WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon hc gases

  1. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  2. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  3. ESTUDO TRIBOLÓGICO DE REVESTIMENTOS DE DLC COM GASES REFRIGERANTES HFC134A E HC600A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silverio, Marcio; Binder, Roberto; Mello, José Daniel Biasoli

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to study the effect of refrigerant gases HFC134a and HC600a in components coated with DLC, Diamond-like Carbon, as well as is to establish a methodology for tribology evaluating of them...

  4. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  5. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  6. Study of electron transport in hydrocarbon gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H. [Tomakomai National College of Technology, Tomakomai 059-1275 (Japan); Date, H. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-04-07

    The drift velocity and the effective ionization coefficient of electrons in the organic gases, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}, have been measured over relatively wide ranges of density-reduced electric fields (E/N) at room temperature (around 300 K). The drift velocity was measured, based on the arrival-time spectra of electrons by using a double-shutter drift tube over the E/N range from 300 to 2800 Td, and the effective ionization coefficient (α − η) was determined by the steady-state Townsend method from 150 to 3000 Td. Whenever possible, these parameters were compared with those available in the literature. It has been shown that the swarm parameters for these gases have specific tendencies, depending on their molecular configurations.

  7. Microwave plasma torch for processing hydrocarbon gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Zherlitsyn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We designed and developed an ultrahigh-frequency (microwave plasma torch with a combined (nitrogen, methane plasma-forming environment, and microwave output of up to 2 kW, continuously. We demonstrate the possibility of using it in order to process natural and associated petroleum (APG gas into valuable products (hydrogen and carbon nanomaterial CNM with up to 70% efficiency. Based on the developed microwave plasma torch, we developed an apparatus capable of converting hydrocarbon feedstock at a capacity of 50 g/h yielding CNM and hydrogen of up to 70 vol. %. In its mobile small-tonnage version, this technology can be used on gas-condensate fields.

  8. Sensitive detection of hydrocarbon gases using electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO chemiresistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilonardo, Elena; Penza, Michele; Alvisi, Marco; Cassano, Gennaro; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa; Cioffi, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Pristine and electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) were proposed as active sensing layers in chemiresistive gas sensors for hydrocarbon (HC) gas detection (e.g., CH4, C3H8, C4H10). The presence of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of ZnO NRs, obtained after the thermal treatment at 550 °C, was revealed by morphological and surface chemical analyses, using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the Pd catalyst on the performance of the ZnO-based gas sensor was evaluated by comparing the sensing results with those of pristine ZnO NRs, at an operating temperature of 300 °C and for various HC gas concentrations in the range of 30-1000 ppm. The Pd-modified ZnO NRs showed a higher selectivity and sensitivity compared to pristine ZnO NRs. The mean sensitivity of Pd-modified ZnO NRs towards the analyzed HCs gases increased with the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the target gas molecule. Finally, the evaluation of the selectivity revealed that the presence or the absence of metal nanoparticles on ZnO NRs improves the selectivity in the detection of specific HCs gaseous molecules.

  9. Sensitive detection of hydrocarbon gases using electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO chemiresistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Marco; Cassano, Gennaro; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Summary Pristine and electrochemically Pd-modified ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) were proposed as active sensing layers in chemiresistive gas sensors for hydrocarbon (HC) gas detection (e.g., CH4, C3H8, C4H10). The presence of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of ZnO NRs, obtained after the thermal treatment at 550 °C, was revealed by morphological and surface chemical analyses, using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the Pd catalyst on the performance of the ZnO-based gas sensor was evaluated by comparing the sensing results with those of pristine ZnO NRs, at an operating temperature of 300 °C and for various HC gas concentrations in the range of 30–1000 ppm. The Pd-modified ZnO NRs showed a higher selectivity and sensitivity compared to pristine ZnO NRs. The mean sensitivity of Pd-modified ZnO NRs towards the analyzed HCs gases increased with the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the target gas molecule. Finally, the evaluation of the selectivity revealed that the presence or the absence of metal nanoparticles on ZnO NRs improves the selectivity in the detection of specific HCs gaseous molecules. PMID:28144567

  10. SeaMon-HC Buoy. A specific real-time-lightweight-moored platform as a tool for fast hydrocarbon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, C.; Rueda, M. J.; Moran, R.; Llerandi, C.; Llinas, O.

    2009-04-01

    The present paper-work describes the design, last development stages and the derived results from a specific buoy platform for fast hydrocarbon detection in seawater. Under the name of SeaMon-HC, (Patent No. P200302219/8) the buoy represents a very chief tool for coastal monitoring, mainly surrounding areas with a high oil-spill risk level, like harbours, off-shore fish farming, beaches and so on. Nowadays, the Macaronesian area has nine units working in real-time, under the frame of the Red ACOMAR Network. The main innovative aspect from this buoy is the detection system. It's based in polymer technology, working as a resistance, who increase its value when the pollutant on water surface is detected. The response time from the sensor is a direct function of the hydrocarbon volatility level. For hydrocarbons with high volatility levels (like petrol), the sensor needs less time (around 3 minutes) than others with less volatility such as oils. SeaMon-HC is an autonomous, modular, reusable and a very low-cost development integrated by four subsystems (SS): SS-Flotation (different materials and shapes available); SS-Sensors (hydrocarbon detector and additional sensors -up to 15-, to solve specific sensor configuration requirements); SS-Power Supply (equipped in its basic configuration with a couple of solar modules and two 12V batteries) and the SS-Communication (based on a RF or GSM/GPRS modem technology, with a selectable communication frequency). All SeaMon-HC units, as well the rest of the ODAS buoys who joint together the Red ACOMAR Network, works in real-time, sending the collected information to the control centre that manages the communications, providing data, in a useful form (as a web site), to diverse socio-economic important sectors which make an exhaustive use of the littoral in the Macaronesian region. The access to the information by the users is done through a specific GIS software application.

  11. Performance and energy saving analysis of a refrigerator using hydrocarbon mixture (HC-R134a) as working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, M. N.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The use of hydrocarbon mixture as a working fluid in a refrigerator system is rarely explored. Almost all domestic refrigerators use hydroflourocarbon R134a (HFC-R134a) as refrigerants. In this study, hydrocarbon gas (HC-R134a) is used as the alternative refrigerant to replace HFC-R134a. It has a composition of R290 (56%), R600a (54.39%) and additive (0.1%wt) blended for the trials. The experiments were conducted with 105 g and 52.5 g refrigerant mass charge, subjected to internal heat load of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg respectively. The study investigates the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator (COPR) and energy consumption. The results show that the use of HC-R134a as the replaceable refrigerant can save energy ranging from 2.04% to 7.09%, as compared to the conventional HFC-R134a refrigerant. Naturally, the COPR improvement and temperature distribution using HC-R134a are much better than HFC-R134a

  12. Abiogenic hydrocarbons in commercial gases from the Songliao Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the kinetic fractionation, composition and distribution characteristics of carbon and hydrogen isotopes for various alkane gases formed in different environments, by different mecha- nisms and from different sources in nature. It is demonstrated that the biodegradation or thermode- gradation of complex high-molecule sedimentary organic material can form microbial gas or thermogenic gas. The δ 13C1 value ranges from -110‰ to -50‰ for microbial gases but from -50‰ to -35‰ (even heavier) for thermogenic gases. Controlled by the kinetic isotope fractionation, both microbial and thermogenic gases have δ 13C and δ D values characterized by normal distribution, i.e. δ 13C1< δ 13C2< δ 13C3< δ 13C4 and δ DCH4< δ DC2H6< δ DC3H8<δ DC4H10, and by a positive correlation between the δ 13C and δ D values. Simple carbonbearing molecules (CH4, CO and CO2) can form abiogenic alkane gases via polymerization in the abiological chemical process in nature, with δ 13C1 heavier than -30‰. Moreover, controlled by the kinetic isotope fractionation, abiogenic alkane gases are characterized by a reverse distribution of δ 13C values and a normal trend of δ D values, namely δ 13C1> δ 13C2> δ 13C3> δ 13C4 and δ DCH4<δ DC2H6< δ DC3H8< δ DC4H10. The δ 13C values and δ D values are negatively correlated. Natural gases from 26 commercial gas wells distributed in the Xujiaweizi and Yingshan-Miaotaizi faulted depressions in the Songliao Basin, China, show δ13C1 values ranging from -30.5‰ to -16.7‰ with a very narrow δ D range between -203‰―-196‰. These gases are characterized by a reverse distribution of δ 13C values but a normal distribution of δ D values, and a negative correlation between their δ 13C and δ D values, indicating an abiological origin. The present study has revealed that abiogenic hydrocarbons not only exist in nature but also can make significant contribution to commercial gas reserviors. It is estimated that

  13. Abiogenic hydrocarbons in commercial gases from the Songliao Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XianBin; WANG LianSheng; LIU ChunXue; YAN Hong; LI LiWu; ZHOU XiaoFeng; WANG YongLi; YANG Hui; WANG Guang; GUO ZhanQian; TUO JinCai; GUO HongYan; LI ZhenXi; ZHUO ShengGuang; JIANG HongLiang; ZENG LongWei; ZHANG MingJie

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the kinetic fractionation, composition and distribution characteristics of carbon and hydrogen isotopes for various alkane gases formed in different environments, by different mecha-nisms and from different sources in nature. It is demonstrated that the biodegradation or thermode-gradation of complex high-molecule sedimentary organic material can form microbial gas or ther-mogenic gas. The δ13C1 value ranges from -110‰ to -50‰ for microbial gases but from -51‰ to -35‰ (even heavier) for thermogenic gases. Controlled by the kinetic isotope fractionation, both microbial and thermogenic gases have δ13C and δD values characterized by normal distribution, i.e. δ13C1 δ13C2> δ13C3> δ13C4 and δDCH4<δDC2H6< δDC3H8< δDC4H10. The δ13C values and δD values are negatively correlated. Natural gases from 26 commercial gas wells distributed in the Xujiaweizi and Yingshan-Miaotaizi faulted de-pressions in the Songliao Basin, China, show δ13C1 values ranging from -30.5‰. to -16.7‰, with a very narrow δD range between -203‰--196‰. These gases are characterized by a reverse distribution of δ13C values but a normal distribution of δD values, and a negative correlation between their δ13C and δD values, indicating an abiological origin. The present study has revealed that abiogenic hydrocar-bons not only exist in nature but also can make significant contribution to commercial gas reserviors. It is estimated that the reserve volume of alkane gases with abiogenic characteristics in these 26 gas wells in the Songliao Basin is over 500×108 m3, The prospecting practice in the Songliao Basin has demonstrated that abiogenic alkane gases are of a promising resource, and it provides an example for the investigation of and search for abiogenic commercial natural gases worldwide.

  14. Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

    1997-09-01

    Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements

  15. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  16. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  17. Methane and other hydrocarbon gases in sediment from the southeastern North American continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Residual concentrations and distributions of hydrocarbon gases from methane to n-heptane were measured in sediments at seven sites on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 164. Three sites were drilled at the Cape Fear Diapir of the Carolina Rise, and one site was drilled on the Blake Ridge Diapir. Methane concentrations at these sites result from microbial generation which is influenced by the amount of pore-water sulfate and possible methane oxidation. Methane hydrate was found at the Blake Ridge Diapir site. The other hydrocarbon gases at these sites are likely the produce of early microbial processes. Three sites were drilled on a transect of holes across the crest of the Blake Ridge. The base of the zone of gas-hydrate occurrence was penetrated at all three sites. Trends in hydrocarbon gas distributions suggest that methane is microbial in origin and that the hydrocarbon gas mixture is affected by diagenesis, outgassing, and, near the surface, by microbial oxidation. Methane hydrate was recovered at two of these three sites, although gas hydrate is likely present at all three sites. The method used here for determining amounts of residual hydrocarbon gases has its limitations and provides poor assessment of gas distributions, particularly in the stratigraphic interval below about ~ 100 mbsf. One advantage of the method, however, is that it yields sufficient quantities of gas for other studies such as isotopic determinations.

  18. Isotope reversals in hydrocarbon gases of natural shale systems and well head production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Schloemer, S.; Stiller, E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Marquardt, D. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Relationships between gas geochemical signatures and the thermal maturity of source rocks containing aquatic organic matter are based on on pyrolysis experiments and have been successfully used in conventional hydrocarbon exploration since long. We demonstrate how these models can be applied to the evaluation of unconventional shale resources. For this purpose hydrocarbon gases have been extracted from low and high mature source rocks (type II kerogens) using laboratory desorption techniques. We determined the molecular composition of the gases as well as the carbon isotope ratios of methane to propane. In the extracted gases we observe an increase of {sup 13}C content in methane with increasing dry gas ratio (C1/{Sigma}C1-6). The carbon isotope ratios of ethane and propane initially increase with increasing dryness but start to become isotopically lighter above a dry gas ratio of 0.8. We show that oil-to-gas cracking explains the observed gas geochemical data, and that mixing between gases from different processes is a key factor to describe natural hydrocarbon systems of shales. However, data from published case studies using well head gases which show 'isotope roll-over' effects indicate that the isotopic reversal observed in well head samples deviate from those observed in natural shale systems in a fundamental way. We show that isotope reversals related to well head gases are best explained by an additional isotope fractionation effect induced through hydraulic fracturing and gas migration from the shale to the well head. Although, this induced isotope fractionation is an artifact which obscures isotopic information of natural systems to a large extend, we suggest a simple classification scheme which allows distinguishing between hot and cool spot areas using well head or mud line gas data. (orig.)

  19. Noble gases solubility models of hydrocarbon charge mechanism in the Sleipner Vest gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Lawson, M.; Meurer, W. P.; Warr, O.; Mabry, J. C.; Byrne, D. J.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Noble gases are chemically inert and variably soluble in crustal fluids. They are primarily introduced into hydrocarbon reservoirs through exchange with formation waters, and can be used to assess migration pathways and mechanisms, as well as reservoir storage conditions. Of particular interest is the role groundwater plays in hydrocarbon transport, which is reflected in hydrocarbon-water volume ratios. Here, we present compositional, stable isotope and noble gas isotope and abundance data from the Sleipner Vest field, in the Norwegian North Sea. Sleipner Vest gases are generated from primary cracking of kerogen and the thermal cracking of oil. Gas was emplaced into the Sleipner Vest from the south and subsequently migrated to the east, filling and spilling into the Sleipner Ost fields. Gases principally consist of hydrocarbons (83-93%), CO2 (5.4-15.3%) and N2 (0.6-0.9%), as well as trace concentrations of noble gases. Helium isotopes (3He/4He) are predominantly radiogenic and range from 0.065 to 0.116 RA; reported relative to air (RA = 1.4 × 10-6; Clarke et al., 1976; Sano et al., 1988), showing predominantly (>98%) crustal contributions, consistent with Ne (20Ne/22Ne from 9.70 to 9.91; 21Ne/22Ne from 0.0290 to 0.0344) and Ar isotopes (40Ar/36Ar from 315 to 489). Air-derived noble gas isotopes (20Ne, 36Ar, 84Kr, 132Xe) are introduced into the hydrocarbon system by direct exchange with air-saturated water (ASW). The distribution of air-derived noble gas species are controlled by phase partitioning processes; in that they preferentially partition into the gas (i.e., methane) phase, due to their low solubilities in fluids. Therefore, the extent of exchange between hydrocarbon phases and formation waters - that have previously equilibrated with the atmosphere - can be determined by investigating air-derived noble gas species. We utilize both elemental ratios to address process (i.e., open vs. closed system) and concentrations to quantify the extent of hydrocarbon

  20. Controls on the distribution of non-hydrocarbon gases in the Alberta Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutcheon, I. [Calgary Univ., Dept, of Geology and Geophysics, AB (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    Patterns of the occurrence of the non-hydrocarbon gases hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, helium and nitrogen in the Alberta Basin was investigated. Results show that hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide tend to increase to the west and with depth in Devonian and Mississippian strata. Concentrations are higher than in the Cretaceous units. Nitrogen and to some degree helium, tend to show an antipathetic relationship with high hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in Devonian and Mississippian strata. Helium concentrations are relatively high in north central Alberta in the Devonian, and in southern Alberta in the Mannville. Nitrogen in southern Alberta is higher at shallow depths in the Mannville and Colorado groups. Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide is considered to be the product of thermal reduction of sulphate, probably derived from Devonian anhydrite. In the Mannville group hydrogen sulfide is the product of the bacterial reduction of sulphate, driven by incursion of meteoric water from the south that causes mixing of waters from Mississippian carbonate rocks with waters from Mannville elastic rocks. Carbon dioxide in the Colorado group is believed to have been formed by oxidation of organic matter, while the helium observed in the Devonian stratum is likely the result of the mixing of deep crustal rock with atmospheric sources. Correlations with hydrocarbon gases in the Colorado Group suggests that the high nitrogen content is related to bacterial accumulation of natural gas. 63 refs., 36 figs.

  1. Hydrocarbon gases in Baikal bottom sediments: preliminary results of the Second international Class@Baikal cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidischeva, Olesya; Akhmanov, Grigorii; Khlystov, Oleg; Giliazetdinova, Dina

    2016-04-01

    In July 2015 the research cruise in the waters of Lake Baikal was carried out onboard RV "G.Yu. Vereshchagin". The expedition was organized by Lomonosov Moscow State University and Limnological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. The main purpose of the expedition was to study the modern sedimentation and natural geological processes on the bottom of Lake Baikal. One of the tasks of the cruise was to conduct gas-geochemical survey of bottom sediments. The samples of hydrocarbon gases were collected during the cruise. Subsequent study of the composition and origin of the sampled gas was carried out in the laboratories of Moscow State University. 708 samples from 61 bottom sampling stations were studied. Analyzed samples are from seven different areas located in the southern and central depressions of the lake: (1) "Goloustnoe" seepage area; (2) Bolshoy mud volcano; (3) Elovskiy Area; (4) "Krasny Yar" Seep; (5) "St. Petersburg" Seep; (6) Khuray deep-water depositional system; and (7) Kukuy Griva (Ridge) area. The results of molecular composition analysis indicate that hydrocarbon gases in bottom sediments from almost all sampling stations are represented mostly by pure methane. Ethane was detected only in some places within "Krasny Yar", "Goloustnoe" and "St. Petersburg" seepage areas. The highest concentrations of methane were registered in the sediments from the "Krasny Yar" area - 14 457 μl/l (station TTR-BL15-146G) - and from the "St. Petersburg" area - 13 684 μl/l (station TTR-BL15-125G). The sediments with high concentrations of gases were sampled from active fluid discharge areas, which also can be well distinguished on the seismic profiles. Gas hydrates were obtained in the areas of "Krasny Yar", "Goloustnoe", and "St. Petersburg" seeps and in the area of the Bolshoy mud volcano. Isotopic composition δ13C(CH4) was studied for 100 samples of hydrocarbon gases collected in areas with high methane concentration in bottom sediments. The average value is

  2. Gas-liquid-liquid equilibria in mixtures of water, light gases, and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    Phase equilibrium in mixtures of water + light gases and water + heavy hydrocarbons has been investigated with the development of new local composition theory, new equations of state, and new experimental data. The preferential segregation and orientation of molecules due to different energies of molecular interaction has been simulated with square well molecules. Extensive simulation has been made for pure square well fluids and mixtures to find the local composition at wide ranges of states. A theory of local composition has been developed and an equation of state has been obtained for square well fluids. The new local composition theory has been embedded in several equations of state. The pressure of water is decoupled into a polar pressure and non-polar pressure according to the molecular model of water of Jorgensen et al. The polar pressure of water is combined with the BACK equation for the general description of polar fluids and their mixtures. Being derived from the steam table, the Augmented BACK equation is particularly suited for mixtures of water + non-polar substances such as the hydrocarbons. The hydrophobic character of the hydrocarbons had made their mixtures with water a special challenge. A new group contribution equation of state is developed to describe phase equilibrium and volumetric behavior of fluids while requiring only to know the molecular structure of the components. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Origin and migration of hydrocarbon gases and carbon dioxide, Bekes Basin, southeastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J.L.; Spencer, C.W.; Koncz, I.; Szalay, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Bekes Basin is a sub-basin within the Pannonian Basin, containing about 7000 m of post-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Natural gases are produced from reservoirs (Precambrian to Tertiary in age) located on structural highs around the margins of the basin. Gas composition and stable carbon isotopic data indicate that most of the flammable gases were derived from humic kerogen contained in source rocks located in the deep basin. The depth of gas generation and vertical migration distances were estimated using quantitative source rock maturity-carbon isotope relationships for methane compared to known Neogene source rock maturity-depth relationships in the basin. These calculations indicate that as much as 3500 m of vertical migration has occured in some cases. Isotopically heavy (> - 7 > 0) CO2 is the predominant species present in some shallow reservoirs located on basin-margin structural highs and has probably been derived via long-distance vertical and lateral migration from thermal decompositon of carbonate minerals in Mesozoic and older rocks in the deepest parts of the basin. A few shallow reservoirs (isotopically light (-50 to -60%0) methane with only minor amounts of C2+ homologs (< 3% v/v). This methane is probably mostly microbial in origin. Above-normal pressures, occuring at depths greater than 1800 m, are believed to be the principal driving force for lateral and vertical gas migration. These pressures are caused in part by active hydrocarbon generation, undercompaction, and thermal decomposition of carbonates. 

  4. Carbon isotopic characteristics of hydrocarbon gases from coal-measure source rocks--A thermal simulation experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jianjing; HU Huifang; SUN Guoqiang; JI Limin

    2006-01-01

    Gaseous hydrocarbon geochemistry research through a thermal simulation experiment in combination with the natural evolution process in which natural gases were formed from coal-measure source rocks revealed that the δ13C1 values of methane vary from light to heavy along with the increase of thermal evolution degree of coal-measure source rocks, and the δ13C2 values of ethane range from -28.3‰ to -20‰ (PDB). δ13C2 value was -28‰± ( Ro= 0.45% - 0.65%) at the lower thermal evolution stage of coal-measure source rocks. After the rocks entered the main hydrocarbon-generating stage (Ro=0.65% - 1.50%), δ13C2 values generally varied within the range of -26‰ - -23‰±; with further thermal evolution of the rocks the carbon isotopes of ethane became heavier and heavier, but generally less than - 20‰.The partial carbon isotope sequence inversion of hydrogen gases is a characteristic feature of mixing of natural gases of different origins. Under the condition of specially designated type of organic matter, hydrogen source rocks may show this phenomenon via their own evolution.In the lower evolution stages of the rocks, it is mainly determined by organic precursors that gaseous hydrocarbons display partial inversion of the carbon isotope sequence and the carbon isotopic values of ethane are relatively low. These characteristic features also are related to the geochemical composition of primary soluble organic matter.

  5. The evolution of Devonian hydrocarbon gases in shallow aquifers of the northern Appalachian Basin: Insights from integrating noble gas and hydrocarbon geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Thomas H.; Jackson, Robert B.; Vengosh, Avner; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Whyte, Colin J.; Walsh, Talor B.; Kondash, Andrew J.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2015-12-01

    groundwater (P(CH4) = ∼1 atmosphere) and elevated [Cl] and [Ba]. These data suggest that 4He is dominated by an exogenous (i.e., migrated) crustal source for these hydrocarbon gas- and salt-rich fluids. In combination with published inorganic geochemistry (e.g., 87Sr/86Sr, Sr/Ba, Br-/Cl-), new noble gas and hydrocarbon isotopic data (e.g., 20Ne/36Ar, C2+/C1, δ13C-CH4) suggest that a hydrocarbon-rich brine likely migrated from the Marcellus Formation (via primary hydrocarbon migration) as a dual-phase fluid (gas + liquid) and was fractionated by solubility partitioning during fluid migration and emplacement into conventional UD traps (via secondary hydrocarbon migration). Based on the highly fractionated 4He/CH4 data relative to Marcellus and UD production gases, we propose an additional phase of hydrocarbon gas migration where natural gas previously emplaced in UD hydrocarbon traps actively diffuses out into and equilibrates with modern shallow groundwater (via tertiary hydrocarbon migration) following uplift, denudation, and neotectonic fracturing. These data suggest that by integrating noble gas geochemistry with hydrocarbon and dissolved ion chemistry, one can better determine the source and migration processes of natural gas in the Earth's crust, which are two critical factors for understanding the presence of hydrocarbon gases in shallow aquifers.

  6. KFeSbTe3: A quaternary chalcogenide aerogel for preferential adsorption of polarizable hydrocarbons and gases

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2015-01-01

    The first telluride-based quaternary aerogel KFeSbTe3 is synthesized by a sol-gel metathesis reaction between Fe(OAc)2 and K3SbTe3 in dimethyl formamide. The aerogel has an exceptionally large surface area 652 m2 g-1 which is amongst the highest reported for chalcogenide-based aerogels. This predominantly mesoporous material shows preferential adsorption for toluene vapors over cyclohexane or cyclopentane and CO2 over CH4 or H2. The remarkably high adsorption capacity for toluene (9.31 mmol g-1) and high selectivity for gases (CO2/H2: 121 and CO2/CH4: 75) suggest a potential use of such materials in adsorption-based separation processes for the effective purification of hydrocarbons and gases. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  7. Occupational exposure to gases, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biomass-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of fuels produces air pollutants in the form of gases, organic compounds, and particulate matter. However, although the environmental aspect of these agents has been examined, workers' exposure to them is still a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Our hygienic measurements revealed that carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, ammonia and sulfur dioxide were the most common gases that the workers were exposed to during their tasks. Their average concentrations were 0.45 ppm, 0.06 ppm, 0.11 ppm and 0.42 ppm, respectively. Phenanthrene and naphthalene were the most prominent PAHs. At the same sampling points, the most commonly found VOCs were aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and turpentines. The calculated total PAH concentrations were less than 7% of benzo[a]pyrene's eight-hour occupational exposure limit, and the total VOC concentrations were below the Finnish reference value for the normal industrial level in all measured work tasks. The most evident health effect caused by multiple exposures to gases was upper respiratory track irritation, followed by the disruption of oxygen transport, and finally central nervous system disorders. We recommend powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors as the minimum requirement for those working inside biomass-fired power plant boilers, and compressed air breathing apparatus as the best form of protection.

  8. Pd-Doped SnO2-Based Sensor Detecting Characteristic Fault Hydrocarbon Gases in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4, ethane (C2H6, ethylene (C2H4, and acetylene (C2C2 are important fault characteristic hydrocarbon gases dissolved in power transformer oil. Online monitoring these gaseous components and their generation rates can present the operational state of power transformer timely and effectively. Gas sensing technology is the most sticky and tricky point in online monitoring system. In this paper, pure and Pd-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The gas sensors were fabricated by side-heated preparation, and their gas sensing properties against CH4, C2H6, C2H4, and C2H2 were measured. Pd doping increases the electric conductance of the prepared SnO2 sensors and improves their gas sensing performances to hydrocarbon gases. In addition based on the frontier molecular orbital theory, the highest occupied molecular orbital energy and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy were calculated. Calculation results demonstrate that C2H4 has the highest occupied molecular orbital energy among CH4, C2H6, C2H4, and C2H2, which promotes charge transfer in gas sensing process, and SnO2 surfaces capture a relatively larger amount of electric charge from adsorbed C2H4.

  9. Use of dissolved and vapor-phase gases to investigate methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, R.T.; Mayer, K.U.; Bekins, B.A.; Delin, G.N.; Williams, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] At many sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, methanogenesis is a significant degradation pathway. Techniques to estimate CH4 production, consumption, and transport processes are needed to understand the geochemical system, provide a complete carbon mass balance, and quantify the hydrocarbon degradation rate. Dissolved and vapor-phase gas data collected at a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota, demonstrate that naturally occurring nonreactive or relatively inert gases such as Ar and N2 can be effectively used to better understand and quantify physical and chemical processes related to methanogenic activity in the subsurface. In the vadose zone, regions of Ar and N2 depletion and enrichment are indicative of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones, and concentration gradients between the regions suggest that reaction-induced advection can be an important gas transport process. In the saturated zone, dissolved Ar and N2 concentrations are used to quantify degassing driven by methanogenesis and also suggest that attenuation of methane along the flow path, into the downgradient aquifer, is largely controlled by physical processes. Slight but discernable preferential depletion of N2 over Ar, in both the saturated and unsaturated zones near the free-phase oil, suggests reactivity of N2 and is consistent with other evidence indicating that nitrogen fixation by microbial activity is taking place at this site. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Development of a standard reference material containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbon gases at 1 μmol/mol in nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Du, Jian; Yang, Jing; Fan, Qiang; Tian, Wen

    2017-09-08

    A gas standard mixture containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbons in high purity nitrogen was prepared using a two-step weighing method and a gasifying apparatus developed in-house. The concentration of each component was determined using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Linear regression analysis of every component was performed using the gas standard mixture with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 μmol/mol, showing the complete gasification of volatile organic compound (VOCs) species in a selected cylinder. Repeatability was also examined to ensure the reliability of the preparation method. In addition, no significant difference was observed between domestic treated and imported treated cylinders, which were conducive to reduction of the cost of raw materials. Moreover, the results of stability testing at different pressures and long-term stability tests indicated that the gas standard at 1 μmol/mol level with relative expanded uncertainties of 5% was stable above 2 MPa for a minimum of 12 months. Finally, a quantity comparison was conducted between the gas standard and a commercial gas standard from Scott Specialty Gases (now Air Liquide America Specialty Gases). The excellent agreement of every species suggested the favorable accuracy of our gas standard. Therefore, this reference material can be applied to routine observation of VOCs and for other purposes.

  11. Non intrusive spectroscopic investigations of soot and unburnt hydrocarbons in combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Moira; Arrigone, Giovanni M.; Miller, Michael N.

    1999-09-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the IR spectral absorption of soot particles from a Palas smoke generator. A TSI Condensation Particle Counter was used to quantify the number of soot particles produced and this was related to the intensity of the IR absorption. The broad band IR absorption increases with soot particle count but quantitative measurements of total soot mass were not obtained because accurate size distributions of the particles were not available. A sample of gas turbine engine exhaust gas was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy to determine the primary constituent unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) species. Their relative proportions were measured with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID). These species are predominantly unsaturated C2 to C6 hydrocarbons. The infrared absorption spectrum of the exhaust gas sample was compared with that of combustion products from a laboratory kerosene burner using a multipass White cell. These were also compared with reference spectra and IR spectra of UHCs obtained non-intrusively from gas turbine engine tests. There are IR spectral band shape differences indicating that the relative proportions of the constituent UHCs in gas turbine exhaust are different from those in a kerosene burner plume.

  12. H.C. Andersen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    "Mit Liv er et smukt Eventyr, saa rigt og lyksaligt!" Sådan beskrev H.C. Andersens sit eget liv. Det overgik næsten indholdet af hans egne eventyr. Født i fattigdom og social nød, men kæmpede sig op og døde berømt og feteret 70 år senere. H.C. Andersen er Danmarks bedst kendte forfatter. Især hans...

  13. CARIBIC observations of greenhouse gases and non-methane hydrocarbons on flights between Germany and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; van Velthoven, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since May 2005 the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) has made near-monthly deployments of an atmospheric observatory making measurements from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 during routine passenger flights. Flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany and serve a large number of destinations, among them Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. On these flights, which took place primarily during northern hemisphere winter 2010/2011, a near-meridional profile was obtained over Europe and Africa, in similar fashion to HIPPO flight tracks over the Pacific, be it without vertical profiles. Over Central Africa, deep convection transports boundary layer air to the free troposphere, linking observations at cruise altitude to surface emissions and allowing for the investigation of emissions and sources of atmospherically relevant species in Africa. Mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (methane, carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide) and a suite of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude during flight. Several tracers, for example methane, carbon monoxide, and various NMHC, exhibit enhanced mixing ratios over tropical Africa. Using tracer-tracer correlations to characterize methane emissions from Africa, we find that biomass burning made a major contribution to the methane burden, but that also biogenic sources, such as wetlands, play a significant role. We also compare these measurements to those conducted earlier over India, which were used to investigate sources and emissions of greenhouse gases during the South Asian summer monsoon.

  14. First detection of HC515N in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Saito, Masao

    2017-10-01

    We report the first detection of HC515N with the J = 9-8 rotational line from the cyanopolyyne peak in Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1 CP) using the 45 m radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The column density of HC515N is derived to be (1.9 ± 0.5) × 1011 cm-2 (1σ). We apply the double-isotope method to derive the 14N/15N ratios of HC5N and HC3N in TMC-1 CP. The 14N/15N ratios are calculated to be 344 ± 53 and 257 ± 54 for HC5N and HC3N, respectively. The 14N/15N ratio of HC5N is lower than the elemental ratio in the local interstellar medium (˜440) and slightly higher than that of HC3N in TMC-1 CP. Since HC3N is formed via the neutral-neutral reaction between C2H2 and CN, the slightly higher 14N/15N ratio of HC5N may support our previous suggestions that the main formation mechanism of HC5N is the ion-molecule reactions between hydrocarbon ions (C5Hn+) and nitrogen atoms.

  15. Geochemical Prospecting Method and Results of Direct Acquisition of Free Gaseous HC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongXilin; WangShixin; SuoXiaodong

    2003-01-01

    Geochemistry has been utilized in the petroleum exploration for tens of years. The hydrocarbon halo in the near surface above the oil and gas pool has three kinds of state, i.e., free gaseous HC, absorbed HC and dissolved HC.The optimum choice in the geochemical prospecting is directly testing the free HC. The gas chromatography for free HC was imported and improved in the Division in the early 1990s, realizing the acquiring, analyzing, processing and interpreting free HC samples in the field and in real time. Marked geological result and economical effect were achieved during the many years'' practices.

  16. Modelo hipermedia creador (HC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Armenteros Gallardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone las bases creativas del modelo Hipermedia Creador (HC, un modelo basado en la filosofía de los llamados tutores inteligentes. Tiene como objetivo la creación de una herramienta hipermedia que permita y facilite la producción creativa de proyectos hipermedias educativos con parámetros comunes a los usados en la fórmula del videojuego (entretenimiento. Se describe su estructura, y se analiza y explica la disposición creativa de sus elementos, entre los cuales sobresale las posibilidades pedagógicas del movimiento expresivo de la imagen.

  17. Comparison of hydrocarbon gases (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}) production from Carboniferous Donets (Ukraine) and Cretaceous Sabinas (Mexico) coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsaab, D.; Elie, M.; Izart, A.; Martinez, L. [G2R, Nancy - Universite, CNRS, CREGU, BP-239, 54506 Vandoeuvres-les-Nancy (France); Sachsenhofer, R.F. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Privalov, V.A. [Donetsk National Technical University, Artem str., 58, UA-83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Suarez-Ruiz, I. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon - (INCAR) - CSIC. Ap.Co., 73, 33080-Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-04-03

    The main purpose of this contribution is to compare the ability of Carboniferous coals from the Donets Basin of the Ukraine and Cretaceous coal from the Sabinas Basin of the Mexico to generate hydrocarbon gases (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}). Two bituminous coals from the Donets Basin (2c10YD and 1l1Dim; 0.55 and 0.65%R{sub r} respectively) and one bituminous coal from the Sabinas Basin (Olmos, 0.92%R{sub r}) were studied using heating experiments in a confined-pyrolysis system. The highest rank reached during the heating experiments corresponds to the anthracite stage (2.78 and 2.57%R{sub r}) for the 2c10YD and 1l1Dim coals and (2.65%R{sub r}) for the Olmos coal. The composition of the generated (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}) gases was evaluated using a thermodesorption-multidimensional gas chromatography. The results show that the Carboniferous Donets coals produced more wet gas and methane during pyrolysis than the Cretaceous Olmos coal. This is probably due to their higher liptinite (6-20%) and collodetrinite content and to the loss of a major part of the petroleum potential of the Olmos coal during natural coalification. C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} compounds are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons. Ethane is the most stable compound and formed from the cracking of higher hydrocarbon component. Large amounts of methane (up to 81 mg/g coal for the Donets coals and 50 mg/g coal for the Sabinas coal) were formed at high temperatures by cracking of previously formed heavier hydrocarbons and by dealkylation of the coal matrix. A linear relationship was observed between methane generation and the maturity level of both coal types. (author)

  18. Late production of hydrocarbon gases in sedimentary basins: kinetic and isotopic study; Genese tardive des gaz hydrocarbures dans les bassins sedimentaires: etude cinetique et isotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorant, F.

    1999-06-23

    The thermal decomposition of sedimentary organic matter, or kerogen, within the metagenesis zone (T > 170 deg. C) leads to the formation of large amounts of late gas, mainly composed by methane. The work reported in this dissertation aims at understanding and quantifying the mechanisms of late methane generation and isotopic fractionation. With this purpose, natural samples of Type II and Type III mature kerogens (Ro > 1.3%, H/C < 0.65), were artificially heated in both open (T = 350 to 900 deg. C at 25 deg. C/min) and closed (T = 375 to 550 deg. C with t = 1 to 216 h) systems. For each experiment, mass and atomic (C, H, O) balances were obtained by recovering, fractionating and quantifying the entire pyrolysis effluents. Moreover, the isotopic compositions ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios) of methane and insoluble residue produced in closed system were measured. These experimental simulations have shown that the amounts of methane generated in an open-pyrolysis system (9 to 40 mg/gC) are systematically inferior to that observed in a closed-pyrolysis system (44 to 68 mg/gC), even after correction of the possible C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} and C{sub 6+} hydrocarbons secondary cracking. This shift, which is larger for Type II kerogens compared to coals and Type II-S kerogens, seems to be correlated with the pyrite content of the samples. Based on the closed-pyrolysis system data, a kinetic scheme, suitable for both Type II and Type III kerogens, was established. It includes three consecutive reactions, whose apparent kinetic parameters do not allow accounting for the corresponding rate constants observed in open system: E{sub 1} = 64.7 kcal/mol and A{sub 1} = 2.58 x 10{sup 15} s{sup -1}, E{sub 2} = 52.8 kcal/mol and A{sub 2} = 5.50 x 10{sup 10} s{sup -1}, E{sub 3} = 55-58 kcal/mol and A{sub 3} = 7.52 x 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. By extrapolation to geological setting, it was thus predicted that kerogens might generate about 15 mg/gC of late methane between 170 and 200 deg. C. In order

  19. Geochemical characteristics of light hydrocarbons in cracking gases from chloroform bitumen A,crude oil and its fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The composition characteristics of light hydrocarbons from crude oil,chloroform bitumen A,saturated hydrocarbon fraction,aromatic hydrocarbon fraction,and asphaltene fraction during cracking have been studied systematically. The results revealed that the content of n-alkanes,branched alkanes and cycloalkanes in light hydrocarbons from the samples gradually decreased as the simulation temperature increased,and finally almost depleted completely,while the abundance of methane,benzene and its homologues increased obviously and became the main products. The ratios of benzene/n-hexane and toluene/n-heptane can be used as measures for oil cracking levels. Variation characteristics of maturity parameters of light hydrocarbons,for example,iC4/nC4,iC5/nC5,isoheptane value,2,2-DMC4/nC6,and 2-MC6+3-MC6/nC7 for different samples with increasing pyrolysis temperature,are consistent with those in petroleum reservoirs,indicating that these parameters may be efficient maturity index.

  20. Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Final report, October 1, 1986--July 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Posin, B.M.; Chan, Yee-Wai

    1995-06-01

    This project explored conversion of methane to useful products by two techniques that do not involve oxidative coupling. The first approach was direct catalytic dehydrocoupling of methane to give hydrocarbons and hydrogen. The second approach was oxidation of methane to methanol by using heterogenized versions of catalysts that were developed as homogeneous models of cytochrome-P450, an enzyme that actively hydroxylates hydrocarbons by using molecular oxygen. Two possibilities exist for dehydrocoupling of methane to higher hydrocarbons: The first, oxidative coupling to ethane/ethylene and water, is the subject of intense current interest. Nonoxidative coupling to higher hydrocarbons and hydrogen is endothermic, but in the absence of coke formation the theoretical thermodynamic equilibrium yield of hydrocarbons varies from 25% at 827{degrees}C to 65% at 1100{degrees}C (at atmospheric pressure). In this project we synthesized novel, highly dispersed metal catalysts by attaching metal clusters to inorganic supports. The second approach mimics microbial metabolism of methane to produce methanol. The methane mono-oxygenase enzyme responsible for the oxidation of methane to methanol in biological systems has exceptional selectivity and very good rates. Enzyme mimics are systems that function as the enzymes do but overcome the problems of slow rates and poor stability. Most of that effort has focused on mimics of cytochrome P-450, which is a very active selective oxidation enzyme and has a metalloporphyrin at the active site. The interest in nonporphyrin mimics coincides with the interest in methane mono-oxygenase, whose active site has been identified as a {mu}-oxo dinuclear iron complex.We employed mimics of cytochrome P-450, heterogenized to provide additional stability. The oxidation of methane with molecular oxygen was investigated in a fixed-bed, down-flow reactor with various anchored metal phthalocyanines (PC) and porphyrins (TPP) as the catalysts.

  1. Selective adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons and gases in high surface area chalcogels containing [ES3]3- anions (E = As, Sb)

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2014-11-25

    We describe the sol-gel synthesis of the two new chalcogels KFeSbS3 and NaFeAsS3, which demonstrate excellent adsorption selectivity for volatile hydrocarbons and gases. These predominantly mesoporous materials have been synthesized by reacting Fe(OAc)2 with K3SbS3 or Na3AsS3 in a formamide/water mixture at room temperature. Aerogels obtained after supercritical drying have BET surface areas of 636 m2/g and 505 m2/g for KFeSbS3 and NaFeAsS3, respectively, with pore sizes in the micro- (below 2 nm), meso- (2-50 nm), and macro- (above 50 nm) regions.

  2. Permeable membranes - a tool for simplified sampling of hydrocarbon gases?; Permeable Membranen - Ein Wekzeug zur vereinfachten Probenahme von Kohlenwasserstoff-Gasen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, E.; Hollerbach, A.; Poggenburg, J.; Stahl, W. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Kaiser, H. [KaiserGEOconsult GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Huebner, M. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Tobschall, H.J. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    Tissue membranes are commonly used for leak detection in gas pipes. Another interesting application is in the isolation of hydrocarbons in water, sediments and soils. this requires knowledge of the time variations of the parameters of the diffusion gases, e.g. gas and isotope fractionations. Laboratory experiments were carried out in order to describe these parameters. (orig.) [Deutsch] Membranen haben die spezifische Eigenschaft fuer bestimmte Stoffe in der Gasphase durchlaessig, fuer andere mehr oder weniger undurchlaessig zu sein. Grundlage fuer ein derartiges Trennverhalten ist die Gasdiffusion durch Membranen, die mit unterschiedlichen Diffusionskoeffizienten der verschiedenen Komponenten erfolgt. Membranen in Schlauchform sind in industriellem Massstab verfuegbar und werden zur Erkennung von Ortung von Gas-Leckagen eingesetzt (Huebner und Lilie, 1997). Ueber die Leckage-Thematik hinaus besteht Interesse, das Membransystem fuer neue Anwendungsbereiche wie z.B. die Isolierung von Kohlenwasserstoffgasen aus Wasser, Sedimenten oder auch Boeden zu verwenden, um detaillierte Informationen ueber ihre Natur und ihre Herkunft aus der Gaszusammensetzung und den Kohlenstoff-Isotopenwerten (Faber, 1987) abzuleiten. Voraussetzung hierfuer ist die Kenntnis ueber die zeitlichen Aenderungen der Parameter der diffundierenden Gase, d.h. ueber die bei Diffusionsvorgaengen grundsaetzlich auftretenden Gas- und Isotopenfraktionierungen. Verschiedene Laborversuche wurden durchgefuehrt, um diese Parameter zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  3. Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 6, January 16, 1988--April 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Chan, Yee Wai; Posin, B.M.

    1988-05-20

    The goal of this research is to develop catalysts that directly convert methane and light hydrocarbons to intermediates that later can be converted to either liquid fuels or value-added chemicals, as economics dictate. During this reporting period, we synthesized several phthalocyanine catalysts supported on magnesia (MgO) in Task 3. In Task 4 we have tested these catalysts for oxidation of methane and did a number of blank experiments to determine the cause of the low methanol yield we have observed. Magnesia supported catalysts were prepared by first synthesizing the various metal tetrasulfophthalocyanines (TSPCs), converting them to the acid form, and then supporting these complexes on a basic support (MgO) by a neutralization reaction. The metals used were Ru, Pd, Cu, Fe, Co, Mn, and Mo. CoTSPC was also synthesized in zeolite Y using our standard template techniques described in Quarterly Report No. 1. These complexes were examined for catalytic activity in the oxidation of methane. The PdTSPC/MgO had greater activity, and oxidized some of the methane (selectivity of 2.8% from the methane oxidized at 375{degrees}C) to ethane. This is a much lower temperature for this reaction than previously reported in the literature. We also examined the reactivity of various components of the system in the oxidation of the product methanol. The reactor showed some activity for the oxidation of methanol to carbon dioxide. When zeolite or magnesia were added, this activity increased. The magnesia oxidized most of the methanol to carbon dioxide, while the zeolite reduced some of the methanol to hydrocarbons. With oxygen in the feed gas stream (i.e., the conditions of our methane oxidation), a very large fraction of the methanol was oxidized to carbon dioxide when passed over magnesia. From this, we can conclude that any methanol formed in the oxidation of methane would probably be destroyed very quickly on the catalyst bed.

  4. Gas chromatography for in situ analysis of a cometary nucleus. II. Analysis of permanent gases and light hydrocarbons with a carbon molecular sieve porous layer open tubular column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, C; Sternberg, R; Coscia, D; Raulin, F; Vidal-Madjar, C

    2000-12-22

    Considering the severe constraints of space instrumentation, a great improvement for the in situ gas chromatographic (GC) determination of permanent and noble gases in a cometary nucleus is the use of a new carbon molecular sieve porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column called Carbobond. No exhaustive data dealing with this column being available, studies were carried out to entirely characterize its analytical performances, especially when used under the operating conditions of the cometary sampling and composition (COSAC) experiment of the European Space Agency (ESA) Rosetta space mission to be launched in 2003 for a rendezvous with comet 46 P/Wirtanen in 2011. The high efficiency and speed of analysis of this column at both atmospheric and vacuum outlet column pressure is demonstrated, and the kinetic mass transfer contribution of this carbon molecular sieve adsorbent is calculated. Besides, differential adsorption enthalpies of several gases and light hydrocarbons were determined from the variation of retention volume with temperature. The data indicate close adsorption behaviors on the Carbobond porous layer adsorbent and on the carbon molecular sieve Carboxen support used to prepare the packed columns. Moreover, taking into account the in situ operating conditions of the experiment, a study of two columns with different porous layer thicknesses allowed one to optimize the separation of the target components and to select the column parameters compatible with the instrument constraints. Comparison with columns of similar selectivity shows that these capillary columns are the first ones able to perform the same work as the packed and micro-packed columns dedicated to the separation of this range of compounds in GC space exploration.

  5. On the thermodynamic properties of thermal plasma in the flame kernel of hydrocarbon/air premixed gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Omid; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Eisazadeh-Far, Kian; Metghalchi, Hameed

    2016-07-01

    Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon/air plasma mixtures at ultra-high temperatures must be precisely calculated due to important influence on the flame kernel formation and propagation in combusting flows and spark discharge applications. A new algorithm based on the complete chemical equilibrium assumption is developed to calculate the ultra-high temperature plasma composition and thermodynamic properties, including enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat ratio, speed of sound, mean molar mass, and degree of ionization. The method is applied to compute the thermodynamic properties of H2/air and CH4/air plasma mixtures for different temperatures (1000-100 000 K), different pressures (10-6-100 atm), and different fuel/air equivalence ratios within flammability limit. In calculating the individual thermodynamic properties of the atomic species needed to compute the complete equilibrium composition, the Debye-Huckel cutoff criterion has been used for terminating the series expression of the electronic partition function so as to capture the reduction of the ionization potential due to pressure and the intense connection between the electronic partition function and the thermodynamic properties of the atomic species and the number of energy levels taken into account. Partition functions have been calculated using tabulated data for available atomic energy levels. The Rydberg and Ritz extrapolation and interpolation laws have been used for energy levels which are not observed. The calculated plasma properties are then presented as functions of temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio, in terms of a new set of thermodynamically self-consistent correlations that are shown to provide very accurate fits suitable for efficient use in CFD simulations. Comparisons with existing data for air plasma show excellent agreement.

  6. Rare Earth Chalcogels NaLnSnS4 (Ln = Y, Gd, Tb) for Selective Adsorption of Volatile Hydrocarbons and Gases

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah

    2017-06-28

    The synthesis and characterization of the rare earth chalcogenide aerogels NaYSnS4, NaGdSnS4, and NaTbSnS4 is reported. Rare earth metal ions like Y3+, Gd3+, and Tb3+ react with the chalcogenide clusters [SnS4]4– in aqueous formamide solution forming extended polymeric networks by gelation. Aerogels obtained after supercritical drying have BET surface areas of 649 m2·g–1 (NaYSnS4), 479 m2·g–1 (NaGdSnS4), and 354 m2·g–1 (NaTbSnS4). Electron microscopy and physisorption studies reveal that the new materials have pores in the macro (above 50 nm) and meso (2–50 nm) regions. These aerogels show higher adsorption of toluene vapor over cyclohexane vapor and CO2 over CH4 or H2. The notable adsorption capacity for toluene (NaYSnS4: 1108 mg·g–1; NaGdSnS4: 921 mg·g–1; and NaTbSnS4: 645 mg·g–1) and high selectivity for gases (CO2/H2: 172 and CO2/CH4: 50 for NaYSnS4, CO2/H2: 155 and CO2/CH4: 37 for NaGdSnS4, and CO2/H2: 75 and CO2/CH4: 28 for NaTbSnS4) indicate potential future use of chalcogels in adsorption-based gas or hydrocarbon separation processes.

  7. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  8. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons; Separacion por cromatografia de gases de alta eficiencia de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos, (PAH) y alifaticos (AH) ambientales, empleado como fases estacionarias OV-1 y SE-54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-07-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs.

  9. The HC generative subsystems of productive Mexican basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holguin, Noel; Galindo, Federico; Serrano, Emrique; Romero, Anunziata; Sosa, Alejandro; Martinez, Gustavo; Roman, Rogelio [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    There are six hydrocarbon producing basins in Mexico, these are from north to south: Sabinas, Burgos, Tampico-Misantla, Veracruz, Sureste, and Sierra de Chiapas. Better understanding and greater new insight into the petroleum systems of Mexico have been gained from extensive field research - more than 40,000 samples have been analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis and, then the data interpreted; added to the information obtained from chromatography and, to a lesser degree from carbon isotope testing, biological marker and other types of analytical testing - made it possible not only to characterize the source rocks, but also determine with a high degree of exactness the origins of many of the hydrocarbons HC in Mexico, and also allowed a better understanding of the petroleum systems in Mexico. (author). 2 refs

  10. Late production of hydrocarbon gases in sedimentary basins: kinetic and isotopic study; Genese tardive des gaz hydrocarbures dans les bassins sedimentaires: etude cinetique et isotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorant, F.

    1999-06-23

    The thermal decomposition of sedimentary organic matter, or kerogen, within the metagenesis zone (T > 170 deg. C) leads to the formation of large amounts of late gas, mainly composed by methane. The work reported in this dissertation aims at understanding and quantifying the mechanisms of late methane generation and isotopic fractionation. With this purpose, natural samples of Type II and Type III mature kerogens (Ro > 1.3%, H/C < 0.65), were artificially heated in both open (T = 350 to 900 deg. C at 25 deg. C/min) and closed (T = 375 to 550 deg. C with t = 1 to 216 h) systems. For each experiment, mass and atomic (C, H, O) balances were obtained by recovering, fractionating and quantifying the entire pyrolysis effluents. Moreover, the isotopic compositions ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios) of methane and insoluble residue produced in closed system were measured. These experimental simulations have shown that the amounts of methane generated in an open-pyrolysis system (9 to 40 mg/gC) are systematically inferior to that observed in a closed-pyrolysis system (44 to 68 mg/gC), even after correction of the possible C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} and C{sub 6+} hydrocarbons secondary cracking. This shift, which is larger for Type II kerogens compared to coals and Type II-S kerogens, seems to be correlated with the pyrite content of the samples. Based on the closed-pyrolysis system data, a kinetic scheme, suitable for both Type II and Type III kerogens, was established. It includes three consecutive reactions, whose apparent kinetic parameters do not allow accounting for the corresponding rate constants observed in open system: E{sub 1} = 64.7 kcal/mol and A{sub 1} = 2.58 x 10{sup 15} s{sup -1}, E{sub 2} = 52.8 kcal/mol and A{sub 2} = 5.50 x 10{sup 10} s{sup -1}, E{sub 3} = 55-58 kcal/mol and A{sub 3} = 7.52 x 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. By extrapolation to geological setting, it was thus predicted that kerogens might generate about 15 mg/gC of late methane between 170 and 200 deg. C. In order

  11. A Cache Timing Analysis of HC-256

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cache-timing attack against the stream cipher HC-256, which is the strong version of eStream winner HC-128. The attack is based on an abstract model of cache timing attacks that can also be used for designing stream ciphers. From the observations made in our analysis,...

  12. High performance direct absorption spectroscopy of pure and binary mixture hydrocarbon gases in the 6-11 μm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Robert; Popescu, Alexandru; Hangauer, Andreas; Strzoda, Rainer; Höfling, Sven

    2017-08-01

    The availability of accurate and fast hydrocarbon analyzers, capable of real-time operation while enabling feedback-loops, would lead to a paradigm change in the petro-chemical industry. Primarily gas chromatographs measure the composition of hydrocarbon process streams. Due to sophisticated gas sampling, these analyzers are limited in response time. As hydrocarbons absorb in the mid-infrared spectral range, the employment of fast spectroscopic systems is highly attractive due to significantly reduced maintenance costs and the capability to setup real-time process control. New developments in mid-infrared laser systems pave the way for the development of high-performance analyzers provided that accurate spectral models are available for multi-species detection. In order to overcome current deficiencies in the availability of spectroscopic data, we developed a laser-based setup covering the 6-11 μm wavelength range. The presented system is designated as laboratory reference system. Its spectral accuracy is at least 6.6× 10^{-3} cm^{-1} with a precision of 3× 10^{-3} cm^{-1}. With a "per point" minimum detectable absorption of 1.3× 10^{-3} cm^{-1} Hz^{{-}{1/2}} it allows us to perform systematic measurements of hydrocarbon spectra of the first 7 alkanes under conditions which are not tabulated in spectroscopic database. We exemplify the system performance with measured direct absorption spectra of methane, propane, iso-butane, and a mixture of methane and propane.

  13. Sverige i H.C. Andersens optik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    svendsen, erik

    2008-01-01

    Analyse af H.C. Andersens rejsebog I Sverrig (1851), læst som et krydsfelt mellem biedermeier, romantik og modernitet, som et krydsfelt mellem Ingemans natursværmeri og Østeds mere positivistiske approach til naturen.......Analyse af H.C. Andersens rejsebog I Sverrig (1851), læst som et krydsfelt mellem biedermeier, romantik og modernitet, som et krydsfelt mellem Ingemans natursværmeri og Østeds mere positivistiske approach til naturen....

  14. Synthetic gases production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaud, J.P.

    1996-06-01

    The natural gas or naphtha are the main constituents used for the production of synthetic gases. Several production ways of synthetic gases are industrially used as for example the natural gas or naphtha catalytic reforming, the selective oxidation of natural gas or heavy fuels and the coal oxy-vapo-gasification. The aim of this work is to study the different steps of production and treatment of the synthetic gases by the way of catalytic reforming. The first step is the desulfurization of the hydrocarbons feedstocks. The process used in industry is described. Then is realized the catalytic hydrocarbons reforming process. After having recalled some historical data on the catalytic reforming, the author gives the reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. The possible reforming catalysts, industrial equipments and furnaces designs are then exposed. The carbon dioxide is a compound easily obtained during the reforming reactions. It is a wasteful and harmful component which has to be extracted of the gaseous stream. The last step is then the gases de-carbonation. Two examples of natural gas or naphtha reforming reactions are at last given: the carbon monoxide conversion by steam and the carbon oxides reactions with hydrogen (methanization). (O.M.). 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Cache Timing Analysis of HC-256

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an abstract model of cache timing attacks that can be used for designing ciphers. We then analyse HC-256 under this model, demonstrating a cache timing attack under certain strong assumptions. From the observations made in our analysis, we derive a number of design prin...

  16. Purification of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein Hc2, and comparative functional analysis of Hc2 and Hc1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1996-01-01

    The metabolically inactive developmental form of Chlamydia trachomatis, the elementary body, contains two very basic DNA-binding proteins with homology to eukaryotic histone H1. One of these, Hc1, is relatively well characterized and induces DNA condensation in vitro, whereas the other, Hc2......, Hc2 was found to strongly inhibit translation and transcription in vitro. Our results imply that DNA condensation is not the only function of Hc2....

  17. Purification of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein Hc2, and comparative functional analysis of Hc2 and Hc1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Birkelund, S; Christiansen, G

    1996-01-01

    The metabolically inactive developmental form of Chlamydia trachomatis, the elementary body, contains two very basic DNA-binding proteins with homology to eukaryotic histone H1. One of these, Hc1, is relatively well characterized and induces DNA condensation in vitro, whereas the other, Hc2......, Hc2 was found to strongly inhibit translation and transcription in vitro. Our results imply that DNA condensation is not the only function of Hc2. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Apr...

  18. Comparison of hydrocarbon yields in cotton from field grown vs. greenhouse grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four accession of cotton (SA-1181, 1403, 1419, and 2269) were grown both in field conditions and a greenhouse to compare the environmental effects on leaf biomass, % yield of hydrocarbons (HC), and total HC (g HC /g leaves) under natural and controlled (protected) conditions. Leaf biomass was simi...

  19. Phase equilibria at low temperature for light hydrocarbons-methanol-water-acid gases mixtures: measurements and modelling; Equilibres de phases a basse temperature de systemes complexes CO{sub 2} - hydrocarbures legers - methanol - eau: mesures et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffine, L.

    2005-10-15

    The need to develop and improve natural gas treatment processes is real. The petroleum industry usually uses separation processes which require phase equilibrium phenomena. Yet, the complexity of the phase equilibria involved results in a lack of data, which in turn limits the development of thermodynamic models. The first part of this work is devoted to experimental investigations for systems containing light hydrocarbons, methanol, water and acid gases. We present a new apparatus that was developed to measure vapor-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria. It allowed us to obtain new phase composition data for the methanol-ethane binary system and different mixtures, and also to determine a part of the three phases equilibrium envelope of the same systems. In the second part of this work, we have developed a thermodynamic model based on the CPA equation of state. This choice may be justified by the presence of associating components like methanol, hydrogen sulfide and water in the systems. Such model is necessary for the design of gas treatment plants. Our model provides good results for phase equilibrium calculations for binaries systems without binary interaction parameter in many cases, and describes correctly the vapour-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria for complex mixtures. (author)

  20. Genetic classification of natural gases in the Bozhong Depression, Bohai Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Youjun; WEN Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    The geochemical characteristics of natural gases discovered in the Bozhong Depression are systematically described in this paper. The natural gases are composed mainly of hydrocarbon gases. Natural gases occurring in the Paleogene and older reservoirs are wet gases, whereas those in the Neogene reservoirs are dry gases. Methane and ethane in the gases are significantly different in carbon isotopic composition. The methane carbon isotopic composition of the gases in structure BZ28-1 and the ethane carbon isotopic composition of the gases in structure QHD30-1 are characterized by the heaviest values, respectively. The natural gases are in the mature to highly mature stages. The hydrocarbon gases are of organic origin and can be classified as oil-type gases, coal-derived gases and mixed gases with the third one accounting for the major portion.

  1. Inner State Table of HC-128%HC-128的内部状态表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2014-01-01

    Stream cipher HC-128 , as a simplified version of HC-256 , is one of the seven sequential ci-phers facilitating the final triumphs of European eSTREAM project. HC-128,composed of two algorithms, i. e. initialization algorithm and generating key stream algorithm, is a software implementation algorithm based on table driving. Owing to its high security performance, there is,up to now,no effective analysis method. HC-128 takes advantage of the transition and selection of inner state table to construct sequential cipher, thus the security of inner state table has a direct influence on that of sequential cipher. Inner state table of HC-128 is analyzed,and algorithms of secret key and initialization vector are also presented in ac-cordance with inner state tables, P and Q ( each one with 512 bytes, tolalled up to 512 bytes) .%HC-128算法是HC-256算法的简化版,为欧洲eSTREAM工程最终胜出的7个序列密码算法之一。 HC-128由初始化算法和密钥流产生算法两部分构成,为基于表驱动的适于软件实现的算法。由于其安全性能高,至今未见有效的分析方法。 HC-128利用内部状态表的转换、选择来构造序列密码,因此内部状态表的安全性直接影响着序列密码算法的安全性。该文对HC-128的内部状态表进行了研究,给出了根据内部状态表P和Q(两个512字,共计1024字)倒推出密钥和初始向量的算法。

  2. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  3. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  4. Sources of hydrocarbons in sediments of the Mandovi estuary and the Marmugoa harbour, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harji, R.R.; Yvenat, A.; Bhosle, N.B.

    . The total HC concentrations, n-alkane composition, CPI, UCM and other evaluation indices suggest the dominance of terrestrial hydrocarbons in the estuarine while petroleum derived hydrocarbons in the harbour sediments. This conclusion was further supported...

  5. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  6. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of...

  7. HC-PM COUPLING MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSION OF DIESEL ENGINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Piqiang; Lu Jiaxiang; Deng Kangyao

    2005-01-01

    A rapid, phenomenological model that predicts particulate matter (PM) emission of diesel engines is developed and formulated. The model is a chemical equilibrium composition model, and is based on the formation mechanisms of PM and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of diesel engines. It can evaluate the emission concentration of PM via the emission concentration of HC. To validate the model, experiments are carried out in two research diesel engines. Comparisons of the model results with the experimental data show good agreement. The model can be used to evaluate the concentration of PM emission of diesel engines under lack of PM measuring instruments. In addition, the model is useful for computer simulations of diesel engines, as well as electronic control unit (ECU) designs for electronically controlled diesel engines.

  8. Irritant gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, J

    2016-01-01

    Acute inhalation injury can result from the use of household cleaning agents (e.g. chlorine, ammonia), industrial or combustion gases (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) or bioterrorism. The severity of the injury is to a great extent determined by the circumstances of exposure. If exposure was i

  9. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life. Governments all around the world ban and control production and use of several industrial gases that destroy atmospheric ozone and create a hole in the ozone layer . At lower elevations of the atmosphere (the troposphere), ozone is harmful to ... for Future Emissions FAQs How much carbon dioxide is produced when ...

  10. Irritant gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, J

    Acute inhalation injury can result from the use of household cleaning agents (e.g. chlorine, ammonia), industrial or combustion gases (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) or bioterrorism. The severity of the injury is to a great extent determined by the circumstances of exposure. If exposure was

  11. HC/MC-130 Recapitalization Aircraft (HC/MC-130 Recap)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    device for aircrew providing a practical experience in use of checklists, palletized loading, winching exercises, loading of vehicles, loading and...Apr 2010 Airworthiness Certification Complete Jan 2012 Dec 2011 Dec 2011 Dec 2011 Initiate IOT &E Mar 2012 Mar 2012 Mar 2012 Mar 2012 Required Assets...Acronyms and Abbreviations IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation OT&E - Operational Test and Evaluation HC/MC-130 Recap December 2015 SAR

  12. Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  13. Observation of $h_{c}$ radiative decay $h_{c} \\rightarrow \\gamma \\eta'$ and evidence for $h_{c} \\rightarrow \\gamma \\eta$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, R P; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, X Z; Huang, Y; Huang, Z L; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, H J; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y B; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, M M; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, M; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X H; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, L J; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, J J; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    A search for radiative decays of the $P$-wave spin singlet charmonium resonance $h_c$ is performed based on $4.48 \\times 10^{8}$ $\\psi'$ events collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage ring. Events of the reaction channels $h_{c} \\rightarrow \\gamma \\eta'$ and $\\gamma \\eta$ are observed with a statistical significance of $8.4 \\sigma$ and $4.0 \\sigma$, respectively, for the first time. The branching fractions of $h_{c} \\rightarrow \\gamma \\eta'$ and $h_{c} \\rightarrow \\gamma \\eta$ are measured to be $\\mathcal{B}(h_{c} \\rightarrow \\gamma \\eta')=(1.52 \\pm 0.27 \\pm 0.29)\\times10^{-3}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(h_{c} \\rightarrow \\gamma \\eta)=(4.7 \\pm 1.5 \\pm 1.4)\\times10^{-4}$, respectively, where the first errors are statistical and the second are systematic uncertainties.

  14. Novel fluidized bed reactor for integrated NO(x) adsorption-reduction with hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Terris T; Bi, Hsiaotao T

    2009-07-01

    In order to avoid the negative impact of excessive oxygen in the combustion flue gases on the selectivity of most hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) catalysts, an integrated NO(x) adsorption-reduction process has been proposed in this study for the treatment of flue gases under lean burn conditions by decoupling the adsorption and reduction into two different zones. The hypothesis has been validated in a novel internal circulating fluidized bed (ICFB) reactor using Fe/ZSM-5 as the catalyst and propylene as the reducing agent. Effects of propylene to the NO(x) molar ratio, flue gas oxygen concentration, and gas velocity on NO(x) conversion were studied using simulated flue gases. The results showed that increasing the ratio of HC:NO improved the reduction performance of Fe/ZSM-5 in the ICFB reactor. NO(x) conversion decreased with an increasing flue gas flow velocity in the annulus U(A) but increased with an increasing reductant gas flow velocity in the draft tube U(D). The NO(x) adsorption ratio decreased with increasing U(A). In most cases, NO(x) conversion was higher than the adsorption ratio due to the relatively poor adsorption performance of the catalyst. Fe/ZSM-5 showed a promising reduction performance and a strong inhibiting ability on the negative impact of excessive O2 in the ICFB reactor, proving that such an ICFB reactor possessed the ability to overcome the negative impact of excessive O2 in the flue gas using Fe/ZSM-5 as the deNO(x) catalyst.

  15. An installation for steam conversion of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-01-28

    An installation is proposed for steam conversion of a hydrocarbon gas in order to produce an inorganic gas which chiefly consists of H2 and CO in which the line for feeding the hydrocarbon gas has a steam generator which has a microcapillary structure made of sponge metal, inorganic heat resistant fibers of glass, Si02, Al203 or carbon, inorganic heat resistant fibers twisted into a fiber or a cord of multipore ceramic material; the installation is equipped with a heater which regulates the water temperature, in which the steam generator is submerged. The installation is designed for converting natural gas, C3H8, other hydrocarbon gases and vapors of liquid hydrocarbons (Uv) into H2 and CO. The design and disposition of the steam generator simplify the design of the device, eliminating the pump for feeding the steam and the device for premixing of the steam and hydrocarbon gas.

  16. A Survey of HC3N in Extragalactic Sources - Is HC3N a Tracer of Activity in ULIRGs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Karl Johan Erik; Aalto, S.; Costagliola, F.;

    2011-01-01

    Context. HC3N is a molecule that is mainly associated with Galactic star-forming regions, but it has also been detected in extragalactic environments. Aims. To present the first extragalactic survey of HC3N, when combining earlier data from the literature with six new single-dish detections, and ...

  17. A Survey of HC3N in Extragalactic Sources - Is HC3N a Tracer of Activity in ULIRGs?

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, J E; Costagliola, F; Pérez-Beaupuits, J -P; Monje, R; Muller, S

    2011-01-01

    Context. HC3N is a molecule that is mainly associated with Galactic star-forming regions, but it has also been detected in extragalactic environments. Aims. To present the first extragalactic survey of HC3N, when combining earlier data from the literature with six new single-dish detections, and to compare HC3N with other molecular tracers (HCN, HNC), as well as other properties (silicate absorption strength, IR flux density ratios, C II flux, and megamaser activity). Methods. We present mm IRAM 30 m, OSO 20 m, and SEST observations of HC3N rotational lines (mainly the J = 10-9 transition) and of the J = 1-0 transitions of HCN and HNC. Our combined HC3N data account for 13 galaxies (excluding the upper limits reported for the non-detections), while we have HCN and HNC data for more than 20 galaxies. Results. A preliminary definition "HC3N-luminous galaxy" is made based upon the HC3N/HCN ratio. Most (~80 %) HC3N-luminous galaxies seem to be deeply obscured galaxies and (U)LIRGs. A majority (~60 % or more) of t...

  18. A survey of HC3N in extragalactic sources Is HC3N a tracer of activity in ULIRGs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindberg, J. E.; Aalto, S.; Costagliola, F.; Perez-Beaupuits, J. -P.; Monje, R.; Muller, S.

    2011-01-01

    Context. HC3N is a molecule that is mainly associated with Galactic star-forming regions, but it has also been detected in extragalactic environments. Aims. To present the first extragalactic survey of HC3N, when combining earlier data from the literature with six new single-dish detections, and to

  19. A Survey of HC3N in Extragalactic Sources - Is HC3N a Tracer of Activity in ULIRGs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Karl Johan Erik; Aalto, S.; Costagliola, F.;

    2011-01-01

    Context. HC3N is a molecule that is mainly associated with Galactic star-forming regions, but it has also been detected in extragalactic environments. Aims. To present the first extragalactic survey of HC3N, when combining earlier data from the literature with six new single-dish detections......) and of the J = 1-0 transitions of HCN and HNC. Our combined HC3N data account for 13 galaxies (excluding the upper limits reported for the non-detections), while we have HCN and HNC data for more than 20 galaxies. Results. A preliminary definition "HC3N-luminous galaxy" is made based upon the HC3N/HCN ratio....... Most (~80 %) HC3N-luminous galaxies seem to be deeply obscured galaxies and (U)LIRGs. A majority (~60 % or more) of the HC3N-luminous galaxies in the sample present OH mega- or strong kilomaser activity. A possible explanation is that both HC3N and OH megamasers need warm dust for their excitation...

  20. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ppm CO2, ≤ 0.1 ppm NO) (Oxygen content between 18-21 percent vol.) (c) Calibration and span gases. (1... of the NO content); (v) CO2 and purified nitrogen. (3) The true concentration of a span gas must be... approval of the Administrator. (f) Hydrocarbon analyzer burner air. The concentration of oxygen for...

  1. Combination of photocatalysis and HC/SCR for improved activity and durability of DeNOx catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Iljeong; Kim, Mun Kyu; Sung, Samkyung; Nam, In-Sik; Cho, Byong K; Olson, Keith L; Li, Wei

    2013-04-16

    A photocatalytic HC/SCR system has been developed and its high deNOx performance (54.0-98.6% NOx conversion) at low temperatures (150-250 °C) demonstrated by using a representative diesel fuel hydrocarbon (dodecane) as the reductant over a hybrid SCR system of a photocatalytic reactor (PCR) and a dual-bed HC/SCR reactor. The PCR generates highly active oxidants such as O3 and NO2 from O2 and NO in the feed stream, followed by the subsequent formation of highly efficient reductants such as oxygenated hydrocarbon (OHC), NH3, and organo-nitrogen compounds. These reductants are the key components for enhancing the low temperature deNOx performance of the dual-bed HC/SCR system containing Ag/Al2O3 and CuCoY in the front and rear bed of the reactor, respectively. The OHCs are particularly effective for both NOx reduction and NH3 formation over the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst, while NH3 and organo-nitrogen compounds are effective for NOx reduction over the CuCoY catalyst. The hybrid HC/SCR system assisted by photocatalysis has shown an overall deNOx performance comparable to that of the NH3/SCR, demonstrating its potential as a promising alternative to the current urea/SCR and LNT technologies. Superior durability of HC/SCR catalysts against coking by HCs has also been demonstrated by a PCR-assisted regeneration scheme for deactivating catalysts.

  2. Improved Gas Filling and Sealing of an HC-PCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel; Spiers, Gary

    2008-01-01

    An improved packaging approach has been devised for filling a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (HC-PCF) with a gas, sealing the HC-PCF to retain the gas, and providing for optical connections and, optionally, a plumbing fitting for changing or augmenting the gas filling. Gas-filled HC-PCFs can be many meters long and have been found to be attractive as relatively compact, lightweight, rugged alternatives to conventional gas-filled glass cells for use as molecular-resonance frequency references for stabilization of lasers in some optical-metrology, lidar, optical-communication, and other advanced applications. Prior approaches to gas filling and sealing of HC-PCFs have involved, variously, omission of any attempt to connectorize the PCF, connectorization inside a vacuum chamber (an awkward and expensive process), or temporary exposure of one end of an HC-PCF to the atmosphere, potentially resulting in contamination of the gas filling. Prior approaches have also involved, variously, fusion splicing of HC-PCFs with other optical fibers or other termination techniques that give rise to Fresnel reflections of about 4 percent, which results in output intensity noise.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SOLIS. II. OMC2-FIR4 HC3N and HC5N images (

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontani, F.; Ceccarelli, C.; Favre, C.; Caselli, P.; Neri, R.; Sims, I. R.; Kahane, C.; Alves, F.; Balucani, N.; Bianchi, E.; Caux, E.; Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Lopez-Sepulcre, A.; Pineda, J.; Bachiller, R.; Bizzocchi, L.; Bottinelli, S.; Chacon-Tanarro, A.; Choudhury, R.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Dulieu, F.; Feng, S.; Rimola, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Holdship, J.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Laas, J.; Lefloch, B.; Oya, Y.; Podio, L.; Pon, A.; Punanova, A.; Quenard, D.; Sakai, N.; Spezzano, S.; Taquet, V.; Testi, L.; Theule, P.; Ugliengo, P.; Vastel, C.

    2017-08-01

    IRAM-NOEMA Interferometer, 3mm receiver, Widex and Narrow-band correlators. Observations with the IRAM NOEMA Interferometer of HC3N (9-8) and HC5N (31-30), at rest frequencies 81.881468GHz and 82.539039GHz , respectively, towards OMC-2 FIR4 have been carried out over 5 days between the 5th and the 19th of August, 2015. The HC3N line was observed in the Widex band correlator, providing a resolution in velocity of ~7.15km/s, while the HC5N line was observed also in the Narrow band correlator with a resolution in velocity of ~0.57km/s. (2 data files).

  4. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation

  6. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns; Analisis de Hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos. I. Determinacion por cromatografia de gases con columnas capilares de vidrio de silice fundida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1987-07-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs.

  7. Performance evaluation of Samsung LABGEO(HC10) Hematology Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Joong; Ahn, Sunhyun; Kim, Young In; Kang, Seon Joo; Cho, Sung Ran

    2014-08-01

    The Samsung LABGEO(HC10) Hematology Analyzer (LABGEO(HC10)) is a recently developed automated hematology analyzer that uses impedance technologies. The analyzer provides 18 parameters including 3-part differential at a maximum rate of 80 samples per hour. To evaluate the performance of the LABGEO(HC10). We evaluated precision, linearity, carryover, and relationship for complete blood cell count parameters between the LABGEO(HC10) and the LH780 (Beckman Coulter Inc) in a university hospital in Korea according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Sample stability and differences due to the anticoagulant used (K₂EDTA versus K₃EDTA) were also evaluated. The LABGEO(HC10) showed linearity over a wide range and minimal carryover ( 0.92) except for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The bias estimated was acceptable for all parameters investigated except for monocyte count. Most parameters were stable until 24 hours both at room temperature and at 4°C. The difference by anticoagulant type was statistically insignificant for all parameters except for a few red cell parameters. The accurate results achievable and simplicity of operation make the unit recommendable for small to medium-sized laboratories.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of HC Emissions Released by Oil Film for Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. İhsan KARAMANGİL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil film on cylinder liner has been suggested as a major source of engine-out hydrocarbon emissions. So in the present study, the rate of absorption/desorption of the fuel in the oil film has been investigated numerically in a spark ignition engine by using gasoline, ethanol and methanol fuels. To aim this purpose, a thermodynamic cycle model has been developed and then a mathematical modeling for the rate of absorption/desorption of the fuel in the oil film has been developed and adapted for this thermodynamic cycle model.It was seen that the absorption/desorption mechanism of ethanol and methanol into the oil film were lower than gasoline. It was determined that the most dominant parameter of this difference was Henry’s constant, which was related to solubility. As interaction time of oil filmfuel vapor was longer at low engine speeds, the quantities of HC absorbed/desorbed increased. The quantities of HC absorbed/desorbed increased with increasing inlet pressure and compression ratio

  9. Exergy analysis of an HCFC-22 and HC-290 operated air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Jamal Uddin; Raiyan, Muhammad Ferdous; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2017-06-01

    The present work discusses exergy analysis of a split type air conditioning system. Typical domestic air conditioners use R22 which is a Hydrochloroflurocarbon (HCFC) refrigerant. Due to its destructive impact on ozone layer, search for alternative refrigerants is going on. Propane (R290), a pure Hydrocarbon (HC) is considered here along with R22 to make different blends of refrigerants. Two HCFC-22 and HC-290 mixtures (P1 and P2) were prepared with mass ratios of (R22:R290) 90:10 and 85:15 respectively. Using experimentally obtained data of pressure and temperature, other properties in the vapor compression system were found by REFPROP 7 software. Finally, exergy analysis was done for all the refrigerants (R22, P1 and P2). Exergy destruction in each component was also inspected. Total exergy loss of mixture P2 was found to be greater than the exergy loss of R22 and P1. Variations in exergy losses were observed with respect to evaporator temperature at two different ambient conditions. In all cases, exergy destruction in condenser was found to be the highest among the four main components of the cycle.

  10. Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini

    1987-01-01

    Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.

  11. K2 & HC 结构学习算法%K2 & HC Structure Learning Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永广; 庞世春

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian network plays an important role in the field of artificial intelligence .The capability of learning knowledge from data makes it develop rapidly in medicine ,fault diagnosis ,forecasting and other fields .Structure learning al-gorithm of Bayesian network becomes an important research area ,which can effectively analyze dependencies between varia-bles and discover knowledge and data properly .Hill-Climbing strategy can reduce the complex solution space and improve the performance of structure learning algorithm .At the same time ,the K2 algorithm is outstanding on the performance of sco-ring .Combined the scoring function of K2 with the efficient Hill-Climbing strategy ,the K2&HC algorithm is proposed . Meanwhile ,Backtracking principle integrates into the search strategy to solve the problem about the structure learning algo-rithm converging to a local optimum ,which can optimize the performance of the algorithm .Contrast with K2 and K2SA sim-ulation ,the conclusions are made that K2&HC algorithm is outstanding on the comprehensive performance of the accuracy and convergence rate .%贝叶斯网络理论在人工智能领域发挥着重要作用。贝叶斯网络从数据中学习知识的能力使得它在医学、故障诊断、预测等领域的应用迅速发展起来。结构学习算法成为贝叶斯网络的重要研究方向,它能够有效分析变量之间依赖关系,合理挖掘数据和知识。K2算法评分性能突出,而爬山算法能有效弥补K2评分法的解空间过于复杂的问题。论文结合K2评分函数和爬山策略,提出了K2&HC算法。同时,K2&HC算法在爬山策略中融入了回溯原理,解决了贝叶斯结构学习算法中存在的收敛于局部最优的问题,合理优化了算法的性能。同K2和K2SA算法进行仿真对比,得出在精度和收敛速度综合性能上K2&HC表现突出的结论。

  12. Unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons synergize responses to sex attractant pheromone in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Millar, Jocelyn G; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Four trienyl hydrocarbons, (Z3, Z6, Z9)-tricosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-pentacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-25:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-heptacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-27:HC), and (Z3, Z6, Z9)-nonacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-29:HC) were identified in a non-polar fraction of the body wax of male and female yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis. The relative amounts and ratios of these hydrocarbons differed between sexes. In females, the ratios in body wax and pheromone gland extracts were similar, with lesser amounts found in gland extracts. Synergistic effects of these hydrocarbons when added to the known aldehyde pheromone components were assessed in wind tunnel tests. A blend of (E)-10-hexadecenal (E10-16: Ald) and (Z)-10-hexadecenal (Z10-16: Ald) elicited upwind flight and orientation of males to the pheromone source, but arriving males did not remain close to source for very long. Among the hydrocarbons identified, only Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC enhanced the activity of the aldehyde blend by increasing the time spent close to the source and the number of source contacts. Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC and (Z9)-heptacosene (Z9-27:HC) also increased close-range responses to the aldehyde blend. The activity of the aldehyde blend plus these two hydrocarbons was similar to that of crude pheromone extract. Positive dose-response relationships between the aldehyde blend and two hydrocarbon mixtures were found. The lowest doses that elicited synergism were 10(-1) female equivalents (of body wax extracts) for the two hydrocarbons, and 10(-2) female equivalents for the total unsaturated hydrocarbon mixture.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  16. Mechanics of gases; Mechanik der Gase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Dieter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany). BESSY II

    2010-07-01

    Compact synopsis for natural scientists, engineers and vacuum specialists. Application-oriented presentation with many practical examples and exercises. Ideal for bachelor study programmes. Knowledge on the movement, speed and energy of gas particles are an important prerequisite for an understanding of modern technologies such as vacuum engineering, or, closely related to the former, of vacuum physics or the handling of gases. This book presents the mechanics of gases in a readily understandable manner. The mathematics used is no more complex than necessary. The material is presented in coherent manner and follows a logical progression. The book begins with a description of Maxwell's velocity distribution. This is followed by a derivation of the equations of state for ideal gases as well as a description of the most important equations of state for real gases. Next the author derives relationships for all important gas kinetic parameters and shows how they can be determined experimentally. The presentation ends with explanations of selected calculations and a synopsis of all important formulas. The book contains a number of examples which are oriented towards questions as they arise in engineering or applied physics. The content level is ''Upper Undergraduate''. Keywords: gas dynamics; gas kinetics; ideal and real gas; kinetic gases; textbook of gas dynamics; textbook of gas kinetics; textbook of gas mechanics; Maxwell's law; gas mechanics; fluid mechanics; equations of state for gases. [German] - Kompakte Zusammenfassung fuer Naturwissenschaftler, Ingenieure und Vakuumspezialisten. - Anwendungsorientierte Praesentation mit vielen Praxisbeispielen und Aufgaben. - Ideal fuer das Bachelor-Studium Kenntnisse ueber die Bewegung von Gasteilchen, deren Geschwindigkeit und Energie sind eine wichtige Voraussetzung zum Verstaendnis moderner Technologien, z. B. der Vakuumtechnik, und eng damit verknuepft der Vakuumphysik oder der Handhabung von

  17. Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. The device is capable of determining hydrocarbon gases in water to the concentration of less than 5 x 10{sup -4} ml/l of water. According to the results of microbiological studies, the plate count technique can be a useful supplementary method for hydrocarbon exploration. This is based on the facts that the average survival rate to hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane) for heterotrophs is higher in the area known as containing considerable hydrocarbon gases than other areas in the Pohang region. However, it is still necessary to develop techniques to treat the bacteria with gaseous hydrocarbons. (author). 2 figs., 41 tabs.

  18. Geochemical characteristics and origin of light hydrocarbons in biogenic gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The light hydrocarbon geochemical characteristics of biogenic gases from Sebei 1 gas field in the Qaidam Basin, Baoshan gas field in the Baoshan Basin and Alaxin gas field, Puqian gas pool, Aonan gas pool in the Songliao Basin are studied and the origin is discussed based on the composition and isotope data of gases. The isoalkane contents among light hydrocarbons in natural gas show a negative relationship with δ13C1 values. The isoalkane contents of the gases with δ13C1 values of less than ?60‰ are also high with more than 40% among light hydrocarbons in Sebei 1 gas field and Puqian gas pool. Moreover, the 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2-methylpentane, mainly sourced from bacteria, have predominance among isoalkanes, which suggests that light hydrocarbons in biogenic gases from these gas fields or pools were probably generated by microbial action. However, the cycloalkane contents among light hydrocarbons in biogenic gas are related to δ13C1 values positively. In Alaxin gas field and Aonan gas pool, where δ13C1 values of biogenic gases are less than ?60‰, the average contents of cycloalkane are higher than 44%. Light hydrocarbons among biogenic gases from these gas fields were probably generated by catalysis. The isoalkane and cycloalkane contents among light hydrocarbons from biogenic gases in the Baoshan gas field are both high, which might be generated by these two actions. The results show that the data of light hydrocarbons in biogenic gas can provide important information for understanding the generation mechanisms of light hydrocarbons during geological evolution and identifying biogenic gas and low mature gas.

  19. An installation for vapor conversion of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, I.; Tabata, K.

    1983-01-28

    An installation is proposed for converting a mixture of hydrocarbon gases with steam in the presence of nickel, platinum, lead and cobalt catalysts (Kt) on a carrier of Si0/sub 2/, A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/, Ti0/sub 2/ and so on. The reaction tower (RK1) for conversion is made of an inorganic, heat resistant ceramic material (for instance, A1/sub 2/0/sub 3/ ceramic), heaters are located inside the walls of the reaction tower, while on the outside the reaction conversion tower is equipped with an external tubular housing made of heat resistant materials or of inorganic heat resistant ceramic material. Here, there is a space between the external walls of the reaction conversion tower and the walls of the housing along the entire circumference of the reaction conversion tower which serves for preheating of the hydrocarbon gas and the steam before their input into the reaction conversion tower. The installation is designed for conversion of natural gas, C/sub 3/H/sub 8/ and other hydrocarbon gases and of liquid hydrocarbons (Uv) into synthesis gas. The design provides for even heating of the catalyst during reforming. The use of ceramic materials for the reaction conversion tower prevents sedimentation of coke on the walls of the reaction tower.

  20. Study on the Interaction Coefficients in PR Equation with vdW Mixing Rules for HFC and HC Binary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Xin; Hu, Peng; Chen, Ze-Shao

    2008-12-01

    The Peng-Robinson equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules was used to correlate vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for HFC/HC, HFC/HFC, and HC/HC binary mixtures. The interaction parameter k ij was obtained for every binary mixture. It was assumed that k ij has contributions from the two components, and each component has its own constant contribution factor k i for the mixture, and the values of k ij indicate the degree in difference of properties between the two components. Therefore, the interaction parameters k ij is proposed as: k ij = k i - k j . The values of the mixing factor k i for Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Hydrocarbons (HCs), including propane, isobutane, n-butane, R23, R32, R125, R143a, R134a, R152a, R227ea R236fa, R236ea, and R245fa, were obtained by least-square fitting. In total, 39 refrigerant binary mixtures were analyzed on the basis of this method, and the results showed good agreement with experimental data. The overall average absolute deviations of pressure and vapor mole fraction are 1.3 % and 0.0089, respectively.

  1. Application of pyrolysis gas chromatography technique to evaluation of coal-generated hydrocarbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永革; 盛国英; 傅家谟

    1997-01-01

    Based on kerogen-generated hydrocarbon model, a new method to calculate hydrocarbon yields for coals and coaly samples was put forward by means of pyrolysis technique. At the same time, the empirical criteria suggested by Powell were revised. The threshold value was preliminarily defined as HC yields >30 mg HC per gram TOC for effective gas source rocks and >60 mg HC per gram TOC for effective oil source rocks. Additionally, it was also confirmed that the relative compositions of the three ranges of C1-C5 total hydrocarbons, C6-C14 n-alkanes plus n-alkenes and C15+ n-alkanes plus n-alkenes from pyrolysates can be effectively used to distinguish the coal-generated hydrocarbon types.

  2. Hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation affected by underground hydrocarbon gas seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous concentrations of natural gas in the soil may be sourced from leaking underground gas pipelines or from natural microseepages. Due to the explosive nature of hydrocarbon gases, early detection of these gases is essential to avoid dangerous situations. It is known that natural gas in the

  3. Cyanodiacetylene (HC/sub 5/N) in Sagittarius B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; Oka, T.; Broten, N.W.; MacLeod, J.M.

    1979-07-01

    The J=2..-->..1 and 3..-->..2 rotational transitions of cyanodiacetylene have been observed in Sgr B2. Statistical equilibrium calculations have been carried out to construct a three-component model of the HC/sub 5/N cloud in Sgr B2 which is consistent with these observations, with our earlier observations of the J=1..-->..0.4..-->..3, and 8..-->..7 lines and with the data obtained by Guelin and Thaddeus for the J=31..-->..30 to J=37..-->..36 millimeter-wave transitions. The relative strength of the J=1..-->..0 line requires the presence of an extensive, low-density envelope around the Sgr B2 molecular cloud which serves as a weak 1..-->..0 line maser. This envelope is characterized by an H/sub 2/ density of 100 cm/sup -3/ and a kinetic temperature of about 20 K. The maximum column density of HC/sub 5/N in Sgr B2 is found to be 1.6 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/, equal to that of HC/sub 3/N.

  4. Geochemical study on oil-cracked gases and kerogencracked gases (I)——Experimental simulation and products analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Eight types of samples:crude oil,chloroform bitumen A,oil fractions(saturated hydrocarbon,aromatic hydrocarbon,resin and asphaltene) ,source rock and kerogen,have been pyrolyzed in laboratory. The products have also been systematically analyzed. The results indicate that gaseous hydrocarbons yields for different types of samples at various temperatures are different,especially for different fractions of crude oil. There is difference for molecular compositions. The C2/C3 ratios of cracking gases in different types of samples have positive relationships with C2/iC4 as well as pyrolysis temperatures. Moreover,the ratios of C2/C3 and C2/iC4 are about 2 and 10,respectively,at the temperature of 500℃― 550℃. However,when the temperature is higher than 500℃,the ratios of C1/C2,C1/C3 and dryness index for gases cracking from source rock and kerogen are higher than those from oil and bitumen,indicating an important different feature between oil-cracked gases and kerogen-cracked gases at the high or over-mature stage. The ratios of C1/C2,C1/C3 vary more than 10% at 500℃―800℃. In this paper,experimental results can provide important academic foundation and useful geochemical parameters for distinguishing of oil-cracked gases and kerogen-cracked gases.

  5. Direct determination of atom and radical concentrations in thermal reactions of hydrocarbons and other gases. Progress report, June 1, 1976--December 31, 1976. [Design and construction of shock tube for measuring reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, G. B.; Lifshitz, A.

    1977-01-01

    A shock tube has been designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring atom and radical concentrations in thermal reactions of gases. Design features which lead to extremely low levels of contamination include a turbomolecular vacuum pump, metal O-rings in the test section, stainless steel bellows-seal valves, and provision for baking all components to 150 to 200/sup 0/C. The optical system consists of a microwave discharge lamp through which various gas mixtures may flow at low pressures, MgF/sub 2/ windows on the shock tube, and a photodetector. For initial measurements of H and O atoms, a solar blind photomultiplier sensitive at 110 to 140 nm is being used. During the balance of the contract year (January 1--May 31) testing of the shock tube will be completed, the light source will be characterized, and measurements of H atom concentrations in shock-heated mixtures of CH/sub 4/--Ar and H/sub 2/--O/sub 2/--Ar will be started.

  6. Experimental investigation of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a mixture in a window air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabaraj, D.B.; Avinash, P.; Lal, D. Mohan; Renganarayan, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2006-09-15

    HCFC22, one of the widely used refrigerants in window air conditioners must be phased out soon as per the Montreal protocol. Presently, HFC407C is considered as a potential drop in substitute for HCFC22, but retrofitting HCFC22 systems with HFC407C with polyol ester oil (POE) is a major issue as HFC407C is immiscible with mineral oil. The miscibility issue of HFC407C with mineral oil was overcome with the addition of a HC blend to it. The above technoeconomic feasibility issues to retrofit the existing HCFC22 systems with an ozone friendly refrigerant and retain the energy efficiency of the system are challenges in the air conditioning sector. In this present work, an experimental analysis has been conducted in a window air conditioner retrofitted with eco-friendly refrigerant mixtures of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a without changing the mineral oil. Its performance, as well as energy consumption, was compared with the conventional one. It is observed that the mixtures demand lengthening of the condenser in order to maintain the discharge pressure within acceptable limits. This also resulted in better heat transfer at the condenser. Therefore, in this study, the condenser tube length was increased by 19% to suit the mixtures as compared to HCFC22. Compared to HCFC22, the refrigeration capacity of the new mixture was 9.54-12.76% higher than that of HCFC22, while the actual COP was found to be 11.91-13.24% higher than that of HCFC22. The overall performance has proved that the HFC407C/HC blend refrigerant mixture could be an eco-friendly substitute to phase out HCFC22. (author)

  7. Detection of Interstellar HC5O in TMC-1 with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brett A.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Kalenskii, Sergei V.; Herbst, Eric; Remijan, Anthony J.; McCarthy, Michael C.

    2017-07-01

    We report the detection of the carbon-chain radical HC5O for the first time in the interstellar medium toward the cold core TMC-1 using the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. We observe four hyperfine components of this radical in the J=17/2\\to 15/2 rotational transition that originates from the {}2{{{\\Pi }}}1/2 fine structure level of its ground state and calculate an abundance of n/{n}{H2}=1.7× {10}-10, assuming an excitation temperature of {T}{ex}=7 K. No indication of HC3O, HC4O, or HC6O, is found in these or archival observations of the source, while we report tentative evidence for HC7O. We compare calculated upper limits and the abundance of HC5O to predictions based on (1) the abundance trend of the analogous HC n N family in TMC-1 and (2) a gas-grain chemical model. We find that the gas-grain chemical model well reproduces the observed abundance of HC5O, as well as the upper limits of HC3O, HC6O, and HC7O, but HC4O is overproduced. The prospects for astronomical detection of both shorter and longer HC n O chains are discussed.

  8. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  9. Handbook of purified gases

    CERN Document Server

    Schoen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions and are regarded as indispensable means of assistance. In this complete handbook of purified gases the physical foundations of purified gases and mixtures as well as their manufacturing, purification, analysis, storage, handling and transport are presented in a comprehensive way. This important reference work is accompanied with a large number of Data Sheets dedicated to the most important purified gases.  

  10. Avoidance of fluorinated greenhouse gases. Possibilities of an early exit; Fluorierte Treibhausgase vermeiden. Wege zum Ausstieg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, Katja; Graaf, Daniel de; Elsner, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Gabriele; Krueger, Franziska; Martens, Kerstin; Plehn, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Rolf

    2010-11-15

    In comparison to carbon dioxide, fluorinated greenhouse gases are more harmful up to a factor of 24,000. Today the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases of the world-wide emissions of climatic harmful gases amounts 2 % and increases to 6 % in the year 2050. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities for the avoidance of the emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases. The characteristics and ecological effects of fluorinated gases as well as the development of the emission in Germany are presented. Subsequently, the applications of fluorinated hydrocarbons are described.

  11. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    hydrocarbon polluted sediments and water .... ecosystem may result in selective increase or decrease in microbial population (Okpokwasili ... been implicated in degradation of hydrocarbons such as crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and.

  12. HC-21C off-gas test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, L.T.

    1994-12-14

    The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future. This test procedure will include a series of tests to determine where and why liquid is condensing in the HC-21C furnace off-gas system. The tests will take a sequential, graded approach and may be concluded one the results have satisfactorily resolved the problem.

  13. HC-IPSAG and GC-IPSAG algorithm proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bǎdoi, C.-I.; Croitoru, V.; Prasad, N.

    2010-01-01

    networks by proposing two improved variants of IPSAG (IP Spectrum Aware Geographic routing algorithm). The destination geographical location is indirectly part of the routing metric that is proposed in IPSAG, and the main assumption on which IPSAG is based is that the source can always find the destination......, GCIPSAG, uses gateway nodes between clusters, without attempting to find where destination is located for inter-cluster routing. The second proposal, HC-IPSAG, is using an overlay network formed with cluster head nodes in order to locate the destination, and to inter-cluster route the packet....

  14. Classification and origin of natural gases from Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Natural gases discovered up to now in Lishui Sag,the East China Sea Basin,differ greatly in gaseous compositions,of which hydrocarbon gases amount to 2%―94%while non-hydrocarbon gases are dominated by CO2.Their hydrocarbon gases,without exception,contain less than 90%of methane and over 10%of C2 + heavier hydrocarbons,indicating a wet gas.Carbon isotopic analyses on these hydrocarbon gases showed thatδ13C 1 ,δ13C 2 andδ13C 3 are basically lighter than-44‰,-29‰and-26‰, respectively.The difference in carbon isotopic values between methane and ethane is great,suggesting a biogenic oil-type gas produced by the mixed organic matter at peak generation.δ13C CO2 values of nonhydrocarbon gases are all heavier than-10‰,indicating a typical abiogenic gas.The simulation experiment on hydrocarbon generation of organic matter in a closed gold-tube system showed that the proportion of methane in natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit is obviously higher than that in natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit,consequently the proportion of heavier hydrocarbons of the former is remarkably lower than that of the latter.Moreover, δ13C 1 values of natural gases produced by terrigenous organic matter in the Lingfeng Formation marine deposit are about 5‰heavier than those of natural gases derived from the aquatic and terrigenous mixed organic matter in the Yueguifeng Formation lacustrine deposit whileδ13C 2 andδ13C 3 values of the former are over 9‰heavier than those of the latter.Currently the LS36-1 oil-gas pool is the only commercial oil-gas reservoir in Lishui Sag,where carbon isotopic compositions of various hydrocarbon components differ greatly from those of natural gases produced by the Lingfeng Formation organic matter but are very similar to those of natural gases derived from the Yueguifeng Formation organic matter

  15. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  16. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  17. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  18. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponged cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K. W.; Schreiber, G. A.

    1995-02-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg.

  19. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in baked sponge cake prepared with irradiated liquid egg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A. [Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    For identification of irradiated food, radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) are determined by gas chromatography in the non-polar fraction of fat. However, in complex food matrices the detection is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. On-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) is very efficient to remove such compounds from the HC fraction. The high sensitivity of this fast and efficient technique is demonstrated by the example of detection of radiation-induced HC in fat isolated from baked sponge cake which had been prepared with irradiated liquid egg. (Author).

  20. Evaluation of analytical methodology for hydrocarbons in high pressure air and nitrogen systems. [data aquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Information regarding the safety limits of hydrocarbons in liquid and gaseous oxygen, the steps taken for hydrocarbon removal from liquified gases, and the analysis of the contaminants was searched and the results are presented. The safety of hydrocarbons in gaseous systems was studied, and the latest hydrocarbon test equipment and methodology is reviewed. A detailed sampling and analysis plan is proposed to evaluate high pressure GN2 and LOX systems.

  1. Kinetic Modeling the Formation of Low-mature Gases and Analysis of the Possibility to Be Accumulated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Yanhua; WANG Hui; ZHANG Shuichang; SU Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    At present, shallow gases have received much attention due to low cost in exploration and production. Low-mature gases, as one significant origin to shallow gas, turns to be an important research topic. The present understanding of low-mature gases is confined within some geological cases, and few laboratory studies have been reported. Therefore, the potential and characters of lowmature gases are not clear up to now. Here, two premature samples (one coal and the other shale) were pyrolyzed in a gold confined system. The gaseous components including hydrocarbon gases and non-hydrocarbon gases were analyzed. Based on kinetic modeling, the formation of low-mature gases was modeled. The results showed that during low mature stage, about 178 mL/gTOC gas was generated from the shale and 100 mL/gTOC from the coal. Two third to three fourth of the generated gases are non-hydrocarbon gases such as H2S and CO2. The total yields of C:_s for the two samples are almost the same, 30--40 mL/gTOC, but individual gaseous hydrocarbon is different. The shale has much lower C1 but higher C2-5, whereas the coal has higher C1 but lower C2-5. Hydrocarbon gases formed during low-mature stage are very wet. The stable carbon isotope ratios of methane range from -40‰ to -50‰ (PDB), in good consistence with empiric criterion for low-mature gases summed up by the previous researchers. The generation characters suggest that the low-mature gases could be accumulated to form an economic gas reservoir, but most of them occur only as associated gases.

  2. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  3. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood Gases Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as: Arterial Blood Gases; ABGs Formal name: Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Related tests: Electrolytes , Bicarbonate , BUN , Creatinine , Emergency and ... lives higher than sea level. Results from an arterial blood gas analysis are not diagnostic; they should be used in ...

  5. Kinetic theory of gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Monograph and text supplement for first-year students of physical chemistry focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. 1966 edition.

  6. On Classical Ideal Gases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacques Arnaud; Laurent Chusseau; Fabrice Philippe

    2013-01-01

      We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent...

  7. Gases, liquids and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Tabor, David

    1969-01-01

    It has been tradional to treat gases, liquids and solids as if they were completely unrelated material. However, this book shows that many of their bulk properties can been explained in terms of intermolecular forces.

  8. HC-21C off-gas test procedure. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, L.T.

    1995-02-02

    Stabilization of plutonium bearing scrap material occurs in furnaces, FUR-21C-1 and FUR-21C-2, located in glovebox HC-21C. During previous testing and processing operations, water has been observed forming in the off-gas rotameters, FI-21C-1 and FI-21C-2. The off-gas is filtered through a 2 micron ceramic filter, F-21C-1 or F-21C-2, before discharge into the 26 inch vacuum system. The goal of this test plan is to determine the cause and location of water formation in the sludge stabilization off-gas system. The results should help determine what design improvements or processing steps will be implemented to prevent this phenomena from occurring in the future.

  9. Monetarism and fixed rules in H.C. Simons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TONVERONACHI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of H.C. Simons’ theories to those of Friedman and Keynes has resulted in confining the former to some of the issues debated in the recent controversies between the monetarist and the Keynesian schools. The present article demonstrates that a more balanced analysis of Simons’ theories can modify some of the outcomes obtained. In particular, the author gives less importance to differences in monetary theory while placing more weight on those of a pre-analytic and general theoretical nature. This distinction is of use when it comes to a question which drives a deep gulf between modern monetarists and Keynesians - that of the choice between fixed rules and discretionary policies.

  10. Characterization of on-road CO, HC and NO emissions for petrol vehicle fleet in China city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; ZHANG Qing-yu; SHI Yao; WANG Da-hui; DING Shu-ying; YAN Sha-sha

    2006-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of air pollution in urban areas. The impact on urban air quality could be reduced if the trends of vehicle emissions are well understood. In the present study, the real-world emissions of vehicles were measured using a remote sensing system at five sites in Hangzhou, China from February 2004 to August 2005. More than 48000 valid gasoline powered vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured. The results show that petrol vehicle fleet in Nangzhou has considerably high CO emissions, with the average emission concentration of 2.71%±0.02% , while HC and NO emissions are relatively lower, with the average emission concentration of (153.72± 1.16)× 10-6 and (233.53±1.80)× 10-6, respectively. Quintile analysis of both average emission concentration and total amount emissions by model year suggests that in-use emission differences between well maintained and badly maintained vehicles are larger than the age-dependent deterioration of emissions. In addition, relatively new high polluting vehicles are the greatest contributors to fleet emissions with, for example, 46.55% of carbon monoxide fleet emissions being produced by the top quintile high emitting vehicles from model years 2000~2004. Therefore, fleet emissions could be significantly reduced if new highly polluting vehicles were subject to effective emissions testing followed by appropriate remedial action.

  11. Genetic Classification of Natural Gases in the Oil—Gas Zone and Its Application in the Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄籍中

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of the carbon isotopic compositions of methane(CH4) and its homologues and the differences in isotopic values for CH4 and ethane (C2H6) and the correlation and compositional char-acteristics of hydrocarbon gases, the author has proposed a genetic classification of natural gases in the oil-gas zone.They are classified as biogenetic and abiogenetic gases in terms of the types of hydrocarbon-generating precursors (or parent materials) and their thermal evolution stages.Biogenetic gases can also be further divided into two series: biochemical and thermochemical gases,with the lat-ter formed at different evolution stages.Gases generated from type-I and -II1 organic matter are called oil-series gases, those from type-III, coal -series ,and those type -II2,mixture-type gases.Gases generated from two or more than two types of precursors are called mixture-source gases.According to those mentioned above, natural gases from the major oil-gas pools in the Sichuan Basin have been discriminantly analyzed,and the results are concordant with the distribution and de-velopment of hydrocarbon-source rocks as well as with their characteristics, indicating a prospective application.

  12. Identification of marine natural gases with different origin sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Kinetic experiments of gas generation for typical samples of marine gas precursors including low-maturity kerogen,residual kerogen and oil as well as dispersed liquid hydrocarbon(DLH)in source rocks were performed by closed system,and the evolution trends of molecular and isotopic compositions of natural gases from different precursors against the maturity(R0%)at laboratory conditions were analyzed.Several diagrams of gas origin were calibrated by using the experimental data.A diagram based on the ratio of normal and isomerous butane and pentane(i/nC4-i/nC5)was proposed and used to identify the origins of the typical marine natural gases in the Sichuan Basin and the Tarim Basin, China.And the maturities of natural gases were estimated by using the statistical relationships between the gaseous molecular carbon isotopic data and maturities(δ13C-R 0 %)with different origins.The results indicate that the molecular and isotopic compositions of simulated gases from different precursors are different from each other.For example,the dryness index of the oil-cracking gas is the lowest;the dryness indices of gases from DLH and kerogen in closed system are almost the same;and the dryness index of gases from residual kerogen is extremely high,indicating that the kerogen gases are very dry;the contents of non-hydrocarbon gases in kerogen-cracking gases are far higher than those in oil-cracking and DLH-cracking gases.The molecular carbon isotopes of oil-cracking gases are the lightest,those of kerogen in closed system and GLH-cracking gases are the second lightest,and those of cracking gases from residual kerogen are the heaviest.The calibration results indicate that the diagrams of ln(C1/C2)-ln(C2/C3)andδ13C2-δ13C3-ln(C2/C3)can discriminate primary and secondary cracking gases,but cannot be used to identify gas origin sources,while the diagram of i/nC4-i/nC5 can differentiate the gases from different precursors.The application results of these diagrams show that gas mixtures

  13. Varroa destructor changes its cuticular hydrocarbons to mimic new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Conte, Y; Huang, Z Y; Roux, M; Zeng, Z J; Christidès, J-P; Bagnères, A-G

    2015-06-01

    Varroa destructor (Vd) is a honeybee ectoparasite. Its original host is the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, but it has also become a severe, global threat to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Previous studies have shown that Varroa can mimic a host's cuticular hydrocarbons (HC), enabling the parasite to escape the hygienic behaviour of the host honeybees. By transferring mites between the two honeybee species, we further demonstrate that Vd is able to mimic the cuticular HC of a novel host species when artificially transferred to this new host. Mites originally from A. cerana are more efficient than mites from A. mellifera in mimicking HC of both A. cerana and A. mellifera. This remarkable adaptability may explain their relatively recent host-shift from A. cerana to A. mellifera.

  14. Emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, HC, PM, HFC-134a, N2O and CH4 from the global light duty vehicle fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Wallington

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, hydrocarbons (HC, particulate matter (PM, hydrofluorocarbon 134a (HFC-134a, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. An understanding of these emissions is needed in discussions of climate change and local air pollution issues. To facilitate such discussions an overview of past, present, and likely future emissions from light duty vehicles is presented. Emission control technologies have reduced the emissions of CO, VOCs, PM, HFC-134a, CH4, and N2O from modern vehicles to very low levels.

  15. Heuristic Scheme for Home Circuit Grouping andWavelength Assignment in LOBS-HC Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ximin; Yi, Bo; Tang, Wan; Li, Jingcong

    2014-09-01

    Grouping the Home Circuits (HCs) with the same source is a critical issue of Labeled Optical Burst Switching with Home Circuit (LOBS-HC). To maximize the wavelength utilization in LOBS-HC ring networks, an HC grouping and wavelength assignment scheme, called Longest Path Matching and Graph Coloring (LPMGC), is proposed. LPMGC consists of two phases: grouping and wavelength assignment. First, a heuristic algorithm, named Longest Path Matching (LPM), is proposed to group the HCs according to the longest common path matching between HCs and to make each group as large as possible. And then, Graph Coloring (GC) is introduced to assign wavelengths for HC groups. The numerical results show that the proposed scheme performances better than Complementary HC Assignment (CHA) and some other heuristics in both unidirectional and bidirectional LOBS-HC ring networks in terms of wavelength utilization.

  16. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of cold seeps in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Orange, D.L.; Martin, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Samples from four geographically and tectonically discrete cold seeps named Clam Flat, Clamfield, Horseshoe Scarp South, and Tubeworm City, within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary were analyzed for their hydrocarbon content. The sediment contains gaseous hydrocarbons and CO2, as well as high molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with various combinations of thermogenic and biogenic contributions from petroleum, marine, and terrigenous sources. Of particular interest is the cold seep site at Clamfield which is characterized by the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons including oil that can likely be correlated with oil-saturated strata at Majors Creek near Davenport, CA, USA. At Clam Flat, the evidence for thermogenic hydrocarbons is equivocal. At Horseshoe Scarp South and Tubeworm City, hydrocarbon gases, mainly methane, are likely microbial in origin. These varied sources of hydrocarbon gases highlight the diverse chemical systems that appear at cold seep communities. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oil cracking to gases: Kinetic modeling and geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hui; WANG Zhaoming; XIAO Zhongyao; LI Xianqing; XIAO Xianming

    2006-01-01

    ATriassic oil sample from LN14 of Tarim Basin was pyrolyzed using the sealed gold tubes at 200-620℃ under a constant pressure of 50 MPa.The gaseous and residual soluble hydrocarbons were analyzed. The results show that the cracking of oil to gas can be divided into two distinct stages: the primary generation of total C1-5 gases from liquid oil characterized by the dominance of C2-5 hydrocarbons and the secondary or further cracking of C2-5gases to methane and carbon-rich matters leading to the progressive dryness of gases. Based on the experimental data, the kinetic parameters were determined for the primary generation and secondary cracking of oil cracking gases and extrapolated to geological conditions to predict the thermal stability and cracking extent of crude oil. Finally, an evolution model for the thermal destruction of crude oil was proposed and its implications to the migration and accumulation of oil cracking gases were discussed.

  18. Bimolecular reactions of activated species: An analysis of problematic HC(O)C(O) chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robin J.; Robertson, Struan H.; Blitz, Mark A.; Seakins, Paul W.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated the importance of non-thermal bimolecular association chemistry. Recently a fully reversible method for incorporating any number of such non-thermal reactions into a single master equation has been developed (Green and Robertson, 2014) [10]. Using this methodology experimental results for the system: (1) (CHO)2 + OH → HC(O)C(O) + H2O, (2) HC(O)C(O) → HCO + CO, (3) HC(O)C(O) + O2 → OH + CO + CO2, are modeled, reproducing the temperature and pressure dependence of the OH yield. An issue remains as to how to model energy partition into HC(O)C(O).

  19. Strongly correlated Bose gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.

    2016-10-01

    The strongly interacting Bose gas is one of the most fundamental paradigms of quantum many-body physics and the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations. We review recent progress on strongly correlated Bose gases, starting with a description of beyond mean-field corrections. We show that the Efimov effect leads to non universal phenomena and to a metastability of the low temperature Bose gas through three-body recombination to deeply bound molecular states. We outline differences and similarities with ultracold Fermi gases, discuss recent experiments on the unitary Bose gas, and finally present a few perspectives for future research.

  20. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  1. Gaseous Hydrocarbon Separations Using Functionalized Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The functionalization of the side chains on the cation or the anion of an ionic liquid is a common approach to tailor its properties for different processes including the separation of gases. In this paper, we present the current state of the art concerning the usage of ionic liquids for hydrocarbon separations. We also show how the functionalization of ionic liquids or the appropriate anion/cation combinations can contribute to the increase of the performance of the ionic liquids for the sep...

  2. Loss/gain on ignition testing for HC-21C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-12-12

    The HC-21C thermal stabilization process stabilizes reactive plutonium bearing material for long term storage. A Loss On Ignition (LOI) analysis is performed on all materials that are stabilized in the muffle furnaces prior to being stored in the vaults to ensure suitability for vault storage. The material is required to have a LOI of less than 1% (OSD-184-00013 Limit). The LOI analysis is performed to assure that all volatiles that could potentially pressurize the sealed containers over long periods of time, like water, have been removed. It is possible, while performing LOI analysis to see a Gain On Ignition (GOI) due to additional oxidation of materials. In the current stabilization campaign, two items processed have had a positive LOI or GOI result. One concern with a GOI is that the weight gain may actually be masking a weight loss. (Reference 15530-94-WSL-156). Other concerns with a GOI result are that the removal of the oxygen could create a vacuum in the product can causing it to collapse during long term storage or the oxidation of material would increase the volume of the solids potentially bulging or rupturing the product container. In the past, GOIs have been seen on items that were processed through Hoskin`s pot furnaces located in glovebox HA-21I. This test plan provides instruction to test causes of a GOI and to ensure the processed material with a GOI result will not cause a problem during long term storage. Product cans that are sampled for LOI and have results showing a gain of weight will be the test items.

  3. Systems and methods to mitigate NO.sub.x and HC emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.; Ruth, Michael J.; Chilumukuru, Krishna P.

    2017-06-14

    Systems and methods are provided for managing low temperature NO.sub.x and HC emissions, such as during a cold start of an internal combustion engine. The systems and methods include storing NO.sub.x and HC emissions at low temperatures and passively releasing and treating these emissions as the temperature of the exhaust system increases.

  4. Differentiation of migrainous positional vertigo (MPV) from horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard A; Gans, Richard E; Kastner, Allison H

    2006-04-01

    This article presents an approach to differentiation of migrainous positional vertigo (MPV) from horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV). Such an approach is essential because of the difference in intervention between the two disorders in question. Results from evaluation of the case study presented here revealed a persistent ageotropic positional nystagmus consistent with MPV or a cupulolithiasis variant of HC-BPPV. The patient was treated with liberatory maneuvers to remove possible otoconial debris from the horizontal canal in an attempt, in turn, to provide further diagnostic information. There was no change in symptoms following treatment for HC-BPPV. This case was diagnosed subsequently as MPV, and the patient was referred for medical intervention. Treatment has been successful for 22 months. Incorporation of HC-BPPV treatment, therefore, may provide useful information in the differential diagnosis of MPV and the cupulolithiasis variant of HC-BPPV.

  5. Analysis of radicals production in plasma reactors for purification of real exhaust gases; Analyse der Radikalenerzeugung in Plasmareaktoren zur Reinigung realer Abgase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiger, M.; Wegst, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Removing toxic impurities from gaseous exhaust by electric gas discharges has been investigated for almost a decade. Cold discharges, i.e. plasmas in which the electrons are not in thermal equilibrium with ions and molecules, are a potential method for the conversion of nitric oxides (NO{sub x}=NO, NO{sub 2}) and hydrocarbons (HC) in exhaust gases of cars and trucks. In this work we present modelling results for barrier discharges using both a spatially homogeneous, time-dependent model, and a two-dimensional, time-dependent model. We compare our simulation results obtained by simulation with our experimental data and with measurements from LIF-experiments performed by cooperation partners, to get a better understanding of the discharge. Another aim is to improve the efficiency of removing NO{sub x} using different kinds of barrier reactors with structured electrodes. Our simulations and simulations in cooperation with IWR University of Heidelberg show that the main pathway of NO-removal at atmospheric pressure at practical gap spaces and in the absence of catalytic material, e.g. NH{sub 3}, is oxidation to NO{sub 2}. The latter can be converted to N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using established catalytic methods. (orig.)

  6. Organic geochemistry of the Vindhyan sediments: Implications for hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, A. M.; Mani, Devleena; Madhavi, T.; Kavitha, S.; Kalpana, M. S.; Patil, D. J.; Sharma, Mukund

    2014-09-01

    The organic geochemical methods of hydrocarbon prospecting involve the characterization of sedimentary organic matter in terms of its abundance, source and thermal maturity, which are essential prerequisites for a hydrocarbon source rock. In the present study, evaluation of organic matter in the outcrop shale samples from the Semri and Kaimur Groups of Vindhyan basin was carried out using Rock Eval pyrolysis. Also, the adsorbed low molecular weight hydrocarbons, methane, ethane, propane and butane, were investigated in the near surface soils to infer the generation of hydrocarbons in the Vindhyan basin. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in shales ranges between 0.04% and 1.43%. The S1 (thermally liberated free hydrocarbons) values range between 0.01-0.09 mgHC/gRock (milligram hydrocarbon per gram of rock sample), whereas the S2 (hydrocarbons from cracking of kerogen) show the values between 0.01 and 0.14 mgHC/gRock. Based on the Tmax (temperature at highest yield of S2) and the hydrogen index (HI) correlations, the organic matter is characterized by Type III kerogen. The adsorbed soil gas, CH4 (C1), C2H6 (C2), C3H8 (C3) and nC4H10, (nC4), concentrations measured in the soil samples from the eastern part of Vindhyan basin (Son Valley) vary from 0 to 186 ppb, 0 to 4 ppb, 0 to 5 ppb, and 0 to 1 ppb, respectively. The stable carbon isotope values for the desorbed methane (δ13C1) and ethane (δ13C2) range between -45.7‰ to -25.2‰ and -35.3‰ to -20.19‰ (VPDB), respectively suggesting a thermogenic source for these hydrocarbons. High concentrations of thermogenic hydrocarbons are characteristic of areas around Sagar, Narsinghpur, Katni and Satna in the Son Valley. The light hydrocarbon concentrations (C1-C4) in near surface soils of the western Vindhyan basin around Chambal Valley have been reported to vary between 1-2547 ppb, 1-558 ppb, 1-181 ppb, 1-37 ppb and 1-32 ppb, respectively with high concentrations around Baran-Jhalawar-Bhanpur-Garot regions (Kumar

  7. Physics of ionized gases

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive textbook and reference for the study of the physics of ionized gasesThe intent of this book is to provide deep physical insight into the behavior of gases containing atoms and molecules from which one or more electrons have been ionized. The study of these so-called plasmas begins with an overview of plasmas as they are found in nature and created in the laboratory. This serves as a prelude to a comprehensive study of plasmas, beginning with low temperature and "ideal" plasmas and extending to radiation and particle transport phenomena, the response of plasmas to external fields, and an insightful treatment of plasma waves, plasma instabilities, nonlinear phenomena in plasmas, and the study of plasma interactions with surfaces

  8. The greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.

    1987-01-01

    The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs and ozone. They are greenhouse gases as they absorb radiation from the Earth and thus impede its emission back to space. CO{sub 2} is responsible for about half the enhanced greenhouse effect. A global warming of only a few degrees would have a profound effect on climate. Increased levels of CO{sub 2} promote plant growth, but may not benefit agriculture overall. Sea levels may rise. It is difficult to predict the effects of global warming in society. It would be possible to reduce the scale of the greenhouse effect by energy conservation, using alternative energy sources, and possibly by capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power stations and disposing of it on the ocean floor. 13 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 针对访问驱动cache攻击HC-256算法的改进%Improved algorithm for HC-256 to access-driven cache attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑继森; 谭晓青; 莫庆平; 贺婵

    2011-01-01

    In order to defense against the access-driven cache attack, this paper improved the stream cipher HC-256.Added full random sort algorithm to the HC-256, which disrupted the order of the tables P and Q.This paper used variable tables instead of ( fixed content) S-boxes, and it gave the adversary insecurity both about the input and the output of the tables.It defenses against the access-driven cache attack effectively.%为了使HC-256可以防御访问驱动cache攻击,对HC-256算法进行了改进.在HC-256中加入完全随机排序算法,对表P和表Q进行扰乱,这样使用变化的表代替固定的S盒,使得攻击者获得的输入和输出都是不安全的,有效地防御了此访问驱动cache攻击.

  10. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  11. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  12. High-temperature CO / HC gas sensors to optimize firewood combustion in low-power fireplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ojha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize firewood combustion in low-power firewood-fuelled fireplaces, a novel combustion airstream control concept based on the signals of in situ sensors for combustion temperature, residual oxygen concentration and residual un-combusted or partly combusted pyrolysis gas components (CO and HC has been introduced. A comparison of firing experiments with hand-driven and automated airstream-controlled furnaces of the same type showed that the average CO emissions in the high-temperature phase of the batch combustion can be reduced by about 80 % with the new control concept. Further, the performance of different types of high-temperature CO / HC sensors (mixed-potential and metal oxide types, with reference to simultaneous exhaust gas analysis by a high-temperature FTIR analysis system, was investigated over 20 batch firing experiments (∼ 80 h. The distinctive sensing behaviour with respect to the characteristically varying flue gas composition over a batch firing process is discussed. The calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficients reveals that mixed-potential sensor signals correlate more with CO and CH4; however, different metal oxide sensitive layers correlate with different gas species: 1 % Pt / SnO2 designates the presence of CO and 2 % ZnO / SnO2 designates the presence of hydrocarbons. In the case of a TGS823 sensor element, there was no specific correlation with one of the flue gas components observed. The stability of the sensor signals was evaluated through repeated exposure to mixtures of CO, N2 and synthetic air after certain numbers of firing experiments and exhibited diverse long-term signal instabilities.

  13. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  14. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  15. Sequence stratigraphic control on prolific HC reservoir development, Southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Kondroud, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    An important carbonate formation in the Persian Gulf and the onshore oil fields of Southwest Iran is the Lowermost Cretaceous Fahliyan formation. The formation in Darkhowain field consists of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences containing prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs of contrasting origin. Located in the high stand systems tract (HST) of the lower sequence encompassing over 200m of oil column are the most prolific reservoir. Another reservoir is over 80m thick consisting of shallowing-upward cycles that are best developed within the transgressive systems tract of the upper sequence. Vertical facies distribution and their paleobathymetry and geophysical log signatures of the Fahliyan formation in the Darkhowain platform reveal the presence of two unconformity-bounded depositional sequences in Vail et al., Van Wagoner et al., and Sarg. The Fahliyan formation mainly consists of platform carbonates composed of restricted bioclastic lime mudstone to packstone of the platform interior, Lithocodium boundstone or ooid-intraclast-bioclast grainstone of the high energy platform margin and the bioclast packstone to lime mudstone related to the off-platform setting.

  16. Strongly interacting ultracold quantum gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui ZHAI

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews recent progresses in ul- tracold quantum gases, and it includes three subjects which are the Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance, quantum gases in the optical lattices and the fast ro- tating quantum gases. In this article, we discuss many basic physics pictures and concepts in quantum gases, for examples, the resonant interaction, universality and condensation in the lowest Landau level; we introduce fundamental theoretical tools for studying these systems, such as mean-field theory for BEC-BCS crossover and for the boson Hubbard model; also, we emphasize the im- portant unsolved problems in the forefront of this field, for instance, the temperature effect in optical lattices.

  17. Continuous method to remove acid gases from a gas mixture supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butwell, K.F.; Kubek, D.J.

    1979-07-05

    It is proposed to remove acid gases - particularly CO/sub 2/ - from process gases (e.g. hydrocarbon mixtures, synthesis gas) by counter-current absorption with alcohol amines, to use monoethanol amine to which antimony and vanadium compounds are added as corrosion inhibitors. The patent claim includes a combination of 11 process steps, whose aim is to reduce the necessity of heating and cooling by external sources to a minimum. The method is described in detail.

  18. Detection of HC/sup 17/O/sup +/ in Sagittarius B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelin, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Linke, R.A.

    1982-12-15

    Line emission at 87.057 GHz attributed to the J = 1..-->..0 rotational transition of the formyl ion HC/sup 17/O/sup +/ has been detected in Sgr B2 (OH). The HC/sup 18/O/sup +//HC/sup 17/O/sup +/ abundance ratio found (3.1 +- 0.6) is lower than the terrestrial /sup 18/O//sup 17/O elemental abundance ratio (5.5) and agrees, within the errors, with the C/sup 18/O/C/sup 17/O and /sup 18/OH//sup 17/OH abundance ratios observed in that source.

  19. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  20. Observation of the h_c(1P) using e^+e^- collisions above DDbar threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlar, T K; Hietala, J; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Tarbert, C M; Besson, D

    2011-01-01

    Using 586pb^-1 of e^+e^- collision data at Ecm = 4170MeV, produced at the CESR collider and collected with the CLEO-c detector, we observe the process e^+e^- --> pi^+ pi^- h_c(1P) with a significance of greater than 10 sigma. We measure its cross section to be 15.6+-2.3+-1.9+-3.0pb, where the third error is due to the external uncertainty on the branching fraction of psi(2S) --> pi^0 h_c(1P), which we use for normalization. We also find evidence for e^+e^- --> eta h_c(1P) at 4170MeV at the 3 sigma level, and see hints of a rise in the e^+e^- --> pi^+ pi^- h_c(1P) cross section at 4260MeV.

  1. Caracterizacion del desarrollo y absorcion de nutrimentos del hibrido de maiz HC-57

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallas, Roger; Bertsch, Floria; Echandi, Carlos; Henriquez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    En la Estacion Experimental Agricola Fabio Baudrit Moreno, Alajuela, Costa Rica se realizo un ensayo con el objetivo de determinar la absorcion de nutrimentos por parte del hibrido comercial de maiz HC-57...

  2. Physics of Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Howard R.; Smirnov, Boris M.

    2001-03-01

    A comprehensive textbook and reference for the study of the physics of ionized gases The intent of this book is to provide deep physical insight into the behavior of gases containing atoms and molecules from which one or more electrons have been ionized. The study of these so-called plasmas begins with an overview of plasmas as they are found in nature and created in the laboratory. This serves as a prelude to a comprehensive study of plasmas, beginning with low temperature and "ideal" plasmas and extending to radiation and particle transport phenomena, the response of plasmas to external fields, and an insightful treatment of plasma waves, plasma instabilities, nonlinear phenomena in plasmas, and the study of plasma interactions with surfaces. In all cases, the emphasis is on a clear and unified understanding of the basic physics that underlies all plasma phenomena. Thus, there are chapters on plasma behavior from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular physics, as well as on the macroscopic phenomena involved in physical kinetics of plasmas and the transport of radiation and of charged particles within plasmas. With this grounding in the fundamental physics of plasmas, the notoriously difficult subjects of nonlinear phenomena and of instabilities in plasmas are then treated with comprehensive clarity.

  3. Wetting and superhydrophobic properties of PECVD grown hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca [Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) and Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi UQAC, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Farzaneh, M. [Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) and Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi UQAC, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Paynter, R.W. [INRS-EMT, 1650 boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Wetting characteristics of micro-nanorough substrates of aluminum and smooth silicon substrates have been studied and compared by depositing hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique using a mixture of Ar, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6} gases. The water contact angles on the hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings deposited on silicon substrates were found to be 72 deg. and 105 deg., respectively. However, the micro-nanorough aluminum substrates demonstrated superhydrophobic properties upon coatings with fluorinated-hydrocarbon providing a water contact angle of {approx}165 deg. and contact angle hysteresis below 2 deg. with water drops rolling off from those surfaces while the same substrates showed contact angle of 135 deg. with water drops sticking on those surfaces. The superhydrophobic properties is due to the high fluorine content in the fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings of {approx}36 at.%, as investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), by lowering the surface energy of the micro-nanorough aluminum substrates.

  4. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  5. In vitro production and antifungal activity of peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Mengyang; Wu, Xiaolong; Xu, Chen; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-04-10

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, testing of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve expression of this peptide in E. coli, ABP-dHC-cecropin A was cloned into a pSUMO vector and transformed into E. coli, resulting in the production of a pSUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein. The soluble form of this protein was then purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 496-mg protein per liter of fermentation culture. The SUMO-ABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion protein was then cleaved using a SUMO protease and re-purified by Ni-IDA chromatography, yielding a total of 158-mg recombinant ABP-dHC-cecropin A per liter of fermentation culture at a purity of ≥94%, the highest yield reported to date. Antifungal activity assays performed using this purified recombinant peptide revealed strong antifungal activity against both Candida albicans and Neurospora crassa, as well as Rhizopus, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Mucor species. Combined with previous analyses demonstrating strong antibacterial activity against a number of important bacterial pathogens, these results confirm the use of ABP-dHC-cecropin A as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide, with significant therapeutic potential.

  6. ALMA measurements of the HNC and HC$_3$N distributions in Titan's atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Cordiner, M A; Teanby, N A; Serigano, J; Charnley, S B; Milam, S N; Mumma, M J; Irwin, P G J; Lis, D C; Villanueva, G; Paganini, L; Kuan, Y -J; Remijan, A J

    2014-01-01

    We present spectrally and spatially-resolved maps of HNC and HC$_3$N emission from Titan's atmosphere, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) on 2013 November 17. These maps show anisotropic spatial distributions for both molecules, with resolved emission peaks in Titan's northern and southern hemispheres. The HC$_3$N maps indicate enhanced concentrations of this molecule over the poles, consistent with previous studies of Titan's photochemistry and atmospheric circulation. Differences between the integrated flux distributions of HNC and HC$_3$N show that these species are not co-spatial. The observed spectral line shapes are consistent with HNC residing predominantly in the mesosphere and above (at altitudes $z$ greater than about 400 km), whereas HC$_3$N is abundant at a broader range of altitudes ($z\\approx70-500$ km). From spatial variations in the HC$_3$N line profile, the locations of the HC$_3$N emission peaks are shown to be variable as a function of altitude. The integrated emission ...

  7. Low-mature gases and their resource potentiality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yongchang; WANG Xiaofeng; SHI Baoguang

    2009-01-01

    In the 80's of last century, based on the advances in natural gas exploration practice, the concepts of bio-thermocatalytic transitional-zone gas and early thermogenetic gas were proposed, and the lower limit Ro values for the formation and accumulation of thermogenetic natural gases of industrial importance have been extended to 0.3%-0.4%. In accordance with the two-stage model established on the basis of carbon isotope fractionation involved in the formation of coal-type natural gases, the upper limit Ro values of lowly evolved natural gases should be set at 0.8%-1.0%. This is the concept of low-mature gas which is commonly accepted at the present time. The Urengoy super-large gas field in western Siberian Basin is a typical example of low-mature gas field, where low-mature gas reserves account for 20% of the globally proven natural gas reserves, and this fully indicates the importance of this kind of resources. The proven reserves of natural gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin of China are approximate to 1000×108 m3, and the thermal evolution indices of source rocks are Ro=0.4%-0.8%. The δ13C1 values of methane are mainly within the range of -44‰- -39‰ (corresponding to Ro=0.6%-0.8%), and those of ethane are mainly within the range of -29‰- -26‰, indicating that these natural gases should be designated to the coal-type low-mature gases. The light hydrocarbon evolution indices of natural gases also provide strong evidence suggesting that they are the coal-type low-mature gases. If so, low-mature gas in the Turpan-Hami Basin has been accumulated to such an extent as to be equivalent to the total reserves of three large-sized gas fields, and their existence is of great significance in the study and exploration of China's low-mature gases. If it is evidenced that the source rocks of low-mature gases are related mainly to coal measures, China's abundant lowly evolved coal series resources will provide a huge resource potentiality for the generation of low

  8. An apparatus for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-03-23

    The installation for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv) with the formation of a mixture of H2 and C02 is a catalyst chamber (KK) filled with longitudinally disposed thin pipes (with thin walls) or with pipe units made of dolomite, MgO or potassium aluminate. These pipes have a multilayered coating (Pk) on their internal and external surfaces (Pv), which contain catalytically active components. Such pipes or pipe units form a honeycombed structure with through longitudinal channels. The catalyst chamber itself is made of a ceramic material and has a heating winding outside for heating the catalyst. To save fuel and to increase the efficiency (KPD) of the heating device, the catalyst chamber is in turn enclosed by two additional shells filled with heat conducting packings which are easily penetrated by the gases being processed. The hydrocarbon vapors or gaseous fuel from the natural gas or methane and the steam are fed through the above cited heat exchange layers with packings into the facial part of the catalytic chamber, in which the conversion of the hydrocarbons occurs with the production of H2 and C02. From the catalyzer layer the mixture of gases and steam goes through a refrigerator into a trap for the steam excess and when it is necessary, into a C02 absorber and then, pure H2 is discharged from the latter. Such a catalytic installation is convenient to use for producing pure H2 from natural gas, methane, propane or kerosene.

  9. Genetic types of natural gases and their maturity discrimination in the east of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄第藩; 刘宝泉; 王庭栋; 徐永昌; 陈世佳; 赵孟军

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive study of maturity discrimination, genetic types and gas sources on lower Paleozoic marine hydrocarbon gases is carried out. All the lower Paleozoic strata-sourced gases are mainly composed of dry gas (dry coefficient>0.9), belonging to marine sapropelic type of cracking gases, which are characterized by low δ13C1 and △(δ13C2-δ13C1) values due to deficiency of terrestrial source input. According to the thermal simulation data of source rocks from upper Proterozoic to lower Paleozoic, a δ13C1-R0 regression equation is established, so the problem of how to distinguish maturities and sources of natural gases is resolved. These natural gases are divided into four genetic types In addition, the aspect of multi-sources and multi-stages of natural gas generation has also been discussed.

  10. New detections of HC$_{5}$N toward hot cores associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Claire-Elise; Burton, Michael G; Horiuchi, Shinji; Tothill, Nicholas F H; Walsh, Andrew J; Purcell, Cormac R; Lovell, James E J; Millar, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    We present new detections of cyanodiacetylene (HC$_{5}$N) toward hot molecular cores, observed with the Tidbinbilla 34 m radio telescope (DSS-34). In a sample of 79 hot molecular cores, HC$_{5}$N was detected towards 35. These results are counter to the expectation that long chain cyanopolyynes, such as HC$_{5}$N, are not typically found in hot molecular cores, unlike their shorter chain counterpart HC$_{3}$N. However it is consistent with recent models which suggest HC$_{5}$N may exist for a limited period during the evolution of hot molecular cores.

  11. Hc-fau, a novel gene regulating diapause in the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baolong; Guo, Xiaolu; Zhou, Qianjin; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xueqiu; Sun, Weiwei; Du, Aifang

    2014-10-01

    Diapause induced in the early fourth stage of Haemonchus contortus is a strategy to adapt this nematode to hostile environmental conditions. In this study, we identified a new gene, Hc-fau, a homologue of human fau and Caenorhabditis elegans Ce-rps30. Hc-fau encodes two proteins through alternative RNA splicing, Hc-FAUA and Hc-FAUB, consisting of 130 and 107 amino acids, respectively. Hc-FAU possesses a diverged ubiquitin-like (UBiL) protein domain and a conserved ribosome protein S30 domain. The protein is ubiquitously expressed, except in the gonad. However Hc-fau transcripts decrease significantly in diapausing L4s of H. contortus. In C. elegans, knockdown of Ce-rps30 confers an extended lifespan, increased lipid storage in the intestine and shortened body length. These morphological characteristics are comparable with dauer larvae of C. elegans, in which the gonad is condensed considerably. In contrast, a shortened lifespan is observed in C. elegans over-expressing Hc-faua, and especially Hc-faub, with hatching failure detected. The genes of insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS), TGF-β, cGMP, dafachronic acid (DA), apoptosis (AP) and fatty acids (FA) metabolism are all down-regulated in Ce-rps30RNAi (RNA interference) worms, except for akt-1 and daf-16. However, daf-16 up-regulation is inconsistent with its target gene down-regulation and the result from a heat stress assay in these worms. Daf-16 RNAi conducted in Ce-rps30 (tm6034/nt1) mutants failed to rescue the worms. The S30 domain stays in the nucleus, while UBiL accumulates in the cytoplasm. Compared with Hc-FAUA, results of UBiL domain and S30 domain over-expression indicate synergism between UBiL and S30 in regulating lifespan and reproduction. These results suggest the potential functions of Hc-fau in regulating larval diapause in H.contortus.

  12. Survey of cotton (Gossypium sp.) for non-polar, extractable hydrocarbons for use as petrochemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ontogenetic study of a commercial cotton cultivar (FiberMax 1320), grown dryland, revealed that the dry weight (DW) of leaves reached a maximum at the 1st flower stage, and then declined as bolls opened. However, % pentane soluble hydrocarbon (HC) yield continued to increase throughout the growi...

  13. Elimination of alkanes from off-gases using biotrickling filters containing two liquid phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Lake, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Biological techniques are highly cost-effective for the treatment of off-gases containing low concentrations of pollutants (<5 g/m3). They may also be attractive for the elimination of higher concentrations of explosive hydrocarbons (when compared to incineration). Conventional techniques such as bi

  14. Migration, filling history and geochemical characteristics of Ordovician natural gases in the Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; LIU Wenhui; QIN Jianzhong; LIU Keyu; GU Yi

    2009-01-01

    Ordovician natural gases in the Tahe Oilfield are composed predominantly of hydrocarbon gases dominated by methane with a significant amount of heavy hydrocarbon gas component. The non-hydrocarbon gases include N2, CO2 and minor H2S. The Ordovician natural gases are believed to have originated from the same source rocks, and are composite of gases differing in thermal maturity. Carbon dioxide was derived from thermal metamorphism of Ordovician carbonate rocks. The generation of natural gases involves multiple stages from mature normal oil and condensate-associated gas to thermally cracked gas at the maturity to over-maturity stages. In the main part of the Tahe Oilfield, the Ordovician natural gases appear to be filled in two major phases with a typical petroleum-associated gas from southeast to northwest and from east to west in the early stage; and a thermally cracked gas from east to west in the late stage. At the same time, the oil/gas filling boundary has been primarily established between the two stages.

  15. Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficients of pure HFC134a, H&c, HC600a and their binary and ternary mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhaohu; Gong, Maoqiong; Li, Zhijian; Wu, Jianfeng [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-01-15

    An experimental test rig for study on the pooling-boiling heat transfer performance of pure and mixed refrigerants were designed and established. With this test system, the heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) of the nucleate boiling on a smooth flat surface were measured for pure fluids of HFC134a, HC290, HC600a and their binary and ternary mixtures. Extensive experimental measures were made for those pure and mixed refrigerants at different heat fluxes from 10kWm{sup -2} to 300kWm{sup -2} and different pressures from 0.2 to 0.6MPa. Comprehensive measured data are presented in this paper. From experimental results, these binary mixtures and ternary mixtures show different heat transfer features according to their vapor-liquid phase equilibria behaviors. New heat transfer correlations were regressed from the measured data with average deviations within +/-15% for pure refrigerants and within +/-20% for mixtures. (author)

  16. Distribution of CCS and HC3N in L1147, an Early Phase Dark Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Taiki; Hirota, Tomoya

    2014-01-01

    We used the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope to reveal spatial distributions of CCS and HC$_3$N in L1147, one of carbon-chain producing regions (CCPRs) candidates, where carbon-chain molecules are dominant rather than NH$_3$. We found that three cores (two CCS cores and one HC$_3$N core) exist along the NE-SW filament traced by the 850 micron dust continuum, which are away from a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO - a source that may turn into sub-stellar mass brown dwarf). The column densities of CCS are 3-7x10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$ and those of HC$_3$N are 2-6x10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$, respectively, much lower than those previously reported towards other CCPRs. We also found that two CCS peaks are displaced from that of HC$_3$N. In order to interpret such interleaved distributions, we conducted chemical reaction network simulations, and found that slightly different gas densities could lead to large variation of CCS-to-HC$_3$N ratio in the early phase of dark cloud evolution. Such a chemical "variation" may be seen in ot...

  17. Initial analysis of the hemocyanin subunit type 1 (Hc1 gene) from Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Guan, Ni; Dong, Lijun; Yue, Qiaoyun; Yin, Xiangchu; Zhang, Daochuan

    2012-03-01

    Hemocyanins are copper-containing (Cu(+)) proteins that transport oxygen in many arthropods hemolymph. We characterized Hc1 gene from the grasshopper species Locusta migratoria manilensis. In particular, we cloned and sequenced the corresponding cDNAs and studied their expression at different developmental stages. The cDNA of Hc1 gene (GenBank accession no.:HQ213937) is 2271 bp in length and the open reading frame is 2016 bp, which encodes a 672 amino acids protein with a calculated molecular mass of 77.9 kD and the isoelectric point of 6.06. Sequence alignment analysis result showed that this gene shares 94.7% identity with Schistocerca americana EHP. In addition, analysis of quantitative RT-PCR indicated that, LmiHc1 was expressed in the embyro (24, 39, 62, 86, 144, and 193 h after hatch), nymphs (1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, 4th instar and 5th instar) and in adult. These results showed that Hc1 plays an important role in grasshopper, which may be related to an enhanced oxygen supply. Phylogenetic analysis of insecta based on Hc1 are basically consistent with the morphology.

  18. Structural basis of TRPA1 inhibition by HC-030031 utilizing species-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Saito, Shigeru; Mori, Yoshiharu; Itoh, Satoru G; Okumura, Hisashi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-11-22

    Pain is a harmful sensation that arises from noxious stimuli. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is one target for studying pain mechanisms. TRPA1 is activated by various stimuli such as noxious cold, pungent natural products and environmental irritants. Since TRPA1 is an attractive target for pain therapy, a few TRPA1 antagonists have been developed and some function as analgesic agents. The responses of TRPA1 to agonists and antagonists vary among species and these species differences have been utilized to identify the structural basis of activation and inhibition mechanisms. The TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (HC) failed to inhibit frog TRPA1 (fTRPA1) and zebrafish TRPA1 activity induced by cinnamaldehyde (CA), but did inhibit human TRPA1 (hTRPA1) in a heterologous expression system. Chimeric studies between fTRPA1 and hTRPA1, as well as analyses using point mutants, revealed that a single amino acid residue (N855 in hTRPA1) significantly contributes to the inhibitory action of HC. Moreover, the N855 residue and the C-terminus region exhibited synergistic effects on the inhibition by HC. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that HC stably binds to hTRPA1-N855. These findings provide novel insights into the structure-function relationship of TRPA1 and could lead to the development of more effective analgesics targeted to TRPA1.

  19. Stable isotope signatures of gases liberated from fluid inclusions in bedrock at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, F. (Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (DE)); Meier, D.; Haemmerli, J.; Diamond, L. (Bern Univ. (CH), RWI, Institute of Geological Sciences)

    2010-12-15

    Fluid inclusions in quartzes of the Olkiluoto bedrock contain gaseous N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and higher hydrocarbons in varying proportions. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of the gas phases give valuable information on their origin and the formation conditions. In previous studies, a method to liberate and quantify the gases trapped in fluid inclusions was developed. It allowed determining the carbon isotope signatures of liberated CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and higher hydrocarbons (HHC), but no hydrogen isotope data were acquired. The method was advanced and, in this study, also stable hydrogen isotopes of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} liberated from fluid inclusions could be analysed. The stable carbon signatures of methane and higher hydrocarbons, as well as the hydrogen isotope signatures of methane indicate a predominant thermogenic provenance for those gases. (orig.)

  20. A device for reforming a hydrocarbon fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendzi, T.; Ikuo, M.

    1984-03-15

    In order to utilize the heat from the reaction of reforming of a hydrocarbon fuel and the heat scattered from a heater, a design is proposed for a fuel reforming reactor in which the gases entering the reactor first pass inside the reactor along the external wall and are heated by the heat dispersed inside the reactor. Then they go in the opposite direction along a clearance between the interior shell of the reactor and the internal body of the reactor itself with a catalyst (Kt) and a heated electrical cylindrical heater. Then the gases, already heated, go directly into the cavity of the reactor filled with the catalyst where the reforming reaction occurs and then the gases and the vapors of the reformed fuel are discharged, passing through a system of heat exchangers. The layout of such a reactor, which contains a cylindrical shell inside, a cylindrical sleeve coaxial with it and the body of the reactor itself with the heater, is given. A system for attaching the internal sleeve and the body of the reactor to the catalyst is cited. The course of the gases inside the reactor is also given.

  1. Determining Heats of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Puster, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Enrichment-oxygen flow rate-ratio related to heat of combustion. Technique developed for determining heats of combustion of natural-gas samples. Based on measuring ratio m/n, where m is (volmetric) flow rate of oxygen required to enrich carrier air in which test gas flowing at rate n is burned, such that mole fraction of oxygen in combustion-product gases equals that in carrier air. The m/n ratio directly related to heats of combustion of saturated hydrocarbons present in natural gas.

  2. Origins of natural gases from marine strata in Northeastern Sichuan Basin (China) from carbon molecular moieties and isotopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Changyi; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhaoyun; Wang, Zecheng

    2013-03-01

    To determine the origin, maturity, formation mechanism and secondary process of marine natural gases in Northeastern Sichuan area, molecular moieties and carbon isotopic data of the Carboniferous and Triassic gases have been analyzed. Typical samples of marine gas precursors including low-maturity kerogen, dispersed liquid hydrocarbons (DLHs) in source rocks, residual kerogen and oil have been examined in a closed system, and several published geochemical diagrams of gas origins have been calibrated by using laboratory data. Results show that both Carboniferous and Triassic gases in the study area have a thermogenic origin. Migration leads to stronger compositional and weak isotopic fractionation, and is path dependent. Carboniferous gases and low-H2S gases are mainly formed by secondary cracking of oil, whereas high-H2S gases are clearly related to the TSR (Thermal Sulfate Reduction) process. Gases in NE Sichuan show a mixture of heavy (13C-enriched) methane in comparison to the lower maturated ethane of Triassic gas samples, suggesting a similar source and maturity for ethane and propane of Carboniferous gases, and a mixture of heavy ethane to the propane for Triassic gases. Based on the data plotted in the diagram of Chung et al. (1988), the residual kerogen from Silurian marine shale and palaeo oil reservoirs are the main source for Carboniferous gases, and that the residual kerogen from Silurian and Permian marine rocks and Permian paleao oil reservoirs constitute the principal source of Triassic gases.

  3. Collisional excitation of HC3N by para- and ortho-H2

    CERN Document Server

    Faure, A; Wiesenfeld, L

    2016-01-01

    New calculations for rotational excitation of cyanoacetylene by collisions with hydrogen molecules are performed to include the lowest 38 rotational levels of HC3N and kinetic temperatures to 300 K. Calculations are based on the interaction potential of Wernli et al. A&A, 464, 1147 (2007) whose accuracy is checked against spectroscopic measurements of the HC3N-H2 complex. The quantum coupled-channel approach is employed and complemented by quasi-classical trajectory calculations. Rate coefficients for ortho-H2 are provided for the first time. Hyperfine resolved rate coefficients are also deduced. Collisional propensity rules are discussed and comparisons between quantum and classical rate coefficients are presented. This collisional data should prove useful in interpreting HC3N observations in the cold and warm ISM, as well as in protoplanetary disks.

  4. Finite element analysis of hypervelocity impact behaviour of CFRP-Al/HC sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical response of CFRP-Al/HC (carbon fibre-reinforced/epoxy composite face sheets with Al honeycomb core) sandwich panels to hyper-velocity impact (up to 1 km/s) is studied using a finite-element model developed in ABAQUS/Explicit. The intraply damage of CFRP face sheets is analysed by mean of a user-defined material model (VUMAT) employing a combination of Hashin and Puck criteria, delamination modelled using cohesive-zone elements. The damaged Al/HC core is assessed on the basis of a Johnson Cook dynamic failure model while its hydrodynamic response is captured using the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The results obtained with the developed finite-element model showed a reasonable correlation to experimental damage patterns. The surface peeling of both face sheets was evident, with a significant delamination around the impact location accompanied by crushing HC core.

  5. Hypervelocity Impact Behaviour of CFRP-A1/HC Sandwich Panel: Finite-Element Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2014-06-01

    The mechanical response of CFRP-Al/HC (carbon fibre- reinforced/epoxy composite face sheets with Al honeycomb core) sandwich panels to hyper-velocity impact ( 1 km/s) is studied using a finite-element model developed in ABAQUS/Explicit. The intraply damage of CFRP face sheets is analysed by the means of a user-defined material model (VUMAT) employing a combination of Hashin and Puck criteria and delamination is modelled using cohesive-zone elements. The damage of Al/HC core is assessed on the basis of a Johnson-Cook dynamic failure model while its hydrodynamic response is captured using the Mie- Gruneisen equation of state. The results obtained with the developed finite-element model showed a reasonable correlation to experimental damage patterns. The surface peeling of both face sheets was evident, with a significant delamination around the impact location accompanied by crushing of HC core.

  6. Finite element analysis of hypervelocity impact behaviour of CFRP-Al/HC sandwich panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadnis Vaibhav A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of CFRP-Al/HC (carbon fibre-reinforced/epoxy composite face sheets with Al honeycomb core sandwich panels to hyper-velocity impact (up to 1 km/s is studied using a finite-element model developed in ABAQUS/Explicit. The intraply damage of CFRP face sheets is analysed by mean of a user-defined material model (VUMAT employing a combination of Hashin and Puck criteria, delamination modelled using cohesive-zone elements. The damaged Al/HC core is assessed on the basis of a Johnson Cook dynamic failure model while its hydrodynamic response is captured using the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The results obtained with the developed finite-element model showed a reasonable correlation to experimental damage patterns. The surface peeling of both face sheets was evident, with a significant delamination around the impact location accompanied by crushing HC core.

  7. EFFECT OF COPPER ON THE HOT PLASTICITY OF 304HC STAINLESS STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Z. Cui; H.S. Di; G.D. Wang; X.H. Liu

    2005-01-01

    The plasticity map of 304HC stainless steel was determined by using tensile and compressive test. The effect of Cu on the hot plasticity of 304HC stainless steel was analyzed. The microstructure, inclusion and fracture surface were studied by using the method of optical microscopy, SEM,EDS and EPMA. The results showed that Cu has effect on the hot plasticity and the hotplasticity of 304HC stainless steel decrease with the increase of Cu content. The deformation temperature also hasmuch effect on the hot plasticity, the suitable deformation temperature are 1100-1200℃.The reason is that the brittle compounds were precipitated from austenite during cooling. These brittle compounds are Cu2S, Cu2O and PbCl etc.

  8. 玉米矮花叶病毒HC-Pro的纯化及抗血清制备%PURIFICATION AND ANTISERUM PREPARATION OF MAIZE DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS HC-Pro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 范在丰; 李怀方; 裘维蕃

    2001-01-01

    本实验提纯了玉米矮花叶病毒(MDMV)的辅助成份-蛋白酶(HC-Pro),并制备了其抗血清.MDMV HC-Pro的分子量约为57 kD,提纯产量为0.3 mg/100g病叶.琼脂免疫双扩散测定证明MDMV HC-Pro抗血清的效价为1:16;微量免疫沉淀法测定时其效价为1:1024.该抗血清只与MDMV HC-Pro有明显的反应,与健康玉米汁液和MDMV无反应.MDMV HC-Pro抗血清可以专化性地抑制HC-Pro的蚜传活性.

  9. Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins; Chapter B, Insights from extractable bitumen and saturated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-five shales from the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Southern San Joaquin Valley Basins were extracted and analyzed. Samples were chosen on the basis of ROCK-EVAL analyses of a much larger sample base. The samples ranged in burial temperatures from 40 ? to 220 ? C, and contained hydrogen-poor to hydrogen-rich organic matter (OM), based on OM visual typing and a correlation of elemental kerogen hydrogen to carbon ratios with ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices. By extractable bitumen measurements, rocks with hydrogen- poor OM in the Los Angeles Basin began mainstage hydrocarbon (HC) generation by 90 ? C. The HC concentrations maximized by 165 ? C, and beyond 165 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all began decreasing to low values reached by 220 ? C, where HC generation was largely complete. Rocks with hydrogen-poor OM in the Southern San Joaquin Valley Basin commenced mainstage HC generation at 135 ? C and HC concentrations maximized by 180 ? C. Above 180 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all decreased to low values reached by 214 ? C, again the process of HC generation being largely complete. In both cases, bell-shaped HC-generation curves were present versus depth (burial temperature). Mainstage HC generation had not yet begun in Ventura Basin rocks with hydrogen-poor OM by 140 ? C. The apparent lower temperature for initiation of mainstage generation in the Los Angeles Basin is attributed to very recent cooling in that basin from meteoric-water flow. Thus, HC generation there most probably occurred at higher burial temperatures. In contrast, mainstage HC generation, and all aspects of organic metamorphism, were strongly suppressed in rocks with hydrogen-rich OM at temperatures as high as 198 ? C. For example, shales from the Wilmington field (Los Angeles Basin) from 180 ? to 198 ? C retained ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices of 550- 700 and had saturated-HC coefficients of only 4-15 mg/g organic carbon. The rocks

  10. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Adamson, A. J., E-mail: jchiar@seti.org, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca@1.nasa.gov, E-mail: tielens@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: aadamson@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96729 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 {mu}m) and aliphatic (3.4 {mu}m) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp {sup 2} bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 {mu}m CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 {mu}m aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp {sup 3} bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp {sup 3} content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  11. Flash pryolysis of biomass with reactive and nonreactive gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, M. S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P. T.

    1982-10-01

    Studies were done on the flash pyrolysis of Douglas Fir wood in the presence of reactive and nonreactive gases including hydrogen, methane, and helium. Pyrolysis and gasification of the wood particles was done in one step, without catalysts. Almost complete (98%) gasification of the carbon in Douglas fir wood was achieved at 10000C and 500-psi hydrogen pressure. The reaction products were methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide, BTX, and water. Flash hydropyrolysis produced a large yield of hydrocarbon gases (up to 78% C) comprising methane and ethane. High yields of ethylene (up to 21% C) and BTX (up to 12% C) were obtained via methane pyrolysis of fir wood; a free radical mechanism is proposed to explain the enhanced yield of ethylene in a methane atmosphere.

  12. Nonmethane hydrocarbon composition of urban and rural atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Westberg, Hal

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are not measured routinely at most ambient monitoring stations. Yet this type of information is required to evaluate existing control strategies aimed at achieving the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for O 3. This paper summarizes data from ambient air monitoring programs in seven urban centers (Houston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Newark, Boston, Milwaukee,) and six rural areas in California, Wisconsin, Texas, Illinois, Maine and Florida. Gas Chromatographie analysis was used to identify individual C 2-C 10 HCs in more than 990 ambient air samples. Measurements in urban and rural areas are compared based on total and individual HC concentrations.

  13. Composition and Origin of Shallow Biogenetic Gases in the Baise Basin, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analytical data of over 30 gas samples, combined with geochemical and geological backgrounds, the composition and distribution characteristics of shallow biogenetic gases in the Baise Basin, a Tertiary residual basin in southern China, were extensively investigated, and the origin and formation mechanism tentatively approached. The shallow gases are primarily composed of gaseous hydrocarbons, generally accounting for over 90%. The abundances of methane and C2+homologues show a relatively wide range of variation, mainly 50%-100% and 0%-50%, respectively,depending on the mixing proportions between biogenetic and thermogenic gases. A highly negative carbon isotope is the significant signature for the shallow gases with δ13C1 values of -55‰ to -75‰.According to molecular and isotopic compositions and light hydrocarbon parameters, the shallow gases in the basin can be classified into three types of origins: biogenetic gas, biogenetic/thermogenic mixed gas, and oil-biodegraded gas. They exhibit regular distribution both spatially and temporally, and are believed to be associated with the maturity of adjoining gas source rocks and biodegraded oil accumulation. The Baigang and Nadu source rocks can be considered to have experienced early and late gas generation during early burial and after basin uplift respectively. A late accumulation mechanism of multiple gas sources is put forward for the formation of the shallow gas reservoirs, which is responsible for the variations in chemical and isotopic composition of the gases in depth profile.

  14. Electronic spectra of linear HC$_5$H and cumulene carbene H$_2$C$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Steglich, M; Maity, S; Nagy, A; Maier, J P

    2015-01-01

    The $1 ^3\\Sigma_u^- \\leftarrow X^3\\Sigma_g^-$ transition of linear HC$_5$H (A) has been observed in a neon matrix and gas phase. The assignment is based on mass-selective experiments, extrapolation of previous results of the longer HC$_{2n+1}$H homologues, and density functional and multi-state CASPT2 theoretical methods. Another band system starting at 303 nm in neon is assigned as the $1 ^1 A_1 \\leftarrow X ^1 A_1$ transition of the cumulene carbene pentatetraenylidene H$_2$C$_5$ (B).

  15. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  16. Progress towards atomic vapor photonic microcells: Coherence and polarization relaxation measurements in coated and uncoated HC-PCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, T. D.; McFerran, J. J.; Jouin, J.; Ilinova, E.; Thomas, P.; Benabid, F.

    2013-03-01

    We report a comparative study on dephasing mechanisms between inner core coated and uncoated sections of the same Kagome hypocycloid-shaped core hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCF) filled with rubidium vapor. The comparison is performed by measuring the atomic polarization relaxation and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) linewidth in Rb loaded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) inner wall coated and bare silica core Kagome HC-PCF. The measurements show a polarization relaxation time of 32μs in a PDMS coated Kagome HC-PCF and 24μs in uncoated Kagome HC-PCF. A minimum EIT linewidth of 6.2±0.8MHz is achieved in PDMS coated Kagome HC-PCF, and 8.3±0.9 MHz for the uncoated Kagome HC-PCF.

  17. NMR Hyperpolarization Techniques of Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barskiy, Danila A; Coffey, Aaron M; Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Mikhaylov, Dmitry M; Goodson, Boyd M; Branca, Rosa T; Lu, George J; Shapiro, Mikhail G; Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Koptyug, Igor V; Salnikov, Oleg G; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I; Rosen, Matthew S; Barlow, Michael J; Safavi, Shahideh; Hall, Ian P; Schröder, Leif; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2017-01-18

    Nuclear spin polarization can be significantly increased through the process of hyperpolarization, leading to an increase in the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments by 4-8 orders of magnitude. Hyperpolarized gases, unlike liquids and solids, can often be readily separated and purified from the compounds used to mediate the hyperpolarization processes. These pure hyperpolarized gases enabled many novel MRI applications including the visualization of void spaces, imaging of lung function, and remote detection. Additionally, hyperpolarized gases can be dissolved in liquids and can be used as sensitive molecular probes and reporters. This Minireview covers the fundamentals of the preparation of hyperpolarized gases and focuses on selected applications of interest to biomedicine and materials science. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases--Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, Type Controlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅰ)--Multi-source Overlap and Type Controlled by Main Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平

    1994-01-01

    Based on the geochemical studies of natural gases in the past ten years in China, the authors have proposed a new model for their genesis--multi-source overlap, multi-stage continuity, main source-controlling type and nomenclature by the main stage.Multi-source refers to a diversity of material sources involved in the formation of natural gases, including abiogenic and biogenic material sources. In regard to biogenic sources, either oil-generating or coal-generating organic matter would produce gaseous hydrocarbon reservoirs of commercial importance. Generally, natural gases originating from these sources can overlap to form gas reservoirs. Under specific circumstances mantle-source abiogenic gases could overlap biogenic gases to form gas reservoirs. In nature, natural gases predominated by gaseous hydrocarbons may be formed from a single end-member source. However, multi-source overlap is more typical of the genesis of natural gases.

  19. Shock instability in dissipative gases

    OpenAIRE

    Radulescu, Matei I.; Sirmas, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves in thermally relaxing gases, such as ionizing, dissociating and vibrationally excited gases, can become unstable. To date, the mechanism controlling this instability has not been resolved. Previous accounts of the D'yakov-Kontorovich instability, and Bethe-Zel'dovich-Thompson behaviour could not predict the experimentally observed instability. To address the mechanism controlling the instability, we study the propagation of shock waves in a ...

  20. Quantitative Recognizing Dissolved Hydrocarbons with Genetic Algorithm-Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Online monitoring of dissolved fault characteristic hydrocarbon gases, such as methane, ethane, ethylene and acetylene in power transformer oil has significant meaning for condition assessment of transformer. Recently, semiconductor tin oxide based gas sensor array has been widely applied in online monitoring apparatus, while cross sensitivity of the gas sensor array is inevitable due to same compositions and similar structures among the four hydrocarbon gases. Based on support vector regression (SVR with genetic algorithm (GA, a new pattern recognition method was proposed to reduce the cross sensitivity of the gas sensor array and further quantitatively recognize the concentration of dissolved hydrocarbon gases. The experimental data from a certain online monitoring device in China is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed GA-SVR model. Experimental results indicate that the GA-SVR method can effectively decrease the cross sensitivity and the regressed data is much more closed to the real values.

  1. Low-mature gases and typical low-mature gas fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU YongChang; WANG ZhiYong; WANG XiaoFeng; ZHENG JianJing; DU HongYu

    2008-01-01

    No natural gas pool of industrial importance could be formed at the low-evolution stage of organic matter. In the 1980s, on the basis of the development in exploration practice, the hypotheses of bio-thermo-catalytic transitional zone gases and early thermogenic gases were proposed. The lower-limit Ro values for the formation and accumulation of natural gases of industrial importance have been expanded to 0.3%-0.4%. In the light of the two-stage model established on the basis of carbon isotope fractionation in coal-type natural gases, the upper-limit Ro values have been set at 0.8%-1.0%.In terms of the geological practice in the low-mature gas zones and China's main coal-type gas fields, it is feasible and proper to set the upper-limit Ro value of low-mature gases at 0.8%. Supper-large gas fields such as the Urengoy gas field in western Siberian Basin should belong to low-mature gas fields,of which the natural gas reserves account for more than 20% of the global proven reserves, providing strong evidence for the significance of such a type of resources. The proven natural gas reserves in the Turpan-Hami Basin of China have almost reached 1000 X 108 m3. The main source rocks in this area are the Jurassic Xishanyao Formation, which occurs as a suite of coal series strata. The corresponding designated to coal-type low-mature gases. The light hydrocarbon evolution indices of natural gases also fall within the area of low evolution while the precursor type of light hydrocarbons also shows the characteristics of the coal-type. The geological background, carbon isotopic composition and light hydrocarbon index all provide strong evidence suggesting that the proven natural gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin are low-mature gases. In China a gas field with the gas reserves reaching 300 X108 m3 can be defined as a large gas field, and thus the proven low-mature gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin are equivalent to the reserves of three large gas fields. Its existence is of great

  2. LIKE IT ACID AND POOR: A STUDY OF ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING Streptococcus bovis HC5 GROWTH AND BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andréa Teixeira Barbosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, growth atmosphere and nutrient availability on bovicin HC5 production by Streptococcus bovis HC5. S. bovis HC5 grew well in complex and basal media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but greater bacteriocin yields were recovered from anaerobic cultures. Lactate production and glucose consumption increased if S. bovis HC5 cells were cultivated at pH 7.0 and at 45 ºC, but higher bovicin HC5 activity was recovered from cells grown in acidic conditions and at lower temperatures (39 ºC. Cultures maintained under continuous CO2 flow showed faster growth rates in basal media, but bacteriocin production was always higher if S. bovis was cultivated in anaerobic sealed tubes. These results suggest that acidic pH and anoxic conditions favor bovicin HC5 production by S. bovis HC5. S. bovis HC5 is a unique lactic acid bacterium in its ability to grow and produce high amounts of a potentially useful bacteriocin in simple media. Considering the constrains for bacteriocin production at commercial scale, it appears that bovicin HC5 production could be achieved at lower costs compared to other bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

  3. Hydrocarbon occurrence in NW Africa's MSGBC area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymond, A.; Negroni, P.

    1989-06-01

    The MSGBC (Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Conakry) coastal basin has evolved as a passive margin from Jurassic time up to the present following a period of poorly known rifting of Permian to Middle Jurassic age. Structural configuration of the Paleozoic series is documented by large outcrops and a good number of seismic sections. Based on previous exploration efforts that found significant hydrocarbon shows, a comprehensive study of this African basin's source rocks, maturation evolution and petroleum generation potential was undertaken. About 1,000 geochemical analyses of the Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series identified good source rocks in the Cenomano-Turonian, Silurian, Senonian and Paleocene ages. The parameters used to identify and characterize source rock are: Total organic carbon content (TOC) in percent and source potential (in kg HC/t), representing the amount of hydrocarbon generated per ton of rock and determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.

  4. Comparison of natural gases accumulated in Oligocene strata with hydrous pyrolysis gases from Menilite Shales of the Polish Outer Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, M.J.; Curtis, John B.; Lewan, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the molecular and isotopic compositions of gases generated from different kerogen types (i.e., Types I/II, II, IIS and III) in Menilite Shales by sequential hydrous pyrolysis experiments. The experiments were designed to simulate gas generation from source rocks at pre-oil-cracking thermal maturities. Initially, rock samples were heated in the presence of liquid water at 330 ??C for 72 h to simulate early gas generation dominated by the overall reaction of kerogen decomposition to bitumen. Generated gas and oil were quantitatively collected at the completion of the experiments and the reactor with its rock and water was resealed and heated at 355 ??C for 72 h. This condition simulates late petroleum generation in which the dominant overall reaction is bitumen decomposition to oil. This final heating equates to a cumulative thermal maturity of 1.6% Rr, which represents pre-oil-cracking conditions. In addition to the generated gases from these two experiments being characterized individually, they are also summed to characterize a cumulative gas product. These results are compared with natural gases produced from sandstone reservoirs within or directly overlying the Menilite Shales. The experimentally generated gases show no molecular compositions that are distinct for the different kerogen types, but on a total organic carbon (TOC) basis, oil prone kerogens (i.e., Types I/II, II and IIS) generate more hydrocarbon gas than gas prone Type III kerogen. Although the proportionality of methane to ethane in the experimental gases is lower than that observed in the natural gases, the proportionality of ethane to propane and i-butane to n-butane are similar to those observed for the natural gases. ??13C values of the experimentally generated methane, ethane and propane show distinctions among the kerogen types. This distinction is related to the ??13C of the original kerogen, with 13C enriched kerogen generating more 13C enriched hydrocarbon gases than

  5. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  6. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  7. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehto Kirsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs. These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent. Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1 were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S

  8. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soitamo, Arto J; Jada, Balaji; Lehto, Kirsi

    2011-04-20

    RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs). These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA) mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter) the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent). Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1) were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) were also decreased in

  9. Solar UV Irradiation-Induced Production of Greenhouse Gases from Plant Surfaces: From Leaf to Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Ambus, Per

    2016-01-01

    During the past few decades it has been documented that the ultra-violet (UV) component of natural sunlight alone or in combination with visible light can instantaneously stimulate aerobic plant production of a range of important trace gases: CH4, CO2, CO, short-chain hydrocarbons/ non...... for CH4 production, but underlying mechanisms are not fully known. For other gases such generating processes have not been established yet and mechanisms remain hypothetical. Field measurements of UV-induced emissions of the gases under natural light conditions are scarce. Therefore, realistic upscaling...... to the ecosystem level is uncertain for all gases. Nevertheless, based on empirical response curves, we propose the first global upscaling of UV-induced N2O and CO to illustrate emission ranges from a global perspective and as a contribution to an ongoing quantification process. When scaled to the global level...

  10. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  11. Method for producing diene hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaylingol' d, A.L.; Abayev, G.N.; Mikhaylov, R.K.; Stepanov, G.A.; Troitskiy, A.P.

    1980-04-28

    A method is claimed for producing diene hydrocarbons by oxidational dehydration of paraffin or olefin hydrocarbons in a fluidized bed of a concentrate with circulation of the latter between the zones of the reaction of regeneration with the help of circulation stand pipes. To increase the efectiveness of the process, it is proposed to circulate the concentrate between the zones of reaction and regeneration, sequentially disposed in a common apparatus with a difference in the concentration of the concentrate in the circulation stand pipes disposed in the same apparatus and the zone of the reaction equal to 20-700 kg/m/sup 3/. For example, the process of oxidational dehydration of butane through the proposed system is conducted in an apparatus with a diameter of 1,000 mm, a circulation stand pipe diameter of 500 mm, a linear gas speed in the reaction zone of 0.6 m/s, and in the circulation stand pipe of 0.15 m/s. The concentration of the concentrate in the dehydration zone is 640 kg/m/sup 3/ and in the stand pipe, 970 kg/m/sup 3/. The volumetric ratio of the n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/:air, air:vapor vapor in the form of a condensate is 1:7.2:4.5:5.5. The output of the butadiene is: in the passed butane, 32.9% and in the broken down butane, 52.5%. The butane conversion is 62.6%. The losses of the concentrate with the contact gas and with the regeneration gases is 1/3 as much for the supplied butane, than in a known method. The method makes it possible to reduce the air expenditure by 60%, to reduce the concentrate losses by 2-3 times and to simplify the industrial system.

  12. Green Methodologies to Test Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The definition and the economic viability of the best development strategy of a hydrocarbon reservoir mainly depend on the quantity and type of fluids and on the well productivity. Well testing, consisting in producing hydrocarbon to the surface while measuring the pressure variations induced in the reservoir, has been used for decades to determine the fluid nature and well potential. In exploration and appraisal scenarios the hydrocarbons produced during a test are flared, contributing to the emissions of greenhouse gases. Approach: Due to more stringent environmental regulations and a general need for reduced operating expenses, the current industry drivers in today’s formation evaluation methodologies demand short, safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly test procedures, especially when conventional tests are prohibitively expensive, logistically not feasible or no surface emissions are allowed. Different methods have been proposed or resuscitated in the last years, such as wireline formation tests, closed chamber tests, production/reinjection tests and injection tests, as viable alternatives to conventional well testing. Results: While various short-term tests, test procedures and interpretation methods are apparently available for conducting successful tests without hydrocarbon production at the surface, clarity is lacking for specific applications of these techniques. An attempt to clarify advantages and limitations of each methodology, particularly with respect to the main testing target is pursued in this study. Specific insight is provided on injection testing, which is one of the most promising methodology to replace traditional well testing in reservoir characterization, except for the possibility to sample the formation fluids. Conclusion/Recommendations: Not a single one method but a combination of more methodologies, in particular injection testing and wireline formation testing, is the most promising

  13. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  14. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.

    1996-07-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 gyr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 gm-2yr-1 (1.45×10-3 and 1.51×10-3 gal.ft.-2yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  15. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  16. Effect of hydrocarbons and crude oil contamination on the sensitivity of French bean to alfalfa mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurík, M; Gallo, J; Subr, Z

    1995-12-01

    Determination of local necrotic lesions on primary leaves infected by alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) revealed that hydrocarbons (HC) contamination of the substrate used for cultivation of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Black Turtle Soup) caused a reduction of bean leaf area and an increase of plant sensitivity to AMV infection. On the other hand, superficial contamination of the leaves by crude oil caused an inhibition of lesion formation. Changes of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of extractable bean leaf proteins related to the cultivation substrate contamination by HC were also detected.

  17. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  18. DEG系统和HC VWS系统的差异性分析%On difference analysis of DEG system and HC VWS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩平; 汪鹏; 刘占盛; 张凤阁

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces the components for"M310 Second Generation Plus"DEG system and"AP1000 reactor type"HC VWS system, indicates their differences from the allocation of water chilling unit,return water temperature differences of chilled water,end loading adjustment, and services of water chilling system,and sums up the design experience for the advanced design ideas referring to the two aspects,so as to ac-complish the design for the Hualong No. 1(ACP1000)nuclear island water chilling system.%介绍了"M310二代加"DEG系统和"AP1000堆型"HC VWS系统的组成要素,从冷水机组配置、冷冻水供回水温差、末端负荷调节方式、冷冻水系统服务范围等方面,论述了两者的差异性,在总结及借鉴二者的先进设计理念和设计经验的基础上,完成了华龙一号( ACP1000)的核岛冷冻水系统设计工作.

  19. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-07-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  20. Occurrence of fungi degrading aromatic hydrocarbons in activated sludge biocenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grabińska-Łoniewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A set of 21 strains of yeast-like microorganisms isolated from biocenoses of aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment systems were assayed for their ability to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole C-source. Basing on the achieved results, the highly biochemically active strains for application in enhancing of wastewaters and exhaust gases purification as well as soil bioremediation were selected.

  1. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  2. Assessment of Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Permian Gondwana Coals, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Zakir Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the geochemical characteristics of Gondwana coals from the Barapukuria coal mine, Bangladesh in order to investigate the potential for hydrocarbon generation. A total number of twenty three coal samples were analyzed Rock-Eval pyrolysis, CHNS elemental analyses, maceral analysis and vitrinite reflectance. The samples were collected from drill hole GDH-40 of the Barapukuria coal mine encountered within Gondwana succession of Permian age. The TOC contents of the coal samples range between ~50 and 76 wt.% and the organic matter consists predominantly of type III and type IV kerogen with respect to hydrocarbon generation. The GP, HI, PI and Tmax values range between 7 and 35 mg HC/g rock, 20 and 62 mg HC/g TOC, 0.02 and 0.04, and 430 and 437oC, respectively. The organic matter is mainly gas prone and thermally immature to early mature level. The potential coal bed methane (CBM generation of the Barapukuria basin is estimated to be 11 Gm3. Thus, underground coal gasification (UCG is helpful for better development of subsurface coals at the Barapukuria basin, Bangladesh.

  3. Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-Niang, I.; Prins, M.; Kammen, van A.; Wellink, J.

    2002-01-01

    Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed

  4. Relationship between interRAI HC and the ICF: opportunity for operationalizing the ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljunggren Gunnar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is embraced as a framework to conceptualize human functioning and disability. Health professionals choose measures to represent the domains of the framework. The ICF coding classification is an administrative system but multiple studies have linked diverse clinical assessments to ICF codes. InterRAI-HC (home care is an assessment designed to assist planning of care for patients receiving home care. Examining the relationship between the ICF and the interRAI HC is of particular interest because the interRAI assessments are widely used in clinical practice and research, are computerized, and uploaded to databases that serve multiple purposes including public reporting of quality in Canada and internationally. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the interRAI HC (home care assessment and the ICF. Specifically, the goal was to determine the proportion of interRAI HC items that can be linked to each of the major domains of the ICF (Body Function, Body Structure, Activities and Participation, and the Environmental Factors, the chapters and the specific ICF codes. Methods Three coders who were familiar with both the home care assessment and the ICF independently assigned ICF codes to inter-RAI HC items. Subsequently, a series of teleconference meetings were held to reach consensus on the primary code and much later consensus was used to finalize codes for additional items added to the interRAI HC. Results Following exclusion of administrative and diagnostic sections, 175 interRAI items were examined for potential assignment of codes. Of these 52 were assigned codes related to body function, 43 to activities and participation, 34 to environment, 1 to body structure, 17 to not coded, and 26 to not defined. Considering all 3-digit ICF codes, interRAI items addressed 43.2% of Body Function and 50.6% of Activities and Participation

  5. Gaseous Hydrocarbon Separations Using Functionalized Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Leila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The functionalization of the side chains on the cation or the anion of an ionic liquid is a common approach to tailor its properties for different processes including the separation of gases. In this paper, we present the current state of the art concerning the usage of ionic liquids for hydrocarbon separations. We also show how the functionalization of ionic liquids or the appropriate anion/cation combinations can contribute to the increase of the performance of the ionic liquids for the separation of gaseous hydrocarbons – either by improving the capacity of the ionic liquid to absorb a given gas or by increasing the selectivity towards a particular hydrocarbon. Original results concerning the usage of olefin-complexing metal salts of lithium (I, nickel (II and copper (II dissolved in ionic liquids for selectively absorbing light olefins are presented. It is observed that the absorption capacity of an imidazolium-based ionic liquid is doubled by the addition of a copper (II salt. This result is compared with the effect of the functionalization of the ionic liquid and the advantages and difficulties of the two approaches are analyzed.

  6. Removal of organic contaminants from water or wastewater with liquefied gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study utilized liquefied gases (LG) as extractant to remove various organic contaminants including halogenated hydrocarbons and phenols as well as aromatic compounds from aqueousmatrices. Orthogonal experiments were performed to optimize theoperating conditions such as temperature, co-solvents and so on.Under favorable conditions, high removal efficiencies can bereadily achieved for a great number of representative model organiccontaminants, the removal efficiencies for most of the hydrophobiccontaminants were greater than 90% in a single extraction stage.Tentative effort was also done for the removal of extractedcontaminants from recycled liquefied gases.

  7. Biological control of wheat root diseases by the CLP-producing strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Ming; Wen, Shan-Shan; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; von Wettstein, Diter; Thomashow, Linda S; Guo, Jian-Hua; Weller, David M

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07, previously isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat grown in Hebei province, China, suppresses the soilborne disease of wheat take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. We report here that strain HC1-07 also suppresses Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8. Strain HC1-07 produced a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) with a molecular weight of 1,126.42 based on analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Extracted CLP inhibited the growth of G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro. To determine the role of this CLP in biological control, plasposon mutagenesis was used to generate two nonproducing mutants, HC1-07viscB and HC1-07prtR2. Analysis of regions flanking plasposon insertions in HC1-07prtR2 and HC1-07viscB revealed that the inactivated genes were similar to prtR and viscB, respectively, of the well-described biocontrol strain P. fluorescens SBW25 that produces the CLP viscosin. Both genes in HC1-07 were required for the production of the viscosin-like CLP. The two mutants were less inhibitory to G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro and reduced in ability to suppress take-all. HC1-07viscB but not HC-07prtR2 was reduced in ability to suppress Rhizoctonia root rot. In addition to CLP production, prtR also played a role in protease production.

  8. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  9. Interaction between the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Pedersen, LB; Koehler, JF;

    1993-01-01

    The gene encoding the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) from serovar L2 was cloned into Escherichia coli by use of expression vector pET11d. In this vector, transcription of the gene is under the control of a bacteriophage T7 promoter, and T7 RNA polymerase is inducible in the h......The gene encoding the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) from serovar L2 was cloned into Escherichia coli by use of expression vector pET11d. In this vector, transcription of the gene is under the control of a bacteriophage T7 promoter, and T7 RNA polymerase is inducible...

  10. Med H.C. Andersen i Portugal år 1866

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skousbøll, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Bogen er et genoptryk af en udgivelse fra 1975 i anledning af 150 året for H.C. Andersens død. Udgangspunktet var H.C. Andersens beskrivelse af rejse til Portugal i 1866, hvor han bl.a. besøgte familien O'Neill på deres landsted (Quinta) nær ved Lissabon. Vi er med den rejsende digter fra hans...... ankomst med diligence fra Spanien ind over fastlandet til Lissabon, men også rundt i byen, i omegnen og til havnebyen Setubal. Det indsamlede billedstof som underbygger teksten er dels historisk stof indhentet fra Det kg. Bibliotek o.a. kilder og dels fremskaffet fra Portugals arkiver og de respektive...

  11. Observation of h_c(^1P_1) State of Charmonium

    CERN Document Server

    Rosner, J L; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Rangarajan, R; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Park, C S; Park, W; Thayer, J B; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Nandakumar, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; McGee, S; Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Boisvert, V; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Richichi, S J; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Warburton, A; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Benslama, K; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Li, S Z; Poling, R A; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J; Jian, L; Saleem, M; Wappler, F; Arms, K; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Von Törne, E; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Dytman, S A; Müller, J A; Nam, S; Savinov, V; Hinson, J W

    2005-01-01

    The h_c(1P1) state of charmonium has been observed in the reaction \\psi(2S) -> \\pi0 h_c -> (\\gamma\\gamma)(\\gamma\\eta_c) using 3.08 million \\psi(2S) decays recorded in the CLEO detector. Data have been analyzed both for the inclusive reaction, where the decay products of the \\eta_c are not identified, and for exclusive reactions, in which \\eta_c decays are reconstructed in seven hadronic decay channels. We find M(h_c)=3524.4 +/- 0.6 +/- 0.4 MeV which corresponds to a hyperfine splitting \\Delta M_{hf}(1P) \\equiv -M(1P1)=+1.0+/-0.6+/-0.4 MeV, and B(\\psi(2S)->\\pi0 h_c)xB(h_c->\\gamma\\eta_c)=(4. +/-0.8+/-0.7)x10^{-4}.

  12. Semileptonic Decays of Bc Meson to a P-Wave Charmonium State Xc or hc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Chao-Hsi; CHEN Yu-Qi; WANG Guo-Li; ZONG Hong-Shi

    2001-01-01

    The semileptonic decays of meson Bc to a P-wave charmonium state χc(3PJ) or hc(1P1) are computed. The results show that the decays are sizable so they are accessible in Tevatron and LHC, especially, with the detectors LHCB and BTeV in the foreseeable future, and of them, the one to the 1P1 charmonium state potentially offers us a novel window to see the unconfirmed hc particle. In addition, it is pointed out that since the two charmonium radiative decays χc(3P1,2) → J/ψ + γ have sizable branching ratios, the cascade decays of the concerned decays and the charmonium radiative decays may affect the result of observing Bc meson through the semileptonic decays Bc→J/ψ+l + vi substantially.

  13. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near-surface soils of Kutch–Saurashtra: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Lakshmi Srinivasa Rao; T Madhavi; D Srinu; M S Kalpana; D J Patil; A M Dayal

    2013-02-01

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil gases, methane and heavier homologues were recorded in the near-surface soil samples collected from Kutch–Saurashtra, India. Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic matter. Gas chromatographic analyses of hydrocarbons desorbed from soil samples through acid extraction technique showed the presence of methane through -butane and the observed concentrations (in ppb) vary from: methane (C1) from 4–291, ethane (C2) from 0–84, propane (C3) from 0–37, i-butane (iC4) from 0–5 and -butane (nC4) from 0–4. Carbon isotopes measured for methane and ethane by GC-C-IRMS, range between −42.9‰ to −13.3‰ (Pee Dee Belemnite – PDB) and −21.2‰ to −12.4‰ (PDB), respectively. The increased occurrence of hydrocarbons in the areas near Anjar of Kutch and the area south to Rajkot of Saurashtra signifies the area potential for oil and gas.

  14. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  15. Enhancement of H_c2 in MgB2 Wires through Carbon Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Wilke, R. H. T.; Straszheim, W. E.; Sailsbury, H.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Suplinskas, R. J.; Hannahs, S. T.

    2004-03-01

    A series of carbon substituted Mg(B_1-xC_x)2 wires were fabricated in a two step process by co-depositing carbon and boron on a tungsten filament using a CVD reaction. These starting fibers had nominal carbon concentrations of 0.5,1, and 2 percent as determined from the C to B ratio in the CVD gas stream. The conversion to Mg(B_1-xC_x)2 was carried out by heating the C-doped B fiber in a Mg vapor.[1] The temperature dependence of H_c2 was measured resistively in fields up to 33 T. Carbon doping results in relatively minor decrease in Tc from 39.2 to 36.2 K, while simultaneously increasing H_c2(0) from 16 to 33 T. We have shown carbon is an effective dopant for increasing H_c2 and our data suggest even higher critical fields can be achieved with nominal concentrations around 4-5 [1] P.C. Canfield, D. K. Finnemore, S.L. Bud'ko, J.E. Ostenson, G. Lapertot, C.E. Cunnigham, and C. Petrovic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2423 (2001).

  16. Precision Measurement of the Mass of the h_c(1P1) State of Charmonium

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, S; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P

    2008-01-01

    A precision measurement of the mass of the h_c(1P1) state of charmonium has been made using a sample of 24.5 million psi(2S) events produced in e+e- annihilation at CESR. The reaction used was psi(2S) -> pi0 h_c, pi0 -> gamma gamma, h_c -> gamma eta_c, and the reaction products were detected in the CLEO-c detector. Data have been analyzed both for the inclusive reaction and for the exclusive reactions in which eta_c decays are reconstructed in fifteen hadronic decay channels. Consistent results are obtained in the two analyses. The averaged results of the present measurements are M(h_c)=3525.28+-0.19 (stat)+-0.12(syst) MeV, and B(psi(2S) -> pi0 h_c)xB(h_c -> gamma eta_c)= (4.19+-0.32+-0.45)x10^-4. Using the 3PJ centroid mass, Delta M_hf(1P)= - M(h_c) = +0.02+-0.19+-0.13 MeV.

  17. Millimetre-wave spectroscopy of HC{sub 4}Cl in ground and excited vibrational states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzocchi, Luca [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' , Universita di Bologna, via F. Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: luca.bizzocchi@unibo.it; Degli Esposti, Claudio [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' , Universita di Bologna, via F. Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: claudio.degliesposti@unibo.it

    2008-05-04

    The semi-stable HC{sub 4}Cl molecule has been detected in the pyrolysis products of propyne and carbon tetrachloride mixtures. The rotational spectrum of the most abundant isotopologue HC{sub 4}{sup 35}Cl has been investigated in the millimetre- and sub-millimetre-wave regions for the ground and 12 vibrationally excited states which approximately lie below 630 cm{sup -1}, namely ({nu}{sub 5}{nu}{sub 6}{nu}{sub 7}{nu}{sub 8}{nu}{sub 9})=(10000), (01000), (00100), (00010), (00001), (00020), (00002), (00003), (00004), (00101), (00011) and (00012). Transitions up to J=151 <- 150 were measured for the ground state, allowing for a precise evaluation of the quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants D and H. The l-type resonances between the different sublevels of the bending states and the anharmonic resonance which couples the states {nu}{sub 5}=1, {nu}{sub 8}=2 and {nu}{sub 9}=4 have been taken into account in the analysis of the spectra, which yielded precise determinations of the x{sub L(99)}, x{sub L(88)}, x{sub L(89)} and x{sub L(79)} anharmonicity constants and of the {phi}{sub 588} normal coordinate cubic force constant. Extensive measurements have also been performed for the HC{sub 4}{sup 37}Cl isotopologue.

  18. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant-beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfanova, Natalia; Kamilova, Faina; Validov, Shamil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Tikhonovich, Igor; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2011-07-01

    Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint-Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant-beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant-beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant-beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed. © 2011 Leiden University, Institute of Biology. Journal compilation © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant‐beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfanova, Natalia; Kamilova, Faina; Validov, Shamil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Tikhonovich, Igor; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Summary Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint‐Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant‐beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant‐beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant‐beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed. PMID:21366893

  20. High Resolution HC3N Observations toward the Central Region of Sagittarius B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Soo; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Morimoto, Masaki

    1994-04-01

    We have observed the emission of HC3N J=4-3, 5-4, 10-9 and 12-11 transitions toward the Sgr B2 central region in an area of 150"*150" with resolution of 16"-48". The intensities and central velocities of line profiles show significant variations with positions. In contrast to the intensities of the low J-level transitions which gradually increase from the central source toward the outside region, the HC3N emission of the high J-level transition become stronger toward the central radio continuum source MD5. Systematic change in the radial velocity of each line profile occurs along north-south direction. There are a few peaks in most line profiles, and these indicate that there are multiple velocity components along the line of sight. Distributions of excitation temperature and column density which were estimated from the excitation calculations show the existence of a small(1*2pc), hot(Tex > 50K) core which contains two temperature peaks at about 15" east and north of MD5. The column density of HC3N is (1-3)*10E14 /cm2. Column density at distant position from MD5 is larger than that in the central region. We have deduced that this 'hot-core' has a mass of 10E5 Mo, which is about an order of magnitude larger than those obtained by previous studies.

  1. Recovery of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Oil Field Sludge using Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Bhutto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of aliphatic HC (Hydrocarbons in the oily sludge of Kunnar oil and gas field, Pakistan was attempted by means of previously isolated and developed Bacillus sp. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved sludge samples were analyzed for a reaction time of 30 days with pH 7 and temperature of 380C in 50 ml MSM growth media for the sludge concentration of 5, 10 and 50% with 2, 4 and 6ml of Bacillus sp. relatively, in air atmosphere. Stabilization of the samples by microbial activity resulted in the decrease in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon concentration by 60, 69 and 87% in autoclaved samples in contrast to the decrease of 70, 84 and 94% observed in non-autoclaved samples, relatively. Hydrocarbon degradation in oily sludge was investigated via GC which transpired that 97 and 99% concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons in autoclaved and non-autoclaved samples was removed at 5% of TPH concentration, relatively. However, with 10% TPH concentration aliphatic hydrocarbons reduction was 68% in autoclaved samples to that of 87% in non-autoclaved samples. Further increase in the hydrocarbons concentration by 50% yielded in the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons by 65% in autoclaved samples as compared to 98% decrease in non-autoclaved samples.

  2. The HC potential of pre-Westphalian sediments in the North German basin. A synthesis; Das Kohlenwasserstoff-Potential des Praewestfals im norddeutschen Becken. Eine Synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F.; Krull, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Berlin (Germany).]|[Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It was the aim of the interdisciplinary and interinstitutional research program to investigate the possibilities of HC generation from pre-Westphalian sediments in the North German basin in space and time. Potential source rock horizons exist within all pre-Westphalian structural units in Northern Europe, ranging from Cambrian to the Namurian in age and deposited in different environments. The structural framework of the basement of the North German Permian basin was described, the position of the Variscan outer front newly defined and the maturation history during the Late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cainozoic deciphered. Pyrolysis experiments have shown that HC generation, especially from type III kerogen, is possible even beyond a maturity of 4% Rmax. Detailed geochemical and isotope-geochemical investigations of the natural gases from all North German fields indicate gas contributions from pre-Westphalian sources in special regions (Ems Estuary region, Altmark). By integrating all the results of the study an estimation of the possibilities of pre-Westphalian gas occurrences in Northern Germany could be made and the most promising areas for prospecting have been outlined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe des interdisziplinaeren und interinstitutionellen Forschungsvorhabens war es, die Moeglichkeiten der Kohlenwasserstoff-Bildung aus praewestfalen Sedimenten im Norddeutschen Becken in Raum und Zeit zu erkunden. In allen praewestfalen strukturellen Grosseinheiten Nordeuropas existieren potentielle Muttergesteinshorizonte kambrischen bis namurischen Alters aus unterschiedlichen Ablagerungsmilieus. Das strukturelle Inventar des Untergrundes des norddeutschen Permbeckens, der Verlauf der Variszidenfront in Norddeutschland und die Reifungsgeschichte der praewestfalen Muttergesteine im Verlauf der jungpalaeozoischen, mesozoischen und tertiaeren Entwicklung wurden entschluesselt. Pyrolyseversuche zeigten, dass eine KW-Genese, vor allem fuer Kerogen des Typs III, auch jenseits

  3. Explosion limits for combustible gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Min-ming; WU Guo-qing; HAO Ji-fei; DAI Xin-lian

    2009-01-01

    Combustible gases in coal mines are composed of methane, hydrogen, some multi-carbon alkane gases and other gases. Based on a numerical calculation, the explosion limits of combustible gases were studied, showing that these limits are related to the concentrations of different components in the mixture. With an increase of C4H10 and C6H14, the Lower ExplosionLimit (LEL) and Upper Explosion-Limit (UEL) of a combustible gas mixture will decrease clearly. For every 0.1% increase in C4H10 and C6H14, the LEL decreases by about 0.19% and the UEL by about 0.3%. The results also prove that, by increasing the amount of H2, the UEL of a combustible gas mixture will increase considerably. If the level of H2 increases by 0.1%, the UEL will increase by about 0.3%. However, H2 has only a small effect on the LEL of the combustible gas mixture. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for judging the explosion risk of an explosive gas mixture in mines.

  4. Imbalanced Fermi gases at unitarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, K.B.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    We consider imbalanced Fermi gases with strong attractive interactions, for which Cooper-pair formation plays an important role. The two-component mixtures consist either of identical fermionic atoms in two different hyperfine states, or of two different atomic species both occupying only a single

  5. Performance assessment of HC-290 as a drop-in substitute to HCFC-22 in a window air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India); Padalkar, A.S. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India). Process Development Division; Sane, N.K. [Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli (India). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    As per the Montreal Protocol, CFCs and HCFCs are being phased out. HCFC-22 is used in window air conditioners. This paper presents the experimental performance study of a window air conditioner with propane (HC-290), a natural refrigerant, as a drop-in substitute to HCFC-22. Experimental results showed that HC-290 had 6.6% lower cooling capacity for the lower operating conditions and 9.7% lower for the higher operating conditions with respect to HCFC-22. The coefficient of performance for HC-290 was 7.9% higher for the lower operating conditions and 2.8% higher for the higher operating conditions. The energy consumption of the unit with HC-290 was lower in the range 12.4-13.5% than HCFC-22. The discharge pressures for HC-290 were lower in the range 13.7-18.2% than HCFC-22. For HC-290, the pressure drop was lower than HCFC-22 in both heat exchangers. This paper also presents simulation results for the heat exchangers of an HCFC-22 window air conditioner with HC-290 as a drop-in substitute. The simulation has been carried out using EVAP-COND, a heat exchanger model developed by NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology. EVAP-COND: simulation models for finned-tube heat exchangers, Maryland, USA (2003). http://www2.bfrl.nist.gov/software/evap-cond/ [18

  6. Non-detection of HC11N towards TMC-1: constraining the chemistry of large carbon-chain molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Langston, Glen; McGuire, Brett A.; Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Corby, Joanna; Booth, Shawn T.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Turner, Barry; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2016-12-01

    Bell et al. reported the first detection of the cyanopolyyne HC11N towards the cold dark cloud TMC-1; no subsequent detections have been reported towards any source. Additional observations of cyanopolyynes and other carbon-chain molecules towards TMC-1 have shown a log-linear trend between molecule size and column density, and in an effort to further explore the underlying chemical processes driving this trend, we have analysed Green Bank Telescope observations of HC9N and HC11N towards TMC-1. Although we find an HC9N column density consistent with previous values, HC11N is not detected and we derive an upper limit column density significantly below that reported in Bell et al. Using a state-of-the-art chemical model, we have investigated possible explanations of non-linearity in the column density trend. Despite updating the chemical model to better account for ion-dipole interactions, we are not able to explain the non-detection of HC11N, and we interpret this as evidence of previously unknown carbon-chain chemistry. We propose that cyclization reactions may be responsible for the depleted HC11N abundance, and that products of these cyclization reactions should be investigated as candidate interstellar molecules.

  7. Hydrocarbon anomaly in soil gas as near-surface expressions of upflows and outflows in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, H.L.; Higashihara, M.; Klusman, R.W.; Voorhees, K.J.; Pudjianto, R.; Ong, J

    1996-01-24

    A variety of hydrocarbons, C1 - C12, have been found in volcanic gases (fumarolic) and in geothermal waters and gases. The hydrocarbons are thought to have come from products of pyrolysis of kerogen in sedimentary rocks or they could be fed into the geothermal system by the recharging waters which may contain dissolved hydrocarbons or hydrocarbons extracted by the waters from the rocks. In the hot geothermal zone, 300°+ C, many of these hydrocarbons are in their critical state. It is thought that they move upwards due to buoyancy and flux up with the upflowing geothermal fluids in the upflow zones together with the magmatic gases. Permeability which could be provided by faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures are thought to provide pathways for the upward flux. A sensitive technique (Petrex) utilizing passive integrative adsorption of the hydrocarbons in soil gas on activated charcoal followed by desorption and analysis of the hydrocarbons by direct introduction mass spectrometry allows mapping of the anomalous areas. Surveys for geothermal resources conducted in Japan and in Indonesia show that the hydrocarbon anomaly occur over known fields and over areas strongly suspected of geothermal potential. The hydrocarbons found and identified were n-paraffins (C7-C9) and aromatics (C7-C8). Detection of permeable, i.e. active or open faults, parts of older faults which have been reactivated, e.g. by younger intersecting faults, and the area surrounding these faulted and permeable region is possible. The mechanism leading to the appearance of the hydrocarbon in the soil gas over upflow zones of the geothermal reservoir is proposed. The paraffins seems to be better pathfinders for the location of upflows than the aromatics. However the aromatics may, under certain circumstances, give better indications of the direction of the outflow of the geothermal system. It is thought that an upflow zone can be

  8. Analytical system for stable carbon isotope measurements of low molecular weight (C2-C6) hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.; Holzinger, R.; Roeckmann, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present setup, testing and initial results from a new automated system for stable carbon isotope ratio measurements on C2 to C6 atmospheric hydrocarbons. The inlet system allows analysis of trace gases from air samples ranging from a few liters for urban samples and samples with high mixing ratio

  9. KEYBOARD DESIGNING AND PROGRAMMING BASED ON M68HC08 SERIAL MCU%基于M68HC08系列单片机的键盘设计与编程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜怀; 王林; 张志平

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the programming method of keyboard interrupt module for Motorola M68HC08 serial MCU is discussed. A design example about keyboard interface circuit based on MC68HC908GP32 MCU is given, and keyboard identification, the definition value of key, keyboard interrupt programming method are discussed.%讨论Motorola的新一代单片机M68HC08系列的键盘中断模块的编程方法,给出了一个基于MC68HC08GP32单片机的键盘接口电路设计实例,讨论了键的识别、键值定义、键盘中断等功能子程序的编制方法。

  10. TSR promotes the formation of oil-cracking gases: Evidence from simulation experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TSR is an interaction between sulfate and hydrocarbons, occurring widely in carbonate reservoirs. Because this process can produce a large amount of noxious acidic gases like H2S, it has drawn seri- ous concern recently. This paper reports an experiment that simulated an interaction between different minerals and hydrocarbon fluids under different temperature and time using a confined gold-tube system. The results showed that the main mineral that initiates TSR is MgSO4, and adding a certain amount of NaCl into the reactive system can also promote TSR and yield more H2S. The H2S produced in TSR is an important incentive for the continuous oxidative degradation of crude oils. For instance, the yield of oil-cracking gases affected by TSR was twice of that not affected by TSR while the yield of TSR-affected methane was even higher, up to three times of that unaffected by TSR. The carbon iso- topes of wet gases also became heavier. All of the above illustrated that TSR obviously motivates the oxidative degradation of crude oils, which makes the gaseous hydrocarbon generation sooner and increases the gas dryness as well. The study on this process is important for understanding the TSR mechanism and the mechanism of natural gas generation in marine strata.

  11. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases... a concentration of propane higher than what a gas supplier considers to be safe may be substituted... choice of diluent (zero air or purified nitrogen) between the calibration and span gases. If...

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehhalt, D.; Prather, M.; Dentener, F.; Derwent, R.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Holland, E.; Isaksen, I.; Katima, J.; Kirchhoff, V.; Matson, P.; Midgley, P.; Wang, M.; Berntsen, T.; Bey, I.; Brasseur, G.; Buja, L.; Collins, W. J.; Daniel, J. S.; DeMore, W. B.; Derek, N.; Dickerson, R.; Etheridge, D.; Feichter, J.; Fraser, P.; Friedl, R.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Gauss, M.; Grenfell, L.; Grubler, Arnulf; Harris, N.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Jackman, C.; Jacob, D.; Jaegle, L.; Jain, Atul K.; Kanakidou, M.; Karlsdottir, S.; Ko, M.; Kurylo, M.; Lawrence, M.; Logan, J. A.; Manning, M.; Mauzerall, D.; McConnell, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Montzka, S.; Muller, J. F.; Olivier, J.; Pickering, K.; Pitari, G.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rogers, H.; Rognerud, B.; Smith, Steven J.; Solomon, S.; Staehelin, J.; Steele, P.; Stevenson, D. S.; Sundet, J.; Thompson, A.; van Weele, M.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Wang, Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wigley, T. M.; Wild, O.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Yantosca, R.; Joos, Fortunat; McFarland, M.

    2001-10-01

    Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 2414.1 Introduction 2434.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 2484.3 Projections of Future Emissions 2664.4 Projections of Atmospheric Composition for the 21st Century 2674.5 Open Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric Chemistry Change 279

  13. Global warming and greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Belić Dragoljub S.

    2006-01-01

    Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

  14. Theoretical Insight into Shocked Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    I present the results of statistical mechanical calculations on shocked molecular gases. This work provides insight into the general behavior of shock Hugoniots of gas phase molecular targets with varying initial pressures. The dissociation behavior of the molecules is emphasized. Impedance matching calculations are performed to determine the maximum degree of dissociation accessible for a given flyer velocity as a function of initial gas pressure.

  15. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Birkelund, S; Holm, A;

    1996-01-01

    , in part, be due to Hc1-mediated alterations of DNA topology. To locate putative functional domains within Hc1, polypeptides Hc1(2-57) and Hc1(53-125), corresponding to the N- and C-terminal parts of Hc1, respectively, were generated. By chemical cross-linking with ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N...

  16. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briault, Pauline; Rieu, Mathilde; Laucournet, Richard; Morel, Bertrand; Viricelle, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-01

    This project deals with the development and the electrochemical characterization of anode supported single chamber SOFC in a simulated environment of thermal engine exhaust gas. In the present work, a gas mixture representative of exhaust conditions is selected. It is composed of hydrocarbons (HC: propane and propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water. Only oxygen content is varied leading to different gas mixtures characterized by three ratios R = HC/O2. Concerning the cell components, a cermet made of nickel and an electrolyte material, Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) is used as anode and two cathode materials, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) and Pr2NiO4+δ (PNO), are evaluated. The prepared cells are investigated in the various gas mixtures for temperatures ranging from 450 °C to 600 °C. Ni-CGO/CGO/LSCF-CGO cell has delivered a maximum power density of 15 mW cm-2 at 500 °C with R = HC/O2 = 0.21, while lower power densities are obtained for the other ratios, R = 0.44 and R = 0.67. Afterwards, LSCF and PNO cathode materials are compared and LSCF is found to deliver the highest power densities. Finally, by improving the electrolyte microstructure, some cells presenting a maximum power density of 25 mW cm-2 at 550 °C are produced. Moreover, up to 17% of initial HC are eliminated in the gas mixture.

  17. Geological and geochemical characteristics of the secondary biogenic gas in coalbed gases, Huainan coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaojun, Zhang; Zhenglin, Cao; Mingxin, Tao; Wanchun, Wang; Jinlong, Ma

    2010-09-15

    The research results show that the compositions of coalbed gases in Huainan coalfield have high content methane, low content heavy hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, and special dry gas. The evolution coal is at the stage of generation of thermogenic gases, but the d13C1 values within the range of biogenic gas (d13C1 values from -56.7{per_thousand} to -67.9{per_thousand}). The d13C2 value of coalbed gases in Huainan coalfield shows not only the features of the thermogenic ethane, but also the mixed features of the biogenic methane and thermogenic ethane. In geological characteristics, Huainan coalfield has favorable conditions of generation of secondary biogenic gas.

  18. Genetic Types and Distribution of CO2 Gases in the Huanghua Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinZhenkui; BaiWuhou; ZhangXiangxiang

    2005-01-01

    CO2 gas is a nonhydroearbon gas, with a high economic value and a broad prospect for application. In the Huanghua Depression, there exist many genetic types of CO2 gases, i.e. organic CO2, thermal metamorphic CO2 and crust-mantle mixed CO2. The distribution of different types of CO2 gases is controlled by different factors. Organic CO2 that occurs mainly around the oil-generating center is associated with hydrocarbon gases as a secondary product and commonly far away from large faults. Thermal metamorphic CO2 occurs mainly in areas where carbonate strata are developed and igneous activity is strong, and tends to accumulate near large faults. CO2 of such an origin is higher in concentration than organic CO2, but lower than crust-mantle mixed CO2. Crust-mantle mixed CO2 occurs mainly along large faults. Its distribution is limited, but its purity is the highest.

  19. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  20. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  1. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  2. Detection of HC/sup 18/O/sup +/ in Sagittarius B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelin, M.; Thaddeus, P.

    1979-02-01

    Line emission at 85.1 GHz attributed to the J=1..-->..O rotational transition of the formyl ion HC/sup 18/O/sup +/ has been detected in Sgr B2 (OH). The double isotopic ratio (/sup 16/O//sup 18/O)/(/sup 12/C//sup 13/C) in the formyl ion in Sgr B2 is estimated to be in the range 5--10, hence within a factor 2 of the terrestrial value 5.5. This determination implies that the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio near the galactic center does not differ greatly from that in local molecular clouds.

  3. Detection of HC/O-18//plus/ in Sagittarius B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelin, M.; Thaddeus, P.

    1979-01-01

    Line emission at 85.1 GHz attributed to the J equals 1-0 rotational transition of the formyl ion HC(O-18)(plus) has been detected in Sgr B2 (OH). The double isotopic ratio (O-16/O-18)/(C-12/C-13) in the formyl ion in Sgr B2 is estimated to be in the range 5-10, hence within a factor 2 of the terrestrial value of 5.5. This determination implies that the C-13/C-12 ratio near the galactic center does not differ greatly from that in local molecular clouds.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of intracellular pH reveals quantitative control of cell division rate by pHc in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orij, R.; Urbanus, M.L.; Vizeacoumar, F.J.; Giaever, G.; Boone, C.; Nislow, C.; Brul, S.; Smits, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Because protonation affects the properties of almost all molecules in cells, intracellular pH (pHc) is usually assumed to be constant. In the model organism yeast, however, pHc changes in response to the presence of nutrients and varies during growth. Since small changes in pHc

  5. Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Exhalation Zones of Thermally Active Mine Waste Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Kuna-Gwoździewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research carried out on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in gases of exhalation zones, created on the surface of a thermally active coal mine waste dump. The oxidation and self-heating of mine waste are accompanied with the intensive emission of flue gases, including PAH group compounds. Taking into consideration the fact the hydrocarbons show strong genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, research was conducted to establish their content in the examined gases. The research object was a gangue dump located in Rybnik. The research was performed in 2012. In total, 24 samples of gas were collected with PUF (polyurethane foam sampling cartridges with a quartz fibre filter and an aspirator. The collected samples were analysed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and a fluorescence detector (FLD to evaluate the amount of PAH present.

  6. Lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells is not accompanied by downregulation of AP-2 transcription factor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schorle Hubert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During pregnancy the mammary epithelium undergoes a complex developmental process which culminates in the generation of the milk-secreting epithelium. Secretory epithelial cells display lactogenic differentiation which is characterized by the expression of milk protein genes, such as beta-casein or whey acidic protein (WAP. Transcription factors AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma are downregulated during lactation, and their overexpression in transgenic mice impaired the secretory differentiation of the mammary epithelium, resulting in lactation failure. To explore whether the downregulation of AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma is of functional significance for lactogenic differentiation, we analyzed the expression of the AP-2 family members during the lactogenic differentiation of HC11 mammary epithelial cells in vitro. Differentiation of HC11 cells was induced following established protocols by applying the lactogenic hormones prolactin, dexamethasone and insulin. Findings HC11 cells express all AP-2 family members except AP-2delta. Using RT-PCR we could not detect a downregulation of any of these genes during the lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells in vitro. This finding was confirmed for AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma using Northern analysis. Differentiating HC11 cells displayed lower expression levels of milk protein genes than mammary glands of mid-pregnant or lactating mice. Conclusion The extent of lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells in vitro is limited compared to mammary epithelium undergoing secretory differentiation in vivo. Downregulation of AP-2 transcription factor genes is not required for lactogenic differentiation of HC11 cells but may functionally be involved in aspects of lactogenic differentiation in vivo that are not reflected by the HC11 system.

  7. Effects of unsaturated hydrocarbons on crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, W.C.; Heck, W.W.

    1960-01-01

    Damage to cotton and other crops in the vicinity of a Gulf Coast polyethylene plant has led to studies on the causative agent or agents responsible for crop losses. Responses exhibited by both native and cultivated plants of the area led to an initial diagnosis that the symptoms were caused by ethylene present in relatively high amounts in the atmosphere. Analysis of the stack gas showed 1.5% ethylene, 0.3% ethane, 8.7% carbon dioxide, 0.3% ethylene oxide and minute amounts of methane. Field analyses have shown concentrations of ethylene aging from 0.04 to 3 ppm depending upon atmospheric conditions (wind direction and velocity) as well as distance from the polyethylene plant. Various mixtures of hydrocarbon gases have been tested using cotton, coleus, tomato and other plant species. Ethylene has been found to be the most biologically active of the hydrocarbon gases studied. Controlled experiments have confirmed field observations that monocotyledonous plants such as sorghum and corn are relatively insensitive to ethylene, whereas dicotyledonous plants such as cotton, coleus, corn pea and tomato are extremely sensitive. Flower petal abscission in periwinkle and flower bud abscission in cotton have been found to be excellent indicators of extremely low levels of ethylene air pollution in both the field and in controlled experiments. Typical responses of cotton to low levels of ethylene include: lost of apical dominance with the resulting prostrate growth habit, flattening of upper stem and growing point, forcing of lateral buds, weakening of main stem, compacting of internodes, earlier and more profuse flowering with the abscission of squares, total loss of yield. 2 references.

  8. Performance of a split-type air conditioner matched with coiled adiabatic capillary tubes using HCFC22 and HC290

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Guobing [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhang, Yufeng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This paper experimentally investigated the system performance of a split-type air conditioner matching with different coiled adiabatic capillary tubes for HCFC22 and HC290. Experiments were carried out in a room-type calorimeter. The results have shown that (1) similar cooling effects can be achieved by matching various capillary tubes of different inner diameters; (2) parallel capillary tubes presented better system performance and flow stability with weaker inlet pressure fluctuations than the single capillary tube; (3) with the coil diameter of the capillary tube increasing from 40 mm to 120 mm, the mass flow rate tended to increase slightly. But the cooling capacity, input power and energy efficiency ratio (EER) did not show evident tendency of change; (4) the refrigerant charge and mass flow rate for HC290 were only 44% and 47% of that for HCFC22, respectively, due to the much lower density. And HC290 had 4.7-6.7% lower cooling capacity and 12.1-12.3% lower input power with respect to HCFC22. However, the EER of HC290 can be 8.5% higher than that of HCFC22, which exhibits the advantage of using HC290. In addition, the experimental uncertainties were analyzed and some application concerns of HC290 were discussed. (author)

  9. Non-Detection of HC$_{11}$N toward TMC-1: Constraining the Chemistry of Large Carbon-Chain Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Ryan A; Langston, Glen; McGuire, Brett A; Dollhopf, Niklaus M; Burkhardt, Andrew M; Corby, Joanna; Booth, Shawn T; Carroll, P Brandon; Turner, Barry; Remijan, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Bell et al. (1997) reported the first detection of the cyanopolyyne HC$_{11}$N toward the cold dark cloud TMC-1; no subsequent detections have been reported toward any source. Additional observations of cyanopolyynes and other carbon-chain molecules toward TMC-1 have shown a log-linear trend between molecule size and column density, and in an effort to further explore the underlying chemical processes driving this trend, we have analyzed GBT observations of HC$_9$N and HC$_{11}$N toward TMC-1. Although we find an HC$_9$N column density consistent with previous values, HC$_{11}$N is not detected and we derive an upper limit column density significantly below that reported in Bell et al. Using a state-of-the-art chemical model, we have investigated possible explanations of non-linearity in the column density trend. Despite updating the chemical model to better account for ion-dipole interactions, we are not able to explain the non-detection of HC$_{11}$N, and we interpret this as evidence of previously unknown ...

  10. The covalently bound HC tbnd N dimer ions HC dbnd N-N dbnd CH rad + and HC dbnd N-C( dbnd N)H rad + are stable species in the gas-phase, but the neutral counterparts are not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Karl J.; Hanifa, M. Ruzni; Ruttink, Paul J. A.; Terlouw, Johan K.

    2009-05-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry based experiments and computational chemistry (CBS-QB3/APNO methods) indicate that ionized s-tetrazine eliminates N 2 to yield the elusive linear HC tbnd N dimer ion HC dbnd N-N dbnd CH rad + ( 1). The ion is stable in the rarefied gas-phase but, as it is generated with considerable internal energy, it readily interconverts with HC dbnd N-C( dbnd N)H rad + ( 2), via a 1,2-HCN shift. This more stable HCN dimer ion was generated independently by loss of HCN from ionized s-triazine. Whereas the HN tbnd C dimer ion HN dbnd C dbnd C dbnd NH rad + has a (kinetically) stable neutral counterpart, theory and experiment (neutralization-reionization mass spectrometry) agree that the HC tbnd N dimer ions 1 and 2 do not.

  11. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  12. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  13. N2H+ and HC3N Observations of the Orion A Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Tatematsu, K; Umemoto, T; Sekimoto, Y

    2008-01-01

    The ``integral-shaped filament'' of the Orion A giant molecular cloud was mapped in N2H+, and its northern end, the OMC-2/3 region was observed also in HC3N and CCS. The N2H+ distribution is similar to the dust continuum distribution, except for the central part of the Orion Nebula. The distribution of H13CO+ holds resemblance to that of dust continuum, but the N2H+ distribution looks more similar to dust continuum distribution. The N-bearing molecules, N2H+ and NH3 seem to be more intense in OMC-2, compared with the H13CO+ and CS distribution. We identified 34 cloud cores from N2H+ data. Over the Orion Nebula region, the N2H+ linewidth is large (1.1-2.1 km/s). In the OMC-2/3 region, it becomes moderate (0.5-1.3 km/s), and it is smaller (0.3-1.1 km/s) in the south of the Orion Nebula. On the other hand, the gas kinetic temperature of the quiescent cores observed in N2H+ is rather constant (~ 20 K) over the $\\int$-shaped filament. We detected no CCS emission in the OMC-2/3 region. In general, N2H+ and HC3N dis...

  14. C2H, HC3N and HNC Observations in OMC-2/3

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Xu, Ye

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, the OMC-2/3 region was mapped in C2H(1-0), HC3N(10-9) and HNC(1-0) lines. In general, the emissions from all the three molecular species reveal an extended filamentary structure. The distribution of C2H cores almost follows that of the 1300 $\\mu$m condensations, which might suggest that C2H is a good tracer to study the core structure of molecular clouds. The core masses traced by HNC are rather flat, ranging from 18.8 to 49.5 $M_{\\odot}$, while present a large span for those from C2H, ranging from 6.4 to 36.0 $M_{\\odot}$. The line widths of both HNC and C2H look very similar, and both are wider than that of HC3N. The line widths of the three lines are all wider than those from dark clouds, implying that the former is more active than the latter, and has larger turbulence caused by winds and UV radiation from the surrounding massive stars.

  15. Luminous HC3N line emission in NGC4418 - buried AGN or nascent starburst?

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, S; Martin, S

    2007-01-01

    IRAM 30m observations reveal that the deeply obscured IR-luminous galaxy NGC4418 has a rich molecular chemistry - including unusually luminous HC3N line emission. We furthermore detect: ortho-H2CO 2-1, 3-2; CN 1-0, 2-1; HCO+, 1-0. 3-2, HCN 3-2, HNC 1-0, 3-2 (and tentatively OCS 12-11). The HCN, HCO+, H2CO and CN line emission can be fitted to densities of n=5 x 10E4 - 10E5 cm-3 and gas temperatures Tk=80-150 K. Both HNC and HC3N are, however, significantly more excited than the other species which requires higher gas densities - or radiative excitation through e.g. mid-IR pumping. The HCN line intensity is fainter than that of HCO+ and HNC for the 3-2 transition, in contrast to previous findings for the 1-0 lines where the HCN emission is the most luminous. We tentatively suggest that the observed molecular line emission is consistent with a young starburst, where the emission can be understood as emerging from dense, warm gas with an additional PDR component. We find that X-ray chemistry is not required to e...

  16. JM47, a cyclic tetrapeptide HC-toxin analogue from a marine Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong; Barret, Marc-Olivier; Boyd, Kenneth G; Adams, David R; Boyd, Alan S F; Burgess, J Grant

    2002-05-01

    The known metabolite, enniatin B, and a cyclic tetrapeptide, JM47, which is a new natural product, were extracted from brown rice cultures of a marine fungus, identified as a Fusarium species, isolated from the marine alga Codium fragile. NMR studies, including 15N HMQC and 15N HMBC, established the structure of JM47 as cyclo(Ala-Ala-Aoh-Pro), where Aoh is the amino acid, (2S,9S)-2-amino-8-oxo-9-hydroxydecanoic acid. The absolute stereochemistry of the Aoh side chain carbinol centre was determined using Mosher ester methodology. Analysis of NOESY data assisted by molecular modelling revealed an alternating L-, D-, L-, D-configuration for the tetrapeptide core. The absolute stereochemistry of the core was determined by acidic hydrolysis and chiral TLC analysis of the proline residue. JM47 belongs to the HC-toxin family of cyclic tetrapeptides which possess a 2-amino-8-oxo-9,10-epoxydecanoic acid residue in place of the Aoh unit. This is the first report of an analogue of HC-toxin from a marine Fusarium species.

  17. Ext The effect of littoralis leaf extract on Hemolytic Value (HC50 of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jiang WANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Umbelliferae littoralis leaf extract on the Hemolytic Value (HC50 of mice, and to provide the basis for the development and utilization medicinal resources and edible resources. Methods: Prepare littoralis leaf water extract and alcohol extract, and set different dose treatment groups and blank control group, and continuously deliver American ginseng capsule for 15 days. Inject sRBC according to the weight on the tenth day. Take the blood serum from eyeball blood after 5 days. Put supernatant of 1ml and Dulbecco's reagent of 3ml in the test tube, and mix the 10% sRBC of 0.25ml and Dulbecco's reagent of 4ml together in another test tube, and measure absorbance at 540nm fine control (SA liquid tubing as blank, HC50 value were calculated. Results: Different extracts of stems and littoralis leaf were given to the mice for 15 days, and hemolytic value of the mice in water extract 4.68g/kg dose group, alcohol extract 4.68g/kg dose group and American ginseng capsule group significantly increased while comparing with the blank control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Littoralis Leaf plays an important role in regulating human immunity.

  18. Experimental evaluation of automotive air-conditioning using HFC-134a and HC-134a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Henry; Zainudin, Muhammad Amir; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Latiff, Zulkarnain Abdul; Perang, Mohd Rozi Mohd; Rahman, Abd Halim Abdul

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study to evaluate the energy consumption of an automotive air conditioning is presented. In this study, these refrigerants will be tested using the experimental rig which simulated the actual cars as a cabin complete with a cooling system component of the actual car that is as the blower, evaporator, condenser, radiators, electric motor, which acts as a vehicle engine, and then the electric motor will operate the compressor using a belt and pulley system, as well as to the alternator will recharge the battery. The compressor working with the fluids HFC-134a and HC-134a and has been tested varying the speed in the range 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 rpm. The measurements taken during the one hour experimental periods at 2-minutes interval times for temperature setpoint of 20°C with internal heat loads 0, 500, 700 and 1000 W. The final results of this study show an overall better energy consumption of the HFC-134a compared with the HC-134a.

  19. C2H, HC3N and HNC observations in OMC-2/3 *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Liu; Ji Yang; Yan Sun; Ye Xu

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, the OMC-2/3 region was mapped in C2H (1-0), HC3N (10-9) and HNC (1-0) lines. In general, the emissions from all the three molecular species reveal an extended filamentary structure. The distribution of C2H cores almost follows that of the 1300 μtm condensations, which might suggest that C2H is a good tracer to study the core structure of molecular clouds. The core masses traced by HNC are rather fiat, ranging from 18.8 to 49.5 M⊙, while also presenting a large span for those from C2H, ranging from 6.4 to 36.0 M⊙. The line widths of both HNC and C2H look very similar, and both are wider than that of HC3N. The line widths of the three lines are all wider than those from dark clouds, implying that the former is more active than the latter, and has larger turbulence caused by winds and UV radiation from the surrounding massive stars.

  20. Research Of Polytropic Exponent Changing For Influence Evaluation Of Actual Mixture Composition On Hydrocarbons Concentration Decreasing On Deep Throttling Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolenskaya, N. M.; Smolenskii, V. V.; Bobrovskij, I.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present study of polytropic exponent as rating of thermodynamic process in internal combustion motor operating to deep throttling in a subcase of idle running. It is necessary to consider the influence of hydrocarbon part in exhaust gases in a process of development a new internal combustion engines especially on deep throttling operation: on combustion procedure, on irregularity of exhaust gases composition.

  1. Combining GTL fuel, reformed EGR and HC-SCR aftertreatment system to reduce diesel NO{sub x} emissions. A statistical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Dpto. Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Tsolakis, A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Cracknell, R.F.; Clark, R.H. [Shell Global Solutions, Cheshire Innovation Park, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    An ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel and a synthetic gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel, besides different types of standard and reformed EGR, were evaluated in a single-cylinder, direct injection, diesel engine equipped with hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) aftertreatment system. The results obtained were statistically analysed (at 95% statistical significance) to identify the most significant factors that affect NO{sub x} emissions and to search for the optimum operation conditions in order to minimize these emissions. For that purpose, a fully crossed factorial experimental design was used, including two different engine speeds (1200 and 1500 rpm), two engine loads (25% and 50%), and four EGR/REGR ratios (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) resulting in almost one hundred tests. An optimal combination of fuel type, REGR type and REGR ratio was proved to reduce around 89-95% of the reference NO{sub x} emissions. In general, at 25% engine load GTL fuelling combined with the reformed EGR with the highest hydrogen content was found the most desirable, as the hydrogen sharply increased the NO{sub x} conversion in the SCR catalyst. Differently, at 50% load standard EGR was sufficient to reach high NO{sub x} reductions. These findings may be used for the implementation of a system on-board capable to switch from EGR to REGR, which will help engine manufacturers to meet the future emission regulations. (author)

  2. Kinetic approach to granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, A; Loreto, V; Marini Bettolo Marconi, U; Vulpiani, A

    1999-05-01

    We address the problem of the so-called "granular gases," i.e., gases of massive particles in rapid movement undergoing inelastic collisions. We introduce a class of models of driven granular gases for which the stationary state is the result of the balance between the dissipation and the random forces which inject energies. These models exhibit a genuine thermodynamic limit, i.e., at fixed density the mean values of kinetic energy and dissipated energy per particle are independent of the number N of particles, for large values of N. One has two regimes: when the typical relaxation time tau of the driving Brownian process is small compared with the mean collision time tau(c) the spatial density is nearly homogeneous and the velocity probability distribution is Gaussian. In the opposite limit tau>tau(c) one has strong spatial clustering, with a fractal distribution of particles, and the velocity probability distribution strongly deviates from the Gaussian one. Simulations performed in one and two dimensions under the Stosszahlansatz Boltzmann approximation confirm the scenario. Furthermore, we analyze the instabilities bringing to the spatial and the velocity clusterization. Firstly, in the framework of a mean-field model, we explain how the existence of the inelasticity can lead to a spatial clusterization; on the other hand, we discuss, in the framework of a Langevin dynamics treating the collisions in a mean-field way, how a non-Gaussian distribution of velocity can arise. The comparison between the numerical and the analytical results exhibits an excellent agreement.

  3. Mechanics of liquids and gases

    CERN Document Server

    Loitsyanskii, L G; Jones, W P

    1966-01-01

    Mechanics of Liquids and Gases, Second Edition is a 10-chapter text that covers significant revisions concerning the dynamics of an ideal gas, a viscous liquid and a viscous gas.After an expanded introduction to the fundamental properties and methods of the mechanics of fluids, this edition goes on dealing with the kinetics and general questions of dynamics. The next chapters describe the one-dimensional pipe flow of a gas with friction, the elementary theory of the shock tube; Riemann's theory of the wave propagation of finite intensity, and the theory of plane subsonic and supersonic flows.

  4. 40 CFR 1065.372 - NDUV analyzer HC and H2O interference verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this part. Use the FID response as the reference hydrocarbon value. (3) Upstream of any sample dryer... verification. 1065.372 Section 1065.372 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and...

  5. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  6. Geochemistry of drill core headspace gases and its significance in gas hydrate drilling in Qilian Mountain permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengquan; Rao, Zhu; He, Jiaxiong; Zhu, Youhai; Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ting; Xue, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Headspace gases from cores are sampled in the gas hydrate drilling well DK-8 in the Qilian Mountain permafrost. Gas components and carbon isotopes of methane from headspace gas samples are analyzed. The geochemical features of the headspace gases along the well profile are compared with occurrences of gas hydrate, and with the distribution of faults or fractures. Their geochemical significance is finally pointed out in gas hydrate occurrences and hydrocarbon migration. Results show high levels of hydrocarbon concentrations in the headspace gases at depths of 149-167 m, 228-299 m, 321-337 m and 360-380 m. Visible gas hydrate and its associated anomalies occur at 149-167 m and 228-299 m; the occurrence of high gas concentrations in core headspace gases was correlated to gas hydrate occurrences and their associated anomalies, especially in the shallow layers. Gas compositions, gas ratios of C1/ΣC1-5, C1/(C2 + C3), iC4/nC4, and iC5/nC5, and carbon isotopic compositions of methane (δ13C1, PDB‰) indicate that the headspace gases are mainly thermogenic, partly mixed with biodegraded thermogenic sources with small amounts derived from microbial sources. Faults or fracture zones are identified at intervals of 149-167 m, 228-299 m, 321-337 m, and near 360-380 m; significantly higher gas concentrations and lower dryness ratio were found in the headspace gases within the fault or fracture zones compared with areas above these zones. In the shallow zones, low dryness ratios were observed in headspace gases in zones where gas hydrate and faults or fracture zones were found, suggesting that faults or fracture zones serve as migration paths for gases in the deep layers and provide accumulation space for gas hydrate in the shallow layers of the Qilian Mountain permafrost.

  7. Multifunctional cellulolytic auxiliary activity protein HcAA10-2 from Hahella chejuensis enhances enzymatic hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatge, Sunil S; Telke, Amar A; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Lee, Yuno; Lee, Keun-Woo; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Seon-Won

    2015-04-01

    The modular auxiliary activity (AA) family of proteins is believed to cause amorphogenesis in addition to oxidative cleavage of crystalline cellulose although the supporting evidence is limited. HcAA10-2 is a modular AA10 family protein (58 kDa) composed of a AA10 module and a family two carbohydrate binding module (CBM2), joined by a long stretch of 222 amino acids of unknown function. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of Avicel treated with HcAA10-2 provided evidence for the disruption of the cellulose microfibrils ("amorphogenesis") and reduction of the crystallinity index, resulting in a twofold increase of cellulase adsorption on the polysaccharide surface. HcAA10-2 exhibited weak endoglucanase-like activity toward soluble cellulose and cello-oligosaccharides with an optimum at pH 6.5 and 45 °C. HcAA10-2 catalyzed oxidative cleavage of crystalline cellulose released native and oxidized cello-oligosaccharides in the presence of copper and an electron donor such as ascorbic acid. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that His1, His109, and Phe197 in the AA10 module formed the conserved copper-binding site. The reducing sugar released from Avicel by the endoglucanase Cel5 and Celluclast accompanying HcAA10-2 was increased by four- and sixfold, respectively. Moreover, HcAA10-2 and Celluclast acted synergistically on pretreated wheat straw biomass resulting in a threefold increase in reducing sugar than Celluclast alone. Taken together, these results suggest that HcAA10-2 is a novel multifunctional modular AA10 protein possessing amorphogenesis, weak endoglucanase, and oxidative cleavage activities useful for efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose.

  8. Tetanus Toxin Hc Fragment Induces the Formation of Ceramide Platforms and Protects Neuronal Cells against Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Cubí

    Full Text Available Tetanus toxin (TeTx is the protein, synthesized by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus disease. TeTx gains entry into target cells by means of its interaction with lipid rafts, which are membrane domains enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol. However, the exact mechanism of host membrane binding remains to be fully established. In the present study we used the recombinant carboxyl terminal fragment from TeTx (Hc-TeTx, the domain responsible for target neuron binding, showing that Hc-TeTx induces a moderate but rapid and sustained increase in the ceramide/sphingomyelin ratio in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons and in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells, as well as induces the formation of ceramide platforms in the plasma membrane. The mentioned increase is due to the promotion of neutral sphingomyelinase activity and not to the de novo synthesis, since GW4869, a specific neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor, prevents neutral sphingomyelinase activity increase and formation of ceramide platforms. Moreover, neutral sphingomyelinase inhibition with GW4869 prevents Hc-TeTx-triggered signaling (Akt phosphorylation, as well as the protective effect of Hc-TeTx on PC12 cells subjected to oxidative stress, while siRNA directed against nSM2 prevents protection by Hc-TeTx of NSC-34 cells against oxidative insult. Finally, neutral sphingomyelinase activity seems not to be related with the internalization of Hc-TeTx into PC12 cells. Thus, the presented data shed light on the mechanisms triggered by TeTx after membrane binding, which could be related with the events leading to the neuroprotective action exerted by the Hc-TeTx fragment.

  9. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Capturing Gases in Carbon Honeycomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.

    2017-04-01

    In our recent paper (Krainyukova and Zubarev in Phys Rev Lett 116:055501, 2016. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.055501) we reported the observation of an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. A family of structures can be built from absolutely dominant {sp}2-bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. Such structures demonstrate high absorption capacity for gases and liquids. In this work we show that the formation of honeycomb structures is highly sensitive to the carbon evaporation temperature and deposition rates. Both parameters are controlled by the electric current flowing through thin carbon rods. Two distinctly different regimes were found. At lower electric currents almost pure honeycomb structures form owing to sublimation. At higher currents the surface-to-bulk rod melting is observed. In the latter case densification of the carbon structures and a large contribution of glassy graphite emerge. The experimental diffraction patterns from honeycomb structures filled with absorbed gases and analyzed by the advanced method are consistent with the proposed models for composites which are different for Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in carbon matrices.

  11. Cloud processing of soluble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, P.; Fuzzi, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Lind, J. A.; Orsi, G.; Preiss, M.; Maser, R.; Jaeschke, W.; Seyffer, E.; Helas, G.; Acker, K.; Wieprecht, W.; Möller, D.; Arends, B. G.; Mols, J. J.; Colvile, R. N.; Gallagher, M. W.; Beswick, K. M.; Hargreaves, K. J.; Storeton-West, R. L.; Sutton, M. A.

    Experimental data from the Great Dun Fell Cloud Experiment 1993 were used to investigate interactions between soluble gases and cloud droplets. Concentrations of H 2O 2, SO 2, CH 3COOOH, HCOOH, and HCHO were monitored at different sites within and downwind of a hill cap cloud and their temporal and spatial evolution during several cloud events was investigated. Significant differences were found between in-cloud and out-of-cloud concentrations, most of which could not be explained by simple dissolution into cloud droplets. Concentration patterns were analysed in relation to the chemistry of cloud droplets and the gas/liquid equilibrium. Soluble gases do not undergo similar behaviour: CH 3COOH simply dissolves in the aqueous phase and is outgassed upon cloud dissipation; instead, SO 2 is consumed by its reaction with H 2O 2. The behaviour of HCOOH is more complex because there is evidence for in-cloud chemical production. The formation of HCOOH interferes with the odd hydrogen cycle by enhancing the liquid-phase production of H 2O 2. The H 2O 2 concentration in cloud therefore results from the balance of consumption by oxidation of SO 2 in-cloud production, and the rate by which it is supplied to the system by entrainment of new air into the clouds.

  12. Capturing Gases in Carbon Honeycomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.

    2016-12-01

    In our recent paper (Krainyukova and Zubarev in Phys Rev Lett 116:055501, 2016. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.055501) we reported the observation of an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. A family of structures can be built from absolutely dominant {sp}2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. Such structures demonstrate high absorption capacity for gases and liquids. In this work we show that the formation of honeycomb structures is highly sensitive to the carbon evaporation temperature and deposition rates. Both parameters are controlled by the electric current flowing through thin carbon rods. Two distinctly different regimes were found. At lower electric currents almost pure honeycomb structures form owing to sublimation. At higher currents the surface-to-bulk rod melting is observed. In the latter case densification of the carbon structures and a large contribution of glassy graphite emerge. The experimental diffraction patterns from honeycomb structures filled with absorbed gases and analyzed by the advanced method are consistent with the proposed models for composites which are different for Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in carbon matrices.

  13. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  14. Geofluid dynamic concept of hydrocarbon accumulation in natural reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimov, V. Yu.; Rachinsky, M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Most modern theories axiomatically assume that hydrocarbons (HCs), which migrate in different ways from the generation zones and sources with high gradients of reduced pressures, concentrate in autochthonous natural reservoirs possessing smaller levels of reservoir energy. Hydraulic drainage of reservoirs is possible in principle through only three mechanisms: (i) horizontally oriented regional elisional water flow upwards, along the plunge of general folding from central parts of basins towards their peripheral frames; (ii) owing to the effect of lateral pressure of groundwater immediately in traps, with subsequent pushing out by high-pressure fluids supplied to the sunken parts of folds; (iii) vertically directed, from bottom to top, overflow injection mechanism. The study of their possible implementations and relative ratios in the outcome comprise the content of the proposed fluid-dynamic concept of HC accumulation.

  15. Low-mature gases and typical low-mature gas fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No natural gas pool of industrial importance could be formed at the low-evolution stage of organic matter. In the 1980s, on the basis of the development in exploration practice, the hypotheses of bio-thermo-catalytic transitional zone gases and early thermogenic gases were proposed. The lower-limit Ro values for the formation and accumulation of natural gases of industrial importance have been expanded to 0.3%―0.4%. In the light of the two-stage model established on the basis of carbon isotope fractionation in coal-type natural gases, the upper-limit Ro values have been set at 0.8%―1.0%. In terms of the geological practice in the low-mature gas zones and China’s main coal-type gas fields, it is feasible and proper to set the upper-limit Ro value of low-mature gases at 0.8%. Supper-large gas fields such as the Urengoy gas field in western Siberian Basin should belong to low-mature gas fields, of which the natural gas reserves account for more than 20% of the global proven reserves, providing strong evidence for the significance of such a type of resources. The proven natural gas reserves in the Turpan-Hami Basin of China have almost reached 1000 × 108 m3. The main source rocks in this area are the Jurassic Xishanyao Formation, which occurs as a suite of coal series strata. The corresponding thermal evolution indices (Ro ) are mainly within the range of about 0.4%―0.8%, the δ 13C1 values of methane vary between-44‰ and-39‰ (correspondingly Ro =0.6%―0.8%), and those of ethane are within the range of-29‰―-26‰, indicating that natural gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin should be designated to coal-type low-mature gases. The light hydrocarbon evolution indices of natural gases also fall within the area of low evolution while the precursor type of light hydrocarbons also shows the characteristics of the coal-type. The geological background, carbon isotopic composition and light hydrocarbon index all provide strong evidence suggesting that the proven

  16. The trapping system for the recirculated gases at different locations of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) pipe of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperel, A.; Montagne, X.; Dagaut, P.

    2008-10-01

    Nowadays, in diesel engines, it is typical to recycle exhaust gases (EGR) in order to decrease pollutant emissions. However, few studies report the precisely measured composition of the recycled gases. Indeed, in order to know precisely the composition of the EGR gases, they have to be sampled hot and not diluted, in contrast to the usual practice. Thus, a new system to collect such samples was developed. With this new trapping system, it is possible to measure the concentrations of NOx, CO, CO2, O2, hydrocarbons (HCs) in the range C1-C9, aldehydes, ketones and PAHs. The trapping system and the analytical protocol used are described in this paper.

  17. Effective conversion of biomass tar into fuel gases in a microwave reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with conversion of naphthalene (C10H8) as a biomass tar model compound by means of thermal and catalytic treatments. A modified microwave oven with a maximum output power of 700 W was used as the experimental reactor. Experiments were performed in a wide temperature range of 450-1200°C at a predetermined residence time of 0.24-0.5 s. Dolomite and Y-zeolite were applied to convert naphthalene catalytically into useful gases. Experimental results on naphthalene conversion showed that conversion efficiency and yield of gases increased significantly with the increase of temperature. More than 90% naphthalene conversion efficiency was achieved by thermal treatment at 1200°C and 0.5 s. Nevertheless, this treatment was unfavorable for fuel gases production. The main product of this treatment was soot. Catalytic treatment provided different results with that of thermal treatment in which fuel gases formation was found to be the important product of naphthalene conversion. At a high temperature of 900°C, dolomite had better conversion activity where almost 40 wt.% of naphthalene could be converted into hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbon gases.

  18. Effective conversion of biomass tar into fuel gases in a microwave reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anis, Samsudin, E-mail: samsudin-anis@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Kampus Sekaran, Gunungpati, 50229 Semarang, 8508101 (Indonesia); Zainal, Z. A., E-mail: mezainal@usm.my [School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-06-03

    This work deals with conversion of naphthalene (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}) as a biomass tar model compound by means of thermal and catalytic treatments. A modified microwave oven with a maximum output power of 700 W was used as the experimental reactor. Experiments were performed in a wide temperature range of 450-1200°C at a predetermined residence time of 0.24-0.5 s. Dolomite and Y-zeolite were applied to convert naphthalene catalytically into useful gases. Experimental results on naphthalene conversion showed that conversion efficiency and yield of gases increased significantly with the increase of temperature. More than 90% naphthalene conversion efficiency was achieved by thermal treatment at 1200°C and 0.5 s. Nevertheless, this treatment was unfavorable for fuel gases production. The main product of this treatment was soot. Catalytic treatment provided different results with that of thermal treatment in which fuel gases formation was found to be the important product of naphthalene conversion. At a high temperature of 900°C, dolomite had better conversion activity where almost 40 wt.% of naphthalene could be converted into hydrogen, methane and other hydrocarbon gases.

  19. ALMA MEASUREMENTS OF THE HNC AND HC{sub 3}N DISTRIBUTIONS IN TITAN'S ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Nixon, C. A.; Serigano, J.; Charnley, S. B.; Milam, S. N.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G.; Paganini, L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen' s Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Lis, D. C. [Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75014 Paris (France); Kuan, Y.-J. [National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan, ROC (China); Remijan, A. J., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present spectrally and spatially resolved maps of HNC and HC{sub 3}N emission from Titan's atmosphere, obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array on 2013 November 17. These maps show anisotropic spatial distributions for both molecules, with resolved emission peaks in Titan's northern and southern hemispheres. The HC{sub 3}N maps indicate enhanced concentrations of this molecule over the poles, consistent with previous studies of Titan's photochemistry and atmospheric circulation. Differences between the spectrally integrated flux distributions of HNC and HC{sub 3}N show that these species are not co-spatial. The observed spectral line shapes are consistent with HNC being concentrated predominantly in the mesosphere and above (at altitudes z ≳ 400 km), whereas HC{sub 3}N is abundant at a broader range of altitudes (z ≈ 70-600 km). From spatial variations in the HC{sub 3}N line profile, the locations of the HC{sub 3}N emission peaks are shown to be variable as a function of altitude. The peaks in the integrated emission from HNC and the line core (upper atmosphere) component of HC{sub 3}N (at z ≳ 300 km) are found to be asymmetric with respect to Titan's polar axis, indicating that the mesosphere may be more longitudinally variable than previously thought. The spatially integrated HNC and HC{sub 3}N spectra are modeled using the NEMESIS planetary atmosphere code and the resulting best-fitting disk-averaged vertical mixing ratio profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement with previous measurements for these species. Vertical column densities of the best-fitting gradient models for HNC and HC{sub 3}N are 1.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup –2} and 2.3 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup –2}, respectively.

  20. Utilization of the Net Heat Process Tail Gases in the Reactor for the Production of Oil-Furnace Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosak, Z.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tail gases of low calorific value, which are the by-product of oil-furnace carbon black industrial production, can be efficiently used as energy before their final release into the atmosphere. Apart from being used mainly for heating dryers, production of steam, electricity, or flared, they can also be used as a substitute for fuel in the reactor for the production of oil-furnace carbon blacks, thus increasing the efficiency of the hydrocarbon raw feedstock.This technical paper represents the technical-technological solution for applying the waste heat of the low calorific tail gases in the reactor for the production of "hard" grade oil-furnace carbon blacks with savings of the hydrocarbon raw feedstock.The introduction of the preheated low calorific tail gases in the reactor for the production of "hard" grade oil-furnace carbon blacks is achieved by serial cascading of four fans. The system consists of fans designed to pneumatically transport the mixture of process tail gases and oil-furnace carbon black dust particles. This ensures a stable technological process for the introduction of the low calorific process tail gases into the reaction zone where the natural gas and preheated air are combusted.In the production of oil-furnace carbon black N220, it is shown that by using low calorific process tail gases in the amount from 1000 to 2000 m3 h–1 per reactor, savings from 10 to 20 % of natural gas and simultaneously 7 to 9 % of the hydrocarbon raw feedstoks were achieved.

  1. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  2. Molecular structure, chemical synthesis, and antibacterial activity of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from drury (Hyphantria cunea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Xiaolong; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous efforts to develop new antibiotics with new modes of actions. In this paper, cDNA encoding cecropin A was amplified from drury (Hyphantria cunea) (dHC) pupa fatbody total RNA using RT-PCR. The full-length dHC-cecropin A cDNA encoded a protein of 63 amino acids with a predicted 26-amino acid signal peptide and a 37-amino acid functional domain. We synthesized the antibacterial peptide (ABP) from the 37-amino acid functional domain (ABP-dHC-cecropin A), and amidated it via the C-terminus. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed its molecular weight to be 4058.94. The ABP-dHC-cecropin A was assessed in terms of its protein structure using bioinformatics and CD spectroscopy. The protein's secondary structure was predicted to be α-helical. In an antibacterial activity analysis, the ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial activity against E. coli K12D31 and Agrobacterium EHA105. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. a Search for Interstellar Carbon-Chain Alcohol HC4OH in the Star Forming Region L1527

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Takano, Shuro; Koshikawa, Hiromichi Yamabe Naohiro; Tsukiyama, Koichi; Nakane, Aya; Okabatyashi, Toshiaki; Kunimatsu, Arisa; Kuze, Nobuhiko

    2011-06-01

    We have made a sensitive search for the rotational transitions of carbon-chain alcohol HC_4OH with the frequency ragne from 21.2 to 46.7 GHz in the star forming region L1527 in Taurus with rich carbon-chain chemistry. The incentive of this observation was a laboratory detection of HC_4OH by the microwave spectroscopy. Despite achieving an rms of several mK in antenna temperature by the 45m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory, the searche for HC_4OH was negative, leading to a 5 sigma upper limit corresponding to the column density of 4 × 1012 Cm-2 based on the excitation temperature of 12.3 K. The upper limit indicates that the [HC_4-OH]/[HC_4-CN] ratio is less than 1.0. The ratio suggests that the cyanide species with carbon-chain structure is dominant in comparison with the hydroxyl one in L1527, which can be the opposite case of saturated compounds, e.g. CH_3OH and CH_3CN, in hot cores and dark clouds.

  4. Heterodimerization of y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc visualized by acceptor photobleaching FRET microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemola, Maaria; Toivonen, Minna; Mykkänen, Juha; Simell, Olli; Huoponen, Kirsi; Heiskanen, Kaisa M

    2007-10-01

    y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc are the subunits of a transporter complex for cationic amino acids, located mainly in the basolateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells in the small intestine and renal tubules. Mutations in y(+)LAT-1 impair the transport function of this complex and cause a selective aminoaciduria, lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI, OMIM #222700), associated with severe, complex clinical symptoms. The subunits of an active transporter co-localize in the plasma membrane, but the exact process of dimerization is unclear since direct evidence for the assembly of this transporter in intact human cells has not been available. In this study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy to investigate the interactions of y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc in HEK293 cells expressing y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc fused with ECFP or EYFP. FRET was quantified by measuring fluorescence intensity changes in the donor fluorophore (ECFP) after the photobleaching of the acceptor (EYFP). Increased donor fluorescence could be detected throughout the cell, from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex to the plasma membrane. Therefore, our data prove the interaction of y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc prior to the plasma membrane and thus provide evidence for 4F2hc functioning as a chaperone in assisting the transport of y(+)LAT-1 to the plasma membrane.

  5. Observation of hc Radiative Decay hc→γ η' and Evidence for hc→γ η

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    A search for radiative decays of the P -wave spin singlet charmonium resonance hc is performed based on 4.48 ×108 ψ' events collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage ring. Events of the reaction channels hc→γ η' and γ η are observed with a statistical significance of 8.4 σ and 4.0 σ , respectively, for the first time. The branching fractions of hc→γ η' and hc→γ η are measured to be B (hc→γ η')=(1.52 ±0.27 ±0.29 )×10-3 and B (hc→γ η )=(4.7 ±1.5 ±1.4 )×10-4, respectively, where the first errors are statistical and the second are systematic uncertainties.

  6. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  7. Hydrocarbon removal from bilgewater by a combination of air-stripping and photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazoir, D., E-mail: david.cazoir@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [University Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69626, France, CNRS, UMR5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69626 (France); Fine, L.; Ferronato, C.; Chovelon, J.-M. [University Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69626, France, CNRS, UMR5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69626 (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bilge water is an oily effluent that contaminates oceans and seas (MARPOL73/78). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrocarbon removal was studied by photocatalysis and air-stripping, together used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both aqueous and gaseous phases were monitored by GC-MS during the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combined process showed a better efficiency and a synergistic effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Alkanes (N{sub C} > 15) appeared as being the most refractory compounds. - Abstract: In order to prevent hydrocarbon discharge at sea from the bilge of ships, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) enacted the MARPOL 73/78 convention in which effluents are now limited to those with maximum oil content of 15 ppmv. Thus, photocatalysis and air-stripping were combined for the hydrocarbon removal from a real oily bilgewater sample and an original monitoring of both aqueous and gaseous phases was performed by GC/MS to better understand the process. Our results show that the hydrocarbon oil index [HC] can be reduced to its maximum permissible value of 15 ppmv (MARPOL) in only 8.5 h when photocatalysis and air-stripping are used together in a synergistic way, as against 17 h when photocatalysis is used alone. However, this air-assisted photocatalytic process emits a large quantity of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and, within the first four hours, ca. 10% of the hydrocarbon removal in the aqueous phase is actually just transferred into the gaseous one. Finally, we highlight that the n-alkanes with a number of carbon atoms higher than 15 (N{sub C} > 15) are those which most decrease the rate of [HC] removal.

  8. Gases in steam from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells with a discussion of steam/gas ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, N.L.; Fausto, L.J.J.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a joint USGS-CFE geochemical study of Cerro Prieto, steam samples were collected for gas analyses in April, 1977. Analyses of the major gas components of the steam were made by wet chemistry (for H2O,CO2,H2S and NH3) and by gas chromatography (He,H2,Ar,O2,N2 and hydrocarbons). The hydrocarbon gases in Cerro Prieto steam closely resemble hydrocarbons in steam from Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California which, although they are vapor-dominated rather than hot-water geothermal systems, also have sedimentary aquifer rocks. These sedimentary geothermal hydrocarbons are characterized by the presence of branched C4-6 compounds and a lack of unsaturated compounds other than benzene. Relatively large amounts of benzene may be characteristic of high-temperature geothermal systems. All hydrocarbons in these gases other than methane most probably originate from the thermal metamorphosis of organic matter contained in the sediments. ?? 1979.

  9. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  10. Land Cover Mapping in Southwestern China Using the HC-MMK Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Lei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land cover mapping in mountainous areas is a notoriously challenging task due to the rugged terrain and high spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces as well as the frequent cloud contamination of satellite imagery. Taking Southwestern China (a typical mountainous region as an example, this paper established a new HC-MMK approach (Hierarchical Classification based on Multi-source and Multi-temporal data and geo-Knowledge, which was especially designed for land cover mapping in mountainous areas. This approach was taken in order to generate a 30 m-resolution land cover product in Southwestern China in 2010 (hereinafter referred to as CLC-SW2010. The multi-temporal native HJ (HuanJing, small satellite constellation for disaster and environmental monitoring CCD (Charge-Coupled Device images, Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper images and topographical data (including elevation, aspect, slope, etc. were taken as the main input data sources. Hierarchical classification tree construction and a five-step knowledge-based interactive quality control were the major components of this proposed approach. The CLC-SW2010 product contained six primary categories and 38 secondary categories, which covered about 2.33 million km2 (accounting for about a quarter of the land area of China. The accuracies of primary and secondary categories for CLC-SW2010 reached 95.09% and 87.14%, respectively, which were assessed independently by a third-party group. This product has so far been used to estimate the terrestrial carbon stocks and assess the quality of the ecological environments. The proposed HC-MMK approach could be used not only in mountainous areas, but also for plains, hills and other regions. Meanwhile, this study could also be used as a reference for other land cover mapping projects over large areas or even the entire globe.

  11. Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy of Formyl Azide (HC(O)N_3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Nicholas A.; Amberger, Brent K.; Esselman, Brian J.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Formyl azide (HC(O)N_3) is a highly unstable molecule (t1/2˜2 hours at room temperature as a gas) that has only recently been studied spectroscopically by UV, IR, Raman and NMR methods. We have synthesized formyl azide and obtained its absorption spectrum at room temperature over the range 250-360 GHz. As in the case of carbonyl diazide, two conformers are expected for HC(O)N_3, with the syn-isomer 2.8 kcal/mol lower in energy than the anti-isomer (CCSD(T)/ANO1). Calculations at the same level of theory and the same basis set predict the dipole moments for the syn-isomer (μ = 1.56 D) and anti-isomer (μ = 2.56 D). These calculations also indicate that b-type transitions should dominate the syn-isomer spectrum, while a-type transitions become more significant in the case of the anti-isomer. Despite the anti-isomer having a larger dipole moment, the syn-isomer still gives rise to all the dominant features of the spectrum. Thus far, five vibrational states (νb{9}, νb{12}, 2νb{9}, νb{9} + νb{12}, νb{11}) have been studied for the syn-isomer, with the highest energy state νb{11} = 582.6 wn. Searches for the spectra of the anti-isomer are ongoing. Banert, K. et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 4718-4721 Zeng, X. et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 3503-3506 Amberger, B.K. et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 259, (2014) 15-20

  12. New perspectives for noble gases in oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbach, Werner

    2016-08-01

    Conditions prevailing in regions of deep water formation imprint their signature in the concentrations of dissolved noble gases, which are conserved in the deep ocean. Such "recharge conditions" including temperature, salinity, and interactions with sea ice are important in view of ocean-atmosphere CO2 partitioning. Noble gases, especially the temperature sensitive Kr and Xe, are well-established tracers to reconstruct groundwater recharge conditions. In contrast, tracer oceanography has traditionally focused on He isotopes and the light noble gases Ne and Ar, which could be analyzed at the required high precision. Recent developments of analytical and data interpretation methods now provide fresh perspectives for noble gases in oceanography.

  13. ACCUMULATION AND IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF Maize dwarf mosaic virus HC-Pro IN INFECTED MAIZE LEAVES%MDMV HC-PrO在玉米叶片中的积累及免疫定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 范在丰; 李怀方; 裘维蕃

    2001-01-01

    本文以感病自交系Mo17、掖107和抗病自交系黄早四为材料,研究了玉米矮花叶病毒(MDMV)和MDMV辅助成份-蛋白酶(HC-Pro)在叶片中的积累动态和细胞内定位.结果表明,在接种后3 d,MDMV就在掖107和Mo17接种叶的上位叶积累到了相当高的程度,6 d后达到高峰;而MDMV在黄早四中的浓度一直低于在掖107和Mo17中的浓度.在接种掖107和Mo17 6 d后,MDMV HC-Pro在上位叶中的积累到达高峰,而在黄早四植株中MDMV HC-Pro直到第9 d才到最高,而且浓度一直低于感病自交系掖107和Mo17.麦二叉蚜从发病植株上获毒后的传毒效率变化与MDMV、MDMV HC-Pro在叶片中的积累动态一致.通过胶体金标记对MDMV HC-Pm进行免疫定位,发现在细胞质中、与质膜相联系的风轮状内含体、片层凝集状内含体、细胞质高密度物质和病毒粒子周围有金标记,说明在这些部位有MDMV HC-Pro的存在.

  14. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  15. On bacterial role in hydrocarbon generation mechanism,Banqiao Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁冠; 钟宁宁; 侯读杰; 黄光辉; 于志海; 杨池银; 廖前进

    1995-01-01

    Terrestrial organic matter is a main primary source material for oil and gas generation in theEogene Shahejie Formation in Banqiao Sag,bacterial degradation and reworking of sedimentary organic matterwould be conducive to the enhancement of its sapropelification level and to the early generation of immatureoil.Bacteria-derived short-chain alkanes are a major material base for the light hydrocarbon formation ofcondensate and crude oil in Banqiao Sag,certain thermal maturation,formation temperature and pressure areexternal conditions for the condemate formation.The establishment of hydrocarbon generation model shouldbe favorable to the resource prediction of deep-lying high-mature and shallow-lying immature oils and gases.

  16. Simulation on Toxic Gases in Vehicle Exhaust Equipped with Modified Catalytic Converter : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and global warming is a major issue nowadays. One of the main contributors to be the emission of harmful gases produced by vehicle exhausts lines. The harmful gases like NOx, CO, unburned HC and particulate matter increases the global warming, so catalytic converter plays a vital role in reducing harmful gases. Catalytic converters are used on most vehicles on the road today. This research deals with the gas emission flow in the catalytic converter involving the heat transfer, velocity flow, back pressure and others chemical reaction in the modified catalytic converter by using FeCrAl as a substrate that is treated using the ultrasonic bath and electroplating techniques. The objective of this study is to obtain a quantitative description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software. The description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software was simulated in this research in order to provide better efficiency and ease the reusability of the catalytic converter by comparing experimental data with software analysing data. The result will be expected to demonstrate a good approximation of gas emission in the modified catalytic converter simulation data compared to experimental data in order to verify the effectiveness of modified catalytic converter. Therefore studies on simulation of flow through the modified catalytic converter are very important to increase the accuracy of the obtained emission result.

  17. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  18. Instability in Shocked Granular Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Sirmas, Nick; Radulescu, Matei

    2013-01-01

    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.

  19. Instability in shocked granular gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmas, Nick; Falle, Sam; Radulescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.

  20. The exohedral Diels-Alder reactivity of the titanium carbide endohedral metallofullerene Ti2C2@D(3h)-C78: comparison with D(3h)-C78 and M3N@D(3h)-C78 (M=Sc and Y) reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Osuna, Sílvia; Luis, Josep M; Swart, Marcel; Solà, Miquel

    2012-06-04

    The chemical functionalization of endohedral (metallo)fullerenes has become a main focus of research in the last few years. It has been found that the reactivity of endohedral (metallo)fullerenes may be quite different from that of the empty fullerenes. Encapsulated species have an enormous influence on the thermodynamics, kinetics, and regiochemistry of the exohedral addition reactions undergone by these species. A detailed understanding of the changes in chemical reactivity due to incarceration of atoms or clusters of atoms is essential to assist the synthesis of new functionalized endohedral fullerenes with specific properties. Herein, we report the study of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition between 1,3-butadiene and all nonequivalent bonds of the Ti(2)C(2)@D(3h)-C(78) metallic carbide endohedral metallofullerene (EMF) at the BP86/TZP//BP86/DZP level of theory. The results obtained are compared with those found by some of us at the same level of theory for the D(3h)-C(78) free cage and the M(3)N@D(3h)-C(78) (M=Sc and Y) metallic nitride EMFs. It is found that the free cage is more reactive than the Ti(2)C(2)@D(3h)-C(78) EMF and this, in turn, has a higher reactivity than M(3)N@D(3h)-C(78). The results indicate that, for Ti(2)C(2)@D(3h)-C(78), the corannulene-type [5,6] bonds c and f, and the type B [6,6] bond 3 are those thermodynamically and kinetically preferred. In contrast, the D(3h)-C(78) free cage has a preference for addition to the [6,6] 1 and 6 bonds and the [5,6] b bond, whereas M(3)N@D(3h)-C(78) favors additions to the [6,6] 6 (M=Sc) and [5,6] d (M=Y) bonds. The reasons for the regioselectivity found in Ti(2)C(2)@D(3h)-C(78) are discussed.

  1. [The primary role of central region of HC-pro of potato Y potyvirus in synergism of plant viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R F; Li, W M; Wang, H Y; Guo, M; Peng, X X

    2001-05-01

    Five deleted mutants of HC-Pro gene of Chinese isolate of potato Y potyvirus (PVY-C) were obtained by PCR mutation, and their plant expression vectors were constructed. They were transformed into tobacco K326 (Nicotina tabacum cv. K326) mediated by Agrobacterium. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed that PVY-C HC-Pro gene and its deleted mutants were integrated into tobacco genome, and Western blot analysis showed that they were all expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. Furthermore, infection test demonstrated that the central region of PVY-C HC-Pro can mediate synergism of PVY-C/cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) and PVY-C/potato X potexvirus (PVX), identifying that it is functional domain in synergism.

  2. In vivo study of the HC-TN strain of hepatitis C virus recovered from a patient with fulminant hepatitis: RNA transcripts of a molecular clone (pHC-TN) are infectious in chimpanzees but not in Huh7.5 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Akito; Takikawa, Shingo; Thimme, Robert

    2007-01-01

    disease severity, host immune response, viral evolution, and outcome. A second chimpanzee (CH1581) was infected from CH1422 plasma, and a third chimpanzee (CH1579) was infected from RNA transcripts of a consensus cDNA of HC-TN (pHC-TN). RNA transcripts of pHC-TN did not replicate in Huh7.5 cells, which...

  3. Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons are toxic in the in vivo model Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; Schulz, J; Jeibmann, A; Taleshi, M S; Ebert, F; Francesconi, K A; Schwerdtle, T

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC) constitute one group of arsenolipids that have been identified in seafood. In this first in vivo toxicity study for AsHCs, we show that AsHCs exert toxic effects in Drosophila melanogaster in a concentration range similar to that of arsenite. In contrast to arsenite, however, AsHCs cause developmental toxicity in the late developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster. This work illustrates the need for a full characterisation of the toxicity of AsHCs in experimental animals to finally assess the risk to human health related to the presence of arsenolipids in seafood.

  4. New data on the Geochemistry of Gases in the Potash Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chaykovskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the gas phase of salt rocks from a number of potash deposits located in Europe (Verkhnekamskoe, Starobinskoe and Asia (Tubegatanskoe, Zhylyanskoe Satimolinskoe was studied. It allowed dividing them into two groups. In Asian deposits, only authigenic dry gases were formed by diagenetic decomposition of organic matter. Structural exposure of these deposits led to the oxidation of methane and hydrogen and enrichment by carbon dioxide. European deposits were not structurally exposed to the oxidation process, but were exposed during salt rock formation. They experienced influx of heavy hydrocarbons from the underlying strata. The history of the formation of gas regime at the Verkhnekamskoe potash deposit could be divided into three stages. First stage may be characterized by a syngenetic capture of deep gases and authigenic organic matter converted during diagenesis to methane, which percentage gradually increases with an increase of the thickness of impermeable salt strata. Then the deep gases invaded the salt formation during sedimentation of the upper carnallite layers and top salt rock. Third stage was associated with folding processes accompanied by a mobilization of fluids scattered in the gas-fluid inclusions, and with probable influx of heavy hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide resulted in formation of the secondary salt zones. Replacement of carnallite layers leads to the release of isomorphous ammonium ion and formation of a hydrogen.

  5. Decomposition mechanisms and non-isothermal kinetics of LiHC_2O_4·H_2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The thermal decomposition process of LiHC2O4·H2O from 30 to 600 ℃ was investigated by the thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The phases decomposited at different temperature were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which indicated the decompositions at 150, 170, and 420℃, relating to LiHC2O4, Li2C2O4, Li2C2O4, and Li2CO3, respectively. Reaction mechanisms in the whole sintering process were determined, and the model fitting kinetic approaches were applied to data for non...

  6. Effect of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides on ozone formation in smog chambers exposed to solar irradiance of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval F, J; Marroquin de la R, O; Jaimes L, J. L; Zuniga L, V. A; Gonzalez O, E; Guzman Lopez-Figueroa, F [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-01-01

    Outdoor smog chambers experiments were performed on air to determine the answer of maximum ozone levels, to changes in the initial hydrocarbons, HC, and nitrogen oxide NO{sub x}. These captive-air experiments under natural irradiation were carried out. Typically, eight chambers were filled with Mexico city air in the morning. In some of those chambers, the initial HC and/or Nox concentrations were varied by {+-}25% to {+-}50% by adding various combinations of a mixture of HC, clean air, or NO{sub x} (perturbed chambers). The O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentration in each chamber was monitored throughout the day to determine O{sub 3} (max). The initial HC and NO{sub x} concentration effects were determined by comparing the maximum ozone concentrations measured in the perturbed and unperturbed chambers. Ozone isopleths were constructed from the empirical model obtained of measurements of the eight chambers and plotted in a graph whose axe were the initial HC and NO{sub x} values. For the average initial conditions that were measured in Mexico City, it was found that the most efficient strategy to reduce the maximum concentration of O{sub 3} is the one that reduces NO{sub x}. [Spanish] Se realizaron experimentos de camaras de esmog con el aire de la ciudad de Mexico para determinar las respuestas de los niveles maximos de ozono a los cambios en las concentraciones iniciales de hidrocarburos, HC y oxido de nitrogeno, NO{sub x}. Por lo general, se llenaron 8 bolsas con aire matutino de la Ciudad de Mexico. En algunas camaras, las concentraciones iniciales fueron cambiadas de 25% a 50%, anadiendo varias concentraciones de una mezcla de HC, aire limpio y/o NO{sub x}. La concentracion de O{sub 3} y NO{sub x}, en cada camara, fueron monitoreadas a lo largo del dia para determinar el maximo de O{sub 3}. El efecto de los HC y el NO{sub x} fue determinado por comparacion del maximo de ozono formado en las camaras, que fueron perturbadas por adicion o reduccion de HC y/o Nox

  7. Specific heats of degenerate ideal gases

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Francisco; Oguri, Vitor; Silveira, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    From arguments based on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle, the molar specific heats of degenerate ideal gases at low temperatures are estimated, giving rise to values consistent with the Nerst-Planck Principle (third law of Thermodynamics). The Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon based on the behavior of specific heat of massive and non-relativistic boson gases is also presented.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide on a dry basis. (b) If the raw CO sampling system specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used. (c) If a CVS sampling system is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, shall be used....

  9. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases is... purified synthetic air which contains a concentration of propane higher than what a gas supplier considers... manufacturer must be consistent in the choice of diluent (zero air or purified nitrogen) between...

  10. Hydrocarbon status of soils under atmospheric pollution from a local industrial source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zhidkin, A. P.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Contents and compositions of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and free and retained hydrocarbon gases in soils along a transect at different distances from the local industrial source of atmospheric pollution with soot emissions have been studied. The reserves of PAHs progressively decrease when the distance from the source increases. Among the individual PAHs, the most significant decrease is observed for benzo[ a]pyrene, tetraphene, pyrene, chrysene, and anthracene. On plowlands, the share of heavy PAHs—benzo[ ghi]perylene, benzo[ a]pyrene, perylene, etc.—is lower than in the forest soils. In automorphic soils of the park zone adjacent to the industrial zone, the penetration depth of four-, five-, and sixring PAHs from the atmosphere is no more than 25 cm. In soils under natural forest vegetation, heavy PAHs do not penetrate deeper than 5 cm; in tilled soils, their penetration depth coincides with the lower boundary of plow horizons. Analysis of free gases in the soil air revealed hydrocarbons only under forest. From the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the content, reserves, and compositions of different hydrocarbons, the following modification types of hydrocarbon status in the studied soils were revealed: injection, atmosedimentation-injection, atmosedimentation-impact, atmosedimentation-distant, and biogeochemical types.

  11. CARCINOGENICITY OF EXHAUST GASES OF AUTOMOBILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vnukova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor transport is the basic consumer of fuel from oil and determining in ecological pollu-tion of atmosphere in urban areas. The most dangerous to the person are joint influences of super toxins: oxides of nitrogen, cancerogenic hydrocarbons and firm particles. It is shown that the use of modern fuel with increased contents of aromatic hydrocarbons aggravates this environmental problem.

  12. A novel inclusion complex (β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A) with antibiotic propertiess for use as an anti-Agrobacterium additive in transgenic poplar rooting medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Li, Jianfeng; Movahedi, Ali; Sang, Ming; Xu, Chen; Xu, Junjie; Wei, Zhiheng; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The increasing resistance of bacteria and fungi to currently available antibiotics is a major concern worldwide, leading to enormous effort to develop novel antibiotics with new modes of action.We recently reported that ABP-dHC-cecropin A exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activity, making it a candidate antibiotic substitute. In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) combined with ABP-dHC-cecropin A enhanced the physical and chemical properties of ABP-dHC-cecropin A but did not significantly decrease its antibacterial activity. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A should be considered a novel antibacterial drug. We used β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A as an anti-Agrobacterium compound to supplementtransgenic poplar medium. Sideeffects of the inclusion complex had little impact on plantgrowth. Thus, β-CD/ABP-dHC-cecropin A may be used as traditional antibiotics forpoplar transplantation with greater antibbacterial effects.

  13. Interaction of the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) with DNA and RNA causes repression of transcription and translation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Birkelund, S; Christiansen, G

    1994-01-01

    The 18 kDa histone H1-like protein from Chlamydia trachomatis (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein thought to be involved in condensation of the chlamydial chromosome during late stages in the chlamydial life cycle. Expression of Hc1 in Escherichia coli results in an overall relaxation of DNA and sever......The 18 kDa histone H1-like protein from Chlamydia trachomatis (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein thought to be involved in condensation of the chlamydial chromosome during late stages in the chlamydial life cycle. Expression of Hc1 in Escherichia coli results in an overall relaxation of DNA...... and severely affects DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. We have analysed the interaction of Hc1 with single-stranded DNA and RNA by Southwestern and Northwestern blotting. Furthermore, we show that purified, recombinant Hc1 dramatically affects transcription and translation in vitro at physiologically relevant...

  14. Thermalization of Gases: A First Principles Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chafin, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Previous approaches of emergent thermalization for condensed matter based on typical wavefunctions are extended to generate an intrinsically quantum theory of gases. Gases are fundamentally quantum objects at all temperatures, by virtue of rapid delocalization of their constituents. When there is a sufficiently broad spread in the energy of eigenstates, a well-defined temperature is shown to arise by photon production when the samples are optically thick. This produces a highly accurate approximation to the Planck distribution so that thermalization arises from the initial data as a consequence of purely quantum and unitary dynamics. These results are used as a foil for some common hydrodynamic theory of ultracold gases. It is suggested here that strong history dependence typically remains in these gases and so limits the validity of thermodynamics in their description. These problems are even more profound in the extension of hydrodynamics to such gases when they are optically thin, even when their internal ...

  15. 捻转血矛线虫Hc38基因DNA疫苗对绵羊免疫保护性效果评价%Protective effects of Hc38 DNA vaccines against Haemonchus contortus in sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金海; 段正秀; 赵军明; 薄新文; 钟发刚; 张慧

    2009-01-01

    To study protective effects of Hc38 DNA vaccines against Haemonchus contortus in sheep, we constructed DNA vaccines containing conserved Hc38 protein domain. The Hc38 gene was inserted into pcDNA3.1 and administered to mice. Transcriptions of the vaccines were confirmed by RT-PCR in mouse muscles. Sheep were immunized with DNA vaccine and antibody (IgG) production was analyzed by western blot and ELISA. After 2 weeks, all sheep were challenged by 10000 H. Contortus L3 strain. The results showed that EPG (eggs per gram feces) and worm burdens in immunized sheep reduced by 66.6 % and 33.1%, compared to the control group. Vaccination by intravenous injection induced highest antibody level and resulted in lowest EPG and worm burdens in sheep.%为了研究基因疫苗对绵羊的免疫保护效果,本研究构建了捻转血矛线虫(H.contortus)Hc38基因DNA疫苗.将H.contortus Hc38基因保守结构域克隆到真核表达载体pcDNA3.1中,免疫鼠8d后用RT-PCR检测到该疫苗在鼠肌肉组织中进行了转录.将纯化的DNA疫苗免疫绵羊后,用western blot和ELISA方法检测疫苗在绵羊体内的翻译和诱导IgG的产生.二免后2周用10 000条H.contortus第3期幼虫攻击实验动物,检测绵羊粪便虫卵排出、成虫数量等免疫保护性指标.该H.contortus Hc38 DNA疫苗与对照组比较,免疫组绵羊排出虫卵减少66.6%、成虫减少33.1%.特别值得注意的是免疫组的静脉注射方式产生抗体最高,相应羊的虫卵数和成虫数低.本实验证明Hc38基因DNA疫苗对绵羊虫卵及成虫发育具有明显的抑制作用.

  16. Surface hydrophobic modification of cellulose membranes by plasma-assisted deposition of hydrocarbon films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudtorlep Nisoa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification by plasma polymerization is an efficient method to change the surface properties of a membrane. Desirable functionality such as hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity can be obtained, depending on plasma chemistry of gas precursors and discharge conditions. In this work, RF magnetron plasma is produced using acetylene and nitrogen as precursor gases. Variations of RF power, particle flux, deposited time and pressure of the precursor gases have been made to observe coating effects on the cellulose membranes. When appropriated conditions are used, a thin brownish film of hydrocarbon was formed on the membrane, and the water contact angle increased from 35 to 130 degrees.

  17. High-level SUMO-mediated fusion expression of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from multiple joined genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wei, Zhiheng; Sang, Ming; Wu, Xiaolong; Wang, Mengyang; Wei, Hui; Pan, Huixin; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-09-15

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, evaluation of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A in E. coli, tandem repeats of the ABP-dHC-cecropin A gene were constructed and expressed as fusion proteins (SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) via pSUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A vectors (n = 1, 2, 3, 4). Comparison of the expression levels of soluble SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion proteins (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) suggested that BL21 (DE3)/pSUMO-3ABP-dHC-cecropin A is an ideal recombinant strain for ABP-dHC-cecropin A production. Under the selected conditions of cultivation and isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) induction, the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A was as high as 65 mg/L, with ∼21.3% of the fusion protein in soluble form. By large-scale fermentation, protein production reached nearly 300 mg/L, which is the highest yield of ABP-dHC-cecropin A reported to date. In antibacterial experiments, the efficacy was approximately the same as that of synthetic ABP-dHC-cecropin A. This method provides a novel and effective means of producing large amounts of ABP-dHC-cecropin A.

  18. Development of Nature Protection Technologies of Hydrocarbon Wastes Disposal on the Basis of High- Temperature Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantarin, V. D.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-10-01

    The research shows the thermal balance of low-temperature pyrolysis of birch sawdust with the possibility of further development of nature protection technology of hydrocarbon wastes disposal with secondary useful products production. The actual problem was solved by preventing environmental pollution by greenhouse gases using pyrolysis process as a method of disposal of hydrocarbon wastes with secondary useful products production. The objective of paper is to study features of the processes of thermal processing of wastes and development of environmentally sound technology of disposal C-containing wastes, contributing to the implementation of the pollution prevention concept.

  19. Assessment of the greenhouse gases in Mexico: Importance of the electric sector; Inventario de gases de invernadero en Mexico: Importancia del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the principal results of the various studies on energy end uses developed by the Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM Group of Energy and Environment) for years 1987 and 1993, emphasizing on the emissions originated by the generation of electricity and for the following greenhouse effect gases: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH{sub 4}). Also, a comparison is presented among Mexico and other Latin America countries based on statistics of OLADE (Latin American Organization of Energy) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados de estudios diversos sobre usos finales de energia desarrollados por el Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) para los anos 1987 y 1993, poniendo enfasis en las emisiones debidas a la generacion de electricidad y para los siguientes gases de efecto invernadero: bioxido de carbono (CO{sub 2}), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx) y metano (HC{sub 4}). Asi mismo se presenta una comparacion entre Mexico y otros paises de Latinoamerica basado en estadisticas de la Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia

  20. A rapid column technique for trapping and collecting of volatile fungal hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric; Strobel, Gary; Knighton, Berk; Sears, Joe; Geary, Brad; Avci, Recep

    2011-10-01

    A custom-made stainless steel column was designed to contain various materials that would trap the hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives during the processes of fungal fermentation ultimately yielding preparative amounts of volatile organic substances (VOCs). Trapping materials tested in the column were Carbotrap materials A and B (Supelco) as well as bentonite-shale from the oil bearing areas of Eastern Montana, the former allowed for the effective and efficient trapping of VOCs from purged cultures of Hypoxylon sp. Trapping efficiencies of various materials were measured by both gravimetric as well as proton transfer reaction mass spectroscopy with the Carbotraps A and B being 99% efficient when tested with known amounts of 1,8-cineole. Trapped fungal VOCs could effectively be removed and recovered via controlled heating of the stainless steel column followed by passage of the gases through a liquid nitrogen trap at a recovery rate of ca 65-70%. This method provides for the recovery of mg quantities of compounds normally present in the gas phase that may be needed for spectroscopy, bioassays and further separation and analysis and may have wide applicability for many other biological systems involving VOCs. Other available Carbotraps could be used for other applications.

  1. Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

    2015-03-25

    Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1-C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved.

  2. Driven fragmentation of granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Hidalgo, Raúl; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of homogeneously heated granular gases which fragment due to particle collisions is analyzed. We introduce a kinetic model which accounts for correlations induced at the grain collisions and analyze both the kinetics and relevant distribution functions these systems develop. The work combines analytical and numerical studies based on direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations. A broad family of fragmentation probabilities is considered, and its implications for the system kinetics are discussed. We show that generically these driven materials evolve asymptotically into a dynamical scaling regime. If the fragmentation probability tends to a constant, the grain number diverges at a finite time, leading to a shattering singularity. If the fragmentation probability vanishes, then the number of grains grows monotonously as a power law. We consider different homogeneous thermostats and show that the kinetics of these systems depends weakly on both the grain inelasticity and driving. We observe that fragmentation plays a relevant role in the shape of the velocity distribution of the particles. When the fragmentation is driven by local stochastic events, the long velocity tail is essentially exponential independently of the heating frequency and the breaking rule. However, for a Lowe-Andersen thermostat, numerical evidence strongly supports the conjecture that the scaled velocity distribution follows a generalized exponential behavior f(c) approximately exp(-cn) , with n approximately 1.2 , regarding less the fragmentation mechanisms.

  3. Greenhouse Trace Gases in Deadwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Kristofer; Bueno de Mesquita, Cliff; Oberle, Brad; Maynard, Dan; Bettigole, Charles; Crowther, Thomas; Duguid, Marlyse; Steven, Blaire; Zanne, Amy; Lapin, Marc; Ashton, Mark; Oliver, Chad; Lee, Xuhui; Bradford, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Deadwood, long recognized as playing an important role in carbon cycling in forest ecosystems, is more recently drawing attention for its potential role in the cycling of other greenhouse trace gases. We report data from four independent studies measuring internal gas concentrations in deadwood in in three Quercus dominated upland forest systems in the Northeastern and Central United States. Mean methane concentrations in deadwood were 23 times atmospheric levels, indicating a lower bound, mean radial wood surface area flux of ~6 x 10-4 μmol CH4 m-2 s-1. Site, decay class, diameter, and species were all highly significant predictors of methane abundance in deadwood, and log diameter and decay stage interacted as important controls limiting methane concentrations in the smallest and most decayed logs. Nitrous oxide concentrations were negatively correlated with methane and on average ~25% lower than ambient, indicating net consumption of nitrous oxide. These data suggest nonstructural carbohydrates fuel archaeal methanogens and confirm the potential for widespread in situ methanogenesis in both living and deadwood. Applying this understanding to estimate methane emissions from microbial activity in living trees implies a potential global flux of 65.6±12.0 Tg CH4 yr-1, more than 20 times greater than currently considered.

  4. Method to monitor HC-SCR catalyst NOx reduction performance for lean exhaust applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Michael B.; Schmieg, Steven J.; Sloane, Thompson M.; Hilden, David L.; Mulawa, Patricia A.; Lee, Jong H.; Cheng, Shi-Wai S.

    2012-05-29

    A method for initiating a regeneration mode in selective catalytic reduction device utilizing hydrocarbons as a reductant includes monitoring a temperature within the aftertreatment system, monitoring a fuel dosing rate to the selective catalytic reduction device, monitoring an initial conversion efficiency, selecting a determined equation to estimate changes in a conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the monitored temperature and the monitored fuel dosing rate, estimating changes in the conversion efficiency based upon the determined equation and the initial conversion efficiency, and initiating a regeneration mode for the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the estimated changes in conversion efficiency.

  5. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  6. HC StratoMineR: A Web-Based Tool for the Rapid Analysis of High-Content Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omta, Wienand A; van Heesbeen, Roy G; Pagliero, Romina J; van der Velden, Lieke M; Lelieveld, Daphne; Nellen, Mehdi; Kramer, Maik; Yeong, Marley; Saeidi, Amir M; Medema, Rene H; Spruit, Marco; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Klumperman, Judith; Egan, David A

    2016-10-01

    High-content screening (HCS) can generate large multidimensional datasets and when aligned with the appropriate data mining tools, it can yield valuable insights into the mechanism of action of bioactive molecules. However, easy-to-use data mining tools are not widely available, with the result that these datasets are frequently underutilized. Here, we present HC StratoMineR, a web-based tool for high-content data analysis. It is a decision-supportive platform that guides even non-expert users through a high-content data analysis workflow. HC StratoMineR is built by using My Structured Query Language for storage and querying, PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor as the main programming language, and jQuery for additional user interface functionality. R is used for statistical calculations, logic and data visualizations. Furthermore, C++ and graphical processor unit power is diffusely embedded in R by using the rcpp and rpud libraries for operations that are computationally highly intensive. We show that we can use HC StratoMineR for the analysis of multivariate data from a high-content siRNA knock-down screen and a small-molecule screen. It can be used to rapidly filter out undesirable data; to select relevant data; and to perform quality control, data reduction, data exploration, morphological hit picking, and data clustering. Our results demonstrate that HC StratoMineR can be used to functionally categorize HCS hits and, thus, provide valuable information for hit prioritization.

  7. Statistical analysis of the V-tool bending process parameters in the bending of HC260Y steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cumin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents statistical analysis of the parameters in the V-tool bending process of the HC260Y steel. Assessment of the mathematical model and analysis of variance (ANOVA were performed within the design of experiments. The hydraulic testing machine Amsler and the developed V-tool were used in the experiments.

  8. HC-Pro protein of sugar cane mosaic virus interacts specifically with maize ferredoxin-5 in vitro and in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Qin; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Meng; Chen, Yu-Ting; Li, Huai-Fang; Fan, Zai-Feng

    2008-08-01

    Symptom development of a plant viral disease is a result of molecular interactions between the virus and its host plant; thus, the elucidation of specific interactions is a prerequisite to reveal the mechanism of viral pathogenesis. Here, we show that the chloroplast precursor of ferredoxin-5 (Fd V) from maize (Zea mays) interacts with the multifunctional HC-Pro protein of sugar cane mosaic virus (SCMV) in yeast, Nicotiana benthamiana cells and maize protoplasts. Our results demonstrate that the transit peptide rather than the mature protein of Fd V precursor could interact with both N-terminal (residues 1-100) and C-terminal (residues 301-460) fragments, but not the middle part (residues 101-300), of HC-Pro. In addition, SCMV HC-Pro interacted only with Fd V, and not with the other two photosynthetic ferredoxin isoproteins (Fd I and Fd II) from maize plants. SCMV infection significantly downregulated the level of Fd V mRNA in maize plants; however, no obvious changes were observed in levels of Fd I and Fd II mRNA. These results suggest that SCMV HC-Pro interacts specifically with maize Fd V and that this interaction may disturb the post-translational import of Fd V into maize bundle-sheath cell chloroplasts, which could lead to the perturbation of chloroplast structure and function.

  9. Synthetic analysis of Tc and Hc2 of NbTi/Ti multilayers based on improved proximity effect theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Y.; Ikebe, M.; Takanaka, K.; Fujimori, H.

    1994-12-01

    Tc and Hc2 of NbTi/Ti multilayers have been calculated based on an improved approximation for the proximity effect. Analysis reveals that the agreement between the calculation and the experiment is satisfactory except for some inevitable scatters of the sample quality.

  10. CSER 00-008 use of PFP Glovebox HC-18BS for Storage and Transport of Fissionable Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    2000-06-01

    This CSER addresses the feasibility of increasing the allowed number of open containers and permitting the transfer and storage of fissionable material in Glovebox HC-18BS without regard to form or density (metal, oxide having an H/X {le} 20, material having unrestricted moderation and plutonium hydroxide having a plutonium density of 0.2 g/cm{sup 3}).

  11. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Holm, A

    1996-01-01

    , in part, be due to Hc1-mediated alterations of DNA topology. To locate putative functional domains within Hc1, polypeptides Hc1(2-57) and Hc1(53-125), corresponding to the N- and C-terminal parts of Hc1, respectively, were generated. By chemical cross-linking with ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N...... retardation assays, Hc1(53-125) was shown to contain a domain capable of binding both DNA and RNA. Under the same conditions, Hc1(2-57) had no nucleic acid-binding activity. Electron microscopy of Hc1-DNA and Hc1(53-125)-DNA complexes revealed differences suggesting that the N-terminal part of Hc1 may affect...

  12. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Holm, A

    1996-01-01

    , in part, be due to Hc1-mediated alterations of DNA topology. To locate putative functional domains within Hc1, polypeptides Hc1(2-57) and Hc1(53-125), corresponding to the N- and C-terminal parts of Hc1, respectively, were generated. By chemical cross-linking with ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N...... retardation assays, Hc1(53-125) was shown to contain a domain capable of binding both DNA and RNA. Under the same conditions, Hc1(2-57) had no nucleic acid-binding activity. Electron microscopy of Hc1-DNA and Hc1(53-125)-DNA complexes revealed differences suggesting that the N-terminal part of Hc1 may affect...

  13. Gas geochemistry: a new technology to evaluate petroleum systems; Geoquimica de gases: uma nova tecnologia em avaliacao de sistemas petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Geoquimica]. E-mail: eugenioneto@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    In the last decade hydrocarbon gas geochemistry has significantly evolved especially regarding to the widespread use of GC-C-IRMS (Gas chromatography-combustion-ion ratio monitoring system) techniques that allowed accurate measurements of {delta}{sup 13} C in the C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} fraction. Also, due to the improvement of the sampling procedures, sample collection - relatively small amounts of gas samples at low pressure - has become easier, sample transportation has become safer - the risk of accidents has been reduced - and analysis has become faster. The 'state-of-the-art' of the use of gas geochemistry to study processes within petroleum systems is discussed in this paper. The discussion is mainly focused on the identification of the hydrocarbon gas origin (biogenesis versus thermo genesis, mixing) and hydrocarbon gas generation (primary versus secondary cracking), including the inference of the relative thermal evolution and possible secondary alterations caused by biodegradation, secondary migration and eventually leakage from petroleum accumulations. Brief comments were also made about the new technologies involving noble gases and their potential use as tracers of processes in petroleum systems. Additionally, the origin of non-hydrocarbon gases in petroleum accumulations is succinctly discussed, as well as their possible economic impacts. The use of gas geochemistry techniques has brought a significant improvement in the understanding of petroleum systems under exploration in Brazil and in other parts of the world. Besides, on-going research projects suggest that there is a great potential for technological advances, e.g., adding the hydrogen isotopic composition of hydrocarbons to the interpretations, and also integrating the available results to the isotopic variations of noble gases. (author)

  14. Detection of the HC3NH+ and HCNH+ ions in the L1544 pre-stellar core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quénard, D.; Vastel, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Lefloch, B.; Bachiller, R.

    2017-09-01

    The L1544 pre-stellar core was observed as part of the ASAI (Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM) Large Program. We report the first detection in a pre-stellar core of the HCNH+ and HC3NH+ ions. The high spectral resolution of the observations allows us to resolve the hyperfine structure of HCNH+. Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis leads to derive a column density equal to (2.0 ± 0.2) × 1013 cm-2 for HCNH+ and (1.5 ± 0.5) × 1011 cm-2 for HC3NH+. We also present non-LTE analysis of five transitions of HC3N, three transitions of H13CN and one transition of HN13C, all of them linked to the chemistry of HCNH+ and HC3NH+. We computed for HC3N, HCN and HNC a column density of (2.0 ± 0.4) × 1013 cm-2, (3.6 ± 0.9) × 1014 cm-2 and (3.0 ± 1.0) × 1014 cm-2, respectively. We used the gas-grain chemical code nautilus to predict the abundances of all these species across the pre-stellar core. Comparison of the observations with the model predictions suggests that the emission from HCNH+ and HC3NH+ originates in the external layer where non-thermal desorption of other species was previously observed. The observed abundance of both ionic species ([HCNH+] ≃ 3 × 10-10 and [HC3NH+] ≃ [1.5 - 3.0] × 10-12, with respect to H2) cannot be reproduced at the same time by the chemical modelling within the error bars of the observations only. We discuss the possible reasons for the discrepancy and suggest that the current chemical models are not fully accurate or complete. However, the modelled abundances are within a factor of 3, consistent with the observations, considering a late stage of the evolution of the pre-stellar core, compatible with previous observations.

  15. The Exclusive Decay of Upsilon into $h_c$, the $X(3940)$ and $X(4160)$

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ruilin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study double charmonia production in Upsilon peaks, especially, a S-wave charmonium $\\eta_c$ and a P-wave charmonium $h_c(^1P_1)$, or a S-wave charmonium $J/\\psi$ and the $X(3940)$ and $X(4160)$ within the nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) approach which is a powerful tool to realize the factorization of double charmonia production in Bottomonium peaks. The $J^{PC}=1^{--}$ state $\\Upsilon(nS)$ can provide an ideal laboratory for studying the properties of double-heavy quarkonium, and also well-separate the nonperturbative information due to its large heavy quark mass scale. Explanation of the $X(3940)$ and $X(4160)$ as the $3 ^1S_0$ and $4 ^1S_0$ states respectively are compatible with the observed upper limits for the branching fractions of $\\Upsilon(1S,2S)\\to J/\\psi+X$ where $X=X(3940)$, $X(4160)$ by the Belle Collaboration. The branching fractions of $\\Upsilon(1S,2S,3S)\\to \\eta_c+h_c(^1P_1)$ are predicted to be around $10^{-6}$, which shall be tested in future Belle experiments.

  16. CID: Chemistry In Disks VII. First detection of HC3N in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Chapillon, E; Guilloteau, S; Pietu, V; Wakelam, V; Hersant, F; Gueth, F; Henning, T; Launhardt, R; Schreyer, K; Semenov, D

    2012-01-01

    Molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks is a powerful tool to constrain their physical and chemical structure. Nevertheless, only a few molecules have been detected in disks so far. We take advantage of the enhanced capabilities of the IRAM 30m telescope by using the new broad band correlator (FTS) to search for so far undetected molecules in the protoplanetary disks surrounding the TTauri stars DM Tau, GO Tau, LkCa 15 and the Herbig Ae star MWC 480. We report the first detection of HC3N at 5 sigma in the GO Tau and MWC 480 disks with the IRAM 30-m, and in the LkCa 15 disk (5 sigma), using the IRAM array, with derived column densities of the order of 10^{12}cm^{-2}. We also obtain stringent upper limits on CCS (N < 1.5 x 10^{12} cm^{-3}). We discuss the observational results by comparing them to column densities derived from existing chemical disk models (computed using the chemical code Nautilus) and based on previous nitrogen and sulfur-bearing molecule observations. The observed column densiti...

  17. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  18. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein

  19. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

  20. Geology and potential hydrocarbon play system of Lower Karoo Group in the Maamba Coalfield Basin, southern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Cryton; Wang, Pujun; Nyambe, Imasiku Anayawa

    2016-06-01

    This study attempts to augment geology and potential hydrocarbon play system database not only in the Maamba Coalfield basin of southern Zambia but in other similar continental non-marine Karoo rift basins in the region as well. Geological analyses were conducted through extensive outcrops and exposures and subsurface boreholes. Six (6) major lithofacies (diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, coal and mudstones) represents Lower Karoo Group sequence. Four (4) mudstone core samples were prepared for thin section petrography. In addition, six (6) samples of sandstones obtained from outcrops, exposures and cores were impregnated with blue epoxy before thin sectioning in order to facilitate easy recognition of porosity. Quantification of framework grain composition and porosity was achieved by point counting a total of 300 points per thin section. The identification of diagenetic constituents and pore types was made possible by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses utilised 35 core samples of mudstones and coal. According to results of the analyses, three (3) deposition settings which include; alluvial, fluvial-lacustrine and lacustrine setting are envisaged. . Fluvial-lacustrine deposits are host to mudstones and coal source rocks and sandstone reservoir rocks. Mudstones and coal source rocks gave the total organic carbon (TOC) that is well above the recommended thresholds of 0.5 wt % and 2.5 wt % of gas and oil generation respectively. The hydrogen index (HI) values are mostly below 200 mg HC/g TOC, indicating fair quantities of type III kerogen. The thermal maturity readings measured by temperature Tmax range from 440 to 485 °C in agreement with calculated vitrinite reflectance (Rocalc) range of 0.76-1.57% indicating mature to post mature stages. This maturation is attributed to the burial temperatures and near-surface heat flows by faults. Production Index (PI) values are less than 0.1 suggesting some hydrocarbon

  1. Global analysis of ankyrin repeat domain C3HC4-type RING finger gene family in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yuan

    Full Text Available Ankyrin repeat (ANK C3HC4-type RING finger (RF genes comprise a large family in plants and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, we identified 187 ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins from 29 species with complete genomes and named the ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins the XB3-like proteins because they are structurally related to the rice (Oryza sativa XB3. A phylogenetic relationship analysis suggested that the XB3-like genes originated from ferns, and the encoded proteins fell into 3 major groups. Among these groups, we found that the spacing between the metal ligand position 6 and 7, and the conserved residues, which was in addition to the metal ligand amino acids, in the C3HC4-type RF were different. Using a wide range of protein structural analyses, protein models were established, and all XB3-like proteins were found to contain two to seven ANKs and a C3HC4-type RF. The microarray data for the XB3-like genes of Arabidopsis, Oryza sative, Zea mays and Glycine max revealed that the expression of XB3-like genes was in different tissues and during different life stages. The preferential expression of XB3-like genes in specified tissues and the response to phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments of Arabidopsis and Zea mays not only confirmed the microarray analysis data but also demonstrated that the XB3-like proteins play roles in plant growth and development as well as in stress responses. Our data provide a very useful reference for the identification and functional analysis of members of this gene family and also provide a new method for the genome-wide analysis of gene families.

  2. Cold exposure increases slow-type myosin heavy chain 1 (MyHC1) composition of soleus muscle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Iwamoto, Yohei; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cold exposure on rat skeletal muscle fiber type, according to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform and metabolism-related factors. Male Wistar rats (7 weeks old) were housed individually at 4 ± 2°C as a cold-exposed group or at room temperature (22 ± 2°C) as a control group for 4 weeks. We found that cold exposure significantly increased the slow-type MyHC1 content in the soleus muscle (a typical slow-type fiber), while the intermediate-type MyHC2A content was significantly decreased. In contrast to soleus, MyHC composition of extensor digitorum longus (EDL, a typical fast-type fiber) and gastrocnemius (a mix of slow-type and fast-type fibers) muscle did not change from cold exposure. Cold exposure increased mRNA expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in both the soleus and EDL. Cold exposure also increased mRNA expression of myoglobin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in the soleus. Upregulation of UCP3 and PGC1α proteins were observed with Western blotting in the gastrocnemius. Thus, cold exposure increased metabolism-related factors in all muscle types that were tested, but MyHC isoforms changed only in the soleus. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  4. A kinetic approach to granular gases

    OpenAIRE

    Puglisi, A.; Loreto, V.; Marconi, U. Marini Bettolo; Vulpiani, A.

    1998-01-01

    We address the problem of the so-called ``granular gases'', i.e. gases of massive particles in rapid movement undergoing inelastic collisions. We introduce a class of models of driven granular gases for which the stationary state is the result of the balance between the dissipation and the random forces which inject energies. These models exhibit a genuine thermodynamic limit, i.e. at fixed density the mean values of kinetic energy and dissipated energy per particle are independent of the num...

  5. Distribution of Heavy Hydrocarbon in Coal Seams and Its Use in Predicting Outburst of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋承林; 李增华; 韩颖

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify whether any special gas component exists in outburst samples or not, coal samples from both outburst coal seams and non-outburst coal seams were collected. Some gases were extracted from the samples and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on chromatogram-mass spectrograph. The qualitative analysis show that there is no special gases in coal seams. And the quantitative analysis indicates that the heavy hydrocarbon content in coal samples from outburst coal seams is apparently higher than that from non-outburst district ones, which reflects the damage of geological tectonic movement to coal body in history. Therefore, the heavy hydrocarbon content of coal sample can be used as an index to predict coal outburst.

  6. Thermal Oxidation of Tail Gases from the Production of Oil-furnace Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosak, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the production technology of oil-furnace carbon black, as well as the selected solution for preventing the emissions of this process from contaminating the environment.The products of industrial oil-furnace carbon black production are different grades of carbon black and process tail gases. The qualitative composition of these tail gases during the production of oil-furnace carbon black are: carbon(IV oxide, carbon(II oxide, hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.The quantitative composition and lower caloric value of process tail gases change depending on the type of feedstock used in the production, as well as the type of process. The lower caloric value of process tail gases is relatively small with values ranging between 1500 and 2300 kJ m–3.In the conventional production of oil-furnace carbon black, process tail gases purified from carbon black dust are freely released into the atmosphere untreated. In this manner, the process tail gases pollute the air in the town of Kutina, because their quantitative values are much higher than the prescribed emissions limits for hydrogen sulfide and carbon(II oxide. A logical solution for the prevention of such air pollution is combustion of the process tail gases, i. e. their thermal oxidation. For this purpose, a specially designed flare system has been developed. Consuming minimum amounts of natural gas needed for oxidation, the flare system is designed to combust low caloric process tail gases with 99 % efficiency. Thus, the toxic and flammable components of the tail gases (hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, carbon(II oxide, methane and other trace hydrocarbons would be transformed into environmentally acceptable components (sulfur(IV oxide, water, carbon(IV oxide and nitrogen(IV oxide, which are in compliance with the emissions limit values prescribed by law.Proper operation of this flare system in the production of oil-furnace carbon black would solve

  7. Systematic differences in electrochemical reduction of the structurally characterized anti-cancer platinum(IV) complexes [Pt{((p-HC6F4)NCH2)2}-(pyridine)2Cl2], [Pt{((p-HC6F4)NCH2)2}(pyridine)2(OH)2], and [Pt{((p-HC6F4)NCH2)2}(pyridine)2(OH)Cl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Si-Xuan; Mason, Dayna N; Turland, Susan A; Lawrenz, Eric T; Kelly, Lance C; Fallon, Gary D; Gatehouse, Bryan M; Bond, Alan M; Deacon, Glen B; Battle, Andrew R; Hambley, Trevor W; Rainone, Silvina; Webster, Lorraine K; Cullinane, Carleen

    2012-10-01

    The putative platinum(IV) anticancer drugs, [Pt{((R)NCH(2))(2)}(py)(2)XY] (X,Y=Cl, R=p-HC(6)F(4) (1a), C(6)F(5) (1b); X,Y=OH, R=p-HC(6)F(4) (2); X=Cl, Y=OH, R=p-HC(6)F(4) (3), py = pyridine) have been prepared by oxidation of the Pt(II) anticancer drugs [Pt{((R)NCH(2))(2)}(py)(2)] (R=p-HC(6)F(4) (4a) or C(6)F(5) (4b)) with PhICl(2) (1a,b), H(2)O(2) (2) and PhICl(2)/Bu(4)NOH (3). NMR spectroscopy and the X-ray crystal structures of 1b, 2 and 3 show that they have octahedral stereochemistry with the X,Y ligands in the trans-position. The net two electron electrochemical reduction of 1a, 2 and 3 has been studied by voltammetric, spectroelectrochemical and bulk electrolysis techniques in acetonitrile. NMR and other data reveal that reduction of 1a gives pure 4a via the elimination of both axial chloride ligands. In the case of 2, one end of the diamide ligand is protonated and the resulting -NH(p-HC(6)F(4)) group dissociated giving a [Pt{N(p-HC(6)F(4))CH(2)CH(2)NH(p-HC(6)F(4))}] arrangement, one pyridine ligand is lost and a hydroxide ion retained in the coordination sphere. Intriguingly, in the case of reduction of 3, a 50% mixture of the reduction products of pure 1a and 2 is formed. The relative ease of reduction is 1>3>2. Testing of 1a, 2 and 3 against L1210 and L1210(DDP) (DDP = cis-diamine-dichloroplatinum(II)) mouse leukaemia cells shows all to be cytotoxic with IC(50) values of 1.0-3.5 μM. 2 and 3 are active in vivo against AHDJ/PC6 tumor line when delivered in peanut oil despite being hard to reduce electrochemically, and notably are more active than 4a delivered in this medium whilst comparable with 4a delivered in saline/Tween. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and biodegradation potential of tropical aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillan, Frédéric; Le Flèche, Anne; Bury, Edith; Phantavong, Y-Hui; Grimont, Patrick; Saliot, Alain; Oudot, Jean

    2004-09-01

    Screening of aerobic culturable hydrocarbon (HC)-degrading microorganisms isolated from petroleum-polluted soils and cyanobacterial mats from Indonesia resulted in the collection of 33 distinct species. Eight bacteria, 21 fungi and 4 yeasts were identified to the specific level by molecular and phenotypic techniques. Bacterial strains belonged to the genera Gordonia, Brevibacterium, Aeromicrobium, Dietzia, Burkholderia and Mycobacterium. Four species are new and not yet described. Fungi belonged to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Amorphoteca, Neosartorya, Paecilomyces, Talaromyces and Graphium. Yeasts were Candida, Yarrowia and Pichia. All strains were cultivated axenically in synthetic liquid media with crude oil as sole carbon and energy source. After incubation, the detailed chemical composition of the residual oil was studied by gravimetric and gas-chromatographic techniques. Thirteen parameters for assessing the biodegradation potential were defined and computed for each strain. Maximum degradation was observed on the saturated HCs (n- and isoalkanes, isoprenoids), whereas aromatic HC degradation was lower and was related to the structural composition of the molecules. A principal components analysis (PCA) permitted grouping and classifying the strains as a function of their degradative capacities. It was shown that the most active strains produced polar metabolites which accumulated in the resins and asphaltene fractions. These fractions are highly resistant to microbial metabolism. No taxonomic trend could be defined between microbial phyla in terms of HC biodegradation activity.

  9. Evaluation of Near-Surface Gases in Marine Sediments to Assess Subsurface Petroleum Gas Generation and Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Abrams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gases contained within near-surface marine sediments can be derived from multiple sources: shallow microbial activity, thermal cracking of organic matter and inorganic materials, or magmatic-mantle degassing. Each origin will display a distinctive hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon composition as well as compound-specific isotope signature and thus the interpretation of origin should be relatively straightforward. Unfortunately, this is not always the case due to in situ microbial alteration, non-equilibrium phase partitioning, mixing, and fractionation related to the gas extraction method. Sediment gases can reside in the interstitial spaces, bound to mineral or organic surfaces and/or entrapped in carbonate inclusions. The interstitial sediment gases are contained within the sediment pore space, either dissolved in the pore waters (solute or as free (vapour gas. The bound gases are believed to be attached to organic and/or mineral surfaces, entrapped in structured water or entrapped in authigenic carbonate inclusions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the gas types found within shallow marine sediments and examine issues related to gas sampling and extraction. In addition, the paper will discuss how to recognise mixing, alteration and fractionation issues to best interpret the seabed geochemical results and determine gas origin to assess subsurface petroleum gas generation and entrapment.

  10. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures.

  11. Can hydrocarbons entrapped in seep carbonates serve as gas geochemistry recorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Schlömer, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    The geochemistry of seep gases is useful for an understanding of the local petroleum system. Here it was tested whether individual light hydrocarbons in seep gases are representatively entrapped in authigenic carbonates that formed near active seep sites. If applicable, it would be possible to extract geochemical information not only on the origin but also on the thermal maturity of the hydrocarbon source rocks from the gases entrapped in carbonates in the past. Respective data could be used for a better understanding of paleoenvironments and might directly serve as calibration point for, amongst others, petroleum system modeling. For this approach, (sub)-recent seep carbonates from the Black Sea (Paleodnjepr region and Batumi seep area), two sites of the Campeche Knoll region in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Venere mud volcano (Mediterranean Sea) were selected. These seep carbonates derive from sites for which geochemical data on the currently seeping gases exist. During treatment with phosphoric acid, methane and higher hydrocarbons were released from all carbonates, but in low concentrations. Compositional studies demonstrate that the ratio of methane to the sum of higher hydrocarbons (C1/(C2+C3)) is (partly strongly) positively biased in the entrapped gas fraction. δ13C values of C1 were determined for all samples and, for the samples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, also of C2 and C3. The present dataset from six seep sites indicates that information on the seeped methane can be—although with a scatter of several permil—recorded in seep carbonate matrices, but other valuable information like the composition and δ13C of ethane and propane appears to be modified or lost during, for example, enclosure or at an early stage of diagenesis.

  12. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  13. Treatment of industrial exhaust gases by a dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hołub, Marcin; Jõgi, Indrek; Sikk, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial exhaust gases were treated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated with two different mobile power supplies. Together with the plasma source various gas diagnostics were used, namely fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-MS. The analysis revealed that some exhaust gases consist of a rather complex mixture of hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds and also vary in pollutants concentration and flow rate. Thus, analysis of removal efficiencies and byproduct concentrations is more demanding than under laboratory conditions. This contribution presents the experimental apparatus used under the harsh conditions of industrial exhaust systems as well as the mobile power source used. Selected results obtained in a shale oil processing plant, a polymer concrete production facility and a yacht hull factory are discussed. In the case of total volatile organic compounds in oil processing units, up to 60% were removed at input energy of 21-37 J/L when the concentrations were below 500 mg/m3. In the yacht hull factory up to 74% of styrene and methanol were removed at specific input energies around 300 J/L. In the polymer concrete production site 195 ppm of styrene were decomposed with the consumption of 1.8 kJ/L. These results demonstrate the feasibility of plasma assisted methods for treatment of VOCs in the investigated production processes but additional analysis is needed to improve the energy efficiency. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  14. Phase space methods for degenerate quantum gases

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, Bryan J; Barnett, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental progress has enabled cold atomic gases to be studied at nano-kelvin temperatures, creating new states of matter where quantum degeneracy occurs - Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases. Such quantum states are of macroscopic dimensions. This book presents the phase space theory approach for treating the physics of degenerate quantum gases, an approach already widely used in quantum optics. However, degenerate quantum gases involve massive bosonic and fermionic atoms, not massless photons. The book begins with a review of Fock states for systems of identical atoms, where large numbers of atoms occupy the various single particle states or modes. First, separate modes are considered, and here the quantum density operator is represented by a phase space distribution function of phase space variables which replace mode annihilation, creation operators, the dynamical equation for the density operator determines a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function, and measurable...

  15. Optical anisotropy in GaSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyhan, A.; Karabulut, O.; Akinoglu, B.G.; Aslan, B.; Turan, R. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-09-01

    Optical anisotropy of the layer semiconductor GaSe has been studied by photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The PL spectra are dominated by two closely positioned emission bands resulting from the free exciton and the bound exciton connected direct band edge of GaSe. Photoluminescence and transmission spectra of GaSe crystals have been measured for two cases in which the propagation vector k is perpendicular (k perpendicular to c) and parallel to the c-axis (k//c). Peak position of the PL emission band and the onset of the transmission have been found to be significantly different for these two cases. This observed anisotropy is related to anisotropic band structure and the selection rules for the optical absorption in layered GaSe. FTIR transmission spectrum is in good agreement with PL results. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  17. Noble Gases in the Lunar Regolith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2003-01-01

    The most fundamental character of lunar soil is its high concentrations of solar-windimplanted dements,and the concentrations and behavior of the noble gases He,Ne,Ar,and Xe,which provide unique and extensive information about a broad range of fundamental problems. In this paper,the authors studied the forming mechanism of lunar regolith,and proposed that most of the noble gases in lunar regolith come from the solar wind. Meteoroid bombardment controls the maturity of lunar soil,with the degree of maturation decreasing with grain size; the concentrations of the noble gases would be of slight variation with the depth of lunar soil but tend to decrease with grain size. In addition,the concentrations of noble gases in lunar soil also show a close relationship with its mineral and chemical compositions. The utilization prospects of the noble gas s He in lunar regolith will be further discussed.

  18. Formation and migration of Natural Gases: gas composition and isotopes as monitors between source, reservoir and seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, M.; Etiope, G.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gases form in tight source rocks at temperatures between 120ºC up to 200ºC over a time of 40 to 50my depending on the heating rate of the gas kitchen. Inferring from pyrolysis experiments, gases after primary migration, a pressure driven process, are rich in C2+ hydrocarbons (C2 to C5). This is consistent with gas compositions of oil-associated gases such as in the Bakken Shale which occur in immediate vicinity of the source with little migration distances. However, migration of gases along porous rocks over long distances (up to 200km in the case of the Troll field offshore Norway) changes the gas composition drastically as C2+ hydrocarbons tend to be retained/sequestered during migration of gas as case histories from Virginia and the North Sea will demonstrate. Similar "molecular fractionation" is observed between reservoirs and surface seeps. In contrast to gas composition, stable isotopes in gases are, in general, not affected by the migration process suggesting that gas migration is a steady state process. Changes in isotopic composition, from source to reservoir to surface seeps, is often the result of mixing of gases of different origins. Examples from various gas provinces will support this notion. Natural gas basins provide little opportunity of tracking and identifying gas phase separation. Future research on experimental phase separation and monitoring of gas composition and gas ratio changes e.g. various C2+ compound ratios over C1 or isomer ratios such as iso/n ratios in butane and pentane may be an avenue to develop tracers for phase separation that could possibly be applied to natural systems of retrograde natural condensate fields.

  19. Interaction of the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) with DNA and RNA causes repression of transcription and translation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Birkelund, S; Christiansen, G

    1994-01-01

    and severely affects DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. We have analysed the interaction of Hc1 with single-stranded DNA and RNA by Southwestern and Northwestern blotting. Furthermore, we show that purified, recombinant Hc1 dramatically affects transcription and translation in vitro at physiologically relevant...

  20. Investigating vegetation spectral reflectance for detecting hydrocarbon pipeline leaks from multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Bashir; Tansey, Kevin; Bradshaw, Michael J.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse spectral reflectance data from Landsat TM of vegetation that has been exposed to hydrocarbon contamination from oil spills from pipelines. The study is undertaken in an area of mangrove and swamp vegetation where the detection of an oil spill is traditionally difficult to make. We used a database of oil spill records to help identify candidate sites for spectral analysis. Extracted vegetation spectra were compared between polluted and nonpolluted sites and supervised (neural network) classification was carried out to map hydrocarbon (HC) contaminated sites from the sample areas. Initial results show that polluted sites are characterised by high reflectance in the visible (VIS) 0.4μm - 0.7μm, and a lower reflectance in the near-infrared (NIR) 0.7μm - 1.1μm. This suggests that the vegetation is in a stressed state. Samples taken from pixels surrounding polluted sites show similar spectral reflectance values to that of polluted sites suggesting possible migration of HC to the wider environment. Further work will focus on increasing the sample size and investigating the impact of an oil spill on a wider buffer zone around the spill site.

  1. Discrimination of abiogenic and biogenic alkane gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI JinXing; MI JingKui; LI ZhiSheng; HU AnPing; YANG Chun; ZHOU QingHua; SHUAI YanHua; ZHANG Ying; MA ChengHua; ZOU CaiNeng; ZHANG ShuiChang; LI Jian; NI YunYan; HU GuoYi; LUO Xia; TAO ShiZhen; ZHU GuangYou

    2008-01-01

    We have combined the analytical data of the carbon isotope distribution pattern, R/Ra and cliche values of abiogenic and biogenic (referring to the therrnogenic and bacterial or microbial) alkane gases in China with those of alkane gases from USA, Russia, Germany, Australia and other countries. Four discrimination criteria are derived from this comparative study: 1) Carbon isotopic composition is generally greater than -30‰ for abiogenic methane and less than -30‰ for biogenic methane; 2)Abiogenic alkane gases have a carbon isotopic reversal trend (Δ13c1>Δ13c2>Δ13c3>Δ13c4) with Δ13c1>-30‰ in general; 3) Gases with R/Ra>0.5 and Δ13c1- Δ13c2>0 are of abiogenic origin; 4) Gases (methane) with CH4/3He≤106 are of abiogenic origin, whereas gases with CH4/3He≥1011 are of biogenic origin.

  2. Discrimination of abiogenic and biogenic alkane gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We have combined the analytical data of the carbon isotope distribution pattern, R/Ra and CH4/3He values of abiogenic and biogenic (referring to the thermogenic and bacterial or microbial) alkane gases in China with those of alkane gases from USA, Russia, Germany, Australia and other countries. Four discrimination criteria are derived from this comparative study: 1) Carbon isotopic composition is generally greater than -30‰ for abiogenic methane and less than -30‰ for biogenic methane; 2) Abiogenic alkane gases have a carbon isotopic reversal trend (δ 13C1> δ 13C2> δ 13C3> δ 13C4) with δ 13C1>-30‰ in general; 3) Gases with R/Ra >0.5 and δ 13C11 δ 13C2>0 are of abiogenic origin; 4) Gases (meth- ane) with CH4/3He≤106 are of abiogenic origin, whereas gases with CH4/3He≥1011 are of biogenic origin.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by electrocautery smoke and the use of personal protective equipment 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Caroline Vieira; Ribeiro, Renata Perfeito; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Solci, Maria Cristina; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: analyze the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in electrocautery smoke in operating rooms and the use of personal protective equipment by the intraoperative team when exposed to hydrocarbons. Method: exploratory and cross-sectional field research conducted in a surgery center. Gases were collected by a vacuum suction pump from a sample of 50 abdominal surgeries in which an electrocautery was used. A form was applied to identify the use of personal protective equipment. Gases were analyzed using chromatography. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's test were used to treat data. Results: there were 17 (34%) cholecystectomies with an average duration of 136 minutes, while the average time of electrocautery usage was 3.6 minutes. Airborne hydrocarbons were detected in operating rooms in 100% of the surgeries. Naphthalene was detected in 48 (96.0%) surgeries and phenanthrene in 49 (98.0%). The average concentration of these compounds was 0.0061 mg/m3 and a strong correlation (0.761) was found between them. The intraoperative teams did not use respirator masks such as the N95. Conclusion: electrocautery smoke produces gases that are harmful to the health of the intraoperative team, which is a concern considering the low adherence to the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:28301033

  4. Hydrocarbon/CO{sub 2}/water multiphase equilibrium separations. Final report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Eubank, P.T.; Barrufet, M.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Hydrocarbon (HC)/water and HC/CO{sub 2}/water systems are frequently found in petroleum recovery processes, petroleum refining, and gasification of coals, lignites and tar sands. Objective is to provide techniques for analyzing these mixtures at pressures up to 10,000 psia and temperatures up to 500 F; two laboratory apparatus were developed for this purpose. Three-phase separation data are obtained for mixtures of pure n-alkanes (C{sub 3} to C{sub 20}), CO{sub 2}, and water; and for mixtures of pseudocomponents of crude oils and water. Crude oils are characterized using a modified Whitson`s method. Rigorous equation-of-state computer simulators were developed and validated with experimental data; they are essential for reservoir engineering and enhanced oil recovery.

  5. Titan's atmosphere from Voyager infrared observations. III - Vertical contributions of hydrocarbons and nitriles near Titan's north pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Gautier, D.; Marten, A.; Samuelson, R.

    1991-01-01

    Voyager 1 IR spectra have been used to infer the Titan north polar region minor stratospheric constituents' temperature structure and vertical distribution. The mixing ratios of the species C4H2, C2H6, C3H4, HCN, HC3N, and C2N2 increase with altitude, implying upper stratosphere (and higher) formation regions. When compared with abundances obtained near the equator, it is found that the HC3N and C2N2 nitriles, together with such hydrocarbons as C2H4, C3H4, and C4H2, are substantially enhanced over the north polar region. A factor-of-2 (minimum) depletion of CO2 relative to the equator is noted; it is judged that current photochemical models are inadequate bases for interpretation of these observations.

  6. Hydrocarbons emissions from Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Karina; Navarro-González, Rafael; de la Rosa, José; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Imaz, Mireya

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important environmental issues related to the use of geothermal fluids to generate electricity is the emission of non-condensable gases to the atmosphere. Mexico has one of the largest geothermal plants in the world. The facility is located at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, roughly 30 km south of Mexicali and the international boundary between Mexico and United States. The Cerro Prieto power plant has 13 units grouped on four individual powerhouses. Gas samples from 9 units of the four powerhouses were collected during 4 campaigns conducted in May-July, 2010, February, 2012, December, 2012, and May, 2013. Gas samples from the stacks were collected in 1000 ml Pyrex round flasks with Teflon stopcocks, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methane was the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon, with a concentration that ranged from less than 1% up to 3.5% of the total gas mixture. Normal alkanes represented the second most abundant species, and displayed a decreasing abundance with increasing carbon number in the homologous series. Isoalkanes were also present as isobutane and isopentane. Cycloalkanes occurring as cyclopentane and cyclohexane, were detected only at trace level. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes) were not detected. Benzene was detected at levels ranging from less than 1% up to 3.4% of the total gas mixture. Other aromatic hydrocarbons detected were toluene, and xylenes, and were present at lower concentrations (

  7. Opposed Jet Burner Extinction Limits: Simple Mixed Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels vs Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2007-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) of laminar non-premixed H2 air and simple hydrocarbon (HC) air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on air jet velocity. This paper follows AIAA-2006-5223, and provides new HC air FSs for global testing of chemical kinetics, and for characterizing idealized flameholding potentials during early scramjet-like combustion. Previous FS data included six HCs, pure and N2-diluted; and three HC-diluted H2 fuels, where FS decayed very nonlinearly as HC was added to H2, due to H-atom scavenging. This study presents FSs on mixtures of (candidate surrogate) HCs, some with very high FS ethylene. Included are four binary gaseous systems at 300 K, and a hot ternary system at approx. 600 K. The binaries are methane + ethylene, ethane + ethylene, methane + ethane, and methane + propylene. The first three also form two ternary systems. The hot ternary includes both 10.8 and 21.3 mole % vaporized n-heptane and full ranges of methane + ethylene. Normalized FS data provide accurate means of (1) validating, globally, chemical kinetics for extinction of non-premixed flames, and (2) estimating (scaling by HC) the loss of incipient flameholding in scramjet combustors. The n-heptane is part of a proposed baseline simulant (10 mole % with 30% methane + 60% ethylene) that mimics the ignition of endothermically cracked JP-7 like kerosene fuel, as suggested by Colket and Spadaccini in 2001 in their shock tube Scramjet Fuels Autoignition Study. Presently, we use FS to gauge idealized flameholding, and define HC surrogates. First, FS was characterized for hot nheptane + methane + ethylene; then a hot 36 mole % methane + 64% ethylene surrogate was defined that mimics FS of the baseline simulant system. A similar hot ethane + ethylene surrogate can also be defined, but it has lower vapor pressure at 300 K, and thus exhibits reduced gaseous

  8. Development of sample exchange robot PAM-HC for beamline BL-1A at the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Masahiko, E-mail: masahiko.hiraki@kek.jp [Mechanical Engineering Center, Applied Research Laboratory, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Department of Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (the Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan); Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Senda, Toshiya [Structural Biology research Center, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK (Japan); Department of Materials Structure Science, SOKENDAI (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A macromolecular crystallography beamline, BL-1A, has been built at the Photon Factory (PF) for low energy experiments and has been operational since 2010. We have installed a sample exchange robot, PAM (PF Automated Mounting system), similar to other macromolecular crystallography beamlines. However, following the installation of a helium chamber to reduce the absorption of the diffraction signal by air, we developed a new sample exchange robot to replace PAM. The new robot, named PAM-HC (Helium Chamber), is designed with the goal of minimizing leakage of helium gas from the chamber. Here, the PAM-HC hardware and the flow of its movement are described. Furthermore, measurements of temperature changes during sample exchange are presented in this paper.

  9. Structure of dense molecular gas in TMC 1 from observations of three transitions of HC3N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloerb, F. P.; Snell, R. L.; Young, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The Taurus dark cloud complex is a collection of many individual clouds scattered across approximately 50 pc. Within one of these, Heiles Cloud 2, is the dense condensation TMC 1. TMC 1 is one of the few sources in which some of the long carbon chain molecules are found. The present investigation is concerned with a mapping of the density structure in a narrow ridge of the TMC 1 structure. It is shown that the HC3N emission from the J = 5 to 4, J = 9 to 8, and J = 12 to 11 transitions is well matched by a narrow ridge of material at a single density of 50,000-100,000 per cu cm. There is evidence that the HC3N fractional abundance is variable along the ridge. Evidence is also found for the presence of subcondensations within this ridge from maps at individual velocities.

  10. Universal mechanism for breaking the hc/2e periodicity of flux-induced oscillations in small superconducting rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakaryuk, Victor

    2008-10-17

    A universal mechanism of restoration of minimal hc/e periodicity in the response of small superconducting rings or cylinders to the magnetic flux is proposed. The mechanism is based on the dependence of the Cooper pair's internal energy on its motion as a whole and does not rely on the presence of quasiparticles in the system. The thermal equilibrium hc/2e periodicity is broken by an offset of the transition between different current-carrying states. The magnitude of the offset is calculated for an s-wave superconducting cylinder of radius R in the limit R>xi_{0}, where xi_{0} is the BCS coherence length and turns out to be exponentially small. A possible enhancement of the effect for nodal superconductors is suggested. Similar conclusions should also apply to the response of charged or neutral superfluids to rotation.

  11. Carbon isotope geochemistry of hydrocarbons in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California Norte, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D J; Stallard, M L; Nehring, N L; Truesdell, A H

    1988-01-01

    Hydrocarbon abundances and stable-isotopic compositions were measured in wells M5, M26, M35 and M102, which represent a range of depths (1270-2000 m) and temperatures (275-330 degrees C) in the field. In order to simulate the production of the geothermal hydrocarbons, gases were collected from the pyrolysis of lignite in the laboratory. This lignite was obtained from a well which sampled rock strata which are identical to those occurring in the field, but which have experienced much lower subsurface temperatures. In both the well and the laboratory observations, high-temperature environments favored higher relative concentrations of methane, ethane and benzene and generally higher delta 13C-values in the individual hydrocarbons. The best correlation between the laboratory and well data is obtained when laboratory-produced gases from experiments conducted at lower (400 degrees C) and higher (600 degrees C) temperatures are mixed. This improved correlation suggests that the wells are sampling hydrocarbons produced from a spectrum of depths and temperatures in the sediments.

  12. Carbon isotope geochemistry of hydrocarbons in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California Norte, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Stallard, M. L.; Nehring, N. L.; Truesdell, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrocarbon abundances and stable-isotopic compositions were measured in wells M5, M26, M35 and M102, which represent a range of depths (1270-2000 m) and temperatures (275-330 degrees C) in the field. In order to simulate the production of the geothermal hydrocarbons, gases were collected from the pyrolysis of lignite in the laboratory. This lignite was obtained from a well which sampled rock strata which are identical to those occurring in the field, but which have experienced much lower subsurface temperatures. In both the well and the laboratory observations, high-temperature environments favored higher relative concentrations of methane, ethane and benzene and generally higher delta 13C-values in the individual hydrocarbons. The best correlation between the laboratory and well data is obtained when laboratory-produced gases from experiments conducted at lower (400 degrees C) and higher (600 degrees C) temperatures are mixed. This improved correlation suggests that the wells are sampling hydrocarbons produced from a spectrum of depths and temperatures in the sediments.

  13. Formation of positive ions in hydrocarbon containing dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Ilarion; Pohoata, Valentin; Jijie, Roxana; Nastuta, Andrei Vasile; Rusu, Ioana Alexandra; Topala, Ionut

    2016-12-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices are suitable experimental solutions to generate transitory molecular environments with various applications. In this study we present experimental results regarding the plasma chemistry of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) in helium - hydrogen (0.1%) - hydrocarbons (1.2%) mixtures. Four types of hydrocarbon gases were studied: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), and butane (C4H10). Discharge diagnosis and monitoring was assured by electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. Molecular beam mass spectrometry is engaged to sample positive ions populations from two different plasma sources. Dissociation and generation of higher-chain and cyclic (aromatic) hydrocarbons were discussed as a function of feed gas and discharge geometry. We found a strong influence of these parameters on both molecular mass distribution and recombination processes in the plasma volume.

  14. Development of Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon Atmospheric Carburizing and Process Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolan; Zurecki, Zbigniew; Sisson, Richard D.

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure carburizing and neutral carbon potential annealing in nitrogen containing small additions of hydrocarbon gases can offer cost and steel surface quality alternatives to the comparable, endothermic atmosphere, or vacuum operations. An experimental program was conducted for refining real-time process control methods in carburizing of AISI 8620 steel under N2-CH4, N2-C3H8 blends containing <5 vol.% of hydrocarbon gas at 900 and 930 °C. Multiple types of gas analyzers were used to monitor residual concentrations of H2, CO, CO2, H2O, O2, CH4, C3H8, and other hydrocarbons inside furnace. A modified shim stock technique was additionally evaluated for correlation with gas analysis and diffusional modeling using measured carbon mass flux values (g/cm2/s). Results of this evaluation work are presented.

  15. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim Z.

    2011-08-23

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  16. Cost analysis model for catalytic conversion of syngas in to light hydrocarbon gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Deng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-gasification is a new technology and considered as a more efficient way to utilize bio-energy. The economic feasibility becomes one of the greatest issues when we apply this new technology. Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs better understanding of its production unit cost under different capacities and different working shift modes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of biofuel products (Liquid HCs, Light HCs and Oxygenates CxHyOz under different capacities using a modeling method. The cost analysis model was developed using Visual Basic Microsoft 2008, computer programming language and mathematical equations. The modeling results showed that the unit costs of biofuel product from bio-gasification facility were significantly affected by production capacities of facilities. As the facility capacity increased from 65 to 10,000 N m3 h−1, the biofuel production unit cost of gas (Light HCs, oil (Liquid HCs, and aqueous (Oxygenates CxHyOz decreased from $38.92 per MMBTU, $30.89 per gallon and $25.74 per gallon to $2.01 per MMBTU, $1.59 per gallon, and $1.33 per gallon, respectively. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that feedstock cost was the most sensitive cost factor on unit costs for all biofuel products at high capacity. The cost analysis model developed in this study could be used to optimize production unit costs of bio-fuel products from bio-gasification facility.

  17. Thermodynamic Functions of Solvation of Hydrocarbons, Noble Gases, and Hard Spheres in Tetrahydrofuran-Water Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, I A; Magsumov, T I

    2015-07-16

    Thermodynamic solvation properties of mixtures of water with tetrahydrofuran at 298 K are studied. The Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of solvation of n-octane and toluene are determined experimentally. For molecular dynamics simulations of the binary solvent, we have modified a TraPPE-UA model for tetrahydrofuran and combined it with the SPC/E potential for water. The excess thermodynamic functions of neon, xenon, and hard spheres with two different radii are calculated using the particle insertion method. Simulated and real systems share the same characteristic trends for the thermodynamic functions. A maximum is present on dependencies of the enthalpy of solvation from the composition of solvent at 70-90 mol % water, making it higher than in both of the cosolvents. It is caused by a high enthalpy of cavity formation in the mixtures rich with water due to solvent reorganization around the cavity, which is shown by calculation of the enthalpy of solvation of hard spheres. Addition of relatively small amounts of tetrahydrofuran to water effectively suppresses the hydrophobic effect, leading to a quick increase of both the entropy and enthalpy of cavity formation and solvation of low polar molecules.

  18. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  19. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  20. Investigation Of The EMF Versus State Of Charge Behavior Of Individual Electrodes In New And Cycled Sony 18650 HC Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G.; Mattle, T.

    2011-10-01

    Individual electrode EMFs of new and cycled Sony 18650 HC cells have been measured with the help of a lithium reference electrode inserted into complete cells. Results have revealed the relative contribution of each electrode to voltage hysteresis (the difference in cell EMF between charge and discharge at the same state of charge).They have also shown changes to the shape of the positive electrode EMF versus state of charge in cycled compared to beginning of life cells.

  1. CSER 98-003: criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-02-25

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21 A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into Glovebox HC-21A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) {le} 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95 (including uncertainties). Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle.

  2. CSER 98-003: criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-02-25

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21 A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into Glovebox HC-21A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) {le} 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95 (including uncertainties). Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle.

  3. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  4. Electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Gerard Anthony

    1993-01-01

    This work involves the characterisation of the electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons. A variety of methods were employed involving the use of catalytic reagents to enhance the rate at which chlorinated organic compounds are reduced. The first reagent used was oxygen which was electrochemically reduced to superoxide in nonaqueous solvents. Superoxide is a reactive intermediate and decomposes chlorinated hydrocarbons. However it was found that since the rate of reaction betw...

  5. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  6. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  7. 40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86.514-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases...

  8. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.114-94 Section 86.114-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.114-94 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1214-85 Section 86.1214-85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for...

  10. Perfil epidemiológico das ceratomicoses atendidas no HC-UNICAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Gubert Müller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A ceratite fúngica é uma importante causa de infecção corneana, principalmente em países tropicais. Com alta morbidade devido à demora no diagnóstico, o exame laboratorial torna-se obrigatório nesses casos. Dificuldades técnicas na obtenção das amostras, porém, geram um grande número de exames falso-negativos. Nesses casos, uma detalhada avaliação do paciente em busca de características específicas dessa entidade pode auxiliar na elucidação diagnóstica. OBJETIVOS: Formar um perfil epidemiológico dos portadores de ceratomicose para auxiliar no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo em base de dados de portadores de úlceras corneanas em busca de pacientes com diagnóstico de ceratomicose. Foram coletadas informações a respeito de sexo, situação do domicílio, grau de instrução, profissão, idade, fatores desencadeantes e predisponentes (oculares e sistêmicos, hipótese etiológica inicial, resultado laboratorial, tempo de cicatrização, complicações e tratamentos adjuvantes. RESULTADOS: Dos 599 pacientes atendidos por úlcera de córnea, 150 (25% foram diagnosticados como de etiologia fúngica. Houve maior prevalência em homens em idade produtiva e baixo nível de escolaridade. Trauma com material vegetal esteve presente em 74 (49,33% casos. Demais fatores identificados como trabalhadores e moradores de áreas rurais também suportam o trauma vegetal como principal fator de risco identificado no estudo. CONCLUSÕES: Com base nos dados do estudo foi possível formar um perfil dos portadores de úlceras fúngicas atendidos pelo HC-UNICAMP.

  11. Photophysics of the Red Chromophore of HcRed: Evidence for Cis-Trans Isomerization and Protonation-State Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotlet, M.; Mudalige, K.; Habuchi, S.; Goodwin, P.M.; Pai, R.K.; De Schryver, F.

    2010-03-15

    HcRed is a dimeric intrinsically fluorescent protein with origins in the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. This protein exhibits deep red absorption and emission properties. Using a combination of ensemble and single molecule methods and by varying environmental parameters such as temperature and pH, we found spectroscopic evidence for the presence of two ground state conformers, trans and cis chromophores that are in thermal equilibrium and that follow different excited-state pathways upon exposure to light. The photocycle of HcRed appears to be a combination of both kindling proteins and bright emitting GFP/GFP-like proteins: the trans chromophore undergoes light driven isomerization followed by radiative relaxation with a fluorescence lifetime of 0.5 ns. The cis chromophore exhibits a photocycle similar to bright GFPs and GFP-like proteins such as enhanced GFP, enhanced YFP or DsRed, with radiative relaxation with a fluorescence lifetime of 1.5 ns, singlet-triplet deactivation on a microsecond time scale and solvent controlled protonation/deprotonation in tens of microseconds. Using single molecule spectroscopy, we identify trans and cis conformers at the level of individual moieties and show that it is possible that the two conformers can coexist in a single protein due to the dimeric nature of HcRed.

  12. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  13. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  14. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the particulate phase from burning incenses with various atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tzu-Ting, E-mail: d89844001@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shaw-Tao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, 200 Chung-Chi Rd., Salu Dist., Taichung City 43301, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tser-Sheng [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, National United University, 2 Lien Da, Maioli, 360, Taiwan (China); Hong, Wei-Lun [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the particulate phase generated from burning various incense was investigated by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Among the used incenses, the atomic H/C ratio ranged from 0.51 to 1.69, yielding the emission factor ranges for total particulate mass and PAHs of 4.19-82.16 mg/g and 1.20-9.50 {mu}g/g, respectively. The atomic H/C ratio of the incense was the key factor affecting particulate mass and the PAHs emission factors. Both the maximum emission factor and the slowest burning rate appear at the H/C ratio of 1.57. The concentrations of the four-ring PAHs predominated and the major species among the 16 PAHs were fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene for most incense types. The benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene accounted for 87.08-93.47% of the total toxic equivalency emission factor. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The atomic H/C ratio of incense was the key factor affecting PAHs emission factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burning incense with lower atomic H/C ratio minimized the production of total PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BaP, BaA, BbF, and DBA accounted for 87.08-93.47% of the TEQ emission factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Special PAH ratios were regarded as characteristic ratios for burning incense.

  15. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes.

  16. The HC-LAC: a Platform for Modeling Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda, F.; Wyatt, A.; Bruhn, M.; Wheaton, W.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Muñoz-Castillo, R.; Rineer, J.

    2013-05-01

    This platform, called the Hydrology and Climate Change in Latin America and The Caribbean, or "HC-LAC", is an integrated quantitative simulation of hydrology and climate change. The HC-LAC is composed of two principal components: the Analytical Hydrography Dataset (AHD) and an enhanced version of the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF). The AHD is a spatially explicit surface water data layer of Central and South America derived from digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and modified by the USGS to provide more accurate flow between cells in the raster data. For the LAC area, AHD consists 230, 000 catchments and stream segments with an average area of 100 km2 and length of 10 km, respectively. The AHD data structure is patterned after the US National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus), thus providing a proven structure for flexible data integration and analyses necessary for spatial models like the HC-LAC. The structure of the AHD enables the implementation of water balance modeling and general routing of flows through the stream network thus supporting a range of environmental models. GWLF is applied on each AHD catchment which is characterized by multiple land use and soil type. The response of each land use in a given catchment is modeled separately in generating stream flow as well as recharge to soil storage. The stream flows generated from each catchment are routed through stream networks, providing total flow at any point in the stream network. A pilot implementation of the HC-LAC was established for the Rio Grande basin in North West Argentina (drainage area 6,700 km2). The model was parameterized and calibrated using readily available data. Three stream flow time series were generated using a reference climate case and two climate change projections. The reference case was based on historical records and assumes no climate change. The two climate change projections were generated using the IPCC "A2" high

  17. A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

    2009-02-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and Gibbs free energy minimization computer experiments strongly support the hypothesis that kerogen maturation and oil generation are inevitable consequences of oxidation/reduction disproportionation reactions caused by prograde metamorphism of hydrocarbon source rocks with increasing depth of burial.These experiments indicate that oxygen and hydrogen are conserved in the process.Accordingly, if water is stable and present in the source rock at temperatures ≳25 but ≲100 °C along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm, immature (reduced) kerogen with a given atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C) melts incongruently with increasing temperature and depth of burial to produce a metastable equilibrium phase assemblage consisting of naphthenic/biomarker-rich crude oil, a type-II/III kerogen with an atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio (H/C) of ˜1, and water. Hence, this incongruent melting process promotes diagenetic reaction of detritus in the source rock to form authigenic mineral assemblages.However, in the water-absent region of the system CHO (which is extensive), any water initially present or subsequently entering the source rock is consumed by reaction with the most mature kerogen with the lowest H/C it encounters to form CO 2 gas and a new kerogen with higher H/C and O/C, both of which are in metastable equilibrium with one another.This hydrolytic disproportionation process progressively increases both the concentration of the solute in the aqueous phase, and the oil generation potential of the source rock; i.e., the new kerogen can then produce more crude oil.Petroleum is generated with increasing temperature and depth of burial of hydrocarbon source rocks in which water is not stable in the system CHO by a series of irreversible disproportionation reactions in which kerogens with higher (H/C)s melt incongruently to produce metastable equilibrium assemblages consisting of crude oil, CO 2 gas, and a more mature (oxidized) kerogen with a lower

  18. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  19. A Search for Interstellar Carbon Chain Alcohol HC4OH in Star-Forming Region L1527 and Dark Cloud TMC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Araki, Mitsunori; Yamabe, Hiromichi; Koshikawa, Naohiro; Tsukiyama, Koichi; Nakane, Aya; Okabayashi, Toshiaki; Kunimatsu, Arisa; Kuze, Nobuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We report a sensitive search for the rotational transitions of the carbon chain alcohol HC4OH in the frequency range of 21.2-46.7 GHz in the star-forming region L1527 and the dark cloud TMC-1. The motivation was laboratory detection of HC4OH by microwave spectroscopy. Despite achieving rms noise levels of several millikelvin in the antenna temperature using the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory, the detection was not successful, leading to 3 sigma upper limits corresponding to the column densities of 2.0 \\times 1012 and 5.6 \\times 1012 cm-2 in L1527 and TMC-1, respectively. These upper limits indicate that [HC4OH]/[HC5N] ratios are less than 0.3 and 0.1 in L1527 and TMC-1, respectively, where HC5N is an HC4-chain cyanide and HC4OH is a hydroxide. These ratios suggest that the cyano carbon chain molecule dominates the hydroxyl carbon chain molecule in L1527 and TMC-1. This is contrary to the case of saturated compounds in hot cores, e.g., CH3OH and CH3CN, and can be a chemical feature of carbon chai...

  20. A Search for Interstellar Carbon-chain Alcohol HC4OH in Star-forming Region l1527 and Dark Cloud TMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Takano, Shuro; Yamabe, Hiromichi; Koshikawa, Naohiro; Tsukiyama, Koichi; Nakane, Aya; Okabayashi, Toshiaki; Kunimatsu, Arisa; Kuze, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    We report a sensitive search for the rotational transitions of the carbon-chain alcohol HC4OH in the frequency range 21.2-46.7 GHz in the star-forming region L1527 and the dark cloud TMC-1. The motivation was laboratory detection of HC4OH by microwave spectroscopy. Despite achieving rms noise levels of several millikelvin in the antenna temperature using the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory, the detection was not successful, leading to 3σ upper limits corresponding to the column densities of 2.0 × 1012 and 5.6 × 1012 cm-2 in L1527 and TMC-1, respectively. These upper limits indicate that [HC4OH]/[HC5N] ratios are less than 0.3 and 0.1 in L1527 and TMC-1, respectively, where HC5N is an HC4-chain cyanide and HC4OH is a hydroxide. These ratios suggest that the cyano carbon-chain molecule dominates the hydroxyl carbon-chain molecule in L1527 and TMC-1. This is contrary to the case of saturated compounds in hot cores, e.g., CH3OH and CH3CN, and can be a chemical feature of carbon-chain molecules in L1527 and TMC-1. In addition, the column densities of the "unsubstituted" carbon-chain molecule C4H and the sulfur-bearing molecules SO and HCS+ were determined from detected lines in L1527.

  1. Methanol production from fermentor off-gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, B. E.; Moreira, A. R.

    The off gases from an acetone butanol fermentation facility are composed mainly of CO2 and H2. Such a gas stream is an ideal candidate as a feed to a methanol synthesis plant utilizing modern technology recently developed and known as the CDH-methanol process. A detailed economic analysis for the incremental cost of a methanol synthesis plant utilizing the off gases from an acetone butanol fermentation indicates a profitable rate of return of 25 to 30% under the most likely production conditions. Bench scale studies at different fermentor mixing rates indicate that the volume of gases released during the fermentation is a strong function of the agitation rate and point to a potential interaction between the volume of H2 evolved and the levels of butanol present in the final fermented broth. Such interaction may require establishing optimum operating conditions for an integrated butanol fermentation methanol synthesis plant.

  2. Absorption of Soluble Gases by Atmospheric Nanoaerosols

    CERN Document Server

    Elperin, Tov; Krasovitov, Boris; Lushnikov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    We investigate mass transfer during absorption of atmospheric trace soluble gases by a single droplet whose size is comparable to the molecular mean free path in air at normal conditions. It is assumed that the trace reactant diffuses to the droplet surface and then reacts with the substances inside the droplet according to the first order rate law. Our analysis applies a flux-matching theory of transport processes in gases and assumes constant thermophysical properties of the gases and liquids. We derive an integral equation of Volterra type for the transient molecular flux density to a liquid droplet and solve it numerically. Numerical calculations are performed for absorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2), dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) and chlorine (Cl2) by liquid nanoaerosols accompanied by chemical dissociation reaction. It is shown that during gas absorption by nanoaerosols the kinetic effects play significant role, and neglecting kinetic effects leads to significant overestimation of the soluble gas flux into a...

  3. GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  4. Dark lump excitations in superfluid Fermi gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yan-Xia; Duan Wen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    We study the linear and nonlinear properties of two-dimensional matter-wave pulses in disk-shaped superfluid Fermi gases.A Kadomtsev Petviashvili I (KPI) solitary wave has been realized for superfluid Fermi gases in the limited cases of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) regime,Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) regime,and unitarity regime.Onelump solution as well as one-line soliton solutions for the KPI equation are obtained,and two-line soliton solutions with the same amplitude are also studied in the limited cases.The dependence of the lump propagating velocity and the sound speed of two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gases on the interaction parameter are investigated for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity.

  5. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  7. Zeolites for Sensors for Reducing Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ralf Moos; Kathy Sahner; Gunter Hagen; Andreas Dubbe

    2006-01-01

    Due to their unique properties, zeolites can be used either as passive filters to greatly enhance selectivity or as very selective sensor materials. Some well known principles are briefly reviewed and the following three novel application modes are discussed. Zeolites can be applied as cover layers for specificity improvement of p-type semiconducting hydrocarbon sensors. Furthermore, a novel combination of metal oxides with zeolites leading to a very selective hydrocarbon sensor is described. In this application, it is shown that the interface chromium oxide / zeolite plays an essential role. And, in a very recent approach, Na+ ion conducting zeolites are applied as an auxiliary phase in a potentiometric gas sensor. The cell voltage shows a Nernstian response, which is selective towards propane. Here, the proposed mechanism assumes Na+ activity changes in the zeolite pores due to hydrocarbon sorption.

  8. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain(MyHC)from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚武英; 符贵红; 宾石玉; 蒙涛; 周瑞雪; 成嘉; 赵发兰; 张红芳; 张建社

    2010-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain(MyHC)is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle.We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp,including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues.The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69%homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%–76%homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish,walleye pollack,white croaker,chum salmon,and carp.The putative sequenc...

  9. Nanoclusters and Microparticles in Gases and Vapors

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    2012-01-01

    Research of processes involving Nanoclusters and Microparticleshas been developing fastin many fields of rescent research, in particular in materials science. To stay at the cutting edge of this development, a sound understanding of the processes is needed. In this work, several processes involving small particles are described, such as transport processes in gases, charging of small particles in gases, chemical processes, atom attachment and quenching of excited atomic particles on surfaces, nucleation, coagulation, coalescence and growth processes for particles and aggregates. This work pres

  10. Blackbody Radiation in Optically Thick Gases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the claim that optically thick gases can emit as blackbodies is refuted. The belief that such behavior exists results from an improper consideration of heat transfer and reflection. When heat is injected into a gas, the energy is primarily redistributed into translational degrees of freedom and is not used to drive emission. The average kinetic energy of the particles in the system simply increases and the temperature rises. In this respect, it is well-know that the emissivity of a gas can drop with increasing temperature. Once reflection and translation are properly considered, it is simple to understand why gases can never emit as blackbodies.

  11. Investigations into electrical discharges in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Klyarfel'D, B N

    2013-01-01

    Investigations into Electrical Discharges in Gases is a compilation of scientific articles that covers the advances in the investigation of the fundamental processes occurring in electrical discharges in gases and vapors. The book details the different aspects of the whole life cycle of an arc, which include the initiation of a discharge, its transition into an arc, the lateral spread of the arc column, and the recovery of electric strength after extinction of an arc. The text also discusses the methods for the dynamic measurement of vapor density in the vicinity of electrical discharges, alon

  12. Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical process industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupis, C.H.P.

    1999-10-01

    The present lecture offers a brief review of the greenhouse effect, the sources of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming, the response of the international community, and the probable cost of national compliance. The specific emissions of the metallurgical process industry, particularly those of the steel and aluminum sectors, are then examined. The potential applications of life-cycle assessments and of an input-output model in programs of emissions' abatement are investigated, and, finally, a few remarks on some implications for education are presented.

  13. Composition of gases vented from a condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R.N.

    1980-08-01

    Designers of systems that involve condensers often need to predict the amount of process vapor that accompanies the noncondensable gases that are vented from the condensers. An approximation is given that appears to provide, in many cases, reasonably accurate values for the mole ratio of process vapor to noncondensable gases in the vented mixture. The approximation is particularly applicable to flash and direct-contact power systems for geothermal brines and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). More regorous relationships are available for exceptional cases.

  14. Itinerant Ferromagnetism in Ultracold Fermi Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature a second order transition is found at akF ≃ 0.90 compatible with QMC. Thermodyna......Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature a second order transition is found at akF ≃ 0.90 compatible with QMC...

  15. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua presents three major topics, which are the fourth to sixth parts of this volume. These topics are the remarks on units of physical quantities; kinetic theory of gases and gaseous flow; and theory of vacuum diffusion pumps. The first topic aims to present concisely the significance of units of physical quantities, catering the need and interest of those who take measurements and make calculations in different fields of vacuum sciences. The technique and applications of this particular topic are also provided. The second main topic focuses sp

  16. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  17. Origin and Accumulation of Natural Gases in the Upper Paleozoic Strata of the Ordos Basin in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yangming; WANG Jibao; LIU Xinse; ZHANG Wenzheng

    2009-01-01

    The natural gases in the Upper Paleozoic strata of the Ordos basin are characterized by relatively heavy C isotope of gaseous alkanes with δ13C1 and δ13C2 values ranging mainly from-35‰ to -30‰ and-27‰ to-22‰,respectively,high δ13C excursions (round 10)between ethane and methane and predominant methane in hydrocarbon gases with most C1/(C1-C5)ratios in excess of 0.95, suggesting an origin of coal-derived gas.The gases exhibit different carbon isotopic profiles for C1.C4 alkanes with those of the natural gases found in the Lower Paleozoic of this basin.and believed to be originated from Carboniferous-Permian coal measures.The occurrence of regionally pervasive gas accumulation iS distinct in the gently southward-dipping Shanbei slope of the central basin.It is noted that molecular and isotopic composition changes of the gases in various gas reservoirs are associated With the thermal maturities of gas source rocks.The abundances and δ13C values of methane generally decline northwards and from the basin center to its margins.and the effects of hydrocarbon migration on compositional modification seem insignificant.However, C isotopes of autogenetic calcites in the vertical and lateral section of reservoirs show a regular variation,and are as a whole depleted upwards and towards basin margins.Combination with gas maturity gradient, the analysis could be considered to be a useful tool for gas migration.

  18. Surface geochemical data evaluation and integration with geophysical observations for hydrocarbon prospecting, Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Satish Kumar; A.M. Dayal; V. Sudarshan

    2014-01-01

    The Deccan Syneclise is considered to have significant hydrocarbon potential. However, significant hydrocarbon discoveries, particularly for Mesozoic sequences, have not been established through conventional exploration due to the thick basalt cover over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. In this study, near-surface geochemical data are used to understand the petroleum system and also investigate type of source for hydrocarbons generation of the study area. Soil samples were collected from favorable areas identified by integrated geophysical studies. The compositional and isotopic signatures of adsorbed gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) were used as surface indicators of pe-troleum micro-seepages. An analysis of 75 near-surface soil-gas samples was carried out for light hydrocarbons (C1-C4) and their carbon isotopes from the western part of Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India. The geochemical results reveal sites or clusters of sites containing anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbon gases. High concentrations of adsorbed thermogenic methane (C1 =518 ppb) and ethane plus higher hydrocarbons (∑C2+=977 ppb) were observed. Statistical analysis shows that samples from 13% of the samples contain anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbons in the soil-gas constituents. This seepage suggests largest magnitude of soil gas anomalies might be generated/source from Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, beneath Deccan Traps. The carbon isotopic composition of methane, ethane and propane ranges are from -22.5‰ to -30.2‰PDB, -18.0‰ to 27.1‰ PDB and 16.9‰e-32.1‰ PDB respectively, which are in thermogenic source. Surface soil sample represents the intersection of a migration conduit from the deep subsurface to the surface connected to sub-trappean Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Prominent hydrocarbon concentra-tions were associated with dykes, lineaments and presented on thinner basaltic cover in the study area, which probably acts as channel for the

  19. Composition and origin of coalbed gases in the Lower Silesian basin, southwest Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotarba, M.J.; Rice, D.D. [Stanislaw Staszic University of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection

    2001-07-01

    Coalbed gases in the Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB) of Poland are highly variable in both their molecular and stable isotope compositions. Isotopic studies reveal the presence of 3 genetic types of natural gases: thermogenic (CH{sub 4}, higher gaseous hydrocarbons, and CO{sub 2}), endogenic CO{sub 2}, and microbial CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. Thermogenic gases resulted from coalification processes, which were probably completed by Late Carboniferous and Early Permian time. Endogenic CO{sub 2} migrated along the deep-seated faults from upper mantle and/or magma chambers, Minor volumes of microbial CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} occur at shallow depths close to the abandoned mine workings. 'Late-stage' microbial processes have commenced in the Upper Cretaceous and are probably active at present. However, depth-related isotopic fractionation which has resulted from physical and physicochemical (e.g. diffusion and adsorption/desorption) processes during gas migration cannot be neglected. The strongest rock and gas outbursts occur only in those parts of coal deposits of the LSCB which are dominated by large amounts of endogenic CO{sub 2}.

  20. Thermodynamic property of gases in the sonoluminescing bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yu; LI Guiqin; ZHOU Tieying

    2001-01-01

    With the theory of statistical physics dealing with chemical reaction (the law of mass action), the different thermodynamic property of noble gases (mono-atomic gases) in a small bubble and diatomic gases in a small bubble semi-quantitatively are analyzed. As bubbles of the mono-atomic and the diatomic gases are compressed, shock waves are produced in both bubbles. Though shock wave leads to sharp increase of pressure and temperature of gases in the bubble, diatomic gas will excitated vibrations and dissociate themselves to mono-atomic gas,these processes will consume many accumulated heat energy and block the further increase of the temperature. Therefore, compare with the mono-atomic gases in the bubble, there will be no enough charged particles ionized to flash for diatomic gases in the bubble, this may be the reason why a bubble of diatomic gases has no single bubble sonoluminescence while a bubble of noble gases has.

  1. Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett Shales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Thomas H; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Warner, Nathaniel R; Poreda, Robert J

    2014-09-30

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced energy production but raised concerns about drinking-water contamination and other environmental impacts. Identifying the sources and mechanisms of contamination can help improve the environmental and economic sustainability of shale-gas extraction. We analyzed 113 and 20 samples from drinking-water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett Shales, respectively, examining hydrocarbon abundance and isotopic compositions (e.g., C2H6/CH4, δ(13)C-CH4) and providing, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive analyses of noble gases and their isotopes (e.g., (4)He, (20)Ne, (36)Ar) in groundwater near shale-gas wells. We addressed two questions. (i) Are elevated levels of hydrocarbon gases in drinking-water aquifers near gas wells natural or anthropogenic? (ii) If fugitive gas contamination exists, what mechanisms cause it? Against a backdrop of naturally occurring salt- and gas-rich groundwater, we identified eight discrete clusters of fugitive gas contamination, seven in Pennsylvania and one in Texas that showed increased contamination through time. Where fugitive gas contamination occurred, the relative proportions of thermogenic hydrocarbon gas (e.g., CH4, (4)He) were significantly higher (P well failure. Noble gas data appear to rule out gas contamination by upward migration from depth through overlying geological strata triggered by horizontal drilling or hydraulic fracturing.

  2. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  3. Field theory for trapped atomic gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this course we give a selfcontained introduction to the quantum field theory for trapped atomic gases, using functional methods throughout. We consider both equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena. In the equilibrium case, we first derive the appropriate Hartree—Fock theory for the properties of

  4. Escape of atmospheric gases from the Moon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Da Dao-an; Yang Ya-tian

    2005-12-01

    The escape rate of atmospheric molecules on the Moon is calculated.Based on the assumption that the rates of emission and escape of gases attain equilibrium, the ratio of molecular number densities during day and night, 0/0, can be explained. The plausible emission rate of helium and radioactive elements present in the Moon has also been calculated.

  5. Deviations from Fick's law in Lorentz gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe, C.P.; Frenkel, D.; Hoef, M.A. van der

    1997-01-01

    We have calculated the self-dynamic structure factorF(k,t) for tagged particle motion in hopping Lorentz gases. We find evidence that, even at long times, the probability distribution function for the displacement of the particles is highly non-Gaussian. At very small values of the wave vector this

  6. Decoherence and damping in ideal gases

    OpenAIRE

    Polonyi, Janos

    2010-01-01

    The particle and current densities are shown to display damping and undergo decoherence in ideal quantum gases. The damping is read off from the equations of motion reminiscent of the Navier-Stokes equations and shows some formal similarity with Landau damping. The decoherence leads to consistent density and current histories with characteristic length and time scales given by the ideal gas.

  7. Deviations from Fick's law in Lorentz gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe, C.P.; Frenkel, D.; Hoef, M.A. van der

    1997-01-01

    We have calculated the self-dynamic structure factorF(k,t) for tagged particle motion in hopping Lorentz gases. We find evidence that, even at long times, the probability distribution function for the displacement of the particles is highly non-Gaussian. At very small values of the wave vector this

  8. Eco gases for future particle gas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kjølbro, Jógvan Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Due to global regulations of non environmental refrigerants, some of the gas mixtures used in gas detectors at CERN has to be replaced. This report is a review that summarises and predicts some properties that are important when selecting new gases to operate in the gas detectors.

  9. Field theory for trapped atomic gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this course we give a selfcontained introduction to the quantum field theory for trapped atomic gases, using functional methods throughout. We consider both equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena. In the equilibrium case, we first derive the appropriate Hartree-Fock theory for the properties of

  10. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical...

  11. The Chemistry of the noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernick, Cedric L. [Agonne National Laboratory

    1967-01-01

    This booklet discusses the 6 noble gases: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Until 1962, it was believed that these 6 elements were not able to form chemical compounds. Hence they were called "noble" because they didn't mingle with the common masses of elements.

  12. Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.; de Klein, C. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Models are widely used to simulate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). They help to identify knowledge gaps, estimate total emissions for inventories, develop mitigation options and policies, raise awareness and encourage adoption. These models vary in scale, scope and methodological approach...

  13. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.

  14. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.

  15. Automatic unattended sampling and analysis of background levels of C 2;C 5 hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrer, Jacques; Lindskog, Anne

    As part of the European program for monitoring anthropogenic air pollutants (EUROTRAC), C 2C 5 hydrocarbons (gas phase) are being routinely measured at a background station at Rörvik, Sweden. A 2 ℓ air sample is taken every 4 h, and a compressed air standard and helium blank are analysed daily. The method is based on adsorption of the hydrocarbons onto an active charcoal based adsorbent, desorption/crofocusing onto a capillary trap, and analysis using capillary gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. A Perma Pure dryer is used to remove water from the sample, and hydrocarbons > C 6 are removed using a Tenax adsorbent. The analytical instrument can be left unattended for up to 2 weeks at a time, depending on the consumption of liquid nitrogen and the compressed gases. Baseline or near baseline resolution is obtained for the 23 hydrocarbons monitored in this study. Reproducibility for the C 2C 4 isomers is 1-2%, and 2-15% for the C 5 isomers. The detection limit is 1-7 pptv. Preliminary mean hydrocarbon concentrations are presented for the period 21 February-9 April 1989.

  16. Low-dose hydrocortisone (HC) replacement therapy is associated with improved bone remodeling balance in hypopituitary subjects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, L A

    2011-06-01

    The effect of commonly used glucocorticoid replacement regimens on bone health in hypopituitary subjects is not well known. We aimed to assess the effect of 3 hydrocortisone (HC) replacement dose regimens on bone turnover in this group.10 hypopituitary men with severe ACTH deficiency were randomised in a crossover design to 3 HC dose regimens, Dose A (20mg mane, 10mg tarde), Dose B (10mg twice daily) and Dose C (10mg mane, 5mg tarde). Following 6 weeks of each regimen participants underwent fasting sampling of bone turnover markers.Data from matched controls were used to produce a Z score for subject bone formation and resorption markers and to calculate the bone remodeling balance (formation Z score-resorption Z score) and turnover index ((formation Z + resorption Z)\\/2). A positive bone remodeling balance with increased turnover is consistent with a favourable bone cycle. Data are expressed as median (range).The Pro Collagen Type 1 Peptide (PINP) bone formation Z-score was significantly increased in Dose C, (1.805 (-0.6-10.24)) compared to Dose A (0.035 (-1.0-8.1)) p<0.05 while there was no difference in the C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTx) resorption Z score. The bone remodeling balance was significantly lower for dose A -0.02 (-1.05-4.12) compared to dose C 1.13 (0.13-6.4) (p<0.05). Although there was a trend to an increased bone turnover index with the lower dose regimen, this was not statistically significant.Low dose HC replacement (10mg mane\\/5 mg tarde) was associated with increased bone formation and improved bone remodeling balance which is associated with a more favourable bone cycle. This may have a long term beneficial effect on bone health.

  17. Sequence variability in the HC-Pro coding regions of Korean soybean mosaic virus isolates is associated with differences in RNA silencing suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Jia; Kim, Jung-Kyu; Seo, Eun-Young; Hong, Seok Myeong; Hwang, Eui-Il; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Domier, Leslie L; Hammond, John; Youn, Young-Nam; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

    2014-06-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a member of the family Potyviridae, is an important viral pathogen affecting soybean production in Korea. Variations in helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) sequences and the pathogenicity of SMV samples from seven Korean provinces were compared with those of previously characterized SMV isolates from China, Korea and the United States. Phylogenetic analysis separated 16 new Korean SMV isolates into two groups. Fourteen of the new Korean SMV samples belonged to group II and were very similar to U.S. strain SMV G7 and Chinese isolate C14. One isolate in group II, A297-13, differed at three amino acid positions (L54F, N286D, D369N) in the HC-Pro coding sequence from severe isolates and SMV 413, showed very weak silencing suppressor activity, and produced only mild symptoms in soybean. To test the role of each amino acid substitution in RNA silencing and viral RNA accumulation, a series of point mutations was constructed. Substitution of N for D at position 286 in HC-Pro of SMV A297-12 significantly reduced silencing suppression activity. When the mutant HC-Pro of A297-13 was introduced into an infectious clone of SMV 413, accumulation of viral RNA was reduced to less than 3 % of the level of SMV 413 containing HC-Pro of A297-12 at 10 days post-inoculation (dpi) but increased to 40 % of SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-12) at 40 dpi. At 50 dpi RNA accumulation of SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-13) was similar to that of SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-12). However, at 50 dpi, the D at position 286 of HC-Pro in SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-13) was found to have reverted to N. The results showed that 1) a naturally occurring mutation in HC-Pro significantly reduced silencing suppression activity and accumulation of transgene and viral RNAs, and 2) that there was strong selection for revision to wild type when the mutation was introduced into an infectious clone of SMV.

  18. Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC): Examination of psychometric properties and responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diminishing stigmatization for those with mental illnesses by health care providers (HCPs) is becoming a priority for programming and policy, as well as research. In order to be successful, we must accurately measure stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours among HCPs. The Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) was developed to measure stigma in HCP populations. In this study we revisit the factor structure and the responsiveness of the OMS-HC in a larger, more representative sample of HCPs that are more likely to be targets for anti-stigma interventions. Methods Baseline data were collected from HCPs (n = 1,523) during 12 different anti-stigma interventions across Canada. The majority of HCPs were women (77.4%) and were either physicians (MDs) (41.5%), nurses (17.0%), medical students (13.4%), or students in allied health programs (14.0%). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using complete pre-test (n = 1,305) survey data and responsiveness to change analyses was examined with pre and post matched data (n = 803). The internal consistency of the OMS-HC scale and subscales was evaluated using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The scale’s sensitivity to change was examined using paired t-tests, effect sizes (Cohen’s d), and standardized response means (SRM). Results The EFA favored a 3-factor structure which accounted for 45.3% of the variance using 15 of 20 items. The overall internal consistency for the 15-item scale (α = 0.79) and three subscales (α = 0.67 to 0.68) was acceptable. Subgroup analysis showed the internal consistency was satisfactory across HCP groups including physicians and nurses (α = 0.66 to 0.78). Evidence for the scale’s responsiveness to change occurred across multiple samples, including student-targeted interventions and workshops for practicing HCPs. The Social Distance subscale had the weakest level of responsiveness (SRM ≤ 0.50) whereas the more attitudinal

  19. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Sahana

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya. We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome, but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome, associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54, which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  20. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and hydrocarbon blends in our various combustion systems, with emphasis on the effects of elevated pressure using our pressurized flow reactor ( PFR ...facility. Detailed experimental data were generated from the PFR for use in associated kinetic modeling work. We continued to develop and extend both

  1. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  2. Tested Demonstrations: Diffusion of Gases--Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Provided are procedures and list of materials needed to demonstrate that the pressure inside a container with a porous surface can be changed due to the rate of diffusion of low molecular weight gases. Typical results obtained are included. (JN)

  3. HC-Pro viral suppressor from tobacco vein banding mosaic virus interferes with DNA methylation and activates the salicylic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Xu, Yanan; Liu, Yuqing; Meng, Dawei; Jin, Taicheng; Zhou, Xiaofu

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signalling molecule that is synthesized by plants and induces the expression of resistance genes. The SA pathway is typically activated by DNA viruses as well as RNA viruses. Here, we demonstrated that heper-component protease (HC-Pro) encoded by tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV) decreases in DNA methylation at the promoters of the regulators ACD6 and NPR1 in the SA pathway. We found that the overexpression of HC-Pro increases the expression of components in the SA pathway in plants. The results revealed that HC-Pro interferes in DNA methylation and activates the SA pathway in the HC-Pro transgenic plants and TVBMV-infected plants. We further found that the accumulation of siRNAs derived from the promoter repeats of ACD6 and NPR1 is greatly reduced in the HC-Pro plants. Our results suggested that HC-Pro-mediated interference with DNA methylation is likely caused by a reduction in accumulation of siRNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Precise Radio Observation of the 13C Isotopic Fractionation for Carbon Chain Molecule HC3N in the Low-Mass Star Forming Region L1527

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Takano, Shuro; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We observed the three 13C isotopic species of HC3N with the high signal-to-noise ratios in L1527 using Green Bank 100 m telescope and Nobeyama 45 m telescope to explore the production scheme of HC3N, where L1527 is the low-mass star forming region in the phase of a warm carbon chain chemistry region. The spectral lines of the J = 5--4, 9--8, 10--9, and 12--11 transitions in the 44-109 GHz region were used to measure isotopic ratios. The abundance of HCCCN was determined from the line intensities of the two weak hyperfine components of the J = 5-4 transition. The isotopic ratios were precisely determined to be 1.00 : 1.01 : 1.35 : 86.4 for [H13CCCN] : [HC13CCN] : [HCC13CN] : [HCCCN]. It was found that the abundance of H13CCCN is equal to that of HC13CCN, and it was implied that HC3N is mainly formed by the reaction schemes via C2H2 and C2H2+ in L1527. This would suggest a universality of dicarbide chemistry producing HC3N irrespective of evolutional phases from a starless dark cloud to a warm carbon chain chemistry region. Sakai, N., Sakai, T., Hirota, T., & Yamamoto, S. 2008, ApJ, 672, 371 Takano, S., Masuda, A., Hirahara, Y., et al. 1998, A&A, 329, 1156

  5. Potassium nutrition of ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster: overexpression of the Hebeloma cylindrosporum HcTrk1 transporter affects the translocation of both K(+) and phosphorus in the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kevin; Delteil, Amandine; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Becquer, Adeline; Plassard, Claude; Sentenac, Hervé; Zimmermann, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Mycorrhizal associations are known to improve the hydro-mineral nutrition of their host plants. However, the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for plant potassium nutrition has so far been poorly studied. We therefore investigated the impact of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum on the potassium nutrition of Pinus pinaster and examined the involvement of the fungal potassium transporter HcTrk1. HcTrk1 transcripts and proteins were localized in ectomycorrhizas using in situ hybridization and EGFP translational fusion constructs. Importantly, an overexpression strategy was performed on a H. cylindrosporum endogenous gene in order to dissect the role of this transporter. The potassium nutrition of mycorrhizal pine plants was significantly improved under potassium-limiting conditions. Fungal strains overexpressing HcTrk1 reduced the translocation of potassium and phosphorus from the roots to the shoots of inoculated plants in mycorrhizal experiments. Furthermore, expression of HcTrk1 and the phosphate transporter HcPT1.1 were reciprocally linked to the external inorganic phosphate and potassium availability. The development of these approaches provides a deeper insight into the role of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on host plant K(+) nutrition and in particular, the K(+) transporter HcTrk1. The work augments our knowledge of the link between potassium and phosphorus nutrition via the mycorrhizal pathway.

  6. Influence of Botulinumtoxin A on the Expression of Adult MyHC Isoforms in the Masticatory Muscles in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice (Mdx-Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Ulrike Botzenhart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widespread animal model to investigate Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the mdx-mouse. In contrast to humans, phases of muscle degeneration are replaced by regeneration processes; hence there is only a restricted time slot for research. The aim of the study was to investigate if an intramuscular injection of BTX-A is able to break down muscle regeneration and has direct implications on the gene expression of myosin heavy chains in the corresponding treated and untreated muscles. Therefore, paralysis of the right masseter muscle was induced in adult healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A. After 21 days the mRNA expression and protein content of MyHC isoforms of the right and left masseter, temporal, and the tongue muscle were determined using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot technique. MyHC-IIa and MyHC-I-mRNA expression significantly increased in the paralyzed masseter muscle of control-mice, whereas MyHC-IIb and MyHC-IIx/d-mRNA were decreased. In dystrophic muscles no effect of BTX-A could be detected at the level of MyHC. This study suggests that BTX-A injection is a suitable method to simulate DMD-pathogenesis in healthy mice but further investigations are necessary to fully analyse the BTX-A effect and to generate sustained muscular atrophy in mdx-mice.

  7. Influence of Botulinumtoxin A on the Expression of Adult MyHC Isoforms in the Masticatory Muscles in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice (Mdx-Mice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Teodor

    2016-01-01

    The most widespread animal model to investigate Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the mdx-mouse. In contrast to humans, phases of muscle degeneration are replaced by regeneration processes; hence there is only a restricted time slot for research. The aim of the study was to investigate if an intramuscular injection of BTX-A is able to break down muscle regeneration and has direct implications on the gene expression of myosin heavy chains in the corresponding treated and untreated muscles. Therefore, paralysis of the right masseter muscle was induced in adult healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A. After 21 days the mRNA expression and protein content of MyHC isoforms of the right and left masseter, temporal, and the tongue muscle were determined using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot technique. MyHC-IIa and MyHC-I-mRNA expression significantly increased in the paralyzed masseter muscle of control-mice, whereas MyHC-IIb and MyHC-IIx/d-mRNA were decreased. In dystrophic muscles no effect of BTX-A could be detected at the level of MyHC. This study suggests that BTX-A injection is a suitable method to simulate DMD-pathogenesis in healthy mice but further investigations are necessary to fully analyse the BTX-A effect and to generate sustained muscular atrophy in mdx-mice. PMID:27689088

  8. Study of $\\psi(3686)\\to\\pi^0 h_c, h_c\\to\\gamma\\eta_c$ via $\\eta_c$ exclusive decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Ferroli, R B; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2012-01-01

    The process $\\psi(3686) \\to \\pi^0 h_c, h_c \\to \\gamma \\eta_c$ has been studied with a data sample of $106 \\pm 4$ million $\\psi(3686)$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring. The mass and width of the $P$-wave charmonium spin-singlet state $h_c(^1P_1)$ are determined by simultaneously fitting distributions of the $\\pi^0$ recoil mass for 16 exclusive $\\eta_c$ decay modes. The results, $M(\\hc) = 3525.31 \\pm 0.11 {\\rm (stat.)} \\pm 0.14 {\\rm (syst.)}$\\,MeV/$c^2$ and $\\Gamma(\\hc) = 0.70 \\pm 0.28 \\pm 0.22$\\,MeV, are consistent with and more precise than previous measurements. We also determine the branching ratios for the 16 exclusive $\\eta_c$ decay modes, five of which have not been measured previously. New measurements of the $\\eta_c$ line-shape parameters in the $E1$ transition $h_c\\to\\gamma\\eta_c$ are made by selecting candidates in the $h_c$ signal sample and simultaneously fitting the hadronic mass spectra for the 16 $\\eta_c$ decay channels. The resulting $\\eta_c$ mass and width v...

  9. Hydrocarbon plume discrimination using the C-H stretch region of the Infrared spectrum using OP-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, R. S.; Pikelnaya, O.; Polidori, A.; Tisopulos, L.; Perry, S.

    2016-12-01

    Open path FTIR spectroscopy can measure many different gases including most gaseous hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. Individual Hydrocarbons can be identified in the fingerprint region (500 cm-1 to 1500 cm-1) due to unique bond absorption features. Often times the strongest absorption is not unique because it is a result of the C-H bonds stretching. These bonds and absorption features are in all hydrocarbons and overlap (2850 cm-1 to 3000 cm-1) so they are not ideal for identification of individual compounds. For this reason any FTIR investigations treat total hydrocarbons as hexane or pentane equivalent. This way the C-H stretch can be used to get real information about the total hydrocarbons when the individual compounds cannot be quantified. In the fall of 2015, KASSAY Field Services, Inc, participated in a program sponsored by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to conduct open path FTIR measurements downwind of oil wells located in the southern California basin. Most of the oil wells for this measurement study reside in the town of Signal Hill, CA. In a location such as Signal Hill (part of Long Beach, CA) there are always some Hydrocarbons in the air due to vehicles, gas stations, the oil and gas industry, and other sources mixed together. Each source has a different combination of hydrocarbons resulting in different shapes of absorption in the C-H stretch region. The final shape is a result of the ratio of all the absorber concentrations multiplied by the I.R. features of each. We investigated how the C-H stretch absorption feature shape changes over time and space in a complicated air shed and what the implications for possible source apportionment without needing highly accurate quantification of many gases.

  10. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater at low temperatures (0-5 degrees C) and bacterial communities associated with degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Bonaunet, Kristin

    2006-02-01

    In this study biodegradation of hydrocarbons in thin oil films was investigated in seawater at low temperatures, 0 and 5 degrees C. Heterotrophic (HM) or oil-degrading (ODM) microorganisms enriched at the two temperatures showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities to several bacteria of Arctic or Antarctic origin. Biodegradation experiments were conducted with a crude mineral oil immobilized as thin films on hydrophobic Fluortex adsorbents in nutrient-enriched or sterile seawater. Chemical and respirometric analysis of hydrocarbon depletion showed that naphthalene and other small aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs) were primarily biodegraded after dissolution to the water phase, while biodegradation of larger polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and C(10)-C(36) n-alkanes, including n-hexadecane, was associated primarily with the oil films. Biodegradation of PAH and n-alkanes was significant at both 0 and 5 degrees C, but was decreased for several compounds at the lower temperature. n-Hexadecane biodegradation at the two temperatures was comparable at the end of the experiments, but was delayed at 0 degree C. Investigations of bacterial communities in seawater and on adsorbents by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE analysis indicated that predominant bacteria in the seawater gradually adhered to the oil-coated adsorbents during biodegradation at both temperatures. Sequence analysis of most DGGE bands aligned to members of the phyla Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria) or Bacteroidetes. Most sequences from experiments at 0 degree C revealed affiliations to members of Arctic or Antarctic consortia, while no such homology was detected for sequences from degradation experiment run at 5 degrees C. In conclusion, marine microbial communities from cold seawater have potentials for oil film HC degradation at temperatures bacteria may play an important role during oil HC biodegradation in seawater close to freezing point.

  11. Dissociation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: molecular dynamics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Rapacioli, M.; Rouaut, G.; Trinquier, G.; Gadéa, F. X.

    2017-03-01

    We present dynamical studies of the dissociation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) radical cations in their ground electronic states with significant internal energy. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed, the electronic structure being described on-the-fly at the self-consistent-charge density functional-based tight binding (SCC-DFTB) level of theory. The SCC-DFTB approach is first benchmarked against DFT results. Extensive simulations are achieved for naphthalene , pyrene and coronene at several energies. Such studies enable one to derive significant trends on branching ratios, kinetics, structures and hints on the formation mechanism of the ejected neutral fragments. In particular, dependence of branching ratios on PAH size and energy were retrieved. The losses of H and C2H2 (recognized as the ethyne molecule) were identified as major dissociation channels. The H/C2H2 ratio was found to increase with PAH size and to decrease with energy. For , which is the most interesting PAH from the astrophysical point of view, the loss of H was found as the quasi-only channel for an internal energy of 30 eV. Overall, in line with experimental trends, decreasing the internal energy or increasing the PAH size will favour the hydrogen loss channels with respect to carbonaceous fragments. This article is part of the themed issue 'Theoretical and computational studies of non-equilibrium and non-statistical dynamics in the gas phase, in the condensed phase and at interfaces'.

  12. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132....

  13. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  14. Electrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, Thibaut; Caterina, David; Tromme, Olivier; Lavigne, Benoît; Thonart, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clay loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600ppm) in 3months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique.

  15. Electrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, Thibaut; Caterina, David; Tromme, Olivier; Lavigne, Benoît; Thonart, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clay loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600 ppm) in 3 months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique.

  16. Efficient Spectral Broadening in the 100-W Average Power Regime Using Gas Filled Kagome HC-PCF and Pulse Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Emaury, Florian; Debord, Benoit; Ghosh, Debashri; Diebold, Andreas; Gerome, Frederic; Suedmeyer, Thomas; Benabid, Fetah; Keller, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    We present nonlinear pulse compression of a high-power SESAM-modelocked thin-disk laser (TDL) using an Ar-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF). The output of the modelocked Yb:YAG TDL with 127 W average power, a pulse repetition rate of 7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 740 fs was spectrally broadened 16-fold while propagating in a Kagome HC-PCF containing 13 bar of static Argon gas. Subsequent compression tests performed using 8.4% of the full available power resulted in a pulse duration as short as 88 fs using the spectrally broadened output from the fiber. Compressing the full transmitted power through the fiber (118 W) could lead to a compressed output of >100 W of average power and >100 MW of peak power with an average power compression efficiency of 88%. This simple laser system with only one ultrafast laser oscillator and a simple single-pass fiber pulse compressor, generating both high peak power >100 MW and sub-100-fs pulses at megahertz repetition rate, is very int...

  17. Analysis of 75 marketed pharmaceuticals using the GADD45a-GFP 'GreenScreen HC' genotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastwell, Paul W; Webster, Thomas W; Tate, Matthew; Billinton, Nicholas; Lynch, Anthony M; Harvey, James S; Rees, Robert W; Walmsley, Richard M

    2009-09-01

    The GADD45a-GFP (GreenScreen HC) reporter assay detects genotoxic damage in the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line and gives positive results for all classes of genotoxin, including mutagens, aneugens and clastogens. In this study, a collection of 75 marketed pharmaceuticals were tested in the assay. Compounds in the collection represent a broad range of chemical structures, pharmacologies and therapeutic indications, including neoplasia and viral infection where positive genotoxicity results are often associated with the pharmacological activity. Based on the results of this study, two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the GreenScreen HC is more predictive of in vivo genotoxicity (88%) and genotoxic carcinogenicity (93%) data than the any of the other regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assay and (ii) no compounds were uniquely positive in the GADD45a-GFP assay. This analysis therefore provides additional evidence to support the use of the GADD45a-GFP assay as an effective tool either in early genotoxic liability identification or non-clinical safety assessment of candidate pharmaceuticals during development.

  18. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  19. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  20. Carbon dioxide gas in hydrocarbon pools as a geochemical indicator of tapering traps (as in West Siberian fields)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, A.T.

    1983-01-01

    Principal sources of carbon dioxide gas in oil pools of Western Siberia are carbonates, present in the makeup of the layer-collector horizons. All the hydrocarbon pools complicated by lithologic screens are characterized by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the gases dissolved in the oils. With a carbon dioxide content of more than 1 vol%, the probability of identifying the screen in the pools of Western Siberia is close to 100%.

  1. Carbon dioxide gas in hydrocarbon pools as a geochemical indicator of tapering traps (as in West Siberian fields)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, A.T.

    1980-07-01

    Principal sources of carbon dioxide gas in oil pools of Western Siberia are carbonates, present in the makeup of the layer-collector horizons. All the hydrocarbon pools complicated by lithologic screens are characterized by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the gases dissolved in the oils. With a carbon dioxide content of more than 1 vol %, the probability of identifying the screen in the pools of Western Sibeia is close to 100%.

  2. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    OpenAIRE

    Indira, D; G Srividya

    2012-01-01

    Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed br...

  3. Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.; Allen, M.; Zhang, X.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The flybys of Jupiter by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979, and over two decades later by Cassini in 2000, have provided us with unique datasets from two different epochs, allowing the investigation of seasonal change in the atmosphere. In this paper we model zonal averages of thermal infrared spectra from the two instruments, Voyager 1 IRIS and Cassini CIRS, to retrieve the vertical and meridional profiles of temperature, and the abundances of the two minor hydrocarbons, acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). The spatial variation of these gases is controlled by both chemistry and dynamics, and therefore their observed distribution gives us an insight into both processes, We find that the two gases paint quite different pictures of seasonal change. Whilst the 2-D cross-section of C2H6 abundance is slightly increased and more symmetric in 2000 (northern summer solstice) compared to 1979 (northern fall equinox), the major trend of equator to pole increase remains. For C2H2 on tile other hand, the Voyager epoch exhibits almost no latitudinal variation, whilst the Cassini era shows a marked decrease polewards in both hemispheres. At the present time, these experimental findings are in advance of interpretation, as there are no published models of 2-D Jovian seasonal chemical variation available for comparison.

  4. Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.; Allen, M.; Zhang, X.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The flybys of Jupiter by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979, and over two decades later by Cassini in 2000, have provided us with unique datasets from two different epochs, allowing the investigation of seasonal change in the atmosphere. In this paper we model zonal averages of thermal infrared spectra from the two instruments, Voyager 1 IRIS and Cassini CIRS, to retrieve the vertical and meridional profiles of temperature, and the abundances of the two minor hydrocarbons, acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). The spatial variation of these gases is controlled by both chemistry and dynamics, and therefore their observed distribution gives us an insight into both processes, We find that the two gases paint quite different pictures of seasonal change. Whilst the 2-D cross-section of C2H6 abundance is slightly increased and more symmetric in 2000 (northern summer solstice) compared to 1979 (northern fall equinox), the major trend of equator to pole increase remains. For C2H2 on tile other hand, the Voyager epoch exhibits almost no latitudinal variation, whilst the Cassini era shows a marked decrease polewards in both hemispheres. At the present time, these experimental findings are in advance of interpretation, as there are no published models of 2-D Jovian seasonal chemical variation available for comparison.

  5. Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons From Voyager and Cassini

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Conor A; Romani, Paul N; Allen, Mark; Zhang, Xi; Teanby, Nicholas A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Flasar, F Michael; 10.1016/j.pss2010.05.08

    2010-01-01

    The flybys of Jupiter by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979, and over two decades later by Cassini in 2000, have provided us with unique datasets from two different epochs, allowing the investigation of seasonal change in the atmosphere. In this paper we model zonal averages of thermal infrared spectra from the two instruments, Voyager 1 IRIS and Cassini CIRS, to retrieve the vertical and meridional profiles of temperature, and the abundances of the two minor hydrocarbons, acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). The spatial variation of these gases is controlled by both chemistry and dynamics, and therefore their observed distribution gives us an insight into both processes. We find that the two gases paint quite different pictures of seasonal change. Whilst the 2-D cross-section of C2H6 abundance is slightly increased and more symmetric in 2000 (northern summer solstice) compared to 1979 (northern fall equinox), the major trend of equator to pole increase remains. For C2H2 on the other hand, the Voyager epoch exhibi...

  6. Piston ring lubrication and hydrocarbon emissions from internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelund, K.

    1997-11-01

    Is it the intention with this project to improve the existing hydrocarbon emission model at the Institute by combining it with a model for predicting the piston ring lubrication. The piston ring lubrication model should be experimentally verified to ensure the validity of the model. The following items were the objectives of the current study: Develop a piston ring lubrication model. This implies the development of a ring-pack gas flow model; Examine the response of the piston ring lubrication model to changing engineer conditions. Especially, it would be interesting to look at the engine warm-up phase since this is the phase where the engine-out emissions are highest and where the commonly used three way catalyst is not capable of converting the engine-out emissions, thereby leading the engine-out emissions directly out in to the environment with the exhaust gases; In order to verify the piston ring lubrication model the lubricant distribution on the cylinder liner should be investigated experimentally. Here again it would be of great interesting to look at the engine warm-up phase; The piston ring lubrication model should be adjusted for application together with the new hydrocarbon emission model for SI-engines at the Institute in order to increase the accuracy of the latter; The piston ring lubrication model could be used for describing the transport of PAH`s in diesel engines. (EG)

  7. Adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons in iron polysulfide chalcogels

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2014-11-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization and possible applications of three new metal-chalcogenide aerogels KFe3Co3S 21, KFe3Y3S22 and KFe 3Eu3S22. Metal acetates react with the alkali metal polychalcogenides in formamide/water mixture to form extended polymeric frameworks that exhibit gelation phenomena. Amorphous aerogels obtained after supercritical CO2 drying have BET surface area from 461 to 573 m 2/g. Electron microscopy images and nitrogen adsorption measurements showed that pore sizes are found in micro (below 2 nm), meso (2-50 nm), and macro (above 50 nm) porous regions. These chalcogels possess optical bandgaps in the range of 1.55-2.70 eV. These aerogels have been studied for the adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons and gases. A much higher adsorption of toluene in comparison with cyclohexane and cyclopentane vapors have been observed. The adsorption capacities of the three volatile hydrocarbons are found in the following order: toluene > cyclohexane > cyclopentane. It has been observed that high selectivity in adsorption is feasible with high-surface-area metal chalcogenides. Similarly, almost an eight to ten times increase in adsorption selectivity towards CO2 over H2/CH4 was observed in the aerogels. Moreover, reversible ion-exchange properties for K+/Cs+ ions have also been demonstrated. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New method for determining heats of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Puster, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    As a spin off of a system developed for monitoring and controlling the oxygen concentration in the Langley 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel, a highly accurate on-line technique was developed for determining heats of combustion of natural gas samples. It is based on measuring the ratio m/n, where m is the (volumetric) flowrate of oxygen required to enrich the carrier air in which the test gas flowing at the rate n is burned, such that the mole fraction of oxygen in the combustion product gases equals that in the carrier air. The m/n ratio is directly related to the heats of combustion of the saturated hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. A measurement of the m/n ratio for the test gas can provide a direct means of determination of its heat of combustion by using the calibration graph relating the m/n values for pure saturated hydrocarbons with their heats of combustion. The accuracy of the technique is determine solely by the accuracy with which the flowrates m and n can be measured and is of the order of 2 percent in the present study. The theoretical principles and experimental results are discussed.

  9. Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, C M; Miranda, M; Louisy, M; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Balogh, E; Varjú, K; L'Huillier, A; Couairon, A; Arnold, C L

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical methods are becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern photonics. They are, however, often limited to a certain range of input parameters, such as pulse energy and average power, since restrictions arise from, for example, parasitic nonlinear effects, damage problems and geometrical considerations. Here, we show that many nonlinear optics phenomena in gaseous media are scale-invariant if spatial coordinates, gas density and laser pulse energy are scaled appropriately. We develop a general scaling model for (3+1)-dimensional wave equations, demonstrating the invariant scaling of nonlinear pulse propagation in gases. Our model is numerically applied to high-order harmonic generation and filamentation as well as experimentally verified using the example of pulse post-compression via filamentation. Our results provide a simple recipe for up-or downscaling of nonlinear processes in gases with numerous applications in many areas of science.

  10. Detecting Friedel oscillations in ultracold Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Keno; Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Investigating Friedel oscillations in ultracold gases would complement the studies performed on solid state samples with scanning-tunneling microscopes. In atomic quantum gases interactions and external potentials can be tuned freely and the inherently slower dynamics allow to access non-equilibrium dynamics following a potential or interaction quench. Here, we examine how Friedel oscillations can be observed in current ultracold gas experiments under realistic conditions. To this aim we numerically calculate the amplitude of the Friedel oscillations which are induced by a potential barrier in a 1D Fermi gas and compare it to the expected atomic and photonic shot noise in a density measurement. We find that to detect Friedel oscillations the signal from several thousand one-dimensional systems has to be averaged. However, as up to 100 parallel one-dimensional systems can be prepared in a single run with present experiments, averaging over about 100 images is sufficient.

  11. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Johannes Hamonangan; Wiyanti, Wiwik; Wakhyuningsih, Nur Safitri; Godjali, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable). It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the…

  12. 40 CFR 600.108-78 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 600.108-78 Section 600.108-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.108-78 Analytical gases. The analytical gases for all...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1314-94 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.1314-94 Section 86.1314-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... § 86.1314-94 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for the CO and CO2 analyzers shall be single blends of CO...

  14. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  15. Chemistry and Toxicity of Tear Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Malhotra

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a historical background on the use of tear gases in war and civilian riot control activity. The classification of chemical compounds used as irritants, and their structure - activity relationship established through different studies has been examined. A review of toxic effects which is different from irritancy of Adamsite, w- chloroacetophenone (CN, o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS and Dibenz (b,f, [1, 4] - oxazepine (CR has been presented.

  16. Global Reactive Gases in the MACC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    In preparation for the planned atmospheric service component of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative, the EU FP7 project Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) developed a preoperational data assimilation and modelling system for monitoring and forecasting of reactive gases, greenhouse gases and aerosols. The project is coordinated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the system is built on ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) which has been coupled to the chemistry transport models MOZART-3 and TM5. In order to provide daily forecasts of up to 96 hours for global reactive gases, various satellite retrieval products for ozone (total column and profile data), CO, NO2, CH2O and SO2 are either actively assimilated or passively monitored. The MACC system is routinely evaluated with in-situ data from ground-based stations, ozone sondes and aircraft measurements, and with independent satellite retrievals. Global MACC reactive gases forecasts are used in the planning and analysis of large international field campaigns and to provide dynamical chemical boundary conditions to regional air quality models worldwide. Several case studies of outstanding air pollution events have been performed, and they demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of chemical data assimilation based on current satellite data products. Besides the regular analyses and forecasts of the tropospheric chemical composition, the MACC system is also used to monitor the evolution of stratospheric ozone. A comprehensive reanalysis simulation from 2003 to 2010 provides new insights into the interannual variability of the atmospheric chemical composition.

  17. Paschen's law studies in cold gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarczyk, R.; Chu, P.; Dugger, C.; Elliott, S. R.; Rielage, K.; Xu, W.

    2017-06-01

    The break-through voltage behavior over small gaps has been investigated for differing gap distances, gas pressures, and gas temperatures in nitrogen, neon, argon and xenon gases. A deviation from Paschen's law at micro gap distances has been found. At lower temperatures, a significant shift of the curve relative to the results at room temperature was observed. This behavior can be explained by combining Paschen's law and the ideal gas law.

  18. On high energy tails in inelastic gases

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiotte, R.; Brenig, L.; Salazar, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation of high energy tails in a one-dimensional kinetic model for granular gases, the so-called Inelastic Maxwell Model. We introduce a time- discretized version of the stochastic process, and show that continuous time implies larger fluctuations of the particles energies. This is due to a statistical relation between the number of inelastic collisions undergone by a particle and its average energy. This feature is responsible for the high energy tails in the model, as shown ...

  19. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  20. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.