and the exact mechanisms for these abnormal behaviours remains unknown. This study demonstrates that early transient alterations in DA ontogeny can produce persistent alterations in adult brain function and suggests that the zebrafish may be a promising model animal for future studies directed at clarifying the basic neurodevelopmental mechanisms behind complex psychiatric disease.

  11. Overhydroxylation of Lysine of Collagen Increases Uterine Fibroids Proliferation: Roles of Lysyl Hydroxylases, Lysyl Oxidases, and Matrix Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM in uterine fibroids (UF has recently been appreciated. Overhydroxylation of lysine residues and the subsequent formation of hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP and lysylpyridinoline (LP cross-links underlie the ECM stiffness and profoundly affect tumor progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ECM of UF, collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes [lysyl hydroxylases (LH and lysyl oxidases (LOX], and the development and progression of UF. Our results indicated that hydroxyl lysine (Hyl and HP cross-links are significantly higher in UF compared to the normal myometrial tissues accompanied by increased expression of LH (LH2b and LOX. Also, increased resistance to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP proteolytic degradation activity was observed. Furthermore, the extent of collagen cross-links was positively correlated with the expression of myofibroblast marker (α-SMA, growth-promoting markers (PCNA; pERK1/2; FAKpY397; Ki-67; and Cyclin D1, and the size of UF. In conclusion, our study defines the role of overhydroxylation of collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes in modulating UF cell proliferation, differentiation, and resistance to MMP. These effects can establish microenvironment conducive for UF progression and thus represent potential target treatment options of UF.

  12. Oral delivery of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor: AKB-4924 promotes localized mucosal healing in a mouse model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ellen; Goggins, Bridie J; Cardona, Jocelle; Cole, Siobhan; Minahan, Kyra; Mateer, Sean; Walker, Marjorie M; Shalwitz, Robert; Keely, Simon

    2015-02-01

    Pharmacological induction of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a global transcriptional regulator of the hypoxic response, by prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHDi) is protective in murine models of colitis, and epithelial cells are critical for the observed therapeutic efficacy. Because systemic HIF activation may lead to potentially negative off-target effects, we hypothesized that targeting epithelial HIF through oral delivery of PHDi would be sufficient to protect against colitis in a mouse model. Using a chemically induced trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid murine model of colitis, we compared the efficacy of oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) delivery of the PHDi; AKB-4924 in preventing colitis, as measured by endoscopy, histology, barrier integrity, and immune profiling. Furthermore, we measured potential off-target effects, examining HIF and HIF target genes in the heart and kidney, as well as erythropoietin and hematocrit levels. Oral administration of AKB-4924 exhibited mucosal protection comparable i.p. dosing. Oral delivery of PHDi led to reduced colonic epithelial HIF stabilization compared with i.p. delivery, but this was still sufficient to induce transcription of downstream HIF targets. Furthermore, oral delivery of PHDi led to reduced stabilization of HIF and activation of HIF targets in extraintestinal organs. Oral delivery of PHDi therapies to this intestinal mucosa protects against colitis in animal models and represents a potential therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease, which also precludes unwanted extraintestinal effects.

  13. [Characterisation of three polymorphisms of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in a sample of Colombian population with major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Idárraga, Adriana; Riveros-Barrera, Irene; Sánchez, Ricardo; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Calvo-Gómez, José Manuel; Yunis-Londoño, Juan José

    Identify whether rs11179000, rs136494 and rs4570625 polymorphisms of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene, are associated with a major depressive disorder in a sample of the Colombian population. Case-control study was conducted in which a comparison was made between subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder at some point in adulthood or active symptoms at the time of evaluation, and subjects with no psychiatric disease. Subjects were studied in the Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and the Institute of Genetics at the National University of Colombia. Polymorphisms were genotyped using Taqman probes in real time PCR. As well as studying the association between major depressive disorder and these (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the association with other factors previously associated with depression were also analysed. No statistically significant association between genotypic and allelic frequencies of each polymorphism and major depressive disorder was found. Association between sex and complication during pregnancy / childbirth and major depressive disorder was observed. Association between sex and complication during pregnancy / childbirth and major depressive disorder was observed. There was no association between any polymorphism and major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of the epitopes on steroid 21-hydroxylase recognized by autoantibodies in patients with or without Addison's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, M; Prentice, L; Chen, S; Betterle, C; Rees Smith, B; Furmaniak, J

    1998-01-01

    Steroid 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) autoantibodies are found in patients with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD), either isolated or associated with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type I and II and in adrenal-cortex autoantibody (ACA)-positive patients without AAD. In order to assess any differences in the 21-OH autoantibodies in these different patient groups, we have studied their reactivity with different epitopes on 21-OH using full length and modified 35S-labelled 21-OH proteins produced in an in vitro transcription/translation system. There were no major differences in the pattern of autoantibody reactivity with the different modified 21-OH proteins in patients with isolated AAD or with APS types I and II, and in 21-OH autoantibody-positive patients with clinical AAD, subclinical AAD and those maintaining a normal adrenal function. Our studies also indicate that the main epitopes for 21-OH autoantibodies in patients with different forms of autoimmune adrenal disease are located in the C-terminal end and in a central region of 21-OH. PMID:9486414

  15. Splice, insertion-deletion and nonsense mutations that perturb the phenylalanine hydroxylase transcript cause phenylketonuria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyam, Murali D; Chaudhary, Ajay K; Kiran, Manjari; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu A; Devi, Radha Rama; Ranganath, Prajnya; Dalal, Ashwin; Bashyam, Leena; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika; Muranjan, Mamta; Puri, Ratna D; Verma, Ishwar C; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Kadandale, Jayarama S

    2014-03-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutational inactivation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Missense mutations are the most common PAH mutation type detected in PKU patients worldwide. We performed PAH mutation analysis in 27 suspected Indian PKU families (including 7 from our previous study) followed by structure and function analysis of specific missense and splice/insertion-deletion/nonsense mutations, respectively. Of the 27 families, disease-causing mutations were detected in 25. A total of 20 different mutations were identified of which 7 "unique" mutations accounted for 13 of 25 mutation positive families. The unique mutations detected exclusively in Indian PKU patients included three recurrent mutations detected in three families each. The 20 mutations included only 5 missense mutations in addition to 5 splice, 4 each nonsense and insertion-deletion mutations, a silent variant in coding region and a 3'UTR mutation. One deletion and two nonsense mutations were characterized to confirm significant reduction in mutant transcript levels possibly through activation of nonsense mediated decay. All missense mutations affected conserved amino acid residues and sequence and structure analysis suggested significant perturbations in the enzyme activity of respective mutant proteins. This is probably the first report of identification of a significantly low proportion of missense PAH mutations from PKU families and together with the presence of a high proportion of splice, insertion-deletion, and nonsense mutations, points to a unique PAH mutation profile in Indian PKU patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Muscle-directed gene therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU): Development of transgenic mice with muscle-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, C.O.; Messing, A.; Wolff, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an attractive target for gene therapy because of shortcomings in current therapy including lifelong commitment to a difficult and expensive diet, persistent mild cognitive deficits in some children despite adequate dietary therapy, and maternal PKU syndrome. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is normally expressed only in liver, but we propose to treat PKU by introducing the gene for PAH into muscle. In order to evaluate both the safety and efficacy of this approach, we have a developed a trangenic mouse which expresses PAH in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The transgene includes promoter and enhancer sequences from the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene fused to the mouse liver PAH cDNA. Mice which have inherited the transgene are healthy, active, and do not exhibit any signs of muscle weakness or wasting. Ectopic PAH expression in muscle is not detrimental to the health, neurologic function, or reproduction of the mice. Pah{sup enu2} hyperphenylalaninemic mice, a model of human PAH deficiency, bred to carry the transgene have substantial PAH expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle but none in liver. Muscle PAH expression alone does not complement the hyperphenylalaninemic phenotype of Pah{sup enu2} mice. However, administration of reduced tetrahydrobiopterin to transgenic Pah{sup enu2} mice is associated with a 25% mean decrease in serum phenylalanine levels. We predict that ectopic expression of PAH in muscle along with adequate muscle supplies of reduced biopterin cofactor will decrease hyperphenylalaninemia in PKU.

  17. [Influence of estradiol on tryptophan hydroxylase and 5-hydroxytryptamine content in raphe nuclei of rats under forced swimming stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-zhong; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wei-guo; Cai, Yi-yun; Shi, Shen-xun

    2010-07-20

    To investigate the effect of estradiol (E2) on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content in raphe nuclei of rats under forced swimming stress and explore the role of estrogen and stress in disease mechanism of depression in women. At Week 3 post-ovariectomy, 35 ovariectomized (OVX) female SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 7): non-stress group, control group, estradiol (E2) group and fluoxetine (FLX) group and E2 plus FLX group. Animals were administered with different drugs for 2 weeks. At Day 14, animals except those in the non-stress group were subjected to the 15 min forced swimming test (FST). At 2 hours post-FST, all animals including those in the non-stress group were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and brains removed for TPH and 5-HT immunofluorescence staining. We compared the content of TPH and 5-HT by observing and calculating the integrated optical density (IOD) of immunofluorescent-positive signals in raphe nuclei. (1) The IOD value of TPH- and 5-HT-positive region in raphe nuclei of rats in the control group was significantly lower than that of the non-stress group (P Forced swimming stress can decrease the TPH and 5-HT content in raphe nuclei. Such changes can be prevented by a pre-administration of estradiol. Similar results are observed with antidepressant fluoxetine. These effects may underlie the role of estradiol and stress in the disease mechanism of depression in women.

  18. A novel mutation in the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene of a woman with autosomal recessive cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garuti Rita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Article abstract Mutations of the gene encoding the mitochondrial enzyme sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 gene cause defects in the cholesterol pathway to bile acids that lead to the storage of cholestanol and cholesterol in tendons, lenses and the central nervous system. This disorder is the cause of a clinical syndrome known as cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX. Since 1991 several mutations of the CYP27A1 gene have been reported. We diagnosed the clinical features of CTX in a caucasian woman. Serum levels of cholestanol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol were elevated and the concentration of 27-hydroxycholesterol was reduced. Bile alcohols in the urine and faeces were increased. The analysis of the CYP27A1 gene showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote carrying two mutations both located in exon 8. One mutation is a novel four nucleotide deletion (c.1330-1333delTTCC that results in a frameshift and the occurrence of a premature stop codon leading to the formation of a truncated protein of 448 amino acids. The other mutation, previously reported, is a C - > T transition (c. c.1381C > T that converts the glutamine codon at position 461 into a termination codon (p.Q461X. These truncated proteins are expected to have no biological function being devoid of the cysteine residue at position 476 of the normal enzyme that is crucial for heme binding and enzyme activity.

  19. Experimentally calibrated computational chemistry of tryptophan hydroxylase: Trans influence, hydrogen-bonding, and 18-electron rule govern O-2-activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Lærke Tvedebrink; Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Boesen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    with the experimental value (0.25 mm/s) which we propose as the structure of the hydroxylating intermediate, with the tryptophan substrate well located for further reaction 3.5 Å from the ferryl group. Based on the optimized transition states, the activation barriers for the two paths (glu and his) are similar, so......Insight into the nature of oxygen activation in tryptophan hydroxylase has been obtained from density functional computations. Conformations of O2-bound intermediates have been studied with oxygen trans to glutamate and histidine, respectively. An O2-adduct with O2 trans to histidine (Ohis...... towards the cofactor and a more activated O–O bond (1.33 Å) than in Oglu (1.30 Å). It is shown that the cofactor can hydrogen bond to O2 and activate the O–O bond further (from 1.33 to 1.38 Å). The Ohis intermediate leads to a ferryl intermediate (Fhis) with an isomer shift of 0.34 mm/s, also consistent...

  20. Polymorphism in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH gene is associated with activity-impulsivity in German Shepherd Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko Kubinyi

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH gene and two personality traits, activity-impulsivity and inattention, in German Shepherd Dogs. The behaviour of 104 dogs was characterized by two instruments: (1 the previously validated Dog-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (Dog-ADHD RS filled in by the dog owners and (2 the newly developed Activity-impulsivity Behavioural Scale (AIBS containing four subtests, scored by the experimenters. Internal consistency, inter-observer reliability, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were demonstrated for AIBS. Dogs possessing at least one short allele were proved to be more active-impulsive by both instruments, compared to dogs carrying two copies of the long allele (activity-impulsivity scale of Dog-ADHD RS: p = 0.007; AIBS: p = 0.023. The results have some potential to support human studies; however, further research should reveal the molecular function of the TH gene variants, and look for the effect in more breeds.

  1. Structure-based analysis of five novel disease-causing mutations in 21-hydroxylase-deficient patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Minutolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism, and accounts for 90-95% of CAH cases. The affected enzyme, P450C21, is encoded by the CYP21A2 gene, located together with a 98% nucleotide sequence identity CYP21A1P pseudogene, on chromosome 6p21.3. Even though most patients carry CYP21A1P-derived mutations, an increasing number of novel and rare mutations in disease causing alleles were found in the last years. In the present work, we describe five CYP21A2 novel mutations, p.R132C, p.149C, p.M283V, p.E431K and a frameshift g.2511_2512delGG, in four non-classical and one salt wasting patients from Argentina. All novel point mutations are located in CYP21 protein residues that are conserved throughout mammalian species, and none of them were found in control individuals. The putative pathogenic mechanisms of the novel variants were analyzed in silico. A three-dimensional CYP21 structure was generated by homology modeling and the protein design algorithm FoldX was used to calculate changes in stability of CYP21A2 protein. Our analysis revealed changes in protein stability or in the surface charge of the mutant enzymes, which could be related to the clinical manifestation found in patients.

  2. The Zinc Finger of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein 2 Is Essential for Efficient Hydroxylation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Patrick R; Song, Daisheng; Chung, Yu Jin; Khurana, Tejvir S; Lee, Frank S

    2016-09-15

    Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) (also known as EGLN1) is a key oxygen sensor in mammals that posttranslationally modifies hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) and targets it for degradation. In addition to its catalytic domain, PHD2 contains an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger domain, which we have previously proposed recruits PHD2 to the HSP90 pathway to promote HIF-α hydroxylation. Here, we provide evidence that this recruitment is critical both in vitro and in vivo We show that in vitro, the zinc finger can function as an autonomous recruitment domain to facilitate interaction with HIF-α. In vivo, ablation of zinc finger function by a C36S/C42S Egln1 knock-in mutation results in upregulation of the erythropoietin gene, erythrocytosis, and augmented hypoxic ventilatory response, all hallmarks of Egln1 loss of function and HIF stabilization. Hence, the zinc finger ordinarily performs a critical positive regulatory function. Intriguingly, the function of this zinc finger is impaired in high-altitude-adapted Tibetans, suggesting that their adaptation to high altitude may, in part, be due to a loss-of-function EGLN1 allele. Thus, these findings have important implications for understanding both the molecular mechanism of the hypoxic response and human adaptation to high altitude. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Comparison of the Hydroxylase Inhibitor Dimethyloxalylglycine and the Iron Chelator Deferoxamine in Diabetic and Aged Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Dominik; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N; Whittam, Alexander J; Hu, Michael S; Walmsley, Graham G; Dong, Yixiao; Khong, Sacha M; Longaker, Michael T; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2017-03-01

    A hallmark of diabetes mellitus is the breakdown of almost every reparative process in the human body, leading to critical impairments of wound healing. Stabilization and activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is impaired in diabetes, leading to deficits in new blood vessel formation in response to injury. In this article, the authors compare the effectiveness of two promising small-molecule therapeutics, the hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine and the iron chelator deferoxamine, for attenuating diabetes-associated deficits in cutaneous wound healing by enhancing HIF-1α activation. HIF-1α stabilization, phosphorylation, and transactivation were measured in murine fibroblasts cultured under normoxic or hypoxic and low-glucose or high-glucose conditions following treatment with deferoxamine or dimethyloxalylglycine. In addition, diabetic wound healing and neovascularization were evaluated in db/db mice treated with topical solutions of either deferoxamine or dimethyloxalylglycine, and the efficacy of these molecules was also compared in aged mice. The authors show that deferoxamine stabilizes HIF-1α expression and improves HIF-1α transactivity in hypoxic and hyperglycemic states in vitro, whereas the effects of dimethyloxalylglycine are significantly blunted under hyperglycemic hypoxic conditions. In vivo, both dimethyloxalylglycine and deferoxamine enhance wound healing and vascularity in aged mice, but only deferoxamine universally augmented wound healing and neovascularization in the setting of both advanced age and diabetes. This first direct comparison of deferoxamine and dimethyloxalylglycine in the treatment of impaired wound healing suggests significant therapeutic potential for topical deferoxamine treatment in ischemic and diabetic disease.

  4. Metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors in adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Feki Mnif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, long-term glucocorticoid treatment coupled with increased androgens may lead to undesirable metabolic effects. The aim of our report was to determine the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of adult patients with CAH due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients (11 males and 15 females, mean age ± SD=27.4±8.2 years were recruited. Anthropometry, body composition, metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors were studied. Results: Obesity (overweight included was noted in 16 patients (61.5%, with android distribution in all cases. Bioelectrical impedance showed increased body fat mass in 12 patients (46.1%. Lipid profile alterations and carbohydrate metabolism disorders were detected in seven (26.9% and five (19.2% patients respectively. Moderate hepatic cytolysis, associated with hepatic steatosis, was found in one patient. Seven patients (27% had insulin resistance. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring showed abnormalities in six patients (23%. Increased carotid intima media thickness was found in 14 patients (53.8%. Conclusion: Adult CAH patients tend to have altered metabolic parameters and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Lifelong follow-up, lifestyle modifications, and attempts to adjust and reduce the glucocorticoid doses seem important.

  5. Renal denervation decreases blood pressure and renal tyrosine hydroxylase but does not augment the effect of hypotensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypecki, Janusz; Gawlak, Maciej; Huc, Tomasz; Szulczyk, Paweł; Ufnal, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The effect of renal denervation on the efficacy of antihypertensive drugs has not yet been elucidated. Twenty-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with metoprolol, losartan, indapamide, or saline (controls) and assigned to renal denervation or a sham procedure. Acute hemodynamic measurements were performed ten days later. Series showing a significant interaction between renal denervation and the drugs were repeated with chronic telemetry measurements. In the saline series, denervated rats showed a significantly lower mean arterial blood pressure (blood pressure) than the sham-operated rats. In contrast, in the metoprolol series denervated rats showed a significantly higher blood pressure than sham rats. There were no differences in blood pressure between denervated and sham rats in the losartan and indapamide series. In chronic studies, a 4-week treatment with metoprolol caused a decrease in blood pressure. Renal denervation and sham denervation performed 10 days after the onset of metoprolol treatment did not affect blood pressure. Denervated rats showed markedly reduced renal nerve tyrosine hydroxylase levels. In conclusion, renal denervation decreases blood pressure in hypertensive rats. The hypotensive action of metoprolol, indapamide, and losartan is not augmented by renal denervation, suggesting the absence of synergy between renal denervation and the drugs investigated in this study.

  6. A reliable radiochromatographic assay technique for hepatic microsomal 16α-hydroxylase activity towards oestrone 3-sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsoulis, C.J.; Hobkirk, R.

    1980-01-01

    A reliable procedure for the assay of liver microsomal 16α-hydroxylation of oestrone 3-sulphate has been developed for the guinea pig. It is based on the rapid, quantitative separation of oestradiol and oestriol by Sephadex LH-20 columns after the chemical reduction and enzymic hydrolysis of the incubation products. Microsomal preparations and incubation conditions that optimized 16α-hydroxylation of oestrone 3-sulphate were employed. Under these circumstances, reduction of the substrate at C-17 and hydrolysis of the sulphate were minimized. Conditions were established that yielded reaction linearity with respect to time and microsomal concentration. This hydroxylation had an absolute requirement for NADPH, which could not be satisfied by NADH. Apparent Ksub(m) values for oestrone 3-sulphate and NADPH, under the conditions used, were 14μM and 0.17mM respectively. 16α-hydroxylase activity was present in the liver microsomal fraction from heavily pigmented, female English Shorthaired guinea pigs. Much lower activity was detected in mature pigmented males and albino females. No activity could be demonstrated in mature, albino males. (author)

  7. Cloning and functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollenberg, Benjamin J; Liu, Jingjing; Yu, Shu; Lin, Hong; Tian, Li

    2018-02-05

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated and functionally characterized in potato. In this work, we cloned StC3'H from potato and showed that it catalyzed the formation of caffeoylshikimate and CGA (caffeoylquinate) from p-coumaroyl shikimate and p-coumaroyl quinate, respectively, but was inactive towards p-coumaric acid in in vitro enzyme assays. When the expression of StC3'H proteins was blocked through antisense (AS) inhibition under the control of a tuber-specific patatin promoter, moderate changes in tuber yield as well as phenolic metabolites in the core tuber tissue were observed for several AS lines. On the other hand, the AS and control potato lines exhibited similar responses to a bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum. These results suggest that StC3'H is implicated in phenolic metabolism in potato. They also suggest that CGA accumulation in the core tissue of potato tubers is an intricately controlled process and that additional C3'H activity may also be involved in CGA biosynthesis in potato. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Arabidopsis nox mutant lacking carotene hydroxylase activity reveals a critical role for xanthophylls in photosystem I biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Piques, Maria; Ronzani, Michela; Molesini, Barbara; Alboresi, Alessandro; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Bassi, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    Carotenes, and their oxygenated derivatives xanthophylls, are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus. They contribute to the assembly of photosynthetic complexes and participate in light absorption and chloroplast photoprotection. Here, we studied the role of xanthophylls, as distinct from that of carotenes, by characterizing a no xanthophylls (nox) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which was obtained by combining mutations targeting the four carotenoid hydroxylase genes. nox plants retained α- and β-carotenes but were devoid in xanthophylls. The phenotype included depletion of light-harvesting complex (LHC) subunits and impairment of nonphotochemical quenching, two effects consistent with the location of xanthophylls in photosystem II antenna, but also a decreased efficiency of photosynthetic electron transfer, photosensitivity, and lethality in soil. Biochemical analysis revealed that the nox mutant was specifically depleted in photosystem I function due to a severe deficiency in PsaA/B subunits. While the stationary level of psaA/B transcripts showed no major differences between genotypes, the stability of newly synthesized PsaA/B proteins was decreased and translation of psaA/B mRNA was impaired in nox with respect to wild-type plants. We conclude that xanthophylls, besides their role in photoprotection and LHC assembly, are also needed for photosystem I core translation and stability, thus making these compounds indispensable for autotrophic growth.

  9. Cholesterol and ocular pathologies: focus on the role of cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase in cholesterol homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourgeux Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The retina is responsible for coding the light stimulus into a nervous signal that is transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina is formed by the association of the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that is supported by Bruch’s membrane. Both the physical and metabolic associations between these partners are crucial for the functioning of the retina, by means of nutrient intake and removal of the cell and metabolic debris from the retina. Dysequilibrium are involved in the aging processes and pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of visual loss after the age of 50 years in Western countries. The retina is composed of several populations of cells including glia that is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is the main sterol in the retina. It is present as free form in cells and as esters in Bruch’s membrane. Accumulation of cholesteryl esters has been associated with aging of the retina and impairment of the retinal function. Under dietary influence and in situ synthesized, the metabolism of cholesterol is regulated by cell interactions, including neurons and glia via cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase. Several pathophysiological associations with cholesterol and its metabolism can be suggested, especially in relation to glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

  10. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  12. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  13. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Zhang, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  14. Effects of chemical sympathectomy on the increases in plasma catecholamines and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase induced by forced immobilization and insulin-induced hypoglycemia: origin and fate of plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, A S; Barbella, Y R; Cubeddu, L X

    1982-06-01

    The effect of acute stresses on plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) were evaluated in control and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated, awake cannulated guinea pigs. Forced immobolization for 1 hr caused a 3- and 5-fold increase in plasma DBH and norepinephrine, respectively. Pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (23 mg/kg b.wt.i.a., 72 and 48 hr before stress) reduced by 70% the increase in plasma DBH and totally prevented the rise in plasma catecholamines evoked by the restraining stress. Injection of insulin (5 U/kg b.wt.i.a.) induced a 60% decrease in blood glucose, a 1-fold increase in plasma DBH and a selective 4-fold increase in plasma epinephrine; these effects were not modified by chemical sympathectomy. Our results indicate that forced immobilization and hypoglycemia produce a preferential activation of the sympathetic postganglionic nerves and of the adrenal medulla, respectively, and that in guinea pigs both stresses increase plasma DBH. The kinetics of disappearance of plasma DBH were studied after subjecting the guinea pigs for 1 hr to forced immobilization. Although 7 of 12 animals showed a biphasic rate of fall of plasma DBH, in each case there was a rapid initial fall possibly due to the "distribution" of the enzyme with a T1/2 of 1.65 hr. Similar findings were observed in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated guinea pigs. These results suggest that the distribution of DBH is the most important process in reducing the augmented plasma DBH levels elicited by a short-term stress and that this process is not dependent on the integrity of the sympathetic nerves nor on the adrenal or sympathetic origin of the enzyme. This study supports the view that the ratio, content of releasable DBH present in sympathetic nerves and adrenal glands/total circulating pool of DBH, is the factor that determines whether an increase in plasma DBH would occur in animals exposed to an acute stress.

  15. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  16. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro; Juan Fernando Ramírez Quirama

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for cont...

  17. Global climate change due to the hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasi, M.; Racz, L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented on the industry's response to the agreements of the Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Kyoto (1987) conventions on climate change, and to other international agreements. The announcements by large petroleum companies on the changes introduced according to the international commitments in order to fight climatic impacts of hydrocarbon fuels. The problems and foreseeable future of the Hungarian hydrocarbon industry with environmental protection are discussed. Finally, emission abatement and control possibilities of hydrocarbon combustion are considered. (R.P.)

  18. Total site integration of light hydrocarbons separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyev, L.; Vasilyev, M.; Maatouk, A.; Duic, Neven; Khusanovc, Alisher

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is the largest consumer of hydrocarbons per unit of production in Europe (Ukraine policy review, 2006). The most important point is a reduction of energy consumption in chemical and metallurgical industries as a biggest consumer. This paper deals with energy savings potential of light hydrocarbons separation process. Energy consumption of light hydrocarbons separation process processes typical of Eastern European countries were analysed. Process Integration (PI) was used to perform a ...

  19. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  20. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.