Sample records for hydrocarbon group-type analysis

  1. Hydrocarbon group-type analysis by thin layer chromatography and scanning densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L.; Matt, M.; Galvez, E.M.; Domingo, M.P.; Vela, J.; Beregovtsova, N. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)


    Hydrocarbon group-type analysis (HGTA) is a common technique for characterization of complex mixtures derived from raw materials such as coal, petroleum, or biomass. In these and other, related, samples, trying to achieve extensive separation of all the components would be very difficult at least, and most of the relevant properties of the samples can be related to the amounts of the different types of hydrocarbon. Groups of interest depend mainly on the nature of the sample, and some kind of liquid chromatography is usually involved in the most common HGTA methods. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) can nowadays usually be used instead of HPLC, resulting in several advantages in terms of speed, cost, and general convenience. Detection and quantification of the different peaks might involve the use of special equipment, e.g. in TLC-flame ionization detection (FID) methods, although it can also be accomplished by means of UV and fluorescence scanning densitometry. This paper describes a series of TLC-based HGTA methods developed for coal-, biomass-, and petroleum-derived products that give a reasonably general overview of the possibilities of TLC applied to HGTA.

  2. [Alkene bromination used for detailed hydrocarbon and bulk hydrocarbon group-type analysis of gasolines containing alkenes]. (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Rong; Yang, Hai-Ying; Li, Chang-Xiu


    The optimized reaction conditions of selective alkene bromination for gasolines containing aromatics and saturated hydrocarbons are presented. By this way, the interfering problem in alkene determination from coeluting saturated hydrocarbons has been solved. So the detailed hydrocarbon analysis can be improved by a simple system containing polar and non-polar columns or by a gas chromatograph coupled with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED). Under the optimized conditions, it was found that the alkene compounds were selectively and completely brominated but the aromatics and alkane compounds were remained unaffected. A simple treatment, 90 s-120 s for reaction and 10 s-20 s for removing the excess bromine, can be easily realized. The treatment is applied for the different types of gasoline containing 0-100% alkene. Besides, one of the most important applications of this treatment is to analyse the hydrocarbons in detail from the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline. The samples in these cases may not be accurately analyzed when using the traditional method of hydrocarbon analysis because of the presence of coeluted interfering olefins above C7.

  3. Planar chromatography for the hydrocarbon group type analysis of petroleum middle distillates and coal-derived products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt, Muriel; Gruber, Rene [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et d' analyses chimiques, Universite de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, UFR SciFA, 57045 cedex 1 Metz (France); Galvez, Eva; Cebolla, Vicente; Membrado, Luis; Vela, Jesus [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain)


    Different methodologies, based on planar chromatography/detection with densitometry, have been used to analyse compound classes (also known as hydrocarbon group type (HGT)) in samples coming from petroleum and coal conversion. The main problem encountered to analyse these samples is the choice of standard: because of the high variability of the signal that is dependent of molecular structure, one pure hydrocarbon does not reflect the response of a mixture. However, a step based on thin layer chromatography at preparative scale has allowed the fractionation of sample to obtain its derived standards. After this, alkanes have been quantified by fluorescence in presence of berberine sulfate and aromatic compounds have been detected by UV after separation by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) at analytical scale.The feasibility of the planar chromatography has been tested. The quantitative results obtained for different samples are in agreement with those provided using well-established techniques in the petrochemical industry and the coal-derived product (CDP) analysis.

  4. Suitability of thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection with regard to quantitative characterization of different fossil fuel products. II. Calibration methods concerning quantitative hydrocarbon-group type analysis

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    Vela, J.; Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L.; Ferrando, A.C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica, Dept. de Procesos Quimicos


    Time-consuming external standard-based calibration methods are usually performed for hydrocarbon group type analysis (HGTA) of fossil fuels, regardless of the instrumental chromatographic technique. HGTA of a broad variety of coal and petroleum products was performed using a modern thin-layer chromatography-flame ionization detection (TLC-FID) system and a rapid method based on internal normalization. Repeatability, linear intervals, and sample load ranges for quantitative application of this method are given, namely a heavy oil and its derived hydrocracked products, raw and chemically-modified petroleum asphaltenes, a coal-tar pitch, several coal extracts, and coal hydroliquefaction products. Results from external standard calibration and a normalization method (both obtained by TLC-FID) are in agreement, and they are validated using TLC-ultraviolet scanning. The use of the latter demonstrates that TLC-FID can also be applied to products such as coal extracts and hydroliquefaction products, despite these products being more volatile than petroleum asphaltenes or heavy oils. 14 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Quantitative group-type analysis of coal-tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L.; Vela, J. [Instituto de carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain)


    Preparative liquid chromatographic (LC) and related techniques (e.g.., extrography) are mostly used for quantitative compound class or group-type analysis of coal-tar pitches. TLC-FID has hardly been used for this purpose because of the time-consuming calibration steps required. As the FID response of each peak depends on its nature, the classical approach in fossil fuel analysis to a quantitative analysis is the absolute calibration using fractions derived from the fossil fuel itself (previously isolated by LC) as external standards. An added problem is the isolation of these fractions with the required purity. A TLC-FID system has previously been described in this issue, which gives adequate repeatability and precision, and gives a quantitative FID response. In this work, a rapid calibration procedure which allows a quantitative group-type analysis of a whole coal-tar pitch (without any prefractionation) using TLC-FID is presented as an alternative to absolute calibration. This method considerably reduces the total time of analysis. Likewise, the use of TLC-FID as a monitoring technique to improve the classical absolute calibration is also proposed. Pros and cons of group-type analysis techniques are finally discussed with regard to TLC-FID.

  6. Group type analysis of asphalt by column liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Yang, J.; Xue, Y.; Li, Y. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China)


    An improved analysis method for characterization of asphalt was established. The method is based on column chromatography technique. The asphalts were separated into four groups: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, quantitatively. About 0.1 g of sample was required in each analysis. About 20 mL of n-heptanes was used to separate out saturates first. Then about 35 mL of n-heptanes/dichloromethane (.5, v/v) mixture was used to separate out aromatics. About 30 mL of dichloromethane/tetrahydrofuran (1/3, v/v) mixture was used to separate out resin. The quality of the separation was confirmed by infrared spectra (IR) and {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The model compounds, tetracosan for saturates, dibenz(o)anthracen for aromatics, and acetanilide for resins were used for verification. The IR and {sup 1}H NMR analysis of the prepared fractions from the column liquid chromatography were in good agreement that of pure reagents.

  7. Market segmentation based on consumers’ susceptibility to reference group types of influence: Multivariance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Mihić


    Full Text Available In this paper we begin with McGuire’s concept of influenceability, according to which individuals differ based on their susceptibility to social influence. The theoretical part explains three types of influence by reference groups and presents previous results relevant to the issue of this paper. The second part of the paper presents the methodology and research results. The aim of this research is to identify different types of reference group influence by using multivariance techniques, and determine whether they can serve as a basis for consumer market segmentation. The research was conducted on a sample of 250 respondents in the Split-Dalmatia County. Keeping in mind the issues and goals of the research, two hypotheses were set. Five factors – influence types were identified by using the factor analysis (normative influence, value-expressive or identificational influence, environment informative influence, salesperson’s informative influence, and comparison to environment and clothing conformity, and were then been used as basic segmentation variables. Cluster analysis singled out three segments: subject to identification or value-expressive influence, subject to information influence and non-subject to influence. To describe them better, demographic variables were employed, i.e. “relation-comparison and interaction with others” variables as well as personal indicators. The research results confirmed both starting hypotheses. The results attained suggest that consumers from particular segments require different communication strategies, based on which, each segment was supported by corresponding recommendations.

  8. Determining the Metabolic Footprints of Hydrocarbon Degradation Using Multivariate Analysis (United States)

    Smith, Renee. J.; Jeffries, Thomas C.; Adetutu, Eric M.; Fairweather, Peter G.; Mitchell, James G.


    The functional dynamics of microbial communities are largely responsible for the clean-up of hydrocarbons in the environment. However, knowledge of the distinguishing functional genes, known as the metabolic footprint, present in hydrocarbon-impacted sites is still scarcely understood. Here, we conducted several multivariate analyses to characterise the metabolic footprints present in a variety of hydrocarbon-impacted and non-impacted sediments. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) showed a clear distinction between the two groups. A high relative abundance of genes associated with cofactors, virulence, phages and fatty acids were present in the non-impacted sediments, accounting for 45.7 % of the overall dissimilarity. In the hydrocarbon-impacted sites, a high relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy and sporulation, motility, metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell signalling were observed, accounting for 22.3 % of the overall dissimilarity. These results suggest a major shift in functionality has occurred with pathways essential to the degradation of hydrocarbons becoming overrepresented at the expense of other, less essential metabolisms. PMID:24282619

  9. Compared with what? An analysis of control-group types in Cochrane and Campbell reviews of psychosocial treatment efficacy with substance use disorders. (United States)

    Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders


    A crucial, but under-appreciated, aspect in experimental research on psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders concerns what kinds of control groups are used. This paper examines how the distinction between different control-group designs have been handled by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations in their systematic reviews of psychosocial treatments of substance abuse disorders. We assessed Cochrane and Campbell reviews (n = 8) that were devoted to psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders. We noted what control groups were considered and analysed the extent to which the reviews provided a rationale for chosen comparison conditions. We also analysed whether type of control group in the primary studies influenced how the reviews framed the effects discussed and whether this was related to conclusions drawn. The reviews covered studies involving widely different control conditions. Overall, little attention was paid to the use of different control groups (e.g. head-to-head comparisons versus untreated controls) and what this implies when interpreting effect sizes. Seven of eight reviews did not provide a rationale for the choice of comparison conditions. Cochrane and Campbell reviews of the efficacy of psychosocial interventions with substance use disorders seem to underappreciate that the use of different control-group types yields different effect estimates. Most reviews have not distinguished between different control-group designs and therefore have provided a confused picture regarding absolute and relative treatment efficacy. A systematic approach to treating different control-group designs in research reviews is necessary for meaningful estimates of treatment efficacy. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson


    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  11. Remnants of Compact Group Type Mergers (United States)

    Weil, M. L.; Hernquist, L.


    Recent simulations by several authors who concentrated on extensive exploration of the merger remnant properties of two equal mass disks have been successful in accounting for several aspects of elliptical structure. However, the projected short merging timescales, typically only several half-mass crossing times, of dense, 4-6 member, low velocity dispersion clusters termed compact groups (CG) make them appealing candidates for elliptical progenitors. Self-consistent, high resolution, multi-component models of compact group type mergers have been simulated. Initially, the systems consist of 6 disk galaxies each with with bulge-disk-halo mass and particle number ratios of .333:1:5.8 and 16384:65536:65536, respectively. As in the case of two merging disks, the remnants evince many properties similar to those observed in ellipticals; light profiles, isophotal shapes, and velocity dispersions are comparable to fiducial elliptical values. The surface densities are fit well by a de Vaucouleurs R(1/4) law over a large range of radius, departing from it only in the very inner regions; and the remnant is supported by anisotropic velocity dispersion for the most part, the spin of the initial disks having been transferred to the halo by dynamical friction. In addition, CG remnants improve over previous models by reproducing the observed result that real ellipticals have angular momentum vectors nearly coincident with the minor axis and by suggesting a method of producing ellipticities that coincide more with the observed clustering around Hubble types n ~ 0-2. A small number of parameters are being varied systematically in order to study consequences of changing the internal structure and orientations of the galaxies. Further study will include analysis of metalicity and color gradients which may be imprinted on the original galaxies and examined in the remnant to elucidate the effect of incomplete violent relaxation. In addition, in order to determine the effects of

  12. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.


    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  13. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples (United States)

    Tan, Boonfei; Jane Fowler, S; Laban, Nidal Abu; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M


    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities. PMID:25734684

  14. Monofluorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: characteristics and intended use in environmental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    luthe, G.; Brinkman, U.A.T.


    First studies of a series of eight monofluorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicate that they are a promising set of internal standards and markers in the trace-level environmental analysis of their parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The selected examples deal with solid-phase


    A recently proposed geoelectrical model for hydrocarbon impacted sites predicts anomalously high conductivities coincident with aged contaminated zones. These high conductivities are attributed to an enhancement of mineral weathering resulting from byproducts of microbial redox p...

  16. Fugacity analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between microplastics and seawater (United States)

    Lee, Hwang; Chang, Sein; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kwon, Jung-Hwan


    Recently, the accumulation of plastic debris in the marine environment has become a great concern worldwide. Although plastics are biologically and chemically inert, plastic debris has been suspected of causing adverse effects on ecosystems due to the increase in reactivity by size reduction and/or micropollutants associated with plastics. Because of the high sorption capacity of microplastics toward organic micropollutants, it is suspected that microplastics may play roles in the distribution and fate of micropollutants. In order to quantitatively evaluate the "net flow" of environmental contaminants in water-plastic-organism systems, a fugacity analysis was conducted using concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in open oceans and in polyethylene as a representative material of plastic debris. Ratio of fugacity in polyethylene to that in seawater showed a decreasing trend with increasing partition coefficient between polyethylene and seawater (KPE/sw). This indicates that phase equilibrium between polyethylene and seawater is not attained for higher molecular weight PAHs. Disequilibrium of high molecular weight PAHs suggests that transfer from seawater to plastic debris is thermodynamically driven and the role of plastic debris as a vector to transfer them to living organisms would be minimal. However, additives may slowly migrate from plastics into the environment causing potentially serious effects on ecosystems.

  17. Hydrocarbons from Calotropis procera - product enhancement and analysis

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    Choudhury, R.; Singh, Ritu (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies)


    The paper presents an investigation of the enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction from calotropis procera. An extraction yield of 8% has been obtained, with toluene as the solvent. An increase in the yield to 11.5% has been achieved by modification of the design of the conventional 'Soxhlet' extractor. A further enhancement has been achieved by pretreatment of the biomass with alkali or acid. This results in an extractive or hydrolytic breakdown of the plant structure and hence exposes the hydrocarbons to solvent attack. As alkali pretreatment of ground biomass resulted in a much higher extraction, it was studied in further detail with more alkalis of varying strength. AN enhancement from 8 to 18% has been achieved by pretreatment with 1 N sodium hydroxide. Analytical studies by the use of IR and NMR have been conducted to prove that the enhancement in extraction is due to efficient extraction of hydrocarbons. (author)

  18. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

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    Gawron Bartosz


    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  19. Hydrocarbonates in atmospheric precipitation of Moscow: Monitoring data and analysis (United States)

    Eremina, I. D.; Aloyan, A. E.; Arutyunyan, V. O.; Larin, I. K.; Chubarova, N. E.; Yermakov, A. N.


    Based on atmospheric precipitation monitoring data for Moscow, we have revealed a number of episodes when the content of hydrocarbonates repeatedly surpasses the equilibrium level. These facts are associated with the complex structure of precipitation, which is caused by differences in the chemical composition of condensation nuclei. As a result, the underlying surface involves two groups of drops with acidities of different nature. The acidity of the first ("metal") group is determined by the carbonate equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 and dissolved carbonates of alkaline and alkaline earth metals. The acidity of the second ("ammonium") group is characterized by the balance between ammonia absorbed from the air and atmospheric acids. Because of this, the precipitation acidity measured during the monitoring is regulated not only in the air but also in the condensate collector. The mixing of the metal and ammonium groups of precipitation is accompanied by only a partial conversion of hydrocarbonates into dissolved CO2. Its termination is hindered when CO2 actually ceases to enter the atmosphere due to mass-exchange deceleration. As a result, the content of hydrocarbonates in the collector exceeds the equilibrium level. Some estimates indicate that the acidity of the ammonia component of precipitation can be much higher than the acidity according to monitoring data. This should be taken into account in estimating the health and environmental impacts. The true level of acid rain hazard can be estimated only by measuring the acidity of individual drops, whereas the results obtained with modern tools of monitoring can underestimate this hazard.

  20. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark


    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of hydrocarbon exposure and the risk of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Palin, Oliver; Herd, Clare; Morrison, Karen E; Jagielski, Alison C; Wheatley, Keith; Thomas, G Neil; Clarke, Carl E


    There is no consensus on the association between exposure to hydrocarbons and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the epidemiological evidence and included a new large case-control study. Data were extracted following a predefined protocol. Risk estimates regarding the association between hydrocarbon exposure and PD were consolidated to produce a summary odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and p-value. In our case-control study, 1463 PD patients and 685 controls were recruited from clinical trials and completed a structured questionnaire describing their previous working exposure to hydrocarbons and other demographic measures. The association between exposure to hydrocarbons and risk of PD was evaluated using logistic regression. The systematic search identified 13 case-control studies matching the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis included 3020 PD cases and 6494 controls. The summary OR was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08-1.62, p = 0.006) for hydrocarbon exposure (ever versus never). In the PD GEN study, occupational exposure to hydrocarbons significantly increased the risk of PD (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.10-2.36, p = 0.014), and risk dose-dependently increased for subjects exposed greater than 10 years compared to subjects never exposed (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.13-4.26, p = 0.021). The addition of PD GEN data increased the total numbers to 4483 PD cases and 7179 controls and strengthened the significant association (summary OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.13-1.63, p = 0.001). This systematic review supports a positive association between hydrocarbon exposure and PD. Data from prospective studies are required to reinforce the relationship between hydrocarbon exposure and PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of siloxanes in hydrocarbon mixtures using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Seeley, Stacy K; Nartker, Steven R; Seeley, John V


    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) method for separating siloxanes from hydrocarbons has been developed using a systematic process. First, the retention indices of a set of siloxanes and a set of hydrocarbons were determined on 6 different stationary phases. The retention indices were then used to model GC×GC separation on 15 different stationary phase pairs. The SPB-Octyl×DB-1 pair was predicted to provide the best separation of the siloxanes from the hydrocarbons. The efficacy of this stationary phase pair was experimentally tested by performing a GC×GC analysis of gasoline spiked with siloxanes and by analyzing biogas obtained from a local wastewater treatment facility. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental results. The SPB-Octyl×DB-1 stationary phase pair constrained the hydrocarbons to a narrow range of secondary retention times and fully isolated the siloxanes from the hydrocarbon band. The resulting GC×GC method allows siloxanes to be resolved from complex mixtures of hydrocarbons without requiring the use of a selective detector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting refinery effluent toxicity on the basis of hydrocarbon composition determined by GCxGC analysis

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    Whale, G. [and others


    A high resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) was used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. From 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe 111 refinery effluents were collected in the period June 2008 to March 2009 (CONCAWE, 2010). The effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), oil in water (OiW), GCxGC speciated hydrocarbons, BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) and volatile organic compounds. This report describes the subsequent analysis of the GCxGC data, as described in hydrocarbon blocks, and uses the PETROTOX model, to predict the environmental toxicity (i.e. ecotoxicity) of the discharged effluents. A further analysis was undertaken to address the potential environmental impact of these predicted effects initially using default dilution factors and then,when necessary site specific factors. The report describes all the methods used to arrive at the predictions, and shows that for the majority of refinery effluents direct toxicity effects in the effluents are not anticipated. Furthermore, when applying either the EU Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document (TGD) default dilution factors or site specific dilution factors, none of the refineries are predicted to exerting either acute or chronic toxicity to organisms in the receiving aquatic environment, based on their hydrocarbon composition present in the effluent samples.

  4. Comparative characteristic of concentration units relating to reference materials for gas chromatography analysis of hydrocarbon samples

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    S. A. Arystanbekova


    Full Text Available Application of a method of absolute calibration relating to gas chromatography analysis of liquid hydrocarbon samples is considered. It is shown for this task that both from theoretical, and practical points of view the optimum concentration unit is mass (not molar fraction. Information on average molar mass of the analyzed sample is necessary for the determination of analytes in liquid hydrocarbon samples in terms of mole fraction. Meanwhile, the normative documents of rather high rank (ASTM, ISO, GOST, GOST R concerning methods of the determination of average molar weight of samples of such a kind are absent.

  5. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre [Department of Production and Quality Engineering, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail:; Vinnem, Jan Erik [University of Stavanger (UiS), NO-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (UiS), NO-4036 Stavanger (Norway)


    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures.

  6. Validation of an analytical methodology for the quantitative analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples

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    Eloy Yordad Companioni Damas


    Full Text Available This work describes a validation of an analytical procedure for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples. The proposed protocol is able to measure n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in samples at concentrations as low as 30 ng/g, with a precision better than 15% for most of analytes. The extraction efficiency of fortified sediments varied from 65.1 to 105.6% and 59.7 to 97.8%, for n-alkanes and PAH in the ranges: C16 - C32 and fluoranthene - benzo(apyrene, respectively. The analytical protocol was applied to determine petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments collected from a marine coastal zone.

  7. Development of a new method for hydrogen isotope analysis of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang


    Full Text Available A new method had been developed for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic composition of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples by using solid phase microextraction (SPME combined with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS. In this study, the SPME technique had been initially introduced to achieve the enrichment of trace content of hydrocarbons with low abundance and coupled to GC/IRMS for hydrogen isotopic analysis. The main parameters, including the equilibration time, extraction temperature, and the fiber type, were systematically optimized. The results not only demonstrated that high extraction yield was true but also shows that the hydrogen isotopic fractionation was not observed during the extraction process, when the SPME device fitted with polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/carbon molecular sieve (PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber. The applications of SPME-GC/IRMS method were evaluated by using natural gas samples collected from different sedimentary basins; the standard deviation (SD was better than 4‰ for reproducible measurements; and also, the hydrogen isotope values from C1 to C9 can be obtained with satisfying repeatability. The SPME-GC/IRMS method fitted with PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber is well suited for the preconcentration of trace hydrocarbons, and provides a reliable hydrogen isotopic analysis for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples.

  8. Multifractal analysis of slacken surface in hydrocarbon molecules through fuel additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arockia Prabakar


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of organic fuel additives (Bio-Glycerol on fuel savings, emission reduction and extend engine life. Using this enzyme, a motor cycle is tested five times. The test report shows the reduction in the release of carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon upto 60%. The use of organic fuel additives in diesel vehicles for different periods of time reveals the reduction in air pollution by 55%. Finally, we have experimented scanning electron microscope (SEM test for organic fuel additives with biodiesel. The SEM image shows the existence of molecules of hydrocarbons. The analysis elucidated the complex morphology of molecules of hydrocarbons in fuel additives with biodiesel. The hydrocarbon molecules are slackened and irregular as it refers to the fractal form. SEM Photograph images are analyzed by multifractal analysis. MFA (multifractal analysis is carried out according to the method of moments, i.e., the probability distribution is estimated for moments which differ from -150

  9. Role of tissue analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons in marine pollution research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, J. W.; Vanderhorst, J. R.; Anderson, J. W.


    Analytical chemists have devoted considerable effort to develop detailed analysis of hydrocarbons in tissues. The methods developed are time consuming, and there is often a high degree of variability between samples. In light of this, the cost effectiveness of these analyses is questioned. The need to simplify tissue analysis is discussed. Data are provided on a number of benthic marine organisms exposed to continuous contamination with crude oil and problems of individual organism variability are discussed.



    Zhang, D.; Muller, J.-P.; Lavender, S.; Walton, D.; Dartnell, L. R.


    Fluorescence analysis, being a non-invasive technique, has become one of the most powerful and widely used techniques for microbiologists and chemists to study various types of sample from photosynthetic microbes to hydrocarbons. The work reported here focuses on experimental results of fluorescent features of photosynthetic microbial species (cyanobacteria) and also five different crude oil samples. The cyanobacteria samples were collected from the Baltic Sea at the end of July 2011...

  11. Analysis of a hypersonic waverider research vehicle with a hydrocarbon scramjet engine (United States)

    Molvik, Gregory A.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.


    The results of a feasibility study of a hypersonic waverider research vehicle with a hydrocarbon scramjet engine are presented. The integrated waverider/scramjet geometry is first optimized with a vehicle synthesis code to produce a maximum product of the lift-to-drag ratio and the cycle specific impulse, hence cruise range. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is then employed to provide a nose-to-tail analysis of the system at the on-design conditions. Some differences are noted between the results of the two analysis techniques. A comparison of experimental, engineering analysis and CFD results on a waverider forebody are also included for validation.

  12. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release). Part I. Method description. (United States)

    Aven, Terje; Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik


    Investigations of major accidents show that technical, human, operational, as well as organisational factors influence the accident sequences. In spite of these facts, quantitative risk analyses of offshore oil and gas production platforms have focused on technical safety systems. This paper presents a method (called BORA-Release) for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequency. By using BORA-Release it is possible to analyse the effect of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and how platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors influence the barrier performance. BORA-Release comprises the following main steps: (1) development of a basic risk model including release scenarios, (2) modelling the performance of safety barriers, (3) assignment of industry average probabilities/frequencies and risk quantification based on these probabilities/frequencies, (4) development of risk influence diagrams, (5) scoring of risk influencing factors, (6) weighting of risk influencing factors, (7) adjustment of industry average probabilities/frequencies, and (8) recalculation of the risk in order to determine the platform specific risk related to hydrocarbon release. The various steps in BORA-Release are presented and discussed. Part II of the paper presents results from a case study where BORA-Release is applied.

  13. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aven, Terje [University of Stavanger (UiS), NO-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Sklet, Snorre [Department of Production and Quality Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail:; Vinnem, Jan Erik [University of Stavanger (UiS), NO-4036 Stavanger (Norway)


    Investigations of major accidents show that technical, human, operational, as well as organisational factors influence the accident sequences. In spite of these facts, quantitative risk analyses of offshore oil and gas production platforms have focused on technical safety systems. This paper presents a method (called BORA-Release) for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequency. By using BORA-Release it is possible to analyse the effect of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and how platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors influence the barrier performance. BORA-Release comprises the following main steps: (1) development of a basic risk model including release scenarios, (2) modelling the performance of safety barriers, (3) assignment of industry average probabilities/frequencies and risk quantification based on these probabilities/frequencies, (4) development of risk influence diagrams, (5) scoring of risk influencing factors, (6) weighting of risk influencing factors, (7) adjustment of industry average probabilities/frequencies, and (8) recalculation of the risk in order to determine the platform specific risk related to hydrocarbon release. The various steps in BORA-Release are presented and discussed. Part II of the paper presents results from a case study where BORA-Release is applied.

  14. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons; Separacion por cromatografia de gases de alta eficiencia de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos, (PAH) y alifaticos (AH) ambientales, empleado como fases estacionarias OV-1 y SE-54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.


    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs.

  15. Methodological aspects of fuel performance system analysis at raw hydrocarbon processing plants (United States)

    Kulbjakina, A. V.; Dolotovskij, I. V.


    The article discusses the methodological aspects of fuel performance system analysis at raw hydrocarbon (RH) processing plants. Modern RH processing facilities are the major consumers of energy resources (ER) for their own needs. To reduce ER, including fuel consumption, and to develop rational fuel system structure are complex and relevant scientific tasks that can only be done using system analysis and complex system synthesis. In accordance with the principles of system analysis, the hierarchical structure of the fuel system, the block scheme for the synthesis of the most efficient alternative of the fuel system using mathematical models and the set of performance criteria have been developed on the main stages of the study. The results from the introduction of specific engineering solutions to develop their own energy supply sources for RH processing facilities have been provided.

  16. New MALDI matrices based on lithium salts for the analysis of hydrocarbons and wax esters. (United States)

    Horká, Petra; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hanus, Robert; Pecková, Karolina; Cvačka, Josef


    Lithium salts of organic aromatic acids (lithium benzoate, lithium salicylate, lithium vanillate, lithium 2,5-dimethoxybenzoate, lithium 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalate, lithium α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and lithium sinapate) were synthesized and tested as potential matrices for the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry analysis of hydrocarbons and wax esters. The analytes were desorbed using nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) and ionized via the attachment of a lithium cation, yielding [M + Li](+) adducts. The sample preparation and the experimental conditions were optimized for each matrix using stearyl behenate and n-triacontane standards. The performance of the new matrices in terms of signal intensity and reproducibility, the mass range occupied by matrix ions and the laser power threshold were studied and compared with a previously recommended lithium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate matrix (LiDHB) (Cvačka and Svatoš, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2003, 17, 2203). Several of the new matrices performed better than LiDHB. Lithium vanillate offered a 2-3 times and 7-9 times higher signal for wax esters and hydrocarbons, respectively. Also, the signal reproducibility improved substantially, making this matrix a suitable candidate for imaging applications. In addition, the diffuse reflectance spectra and solubility of the synthesized compounds were investigated and discussed with respect to the compound's ability to serve as MALDI matrices. The applicability of selected matrices was tested on natural samples of wax esters and hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Distribution of MN blood group types in local populations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 90; Online resources. Distribution of MN blood group types in local populations in Philippines. Anna Elvira S. Arcellana Ruth Marian S. Guzman Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla. Volume 90 Online resources 2011 pp e90-e93 ...

  18. Quantitative on-line analysis of sulfur compounds in complex hydrocarbon matrices. (United States)

    Djokic, Marko R; Ristic, Nenad D; Olahova, Natalia; Marin, Guy B; Van Geem, Kevin M


    An improved method for on-line measurement of sulfur containing compounds in complex matrices is presented. The on-line system consists of a specifically designed sampling system connected to a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph (GC×GC) equipped with two capillary columns (Rtx ® -1 PONA×SGE BPX50), a flame ionization detector (FID) and a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD). The result is an unprecedented sensitivity down to ppm level (1 ppm-w) for various sulfur containing compounds in very complex hydrocarbon matrices. In addition to the GC×GC-SCD, the low molecular weight sulfur containing compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be analyzed using a thermal conductivity detector of a so-called refinery gas analyzer (RGA). The methodology was extensively tested on a continuous flow pilot plant for steam cracking, in which quantification of sulfur containing compounds in the reactor effluent was carried out using 3-chlorothiophene as internal standard. The GC×GC-FID/-SCD settings were optimized for ppm analysis of sulfur compounds in olefin-rich (ethylene- and propylene-rich) hydrocarbon matrices produced by steam cracking of petroleum feedstocks. Besides that is primarily used for analysis of the hydrocarbon matrix, FID of the GC×GC-FID/-SCD set-up serves to double check the amount of added sulfur internal standard which is crucial for a proper quantification of sulfur compounds. When vacuum gas oil containing 780 ppm-w of elemental sulfur in the form of benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes is subjected to steam cracking, the sulfur balance was closed, with 75% of the sulfur contained in the feed is converted to hydrogen sulfide, 13% to alkyl homologues of thiophene while the remaining 12% is present in the form of alkyl homologues of benzothiophenes. The methodology can be applied for many other conversion processes which use sulfur containing feeds such as hydrocracking, catalytic cracking, kerogen

  19. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on particles of atmospheric interest using pressurised fluid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perraudin, Emilie [Universite Bordeaux I, Laboratoire de Physico et Toxico-Chimie des Systemes Naturels, UMR 5472 CNRS, Talence Cedex (France); Universite Bordeaux I, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5803 CNRS, Talence Cedex (France); Budzinski, Helene [Universite Bordeaux I, Laboratoire de Physico et Toxico-Chimie des Systemes Naturels, UMR 5472 CNRS, Talence Cedex (France); Villenave, Eric [Universite Bordeaux I, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5803 CNRS, Talence Cedex (France)


    Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) was used for the measurement of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed on different types of particles: two model particles (PAH-coated silica, PAH-coated graphite) and two natural atmospheric particles (urban dust and diesel exhaust, from NIST reference materials). Samples were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Extraction efficiency was evaluated with internal standard recovery yields and was shown to depend on the nature of the particle, on the structure of the analytes and on the PAH concentration. Extraction conditions (toluene, 130 C, 130 bar, 2 x 8-min static cycles) were optimised to extract PAHs when strongly interacting with solid matrices and were validated by the analysis of two PAH-certified materials. (orig.)

  20. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release). Part II: Results from a case study. (United States)

    Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje


    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures.

  1. A model-based analysis of chemical and temporal patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons in male Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Kent

    Full Text Available Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons (CH influence courtship behaviour, mating, aggregation, oviposition, and resistance to desiccation. We measured levels of 24 different CH compounds of individual male D. melanogaster hourly under a variety of environmental (LD/DD conditions. Using a model-based analysis of CH variation, we developed an improved normalization method for CH data, and show that CH compounds have reproducible cyclic within-day temporal patterns of expression which differ between LD and DD conditions. Multivariate clustering of expression patterns identified 5 clusters of co-expressed compounds with common chemical characteristics. Turnover rate estimates suggest CH production may be a significant metabolic cost. Male cuticular hydrocarbon expression is a dynamic trait influenced by light and time of day; since abundant hydrocarbons affect male sexual behavior, males may present different pheromonal profiles at different times and under different conditions.

  2. Fluorescent Analysis of Photosynthetic Microbes and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Linked to Optical Remote Sensing (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Muller, J.-P.; Lavender, S.; Walton, D.; Dartnell, L. R.


    Fluorescence analysis, being a non-invasive technique, has become one of the most powerful and widely used techniques for microbiologists and chemists to study various types of sample from photosynthetic microbes to hydrocarbons. The work reported here focuses on experimental results of fluorescent features of photosynthetic microbial species (cyanobacteria) and also five different crude oil samples. The cyanobacteria samples were collected from the Baltic Sea at the end of July 2011 and were associated with cyanobacterial bloom events, and the crude oil samples were from various oil spill events. The aim of the study was to find fluorescent biosignatures of cyanobacteria (initially a species specific to the Baltic Sea) and the fingerprints of crude oil; oil spills can be difficult to differentiate from biogenic films when using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or sunglint contaminated optical imagery. All samples were measured using a Perkin Elmer LS55 Luminescence spectrometer over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelength from ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR). The results are presented in Excitation Emission Matrices (EEMs) that exhibit the fluorescent features of each sample. In the EEM of the seawater sample containing cyanobacteria, there is an intense emission peak from tryptophan with fluorescent excitation and emission peaks at 285 and 345 nm respectively. In addition, fluorescent signatures of phycocyanin and chlorophyll-a are present with excitation and emission centre wavelengths at 555 nm, 645 nm and 390 nm, 685 nm, respectively. Additionally, the fluorescence signatures of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the EEMs of crude oil samples with excitation and emission peaks at 285 nm and 425 nm. This study underpins further research on how to distinguish cyanobacteria species by their fluorescence signatures and the potential role that PAHs play in detection of cyanobacteria fluorescence features.

  3. Analysis of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons migrating from a polyolefin-based hot-melt adhesive into food. (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Martin; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Simat, Thomas J


    Hot-melt adhesives are widely utilised to glue cardboard boxes used as food packaging material. They have to comply with the requirements of Article 3 of the European Framework Regulation for food contact materials (1935/2004). The hot melt raw materials analysed mainly consisted of paraffinic waxes, hydrocarbon resins and polyolefins. The hydrocarbon resins, functioning as tackifiers, were the predominant source of hydrocarbons of sufficient volatility to migrate into dry foods: the 18 hydrocarbon resins analysed contained 8.2-118 g kg(-1) saturated and up to 59 g kg(-1) aromatic hydrocarbons eluted from GC between n-C16 and n-C24, substantially more than the paraffinic waxes and the polyolefins. These tackfier resins, especially the oligomers ≤ C24, have been characterised structurally by GC×GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Migration into food was estimated using a simulating system with polenta as food simulant, which was verified by the analysis of a commercial risotto rice sample packed in a virgin fibre folding box sealed with a hot melt. About 0.5-1.5% of the potentially migrating substances (between n-C16 and n-C24) of a hot melt were found to be transferred into food under storage conditions, which can result in a food contamination in the order of 1 mg kg(-1) food (depending on the amount of potentially migrating substances from the hot melt, the hot melt surface, amount of food, contact time etc.). Migrates from hot melts are easily mistaken for mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled cardboard.

  4. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok


    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  5. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok


    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Degradation and Detoxification in Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77. (United States)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Ahn, Ji-Young; Ko, Jung Ho; Lee, Lyon; Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Young-Chang; Kim, Yang-Hoon


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are commonly present xenobiotics in natural and contaminated soils. We studied three (phenanthrene, naphthalene, and biphenyl) xenobiotics, catabolism, and associated proteins in Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Comparative analysis of the growth-dependent 2-DE results revealed that the intensity of 10 protein spots changed identically upon exposure to the three xenobiotics. Among the upregulated proteins, five protein spots, which were putative dehydrogenase, dioxygenase, and hydrolase and involved in the catabolic pathway of xenobiotic degradation, were induced. Identification of these major multifunctional proteins allowed us to map the multiple catabolic pathway for phenanthrene, naphthalene, and biphenyl degradation. A part of the initial diverse catabolism was converged into the catechol degradation branch. Detection of intermediates from 2,3-dihydroxy-biphenyl degradation to pyruvate and acetyl-CoA production by LC/MS analysis showed that ring-cleavage products of PAHs entered the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and were mineralized in S. chungbukense DJ77. These results suggest that S. chungbukense DJ77 completely degrades a broad range of PAHs via a multiple catabolic pathway.

  7. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by four-way parallel factor analysis in presence of humic acid. (United States)

    Yang, Ruifang; Zhao, Nanjing; Xiao, Xue; Yu, Shaohui; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing


    There is not effective method to solve the quenching effect of quencher in fluorescence spectra measurement and recognition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environment. In this work, a four-way dataset combined with four-way parallel factor analysis is used to identify and quantify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of humic acid, a fluorescent quencher and an ubiquitous substance in aquatic system, through modeling the quenching effect of humic acid by decomposing the four-way dataset into four loading matrices corresponding to relative concentration, excitation spectra, emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yield, respectively. It is found that Phenanthrene, pyrene, anthracene and fluorene can be recognized simultaneously with the similarities all above 0.980 between resolved spectra and reference spectra. Moreover, the concentrations of them ranging from 0 to 8μgL(-1) in the test samples prepared with river water could also be predicted successfully with recovery rate of each polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon between 100% and 120%, which were higher than those of three-way PARAFAC. These results demonstrate that the combination of four-way dataset with four-way parallel factor analysis could be a promising method to recognize the fluorescence spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of fluorescent quencher from both qualitative and quantitative perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Source and pathway analysis of lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lisbon urban soils. (United States)

    Marinho Reis, Amélia Paula; Shepherd, Thomas; Nowell, Geoff; Cachada, Anabela; Duarte, Armando Costa; Cave, Mark; Wragg, Joanna; Patinha, Carla; Dias, Ana; Rocha, Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Sousa, António Jorge; Prazeres, Cátia; Batista, Maria João


    One hundred soil samples were collected from urban spaces, in Lisbon, Portugal, in two surveys that were carried out in consecutive years, to assess the potential adverse human health effects following exposure to potentially toxic elements and organic compounds in the urban soils. The study hereby described follows on from the earlier work of the authors and aims at performing a source-pathway-fate analysis of lead (Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban soils in order to increase current knowledge on factors influencing exposure of the population. Various techniques were combined to achieve the proposed goal. Geogenic and anthropogenic sources were apportioned by means of Pb isotope mixing models. Isotope data was further coupled with geographic information system mapping to assess local mixed sources of Pb and PAHs. Unleaded vehicle exhaust and cement production show the largest relative contribution to the total soil-Pb, but their respective importance depends on factors such as location and urban landscape. The primary sources of PAHs to the urban soils are probably air and land traffic. Multivariate analysis was used to investigate which soil properties could influence mobility and fate of the contaminants. Whilst principal components analysis indicates carbonates and other calcium phases as probable factors controlling the dispersion of Pb in the urban soils, the linear models obtained from stepwise multiple regression analysis show that soil phosphorous (P) and manganese (Mn) are good predictors of the total soil Pb content. No robust model was obtained for the PAHs, impeding identifying environmental factors most likely to influence their dispersion in the urban soils. The solid-phase distribution study provided critical information to untangle the, at a first glance, contradictory results obtained by the multivariate analysis. Carbonates and other calcium phases, having these a probable anthropogenic origin, are soil components

  9. One step ultrasound extraction and pruification method for the gas chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbons from marine sediments. Application to the monitoring of Italian coasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietroletti, Marco; Mattiello, Serena; Moscato, Francesca; Oteri, Federico; Mecozzi, Mauro [ISPRA, Rome (Italy). Lab. of Chemometrics and Environmental Applications


    In this study, we describe the development of an ultrasound-assisted method for the simultaneous extraction and purification of hydrocarbons from marine sediments and then its application to the gas chromatographic analysis for the estimation of the biogenic anthropogenic and petrogenic sources of hydrocarbons present in marine sediments. The extraction of hydrocarbons and their simultaneous purification from other organic compounds present in sediments was performed by sonication of a three phase system consisting of sediment, hexane and a HCl medium at pH 2. This method allowed accurate recoveries of the hydrocarbon content in samples. In the following GC-FID analysis, we examined the hydrocarbon distribution in four different areas of the Italian seas determining the pristane to phytane ratio, the total odd n-alkanes to even n-alkanes ratio (carbon preference index), the low molecular weight to high molecular weight ratio, perylene content and the presence of the so called unresolved complex mixture; according to recent studies, these parameters support the identification of the biogenic, anthropogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources present in environmental samples. GC chromatograms were then re-examined by means of two different statistical multivariate methods: two-dimensional mapping (2DMAP) and independent component analysis (ICA). 2DMAP showed the presence of a significant heterogeneity in the hydrocarbon composition of different areas and within samples of a same area. ICA confirmed the general heterogeneity evidenced by 2DMAP allowing in addition to characterise the hydrocarbon composition of one of the investigated areas. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dmitriev


    Full Text Available The article considers the approach to the integral estimation of the assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHc in the soil cover of Sakhalin Island. The soil map of Sakhalin was used as the cartographic base for this work. The soil map includes 103 soil polygons. An additional information on soils was also taken from The Soil Atlas of the Russian Federation. As an integral criterion for the accumulation of PHc, it is proposed to use an integral indicator calculated on the basis of 5 evaluation criteria. The choice of criteria for the assessment was based on the works of Russian scientists. The evaluation criteria on each of the polygons include information on the soil texture, the total thickness of the organic and humus horizons, the content of organic carbon in these horizons and the content of organic carbon in the mineral horizons, as well as the presence of a gley barrier.The calculation of the integral indicator is based on the principles of the ASPID methodology. On this basis, the authors compiled the map of the potential capacity of Sakhalin soils to accumulate petroleum hydrocarbons. On the basis of GIS-technology using the estimates of the integral indicator, the analysis has been performed revealing the features of spatial differentiation of PHc accumulation in the soil cover.The analysis and assessment of the accumulations of petroleum hydrocarbons has shown that peaty and peat boggy soil have the greatest ability to holding the PHc. The lowest ability to accumulate petroleum hydrocarbons is typical of illuvial-ferruginous podzols (illuvial low-humic podzols. The soils of this group occupy 1% of the island. In general, soils with low and very low hydrocarbon accumulation capacity occupy less than forty percent of the territory. 

  11. Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Snyder, M.J.


    Objective is to determine the relationships between the shale characteristics, hydrocarbon gas contents, and well location, for assessing the productive capacity of the Eastern Devonian Gas Shale deposits and guiding research, development, and demonstration projects to enhance the recovery of natural gas from the shale deposits. One well was sampled during this reporting period. Another well from Monongalia County, WV (M-1) was cored in April. 31 samples were obtained for Battelle with additional 55 samples canned for other DOE contractors. Characterization tasks on shale samples from R-146 (Mason County, WV.) and M-1 wells (Monongalia) have been completed. In the preliminary analysis correlations were observed between the hydrocarbon gas contents and can pressure, propane content, well location, oxygen content CO/sub 2/ content, bulk density and carbon contents. Higher pressures are attributed to higher hydrocarbon gas contents. For high gas pressures, propane content is an important indication of hydrocarbon gas content. At low gas pressure, butane contents more accurately predict the hydrocarbon gas contents. High CO/sub 2/ and carbon contents indicate high hydrocarbon gas values, whereas oxygen contents are inversely related to hydrocarbon gas contents. Analysis of the limited wire-line log data shows that correlations between the laboratory and well log data can be utilized to predict potential hydrocarbon gas contents of the wells. 15 tables, 27 figures.

  12. A Techno-Economic Analysis of Emission Controls on Hydrocarbon Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Davis, Ryan; Eberle, Annika; Heath, Garvin


    Biofuels have the potential to reduce our dependency on petroleum-derived transportation fuels and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although the overall GHG emissions from biofuels are expected to be lower when compared to those of petroleum fuels, the process of converting biomass feedstocks into biofuels emits various air pollutants, which may be subject to federal air quality regulation or emission limits. While prior research has evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of biofuel technologies, gaps still exist in understanding the regulatory issues associated with the biorefineries and their economic implications on biofuel production costs (referred to as minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) in this study). The aim of our research is to evaluate the economic impact of implementing emission reduction technologies at biorefineries and estimate the cost effectiveness of two primary control technologies that may be required for air permitting purposes. We analyze a lignocellulosic sugars-to-hydrocarbon biofuel production pathway developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and implement air emission controls in Aspen Plus to evaluate how they affect the MFSP. Results from this analysis can help inform decisions about biorefinery siting and sizing, as well as mitigate the risks associated with air permitting.

  13. Durability and degradation analysis of hydrocarbon ionomer membranes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells accelerated stress evaluation (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryo; Tsuji, Junichi; Sato, Nobuyuki; Takano, Jun; Itami, Shunsuke; Kusakabe, Masato; Miyatake, Kenji; Iiyama, Akihiro; Uchida, Makoto


    The chemical durabilities of two proton-conducting hydrocarbon polymer electrolyte membranes, sulfonated benzophenone poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPK) semiblock copolymer and sulfonated phenylene poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPP) semiblock copolymer are evaluated under accelerated open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Post-test characterization of the membrane electrodes assemblies (MEAs) is carried out via gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These results are compared with those of the initial MEAs. The SPP cell shows the highest OCV at 1000 h, and, in the post-test analysis, the SPP membrane retains up to 80% of the original molecular weight, based on the GPC results, and 90% of the hydrophilic structure, based on the NMR results. The hydrophilic structure of the SPP membrane is more stable after the durability evaluation than that of the SPK. From these results, the SPP membrane, with its simple hydrophilic structure, which does not include ketone groups, is seen to be significantly more resistant to radical attack. This structure leads to high chemical durability and thus impedes the chemical decomposition of the membrane.

  14. Selected-ion storage GC-MS analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in palm dates and tuna fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omair, A.; Helaleh, M.I.H. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research (KISR), Central Analytical Lab. (CAL), Safat (Kuwait)


    A rapid analytical method based on Soxhlet extraction has been developed for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in palm dates and tuna fish. The method is based on selected ion-storage gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the work discussed we were interested in the analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) regarded by the EPA as priority pollutants. Soxhlet extraction of real, fortified, and blank samples, with hexane as solvent, was used to extract the analytes of interest. An excellent detection limit and good relative standard deviations (RSD) were obtained and analysis time was short. The linearity and sensitivity of the method for measurement of these analytes at trace levels are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Detailed analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon attenuation in biopiles by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Van Look, Dirk; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo


    Enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in two biopiles was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCXGC). The attenuation of 34 defined hydrocarbon classes was calculated by HPLC-GCXGC analysis of representative biopile samples at start-up and after 18 weeks of biopile operation. In general, a-cyclic alkanes were most efficiently removed from the biopiles, followed by monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Cycloalkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more resistant to degradation. A-cyclic biomarkers farnesane, trimethyl-C13, norpristane, pristane and phytane dropped to only about 10% of their initial concentrations. On the other hand, C29-C31 hopane concentrations remained almost unaltered after 18 weeks of biopile operation, confirming their resistance to biodegradation. They are thus reliable indicators to estimate attenuation potential of petroleum hydrocarbons in biopile processed soils.

  16. Analysis of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smokeless tobacco by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Stepanov, Irina; Villalta, Peter W; Knezevich, Aleksandar; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S


    Smokeless tobacco contains 28 known carcinogens and causes precancerous oral lesions and oral and pancreatic cancer. A recent study conducted by our research team identified eight different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in U.S. moist snuff, encouraging further investigations of this group of toxicants and carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products. In this study, we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method that allows simultaneous analysis of 23 various PAHs in smokeless tobacco after a simple two-step extraction and purification procedure. The method produced coefficients of variation under 10% for most PAHs. The limits of quantitation for different PAHs varied between 0.3 and 11 ng/g tobacco, starting with a 300 mg sample. The recovery of the stable isotope-labeled internal standards averaged 87%. The method was applied to analysis of 23 moist snuff samples that included various flavors of the most popular U.S. moist snuff brands, as well as 17 samples representing the currently marketed brands of spit-free tobacco pouches, a relatively new type of smokeless tobacco. The sum of all detected PAHs in conventional moist snuff averaged 11.6 (+/-3.7) microg/g dry weight; 20% of this amount was comprised of carcinogenic PAHs. The levels of PAHs in new spit-free tobacco products were much lower than those in moist snuff; the sum of all detected PAHs averaged 1.3 (+/-0.28) microg/g dry weight. Our findings render PAHs one of the most prevalent groups of carcinogens in smokeless tobacco. Urgent measures are required from the U.S. tobacco industry to modify manufacturing processes so that the levels of these toxicants and carcinogens in U.S. moist snuff are greatly reduced.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production in pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Jensen, Søren Højgaard


    A promising way to store wind and solar electricity is by electrolysis of H2O and CO2 using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels that can be used in existing fuel infrastructure. Pressurized operation decreases the cell internal resistance and enables...... hydrocarbon fuel and avoiding damage to the cells. The main parameters of cell operating temperature, pressure, inlet gas composition and reactant utilization are varied to examine how they influence cell thermoneutral and reversible potentials, in situ formation of methane and carbon at the Ni–YSZ electrode...

  18. Analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbons among species of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae). (United States)

    Carlson, D A; Reinert, J F; Bernier, U R; Sutton, B D; Seawright, J A


    Cuticular hydrocarbons were extracted from females of 5 species of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex and studied by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The data were analyzed by multivariate techniques to determine the degree of divergence in hydrocarbon patterns and to develop models that allow the discrimination of these species. Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, Anopheles smaragdinus Reinert, and Anopheles maverlius Reinert could be separated at 100% from each other and from Anopheles diluvialis Reinert and Anopheles inundatus Reinert; however, separation of An. diluvialis from An. inundatus was 80% using a 2-way model.

  19. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  20. Seismic risk analysis of small earthquakes induced by hydrocarbon production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassing, B.B.T.; Waarts, P.H.; Roos, W.; Nepveu, M.; Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Eck, T. van


    In the northern parts of The Netherlands, the exploitation of gas fields has induced small earthquakes. These induced earthquakes have occasionally caused damage to buildings. A workflow was developed in order to evaluate the seismic risk of the exploitation of hydrocarbon fields. A Bayesian


    A mathematical model is derived for areal flow of water and light hydrocarbon in the presence of gas at atmospheric pressure. Closed-form expressions for the vertically integrated constitutive relations are derived based on a three-phase extension of the Brooks-Corey saturation-...

  2. Optimization of environment compatible analysis methods for mineral hydrocarbons in the soil; Optimierung umweltvertraeglicher Analysenverfahren fuer Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffe im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flachowsky, J.; Borsdorf, H. [eds.] [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Loehmannsroeben, H.G.; Roch, T. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Leopom, P. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Reimers, C. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany); Matz, G.; Kuebler, J. [MOBILAB GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Christall, B. [SOFIA GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hahn, M.; Matschiner, H. [Elektrochemie Halle GmbH (Germany); Baermann, A. [Dr. Baermann und Partner Mikroanalytik, Hamburg (Germany)


    This paper describes several analytical methods for the quantitative chemical analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons in soils. The measuring methods are investigated on accuracy, errors, sample preparation methods, analysis of reference materials and real materials. (SR) [Deutsch] Mit dieser Schrift praesentiert die Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt der Oeffentlichkeit Ergebnisse zu alternativen umweltvertraeglichen Bestimmungsmethoden fuer Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffe in Boeden. Es war in erster Linie das Ziel aller beteiligten Forscher und Entwickler, die heute noch in der Anwendung befindliche Vorschrift nach DIN 38409 H18 zur Analytik von Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffen durch eine sowohl umweltfreundliche als auch insgesamt aussagekraeftige Methode zu substituieren. (orig.)

  3. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.


    This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between

  4. Efficiency Analysis of Technological Methods for Reduction of NOx Emissions while Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels in Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kabishov


    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative efficiency analysis pertaining to application of existing technological methods for suppression of nitric oxide formation in heating boilers of heat generators. A special attention has been given to investigation of NOx  emission reduction while burning hydrocarbon fuel with the help of oxygen-enriched air. The calculations have demonstrated that while enriching oxidizer with the help of oxygen up to 50 % (by volume it is possible to reduce volume of NOx formation (while burning fuel unit by 21 %.

  5. The potential use of cuticular hydrocarbons and multivariate analysis to age empty puparial cases of Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata. (United States)

    Moore, Hannah E; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Drijfhout, Falko P


    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been successfully used in the field of forensic entomology for identifying and ageing forensically important blowfly species, primarily in the larval stages. However in older scenes where all other entomological evidence is no longer present, Calliphoridae puparial cases can often be all that remains and therefore being able to establish the age could give an indication of the PMI. This paper examined the CHCs present in the lipid wax layer of insects, to determine the age of the cases over a period of nine months. The two forensically important species examined were Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata. The hydrocarbons were chemically extracted and analysed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was then applied in the form of non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS), permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and random forest models. This study was successful in determining age differences within the empty cases, which to date, has not been establish by any other technique.

  6. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W. [BgVV - Federal Inst. for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)


    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author).

  7. Molecular identification and partial sequence analysis of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor from beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, B.A.; Hahn, M.E. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States)


    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the effects of many common and potentially toxic organic hydrocarbons, including some polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins. Since small cetaceans often inhabit industrially polluted coastal waters, comparison of the molecular structure and function of this protein in cetaeans with other marine and mammalian species is important for evaluating the sensitivity of cetaceans to these pollutants. An AhR protein has been identified in beluga liver by photoaffinity labeling. In the present study, the authors sought to clone and sequence an AhR cDNA from beluga as a prelude to studying its structure and function, using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and degenerate primers, a 515 base pair fragment was amplified, cloned and sequenced, revealing homology to the PAS domain (ligand binding and dimerization region) of AhRs from terrestrial mammals. This portion of the putative beluga AhR has 82% amino acid and 81% nucleotide sequence identity to the mouse AhR, and 63% amino acid and 64% nucleotide sequence identity to an AhR from the marine fish Fundulus heteroclitus. A beluga cDNA library was synthesized and is currently being screened with the PCR-generated fragment to obtain the complete coding sequence. This is the first molecular evidence of AhR presence in cetaceans.

  8. Analysis of hydrocarbon contamination with membrane-assisted solvent extraction: comparison of agitation and sonication methods. (United States)

    Szekeres, Z; Eke, Zs; Rikker, T; Torkos, K


    Membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) coupled to large volume injection was applied to the determination of (gasoline-type) hydrocarbon contamination in water samples. Hexane was used as acceptor phase. 50 microL extract was injected in the programmed temperature vaporizer injector using combined split-splitless evaporation. The extraction conditions were optimized both for MASE with agitation and for MASE with sonication. In the course of optimization the effect of extraction time, extraction temperature, agitation speed, solvent volume, pH, ionic strength and the addition of methanol were tested. Over 75% recovery was accomplished in the range of diesel oil hydrocarbons (n-C(9)-n-C(24)). The developed method was validated. Linearity, accuracy and precision were tested. The method showed excellent linearity between 1 and 1000 microgL(-1) for n-alkanes and between 0.05 and 50 mgL(-1) for gasoline. The method was tested with comprehensive GCxGC as well and found to be non-discriminative to all major compounds of diesel oil.

  9. 3D seismic analysis of the AK Fault, Orange Basin, South Africa: Implications for hydrocarbon leakage and offshore neotectonics (United States)

    Isiaka, Ahmed I.; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Manzi, Musa S. D.; Andreoli, Marco A. G.


    A high-resolution 3D reflection seismic dataset was used to achieve a detailed description of the half-graben bounded AK Fault in the Ibhubesi gas field of the offshore Orange Basin. Seismic analysis of the fault involved the combination of both the conventional seismic interpretation and seismic attributes. The main objective of the study was to provide insights into hydrocarbon leakage and neotectonic activity along the west coast shelf of South Africa. The AK Fault is among the several half-graben bounded faults that formed in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous during the separation of the South American and the African continents. The AK Fault consists of five seismically detectable segments, whose evolution reflects characteristics of both the ;coherent; and the ;isolated; end-members model of segmented fault origin. Diapiric structures that are direct indicators of vertical fluid movement were also observed along the AK Fault system, providing evidence of significant roles that the fault plays in promoting the vertical migration of hydrocarbon in the Orange Basin. Recent reactivation of the fault has also occurred along an oblique extensional regime that is dominated by normal dip-slip faulting, with minor shear components along the tips.

  10. Analysis and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil and Plant Samples of a Coal Mining Area in Nigeria. (United States)

    Ugwu, K E; Ukoha, P O


    This study analysed coal, plant and soil samples collected from the vicinity of Okobo coal mine in Nigeria for Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluated the sources of the PAH contamination in the environmental samples. The environmental samples were extracted by sonication using a ternary solvent system and analysed for 16 PAHs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of the analysis of the samples identified some of the target PAHs. The ranges of total concentrations (in mg/kg) of PAHs in the coal, plant and soil samples were, 0.00-0.04, 0.00-0.16 and 0.00-0.01 respectively. The evaluation of the results of the PAH analysis of the environmental samples using diagnostic ratios revealed that the PAHs in the soil samples were mainly of petrogenic origin, while those in plant samples indicated mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic origins.

  11. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.


    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  12. Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Boyer, J.P.; Snyder, M.J.


    Total characterization data on gas contents, release kinetics, physical and chemical properties, mineralogy and lithology obtained on the C-1 well are reported. Total hydrocarbon gas contents accumulating in the free space surrounding the shale sample in the sealed canisters range from less than 10 to 90%. A positive correlation is observed between the gas contents and sample depth. Total carbon values vary between 0.4 and 7.2% with an average value of approximately 2.0% hydrogen values ranging between 0.4 and 1.0%. Carbon contents show an increase with increasing sample depth, also indicating a positive correlation between carbon and hydrocarbon gas contents. The relationship is not as pronounced between the hydrogen and gas contents. Among the physical characterization data reported are densities (true and bulk), porosities, surface area, and permeabilities. Shales exhibit relatively high bulk densities, an observation that is supported by low porosity and permeability values. A wide range of surface area values is observed. These values range between less than 1 and over 4 m/sup 2//g. Surface area values are dominated by the clay mineral contents of the shale. Qualitatively x-ray diffraction data indicate illite to be the dominant clay mineral with occasional presence of kaolin minerals noted. Carbonate contents in these shales are very low. Among the more frequent carbonate minerals observed are nahcolite and shortite. Quartz is the most abundant single mineral. Considerable amounts of pyrite also seem to be present in a majority of the shale samples. SEM/EDAX data are in complete agreement with the XRD observations.

  13. Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: a Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Kather, Ricarda; Martin, Stephen J


    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication, spreading across all forms of life. In insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates, species, and nest-mates in social insects. Although much is known about the function of individual hydrocarbons and their biosynthesis, a phylogenetic overview is lacking. Here, we review the CHC profiles of 241 species of Hymenoptera, one of the largest and most important insect orders, which includes the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). We investigated whether these taxonomic groups differed in the presence and absence of CHC classes and whether the sociality of a species (solitarily vs. social) had an effect on CHC profile complexity. We found that the main CHC classes (i.e., n-alkanes, alkenes, and methylalkanes) were all present early in the evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera, as evidenced by their presence in ancient Symphyta and primitive Parasitica wasps. Throughout all groups within the Hymenoptera, the more complex a CHC the fewer species that produce it, which may reflect the Occam's razor principle that insects' only biosynthesize the most simple compound that fulfil its needs. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the complexity of CHC profiles between social and solitary species, with some of the most complex CHC profiles belonging to the Parasitica. This profile complexity has been maintained in the ants, but some specialization in biosynthetic pathways has led to a simplification of profiles in the aculeate wasps and bees. The absence of CHC classes in some taxa or species may be due to gene silencing or down-regulation rather than gene loss, as demonstrated by sister species having highly divergent CHC profiles, and cannot be predicted by their phylogenetic history. The presence of highly complex CHC profiles prior to the vast radiation of the social Hymenoptera indicates a

  14. On the Development of a Very Rapid Gas Chromatographic Method for the Analysis of High Molecular Weight Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman III WM


    Full Text Available A very rapid, flash-gas chromatographic (GC, quantitative method for the analysis of high molecular weight saturated hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke has been developed. The method was fast, accurate and precise. Sample turn around times were approximately six minutes, with an accompanying average percent relative standard deviation (%RSD of less than 10%. Four linear saturated hydrocarbons with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms were quantitated in an array of reference cigarettes ranging in “tar” deliveries from approximately 2 to approximately 20 mg. By use of a cyclohexane extraction of cigarette smoke captured on Cambridge filter pads, the extraction efficiency was determined to be greater than 95% for each hydrocarbon. The approach represents a significant advance over current analytical procedures that require, on average, greater than 30-min sample turn around times.

  15. Analysis of atmospheric concentrations of quinones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vapour and particulate phases (United States)

    Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Alam, Mohammed S.; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J.; Stark, Christopher; Harrison, Roy M.


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are often measured in studies of atmospheric chemistry or health effects of air pollution, due to their known human carcinogenicity. In recent years, PAH quinone derivatives have also become a focus of interest, primarily because they can contribute to oxidative stress. This work reports concentrations of 17 PAH and 15 quinones measured in air samples collected at a trafficked roadside. Data are presented for four compounds not previously reported in ambient air: 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone, methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2,3-dimethylanthraquinone, and a large vapour phase component is measured, not analysed in most earlier studies. Analyses are reported also for SRM 1649a and 1649b, including many compounds (8 for SRM 1649a and 12 for SRM 1649b) for which concentrations have not previously been reported. This work assesses the vapour/particle phase distribution of PAHs and quinones in relation to their molecular weight, vapour pressure, polarity and Henry's Law constant, finding that both molecular weight and vapour pressure (which are correlated) are good predictors of the partitioning.

  16. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas


    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  17. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.


    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) is a long-term monitoring program making regular atmospheric measurements from an instrument container installed monthly aboard a passenger aircraft. Typical cruising altitudes of the aircraft allow for the study of the free troposphere and the extra-tropical upper troposphere as well as the lowermost stratosphere. CARIBIC measurements include a number of real time analyses as well as the collection of aerosol and whole air samples. These whole air samples are analyzed post-flight for a suite of trace gases, which includes non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). The NMHC measurement system and its analytical performance are described here. Precision was found to vary slightly by compound, and is less than 2% for the C2-C6 alkanes and ethyne, and between 1% and 6% for C7-C8 alkanes and aromatic compounds. Preliminary results from participation in a Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO) VOC audit indicate accuracies within the precision of the system. Limits of detection are 1 pptv for most compounds, and up to 3 pptv for some aromatics. These are sufficiently low to measure mixing ratios typically observed in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere for the longer-lived NMHC, however, in air samples from these regions many of the compounds with shorter lifetimes (air mass history, with concentrations typically decreasing with shorter chemical lifetimes.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Cited by the United States Food and Drug Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthery W


    Full Text Available The yields of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined from cigarette mainstream smoke condensate extracts using Gas Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. The method has been validated for ISO and Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking protocols. Quantifiable levels (ISO means 0.16 to 365 ng/cig; HCI means 0.33 to 1595 ng/cig; n = 30 of 15 PAHs were found in the Kentucky reference cigarette K3R4F. The coefficient of variance (CV was derived from ten determinations each run in triplicate. The CV range was 8.7% to 24.8% (ISO and 6.6% to 24.3% (HCI. The limit of detection (LOD based on empirical precision was ≤ 0.06 ng/cig (ISO and ≤ 0.20 ng/cig (HCI for all components except naphthalene (2.89 and 9.62 ng/cig, respectively. The yields from 5 unspecified branded cigarettes (Samples A-E and 2 other reference cigarettes, K1R5F and the CORESTA monitor CM7, were determined under ISO smoking conditions. The same 15 PAHs were detected as in the K3R4F; however, cigarettes with lower yields of total particulate matter (TPM were found to contain significantly less PAHs. One component was measured below the limit of quantification (LOQ in Sample E and 2 components were < LOQ in the K1R5F.

  19. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (United States)

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.


    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  20. Hybrid energy converter based on swirling combustion chambers: the hydrocarbon feeding analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Minotti


    Full Text Available This manuscript reports the latest investigations about a miniaturized hybrid energy power source, compatible with thermal/electrical conversion, by a thermo-photovoltaic cell, and potentially useful for civil and space applications. The converter is a thermally-conductive emitting parallelepiped element and the basic idea is to heat up its emitting surfaces by means of combustion, occurred in swirling chambers, integrated inside the device, and/or by the sun, which may work simultaneously or alternatively to the combustion. The current upgrades consist in examining whether the device might fulfill specific design constraints, adopting hydrocarbons-feeding. Previous papers, published by the author, demonstrate the hydrogen-feeding effectiveness. The project’s constraints are: 1 emitting surface dimensions fixed to 30 × 30 mm, 2 surface peak temperature T > 1000 K and the relative ∆T < 100 K (during the combustion mode, 3 the highest possible delivered power to the ambient, and 4 thermal efficiency greater than 20% when works with solar energy. To this end, a 5 connected swirling chambers configuration (3 mm of diameter, with 500 W of injected chemical power, stoichiometric conditions and detailed chemistry, has been adopted. Reactive numerical simulations show that the stiff methane chemical structure obliges to increase the operating pressure, up to 10 atm, and to add hydrogen, to the methane fuel injection, in order to obtain stable combustion and efficient energy conversion.

  1. Insight into unresolved complex mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons in heavy oil via two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. (United States)

    Weng, Na; Wan, Shan; Wang, Huitong; Zhang, Shuichang; Zhu, Guangyou; Liu, Jingfu; Cai, Di; Yang, Yunxu


    relative content also increased. The varying regularity of relative content of substituted compounds may be used to reflect the degree of degradation of heavy oil. Moreover, biomarkers for the aromatic hydrocarbons of heavily biodegraded crude oil are mainly aromatic steranes, aromatic secohopanes, aromatic pentacyclotriterpanes, and benzohopanes. According to resultant data, aromatic secohopanes could be used as a specific marker because of their relatively high concentration. This aromatic compound analysis of a series of biodegraded crude oil is useful for future research on the quantitative characterization of the degree of biodegradation of heavy oil, unconventional oil maturity evaluation, oil source correlation, depositional environment, and any other geochemical problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in chocolate candies. (United States)

    Kumari, Rupender; Chaturvedi, Prashant; Ansari, Nasreen G; Murthy, Ramesh C; Patel, Devendra K


    Chocolate is a key ingredient in many foods such as milk shakes, candies, bars, cookies, and cereals. Chocolate candies are often consumed by mankind of all age groups. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chocolate candies may result in health risk to people. A rapid, precise, and economic extraction method was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in chocolate candy by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS-MS) as a confirmatory technique. The method was optimized by using different solvents for liquid-liquid extraction, varying volume of de-emulsifying agent, and quantity of silica gel used for purification. The HPLC separation of 16 PAHs was carried out by C-18 column with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile : water (70 : 30) in isocratic mode with runtime of 20 min. Limit of detection, limit of quantification (LOQ), and correlation coefficients were found in the range of 0.3 to 4 ng g⁻¹, 0.9 to 12 ng g⁻¹, and 0.9109 to 0.9952, respectively. The exploration of 25 local chocolate candy samples for the presence of PAHs showed the mean content of benzo[a]pyrene as 1.62 ng g⁻¹, which representing the need to evaluate effective measures to prevent more severe PAHs contamination in chocolate candies in future. Chocolate is one of the most favorite food items among people, especially children. Chocolate candies are often consumed by mankind of all age groups. Chocolate candies are often consumed by children in large quantities. The presence PAHs in chocolate candies may result in health risk to people. In the present study, a precise and cost effective rapid method was employed for the determination of PAHs, which can be employed for daily routine analysis of PAHs in chocolate products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Product analysis during the thermo-oxidation of amorphous deuterated hydrocarbon films with NO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alegre


    Full Text Available The excellent thermo-oxidation properties of NO2 have been previously reported, pointing to fast carbon co-deposits removal even at temperatures as low as 200 °C. On the other hand, CO, CO2 and water have been found as the main gas products in oxidation by O2, but in NO2 they have not been confirmed. To make a more accurate assessment, the use of in-situ deposited deuterated hydrocarbon films—to be able to distinguish products from ambient, protonated ones—in a fully-baked chamber have been used in the present work, mainly aimed at detecting heavy (deuterated water among the reaction products. Other products from hydrogen isotopes could not be identified, but their production would be much lower than water. The ratio of the total deuterium to carbon products detected is lower by an order of magnitude than the D/C ratio of the film (0.04–0.07 to 0.4, probably associated to the difficulties of measuring water in a vacuum system, and the relatively large quantity of background water found. Furthermore, post-oxidation of CO to CO2 has been found for NO2 at any studied temperature, while for O2 a faster post-oxidation which only occurs at T > 275 °C was found. Finally, the implications of the water production in the use of thermo-oxidation in actual and future nuclear fusion devices are also addressed.

  4. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.


    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  5. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, J.


    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  6. System design and analysis of hydrocarbon scramjet with regeneration cooling and expansion cycle (United States)

    Wu, Xianyu; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Hua; Shen, Chibing


    A new expansion cycle scheme of the scramjet engine system including a hydrocarbon-fuel-based (kerosene) regenerativecooling system and supercritical/cracking kerosene-based turbo-pump was proposed in this paper. In this cycle scheme, the supercritical/cracking kerosene with high pressure and high temperature is formed through the cooling channel. And then, in order to make better use of the high energy of the supercritical/cracking fuel, the supercritical/cracking kerosene fuel was used to drive the turbo-pump to obtain a high pressure of the cold kerosenefuel at the entrance of the cooling channel. In the end, the supercritical/cracking kerosene from the turbine exit is injected into the scramjet combustor. Such supercritical/cracking kerosene fuel can decrease the fuel-air mixing length and increase the combustion efficiency, due to the gas state and low molecular weight of the cracking fuel. In order to ignite the cold kerosene in the start-up stage, the ethylene-assisted ignition subsystem was applied. In the present paper, operating modes and characteristics of the expansion cycle system are first described.And then, the overall design of the system and the characterisitics of the start-up process are analyzed numerically to investigate effects of the system parameters on the scramjet start-up performance. The results show that the expansion cycle system proposed in this paper can work well under typical conditions. The research work in this paper can help to make a solid foundation for the research on the coupling characteristics between the dynamicsand thermodynamics of the scramjet expansion cycle system

  7. [Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in cracking products of jet fuel by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry]. (United States)

    Li, Haijing; Zhang, Xiangwen


    As coking precursors, aromatic hydrocarbons have an effect on the cracking stability of fuels. A method for identifying and quantitating aromatics in the supercritical cracking products of jet fuel was established by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). The effects of main chromatographic conditions such as initial oven temperature and modulation period on the separation of supercritical cracking products were studied. The method has good separation ability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) isomers. A total of 27 aromatics, including monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc., were identified based on standard mass spectra, the retention times of standards and literature reports. Moreover, the corresponding quantitative determination was achieved by external standard method of GC×GC-FID. The results showed that the contents of aromatics increased with the increase of gas yield. When gas yield reached 22%, the bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons began to produce, and their contents increased exponentially with the increase of gas yield. Compared with the traditional GC-MS, the method has better separation and qualitative ability, and can be applied to the separation of complex samples and qualitative and quantitative analyses of cracking products.

  8. Inferring sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from the western Taiwan Strait through end-member mixing analysis. (United States)

    Li, Tao; Sun, Guihua; Ma, Shengzhong; Liang, Kai; Yang, Chupeng; Li, Bo; Luo, Weidong


    Concentration, spatial distribution, composition and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated based on measurements of 16 PAH compounds in surface sediments of the western Taiwan Strait. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.41 to 218.54ngg-1. Cluster analysis identified three site clusters representing the northern, central and southern regions. Sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from a mixture of pyrolytic and petrogenic in the north, from pyrolytic in the central, and from petrogenic in the south. An end-member mixing model was performed using PAH compound data to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end-members (i.e., extreme-value sample points) proposed by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the analyzed samples can be expressed as mixtures of three end-members, and the mixing of different end-members was strongly related to the transport pathway controlled by two currents, which alternately prevail in the Taiwan Strait during different seasons. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. FTIR analysis and evaluation of carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM1.0. (United States)

    Schneider, Ismael Luís; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Silva E Silva, Gabriel; Balzaretti, Naira; Braga, Marcel Ferreira; Oliveira, Luís Felipe Silva


    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) represent a group of organic compounds of significant interest due to their presence in airborne particulates of urban centers, wide distribution in the environment, and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. These compounds, associated with atmospheric particles of size Carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of the studied NPAHs associated with PM1.0 samples were also determined for two sampling sites: Canoas and Sapucaia do Sul. The results showed that NPAH standard spectra can effectively identify NPAHs in PM1.0 samples. The transmittance and emissivity sample spectra showed broader bands and lower relative intensity than the standard NPAH spectra. The carcinogenic risk and the total mutagenic risk were calculated using the toxic equivalent factors and mutagenic potency factors, respectively. Canoas showed the highest total carcinogenic risk, while Sapucaia do Sul had the highest mutagenic risk. The seasonal analysis suggested that in the study area the ambient air is more toxic during the cold periods. These findings might of significant importance for the decision and policy making authorities.

  10. Effect-based and chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat: a practical food-monitoring approach. (United States)

    Kuhn, K; Nowak, B; Behnke, A; Seidel, A; Lampen, A


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are generated by heat treatment and smoke curing of meat, pose a risk to human health. At present, the determination of these unwanted contaminants requires costly, time-consuming chemical analysis of smoked meat. An alternative is effect-directed high-throughput bioassays, which could also be used as a pre-screening method. The authors recently adapted the in vitro chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay as a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive screening technique for compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and PAHs. The aim of the present study was to apply a practical approach under realistic conditions. Custom-made meat samples produced under defined conditions with different PAH levels were analysed using this bioassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine the influence of different smoking conditions (temperature and duration) on PAH levels. It was found that cold smoking for up to 6 h did not result in strong PAH contamination, whereas hot (65 degrees C) and longer smoking times caused a considerable increase in both the bioassay response and the levels of 31 individually determined PAHs. The response in the effect-based bioassay was in good agreement with the values of chemical analysis. The bioassay made it possible to determine accurately the degree of contamination. The results show that this assay is suitable for high-throughput screening for unknown levels of toxicologically relevant PAHs in meat samples and is sensitive enough to differentiate between different PAH levels generated under various smoking conditions. Effect-based screening techniques, therefore, provide a new instrument for official food monitoring.

  11. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Sue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels. These assessments evaluate feedstock production, logistics of transporting the feedstock, and conversion of the feedstock to biofuel. There are two general types of TEAs. A design case is a TEA that outlines a target case for a particular biofuel pathway. It enables identification of data gaps and research and development needs, and provides goals and targets against which technology progress is assessed. On the other hand, a state of technology (SOT) analysis assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases, and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available.

  12. Renewable hydrocarbon fuels from hydrothermal liquefaction: A techno-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Hansen, Nick Høy; Pérez, Oscar Miralles


    This study demonstrates the economic feasibility of producing renewable transportation drop-in fuels from lignocellulosic biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading. An Aspen Plus® process model is developed based on extensive experimental data to document a techno-economic assessment...... of a hydrothermal liquefaction process scheme. Based on a 1000 tonnes organic matter per day plant size capacity, three different scenarios are analyzed to identify key economic parameters and minimum fuel selling prices (MFSP). Scenario I, the baseline scenario, is based on wood-glycerol co-liquefaction, followed......, but investigates a full saturation situation (a maximum hydrogen consumption scenario), resulting in a slightly higher MFSP of 0.94 $/LGE. A sensitivity analysis is performed identifying biocrude yield, hydrogen, and feedstock prices as key cost factors affecting the MFSP. In conclusion, the study shows...

  13. Carbon deposition model for oxygen-hydrocarbon combustion. Task 6: Data analysis and formulation of an empirical model (United States)

    Makel, Darby B.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.


    The formation and deposition of carbon (soot) was studied in the Carbon Deposition Model for Oxygen-Hydrocarbon Combustion Program. An empirical, 1-D model for predicting soot formation and deposition in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generators/preburners was derived. The experimental data required to anchor the model were identified and a test program to obtain the data was defined. In support of the model development, cold flow mixing experiments using a high injection density injector were performed. The purpose of this investigation was to advance the state-of-the-art in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generator design by developing a reliable engineering model of gas generator operation. The model was formulated to account for the influences of fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, and gas generator hardware design on soot formation and deposition.

  14. Mid- Atlantic Gas Hydrate, Heat Flow, and Basin Analysis: Implications to Hydrocarbon Production in the Carolina Trough (United States)

    Phrampus, B. J.


    The new Mid- and South Atlantic Planning Areas for oil and gas leasing is proposed to open in 2021. This region lacks in contemporary geologic and geophysical petroleum data and has no conventional wells drilled within the proposed leasing area. As such, addressing the hydrocarbon potential of this region is particularly difficult. Here, we use new and legacy multi-channel seismic data with heat flow observations, ocean temperature measurements, and new seismic interpretations of gas hydrate deposits to determine basin-wide heat flow along the Mid- Atlantic. These data reveal a conductive heat flow regime along the continental margin with a lack of fluid flow that is consistent with sea floor spreading rates and cooling oceanic crust. We then use these observations in combination with basal heat flow models and sedimentation records to determine the thermal history of a cross section of the Carolina Trough. These models reveal varying depth of potential hydrocarbon production that begin at ~ 2000 mbsf and extend down to depths greater than 7000 mbsf across the Carolina Trough. These potentially productive depths correspond to varying stratal ages, but all models contain the Late Jurassic, which is a potential analog to the U.S. Gulf Coast's Smackover Formation. Additionally, the timing of hydrocarbon generation reveal that Early through Middle Jurassic evaporite deposits and Late Jurassic tight limestones should have been in place before the Early Jurassic source rocks reached a depth of burial sufficiently deep for the production of hydrocarbons. These potential seals may trap significant quantities of hydrocarbons with in the Jurassic layers, resulting in significant hydrocarbon potential within the Carolina Trough.

  15. Performance analysis of the electric vehicle air conditioner by replacing hydrocarbon refrigerant (United States)

    Santoso, Budi; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.


    The thermal comfort in passenger cabins needs an automotive air-conditioning system. The electric vehicle air conditioner system is driven by an electric compressor which includes a compressor and an electric motor. Almost air-conditioning system uses CFC-12, CFC-22 and HFC-134a as refrigerant. However, CFC-12 and CFC-22 will damage the ozone layer. The extreme huge global warming potentials (GWP) values of CFC-12, CFC-22, and HFC-134a represent the serious greenhouse effect of Earth. This article shows new experimental measurements and analysis by using a mixture of HC-134 to replace HFC-134a. The result is a refrigerating effect, the coefficient of performance and energy factor increase along with cooling capacity, both for HFC-134a and HC-134. The refrigerating effect of HC-134 is almost twice higher than HFC-134a. The coefficient of performance value of HC-134 is also 36.42% greater than HFC-134a. Then, the energy factor value of HC-134 is 3.78% greater than HFC-134a.

  16. Stochastic analysis of oxygen- and nitrate-based biodegradation of hydrocarbons in aquifers (United States)

    Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Berglund, Sten


    A Lagrangian stochastic framework was used to analyze field-scale aerobic biodegradation in a heterogeneous aquifer, using Monod-kinetics based reactions between the contaminant, oxygen and microbes. Subsurface heterogeneity was represented by closed-form travel time distributions, derived from a spatially correlated random hydraulic conductivity field with a log-normal distribution. The solution to the coupled and nonlinear, one-dimensional Lagrangian transport equations was obtained using the operator-splitting technique. The presence of nitrate, and considering nitrate as a second electron acceptor, produced significantly different results under intrinsic conditions for different scales of heterogeneity and sorption. In general, nitrate as a second electron acceptor can substantially lower the peak contaminant concentration and increase the maximum remediation under various conditions of heterogeneity and sorption. There exists a critical value for retardation coefficients of both contaminant and microbes that produce complete degradation of mass, and this value depends on the availability of the electron acceptor(s) and is independent of the heterogeneity. Maximum remediation and peak contaminant concentration were sensitive to half-saturation constants. Enhanced remediation using oxygen and nitrate showed that maximum remediation can be increased by approximately 15% when oxygen or nitrate concentration was increased by 50%, but a further increase may be obtained if injection occurred at a more effective location. The proposed stochastic methodology is capable of analyzing field-scale biodegradation using multiple electron acceptors in a simple and computationally attractive manner, producing useful results on design parameters. The key contributions arising from the Lagrangian stochastic framework in field-scale analysis, its limitations and potential approaches for overcoming these limitations are also discussed.

  17. Extraction and isotopic analysis of medium molecular weight hydrocarbons from Murchison using supercritical carbon dioxide (United States)

    Gilmour, Iain; Pillinger, Colin


    The large variety of organic compounds present in carbonaceous chondrites poses particular problems in their analysis not the least of which is terrestrial contamination. Conventional analytical approaches employ simple chromatographic techniques to fractionate the extractable compounds into broad classes of similar chemical structure. However, the use of organic solvents and their subsequent removal by evaporation results in the depletion or loss of semi-volatile compounds as well as requiring considerable preparative work to assure solvent purity. Supercritical fluids have been shown to provide a powerful alternative to conventional liquid organic solvents used for analytical extractions. A sample of Murchison from the Field Museum was analyzed. Two interior fragments were used; the first (2.85 g) was crushed in an agate pestel and mortar to a grain size of ca. 50-100 micron, the second (1.80 g) was broken into chips 3-8 mm in size. Each sample was loaded into a stainless steel bomb and placed in the extraction chamber of an Isco supercritical fluid extractor maintained at 35 C. High purity (99.9995 percent) carbon dioxide was used and was pressurized using an Isco syringe pump. The samples were extracted dynamically by flowing CO2 under pressure through the bomb and venting via a 50 micron fused filica capillary into 5 mls of hexane used as a collection solvent. The hexane was maintained at a temperature of 0.5 C. A series of extractions were done on each sample using CO2 of increasing density. The principal components extracted in each fraction are summarized.

  18. Peer Group Homogeneity in Adolescents' School Adjustment Varies According to Peer Group Type and Gender (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina


    This study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in terms of their school adjustment and whether this homogeneity varies according to peer group type and gender. A total of 1262 peer group members who had recently moved to post-comprehensive education filled in questionnaires measuring their academic achievement,…

  19. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Subathu Formation exposed at Marhighat on Sarahan–Narag road in Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Hydrocarbon potential of these sediments is estimated on the basis of palynofacies analysis and thermal alteration index (TAI) values based on the ...

  20. Different NMR approaches to the chiral analysis of trisubstituted allenes devoid of polar functional groups and aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, G; Balzano, F; Salvadori, P; Lazzaroni, R; Caporusso, A M; Menicagli, R


    The use of permethylated beta-cyclodextrin as chiral solvating agent for NMR spectroscopy allowed us to determine the enantiomeric purity of chiral aromatic hydrocarbons as well as the enantiomeric purity and absolute configuration of chiral trisubstituted allenes devoid of polar functional groups. The enantiomeric excesses of the trisubstituted allenes have been also determined by 195Pt NMR spectroscopy of the diastereoisomeric trans-dichloro[(S)-alpha-phenylethyl-amine](allene)Pt(II) complexes.

  1. Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming (United States)

    Golombok, Michael


    The interactive methods of steam hydrocarbon reforming and cracking of the oil and chemical industries are scrutinized, with special focus on their resemblance and variations. The two methods are illustrations of equilibrium-controlled and kinetically-controlled processes, the analysis of which involves theories, which overlap and balance each…

  2. Estimation of absorption of aromatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in automobile cabins by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats. (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshiaki


    Aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons, diffusing from interior materials in automotive cabins are the most common compounds contributing to interior air pollution. In this study, the amounts of seven selected aromatic hydrocarbons absorbed by a car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. Measured amounts of these substances were injected into a closed chamber system containing a rat, and the concentration changes in the chamber were examined. The toxicokinetics of the substances were evaluated on the basis of the concentration-time course using a nonlinear compartment model. The amounts absorbed in humans at actual concentrations in automobile cabins without ventilation were extrapolated from the results obtained from rats. The absorbed amounts estimated for a driver during a 2 h drive were as follows (per 60 kg of human body weight): 30 microg for toluene (interior median concentration, 40 microg m(-3) in our previous study), 10 microg for ethylbenzene (12 microg m(-3)), 6 microg for o-xylene (10 microg m(-3)), 8 microg for m-xylene (11 microg m(-3)), 9 microg for p-xylene (11 microg m(-3)), 11 microg for styrene (11 microg m(-3)) and 27 microg for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (24 microg m(-3)). Similarly, in a cabin where air pollution was marked, the absorbed amount of styrene (654 microg for 2 h in a cabin with an interior maximum concentration of 675 microg m(-3)) was estimated to be much higher than those of other substances. This amount (654 microg) was approximately 1.5 times the tolerable daily intake of styrene (7.7 microg kg(-1) per day) recommended by the World Health Organization. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Analysis of annatto (Bixa orellana) food coloring formulations. 2. Determination of aromatic hydrocarbon thermal degradation products by gas chromatography. (United States)

    Scotter, M J; Wilson, L A; Appleton, G P; Castle, L


    Twenty samples of commercial annatto formulations have been analyzed for m-xylene and toluene using ambient alkaline hydrolysis, followed by solvent extraction and capillary gas chromatography. Fifteen of the samples contained annatto during source extraction and processing, resulting in contamination by internal generation of both bixin and norbixin types with aromatic hydrocarbons. Two samples of norbixin of known production history (i. e., thermal versus nonthermal processes) were analyzed specifically to identify possible differences in their degradation component profiles. They were found to differ significantly in m-xylene content, which is consistent with their respective production histories.

  4. Development and validation of a cleanup method for hydrocarbon containing samples for the analysis of semivolatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, E.W.; Stromatt, R.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Steele, M.J.; Jones, J.E.


    Samples obtained from the Hanford single shell tanks (SSTs) are contaminated with normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) as hydrostatic fluid from the sampling process or can be native to the tank waste. The contamination is usually high enough that a dilution of up to several orders of magnitude may be required before the sample can be analyzed by the conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. This can prevent detection and measurement of organic constituents that are present at lower concentration levels. To eliminate or minimize the problem, a sample cleanup method has been developed and validated and is presented in this document.

  5. Retrospective analysis: bile hydrocarbons and histopathology of demersal rockfish in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. (United States)

    Marty, Gary D; Hoffmann, Andy; Okihiro, Mark S; Hepler, Kelly; Hanes, David


    Demersal rockfish are the only fish species that have been found dead in significant numbers after major oil spills, but the link between oil exposure and effect has not been well established. After the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, several species of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) from oiled and reference sites were analyzed for hydrocarbon metabolites in bile (1989-1991) and for microscopic lesions (1990 and 1991). Biliary hydrocarbons consistent with exposure to Exxon Valdez oil were elevated in 1989, but not in 1990 or 1991. Significant microscopic findings included pigmented macrophage aggregates and hepatic megalocytosis, fibrosis, and lipid accumulation. Site differences in microscopic findings were significant with respect to previous oil exposure in 1991 (P=0.038), but not in 1990. However, differences in microscopic findings were highly significant with respect to age and species in both years (PExxon Valdez oil in 1989, but differences in microscopic changes in 1990 and 1991 were related more to age and species differences than to previous oil exposure.

  6. Update of on-line coupled liquid chromatography - gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons in foods and cosmetics. (United States)

    Biedermann, Maurus; Munoz, Celine; Grob, Koni


    On-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) is the most widely used method for the analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons in food, food contact materials, tissues and cosmetics. With comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC), a tool became available for better establishing the elution sequence of the various types of hydrocarbons from the HPLC column used for isolating the mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). The performance of a heavily used HPLC column with reduced retention for MOAH was investigated to improve the robustness of the method. Updates are recommended that render the MOSH/MOAH separation less dependent of the state of the HPLC column and more correct in cases of highly refined mineral oil products of high molecular mass. Cyclohexyl cyclohexane (Cycy), used as internal standard, turned out to be eluted slightly after cholestane (Cho); apparently the size exclusion effect predominates the extra retention by ring number on the 60Å pore size silica gel. Hence, Cycy can be used to determine the end of the MOSH fraction. Long chain alkyl benzenes were eluted earlier than tri-tert. butyl benzene (Tbb). It is proposed to start the MOAH transfer immediately after the MOSH fraction and use a gradient causing breakthrough of dichloromethane (visible in the UV chromatogram) at a time suitable to elute perylene (Per) at the end of the fraction. In this way, a decrease in retention power of the HPLC column can be tolerated without adjustment of the MOAH fraction until some MOAH start being eluted into the MOSH fraction. This critical point can be checked either with di(2-ethylhexyl) benzene (DEHB) as a marker or the HPLC-UV chromatogram. Finally, based on new findings in rats and human tissues, it is recommended to integrate the MOSH and MOAH up to the retention time of the n-alkane C40. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Tracing the Fingerprint of Chemical Bonds within the Electron Densities of Hydrocarbons: A Comparative Analysis of the Optimized and the Promolecule Densities. (United States)

    Keyvani, Zahra Alimohammadi; Shahbazian, Shant; Zahedi, Mansour


    The equivalence of the molecular graphs emerging from the comparative analysis of the optimized and the promolecule electron densities in two hundred and twenty five unsubstituted hydrocarbons was recently demonstrated [Keyvani et al. Chem. Eur. J. 2016, 22, 5003]. Thus, the molecular graph of an optimized molecular electron density is not shaped by the formation of the C-H and C-C bonds. In the present study, to trace the fingerprint of the C-H and C-C bonds in the electron densities of the same set of hydrocarbons, the amount of electron density and its Laplacian at the (3, -1) critical points associated with these bonds are derived from both optimized and promolecule densities, and compared in a newly proposed comparative analysis. The analysis not only conforms to the qualitative picture of the electron density build up between two atoms upon formation of a bond in between, but also quantifies the resulting accumulation of the electron density at the (3, -1) critical points. The comparative analysis also reveals a unified mode of density accumulation in the case of 2318 studied C-H bonds, but various modes of density accumulation are observed in the case of 1509 studied C-C bonds and they are classified into four groups. The four emerging groups do not always conform to the traditional classification based on the bond orders. Furthermore, four C-C bonds described as exotic bonds in previous studies, for example the inverted C-C bond in 1,1,1-propellane, are naturally distinguished from the analysis. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods. (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S


    A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 μL of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 μg/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gas chromatography for in situ analysis of a cometary nucleus. II. Analysis of permanent gases and light hydrocarbons with a carbon molecular sieve porous layer open tubular column. (United States)

    Szopa, C; Sternberg, R; Coscia, D; Raulin, F; Vidal-Madjar, C


    Considering the severe constraints of space instrumentation, a great improvement for the in situ gas chromatographic (GC) determination of permanent and noble gases in a cometary nucleus is the use of a new carbon molecular sieve porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column called Carbobond. No exhaustive data dealing with this column being available, studies were carried out to entirely characterize its analytical performances, especially when used under the operating conditions of the cometary sampling and composition (COSAC) experiment of the European Space Agency (ESA) Rosetta space mission to be launched in 2003 for a rendezvous with comet 46 P/Wirtanen in 2011. The high efficiency and speed of analysis of this column at both atmospheric and vacuum outlet column pressure is demonstrated, and the kinetic mass transfer contribution of this carbon molecular sieve adsorbent is calculated. Besides, differential adsorption enthalpies of several gases and light hydrocarbons were determined from the variation of retention volume with temperature. The data indicate close adsorption behaviors on the Carbobond porous layer adsorbent and on the carbon molecular sieve Carboxen support used to prepare the packed columns. Moreover, taking into account the in situ operating conditions of the experiment, a study of two columns with different porous layer thicknesses allowed one to optimize the separation of the target components and to select the column parameters compatible with the instrument constraints. Comparison with columns of similar selectivity shows that these capillary columns are the first ones able to perform the same work as the packed and micro-packed columns dedicated to the separation of this range of compounds in GC space exploration.

  10. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    that thraustochytrids have the capability to utilize a wide range of organic nitrogen and carbon compounds for their nutrition. However, the capability of these protists to degrade hydrocarbons has not been examined so far. Hydrocarbons occur in seawater either... chromatography. (1) Gravimetry: Tarballs were extracted from experimental flasks with 10 ml of carbon tetrachloride, the extract transferred to pre- weighed Petri dish and the solvent allowed to RAIKAR et al.: THRAUSTOCHYTRID PROTISTS DEGRADE HYDROCARBONS...

  11. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Højgård, A.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene


    of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all......A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling...... system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control...

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Schwartz


    Full Text Available The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soil, EPA method 418.1, is usually based on extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 and FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted solvent. This method is widely used for initial site investigation, due to the relative low price per sample. It is known that the extraction efficiency varies depending on the extracting solvent and other sample properties. This study’s main goal was to evaluate reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for TPH assessment, as compared with three commercial certified laboratories using traditional methods. Large variations were found between the results of the three commercial laboratories, both internally (average deviation up to 20%, and between laboratories (average deviation up to 103%. Reflectance spectroscopy method was found be as good as the commercial laboratories in terms of accuracy and could be a viable field-screening tool that is rapid, environmental friendly, and cost effective.

  13. Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Well V-7 Wetzel County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Boyer, J.P.; Snyder, M.J.


    This program was initiated in September 1976, with the objective and scope of determining the relationships between the shale characteristics, hydrocarbon gas contents, and well location, and thereby provide a sound basis for (1) assessing the productive capacity of the Eastern Devonian Gas Shale deposits, and (2) guiding research, development and demonstration projects to enhance the recovery of natural gas from the shale deposits. Included in the scope of the program are a number of elemental tasks as a part of the Resource Inventory and Shale Characterization subprojects of DOE's Eastern Gas Shales Project designed to provide large quantities of support data for current and possibly future needs of the Project.

  14. Numerical heat transfer analysis of transcritical hydrocarbon fuel flow in a tube partially filled with porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yuguang


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon fuel has been widely used in air-breathing scramjets and liquid rocket engines as coolant and propellant. However, possible heat transfer deterioration and threats from local high heat flux area in scramjet make heat transfer enhancement essential. In this work, 2-D steady numerical simulation was carried out to study different schemes of heat transfer enhancement based on a partially filled porous media in a tube. Both boundary and central layouts were analyzed and effects of gradient porous media were also compared. The results show that heat transfer in the transcritical area is enhanced at least 3 times with the current configuration compared to the clear tube. Besides, the proper use of gradient porous media also enhances the heat transfer compared to homogenous porous media, which could help to avoid possible over-temperature in the thermal protection.

  15. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  16. A headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguinaga, N.; Campillo, N.; Vinas, P.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [University of Murcia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Murcia (Spain)


    A sensitive and solvent-free method for the determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene, with up to four aromatic rings, in milk samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection has been developed. A polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber was chosen and used at 75 C for 60 min. Detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 5 ng L{sup -1} were attained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound and the milk sample under analysis. The proposed method was applied to ten different milk samples and the presence of six of the analytes studied in a skimmed milk with vegetal fiber sample was confirmed. The reliability of the procedure was verified by analyzing two different certified reference materials and by recovery studies. (orig.)

  17. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.


    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  18. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk


    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  19. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  20. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  1. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns; Analisis de Hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos. I. Determinacion por cromatografia de gases con columnas capilares de vidrio de silice fundida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. M.; Gonzalez, D.


    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs.

  2. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Microorganisms play diverse roles in biotechnology; one of such roles is ... hydrocarbon polluted sites using vapour phase transfer technique with ... The purified fungal isolates were identified based on .... Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase systems which incorporate molecular .... substrate specificity on marine bacteria.

  3. Characterizing Methane Emissions at Local Scales with a 20 Year Total Hydrocarbon Time Series, Imaging Spectrometry, and Web Facilitated Analysis (United States)

    Bradley, Eliza Swan

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas for which uncertainty in local emission strengths necessitates improved source characterizations. Although CH4 plume mapping did not motivate the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design and municipal air quality monitoring stations were not intended for studying marine geological seepage, these assets have capabilities that can make them viable for studying concentrated (high flux, highly heterogeneous) CH4 sources, such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990 to 2008 from an air pollution station located near COP, were analyzed and showed geologic CH4 emissions as the dominant local source. A band ratio approach was developed and applied to high glint AVIRIS data over COP, resulting in local-scale mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. A Cluster-Tuned Matched Filter (CTMF) technique was applied to Gulf of Mexico AVIRIS data to detect CH4 venting from offshore platforms. Review of 744 platform-centered CTMF subsets was facilitated through a flexible PHP-based web portal. This dissertation demonstrates the value of investigating municipal air quality data and imaging spectrometry for gathering insight into concentrated methane source emissions and highlights how flexible web-based solutions can help facilitate remote sensing research.

  4. GC-PPC-SAFT equation of state for VLE and LLE of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds. Sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Binh; De Hemptinne, Jean-Charles; Creton, Benoit


    Group-contribution polar versions of SAFT equations of state are very useful for predictive calculations of mixtures containing diverse polar molecules. In this work, we have evaluated the predictive performance of one such model, the so-called polar perturbed-chain (PPC) SAFT model for phase-equ...... properties. In addition, the sensitivity of the infinite-dilution activity coefficient in water to the molecular size parameters was extremely high. This suggests that a small change in these parameters might improve the results significantly. © 2013 American Chemical Society.......Group-contribution polar versions of SAFT equations of state are very useful for predictive calculations of mixtures containing diverse polar molecules. In this work, we have evaluated the predictive performance of one such model, the so-called polar perturbed-chain (PPC) SAFT model for phase......-equilibrium properties of 290 hydrocarbons and monofunctional oxygenated compounds. Emphasis has been given on carrying out an extensive evaluation considering diverse types of phase behavior (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria) and properties/conditions (Henry's law constant for H2, N2, and CH4; infinite...

  5. Fluorescence spectrophotometer analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples based on solid phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer. (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Bhagat, Bhagyashree; Wate, Satish R; Bodhe, Ghanshyam L; Sellergren, Borje; Anjaneyulu, Yerramilli


    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized using a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standard as a template, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, and acetonitrile as a porogen. This polymer was used as a solid phase adsorbent for the quantitative enrichment of PAHs in coastal sediments, atmospheric particulates, and industrial effluents. The MIP selective adsorption capacity for PAHs started reducing when the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) was more than 800 mg L(-1) in the targeted environmental samples. The adsorption stability of the MIP was tested by the consecutive contact of environmental samples, and it was shown that the performance of the MIP did not vary after 10 enrichments and desorption cycles. Recoveries of eight PAH compounds, extracted from 10 g of coastal sediments and 1 L of industrial effluent spiked with 10 microL of standard PAHs, showed recoveries between 85 and 96%. The fluorescence spectrophotometer limit of detection of PAHs varied from 10 to 30 etag L(-1) in industrial effluent and from 0.1 to 2.9 etag kg(-1) in solid samples (coastal sediment and atmospheric particulates), and this indicates that the environmental analytical method is significantly sensitive, when compared with other commonly used methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  6. Hydrocarbon toxicity: A review. (United States)

    Tormoehlen, L M; Tekulve, K J; Nañagas, K A


    Clinical effects of hydrocarbon exposure have been reported since 1897. These substances are ubiquitous, and their exposures are common. The specific hydrocarbon and route of exposure will determine the clinical effect, and an understanding of this is helpful in the care of the hydrocarbon-exposed patient. To complete a comprehensive review of the literature on hydrocarbon toxicity and summarize the findings. Relevant literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed/OVID) and Cochrane Library databases (inclusive of years 1975-2013), as well as from multiple toxicology textbooks. Bibliographies of the identified articles were also reviewed. Search terms included combinations of the following: hydrocarbons, inhalants, encephalopathy, coma, cognitive deficits, inhalant abuse, huffing, sudden sniffing death, toluene, renal tubular acidosis, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, dermatitis, and aspiration pneumonitis. All pertinent clinical trials, observational studies, and case reports relevant to hydrocarbon exposure and published in English were reviewed. Chronic, occupational hydrocarbon toxicity was not included. Exposure to hydrocarbons occurs through one of the following routes: inhalation, ingestion with or without aspiration, or dermal exposure. Inhalational abuse is associated with central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and arrhythmia. The exact mechanism of the CNS depression is unknown, but experimental evidence suggests effects on NMDA, dopamine, and GABA receptors. Chronic toluene inhalation causes a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with hypokalemia. Halogenated hydrocarbon abuse can cause a fatal malignant arrhythmia, termed "sudden sniffing death". Individuals who regularly abuse hydrocarbons are more likely to be polysubstance users, exhibit criminal or violent behavior, and develop memory and other cognitive deficits. Heavy, long-term use results in cerebellar dysfunction, encephalopathy, weakness, and dementia

  7. Use of Substrate-Induced Gene Expression in Metagenomic Analysis of an Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil. (United States)

    Meier, Matthew J; Paterson, E Suzanne; Lambert, Iain B


    Metagenomics allows the study of genes related to xenobiotic degradation in a culture-independent manner, but many of these studies are limited by the lack of genomic context for metagenomic sequences. This study combined a phenotypic screen known as substrate-induced gene expression (SIGEX) with whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing. SIGEX is a high-throughput promoter-trap method that relies on transcriptional activation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene in response to an inducing compound and subsequent fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate individual inducible clones from a metagenomic DNA library. We describe a SIGEX procedure with improved library construction from fragmented metagenomic DNA and improved flow cytometry sorting procedures. We used SIGEX to interrogate an aromatic hydrocarbon (AH)-contaminated soil metagenome. The recovered clones contained sequences with various degrees of similarity to genes (or partial genes) involved in aromatic metabolism, for example, nahG (salicylate oxygenase) family genes and their respective upstream nahR regulators. To obtain a broader context for the recovered fragments, clones were mapped to contigs derived from de novo assembly of shotgun-sequenced metagenomic DNA which, in most cases, contained complete operons involved in aromatic metabolism, providing greater insight into the origin of the metagenomic fragments. A comparable set of contigs was generated using a significantly less computationally intensive procedure in which assembly of shotgun-sequenced metagenomic DNA was directed by the SIGEX-recovered sequences. This methodology may have broad applicability in identifying biologically relevant subsets of metagenomes (including both novel and known sequences) that can be targeted computationally by in silico assembly and prediction tools. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Analysis of pure tar substances (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the gas stream using ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). (United States)

    Weide, Tobias; Guschin, Viktor; Becker, Wolfgang; Koelle, Sabine; Maier, Simon; Seidelt, Stephan


    The analysis of tar, mostly characterized as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), describes a topic that has been researched for years. An online analysis of tar in the gas stream in particular is needed to characterize the tar conversion or formation in the biomass gasification process. The online analysis in the gas is carried out with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy (190-720 nm). This online analysis is performed with a measuring cell developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology (ICT). To this day, online tar measurements using UV-Vis spectroscopy have not been carried out in detail. Therefore, PAHs are analyzed as follows. The measurements are split into different steps. The first step to prove the online method is to vaporize single tar substances. These experiments show that a qualitative analysis of PAHs in the gas stream with the used measurement setup is possible. Furthermore, it is shown that the method provides very exact results, so that a differentiation of various PAHs is possible. The next step is to vaporize a PAH mixture. This step consists of vaporizing five pure substances almost simultaneously. The interpretation of the resulting data is made using a chemometric interpretation method, the multivariate curve resolution (MCR). The verification of the calculated results is the main aim of this experiment. It has been shown that the tar mixture can be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively (in arbitrary units) in detail using the MCR. Finally it is the main goal of this paper to show the first steps in the applicability of the UV-Vis spectroscopy and the measurement setup on online tar analysis in view of characterizing the biomass gasification process. Due to that, the gasification plant (at the laboratory scale), developed and constructed by the Fraunhofer ICT, has been used to vaporize these substances. Using this gasification plant for the experiments enables the usage of the measurement setup also for the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.


    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  10. In-injection port thermal desorption and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosol samples. (United States)

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Yu, Jian Zhen


    The traditional approach for analysis of aerosol organics is to extract aerosol materials collected on filter substrates with organic solvents followed by solvent evaporation and analytical separation and detection. This approach has the weaknesses of being labor intensive and being prone to contamination from the extracting solvents. We describe here an alternative approach for the analysis of aerosol alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that obviates the use of solvents. In our approach, small strips of aerosol-laden filter materials are packed into a GC split/splitless injector liner. Alkanes and PAHs on the filter are thermally desorbed in the injection port and focused onto the head of a GC column for subsequent separation and detection. No instrument modification is necessary to accommodate the introduction of the aerosol organics into the GC-MS system. Comparison studies were carried out on a set of 16 ambient aerosol samples using our in-injection port thermal desorption (TD) method and the traditional solvent extraction method. Reasonably good agreement of individual alkanes and PAHs by the two methods was demonstrated for the ambient samples. The in-injection port thermal desorption method requires much less filter material for detecting the same air concentrations of alkanes and PAHs.

  11. Using gold nanoparticles to improve the recovery and the limits of detection for the analysis of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine samples. (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Wilson, Walter B; Campiglia, Andres D


    We present a novel approach to improve the analytical figures of merit of solid-phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC) for the analysis of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine samples. The novel alternative substitutes the evaporation step that is currently used in SPE-HPLC methodology with a pre-concentration procedure that extracts metabolites with gold nanoparticles. The analytical potential of the new approach is evaluated with the following six metabolites: 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 6-hydroxychrysene, 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 4-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene. We demonstrate that the substitution of the evaporation step with the gold nanoparticles procedure improves the overall recoveries, the relative standard deviations of the average recoveries and the limits of detection of SPE-HPLC analysis. The overall recoveries of the studied metabolites varied from 59.7 +/- 3.6% (2-hydroxyfluorene) to 92.3 +/- 2.5% (6-hydroxychrysene). The relative standard deviations of the average recoveries were lower than 6%. The limits of detection were at the parts-per-trillion levels and varied from approximately 2 pg mL(-1) (6-hydroxychrysene) to approximately 18 pg mL(-1) (2-hydroxyfluorene).

  12. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs. PMID:26265155

  13. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils. (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L


    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Crosslinked structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids as stationary phases for the analysis of hydrocarbons in kerosene and diesel fuels by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Park, Rodney A; Anderson, Jared L


    Structurally-tuned ionic liquids (ILs) have been previously applied as the second dimension column in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and have demonstrated high selectivity in the separation of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons from other aliphatic hydrocarbons. However, the maximum operating temperatures of these stationary phases limit the separation of analytes with high boiling points. In order to address this issue, a series of polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based stationary phases were prepared in this study using imidazolium-based IL monomers via in-column free radical polymerization. The IL monomers were functionalized with long alkyl chain substituents to provide the needed selectivity for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Columns were prepared with different film thicknesses to identify the best performing stationary phase for the separation of kerosene. The bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([NTf2](-))-based PIL stationary phase with larger film thickness (0.28μm) exhibited higher selectivity for aliphatic hydrocarbons and showed a maximum allowable operating temperature of 300°C. PIL-based stationary phases containing varied amount of IL-based crosslinker were prepared to study the effect of the crosslinker on the selectivity and thermal stability of the resulting stationary phase. The optimal resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was achieved when 50% (w/w) of crosslinker was incorporated into the PIL-based stationary phase. The resulting stationary phase exhibited good selectivity for different groups of aliphatic hydrocarbons even after being conditioned at 325°C. Finally, the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase was compared with SUPELCOWAX 10 and DB-17 columns for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuel. Better resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was obtained when employing the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase as the second dimension column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Offline Solid-phase Extraction Large-volume Injection-Gas chromatography for the Analysis of Mineral Oil-saturated Hydrocarbons in Commercial Vegetable Oils. (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Huang, Hua; Wu, Yanwen; Li, Bingning; Ouyang, Jie


    An offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) approach combined with a large-volume injection (LVI)-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (LVI-GC-FID) is improved for routine analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in vegetable oils. The key procedure of the method consists in using offline SPE columns for MOSH purification. The SPE column packed with 1% Ag-activated silica gel was used to separate MOSH from triglycerides and olefins in variety of vegetable oils. The eluent of MOSH fraction was only 3 mL and the concentration step was quick with little evaporation loss. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 2.5 mg/kg and the linearity ranged from 2 to 300 mg/kg. The accuracy was assessed by measuring the recoveries from spiked oil samples and was higher than 90%. Twenty-seven commercial vegetable oils were analyzed, and different levels of MOSH contamination were detected with the highest being 259.4 mg/kg. The results suggested that it is necessary to routinely detect mineral oil contamination in vegetable oils for food safety.

  16. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF and potential impact fraction (PIF of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  17. Analysis of defence systems and a conjugative IncP-1 plasmid in the marine polyaromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacterium Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME. (United States)

    Yakimov, Michail M; Crisafi, Francesca; Messina, Enzo; Smedile, Francesco; Lopatina, Anna; Denaro, Renata; Pieper, Dietmar H; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura


    Marine prokaryotes have evolved a broad repertoire of defence systems to protect their genomes from lateral gene transfer including innate or acquired immune systems and infection-induced programmed cell suicide and dormancy. Here we report on the analysis of multiple defence systems present in the genome of the strain Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME isolated from petroleum deposits of the tanker 'Amoco Milford Haven'. Cycloclasticus are ubiquitous bacteria globally important in polyaromatic hydrocarbons degradation in marine environments. Two 'defence islands' were identified in 78-ME genome: the first harbouring CRISPR-Cas with toxin-antitoxin system, while the second was composed by an array of genes for toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification proteins. Among all identified spacers of CRISPR-Cas system only seven spacers match sequences of phages and plasmids. Furthermore, a conjugative plasmid p7ME01, which belongs to a new IncP-1θ ancestral archetype without any accessory mobile elements was found in 78-ME. Our results provide the context to the co-occurrence of diverse defence mechanisms in the genome of Cycloclasticus sp. 78-ME, which protect the genome of this highly specialized PAH-degrader. This study contributes to the further understanding of complex networks established in petroleum-based microbial communities. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Distribution, source analysis, and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the typical topsoil of the Issyk-Kul Lake Basin. (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Ma, Long; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Li, Yaoming


    The concentration, distribution, compositional characteristics, and pollution sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoil of Issyk-Kul Lake Basin were studied, and their ecological risks were evaluated in this paper. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs was 68.58-475.95 ng g-1, with an average of 134.45 ng g-1. Four-ring PAHs accounted for 43.2% of the total PAHs, two- and three-ring PAHs accounted for 39.4%, and five- and six-ring PAHs accounted for 15.8%. The total concentration of the seven carcinogenic PAHs was 7.66-76.04 ng g-1, with an average of 30.97 ng g-1. An analysis of the PAH sources through diagnostic ratio analysis and principal component analysis was carried out. The results showed that the regional soil PAHs were mainly derived from coal, wood, and grass combustion, while traffic and regional industry also had small contributions to the PAHs. The pollution-free samples accounted for 75% and the slightly polluted samples accounted for 25% based on the total concentration of the 16 PAHs. An ecological risk assessment showed that 26.7% of Ac and 3.3% of Pyr and DahA might occasionally produce ecological risks. The toxicity was calculated on the basis of benzo[a]pyrene, and the toxicity equivalent was between 2.48 and 13.78 ng g-1 with an average of 6.23 ng g-1, which currently does not pose any health risk to human life.

  19. Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Based Polymer Etch (United States)

    Lane, Barton; Ventzek, Peter; Matsukuma, Masaaki; Suzuki, Ayuta; Koshiishi, Akira


    Dry etch of hydrocarbon based polymers is important for semiconductor device manufacturing. The etch mechanisms for oxygen rich plasma etch of hydrocarbon based polymers has been studied but the mechanism for lean chemistries has received little attention. We report on an experimental and analytic study of the mechanism for etching of a hydrocarbon based polymer using an Ar/O2 chemistry in a single frequency 13.56 MHz test bed. The experimental study employs an analysis of transients from sequential oxidation and Ar sputtering steps using OES and surface analytics to constrain conceptual models for the etch mechanism. The conceptual model is consistent with observations from MD studies and surface analysis performed by Vegh et al. and Oehrlein et al. and other similar studies. Parameters of the model are fit using published data and the experimentally observed time scales.

  20. Information and analysis document. Hydrocarbons of the Caspian sea: actors and stakes; Dossier d'information et d'analyse. Les hydrocarbures de mer Caspienne: acteurs et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.


    The Caspian sea basin constitutes an important petroleum reserve from which the exploration and development just begin. It should provide near 5 % of the world petroleum offer in 2015. To evaluate the stakes of the situation, the author presents an analysis of the Caspian sea reserves in three main parts: the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and the energy geo-politics, the realizations and the projects of the transport infrastructures, the international participations in the main petroleum and gaseous contracts. (A.L.B.)

  1. Investigation Status of Heat Exchange while Boiling Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Obukhov


    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of heat exchange investigations while boiling hydrocarbon fuel. The obtained data are within the limits of the S.S. Kutateladze dependence proposed in 1939. Heat exchange at non-stationary heat release has not been investigated. The data for hydrocarbon fuel with respect to critical density of heat flow are not available even for stationary conditions.

  2. Artificial neural network analysis of hydrocarbon profiles for the ageing of Lucilia sericata for post mortem interval estimation. (United States)

    Butcher, J B; Moore, H E; Day, C R; Adam, C D; Drijfhout, F P


    In analytical chemistry large datasets are collected using a variety of instruments for multiple tasks, where manual analysis can be time-consuming. Ideally, it is desirable to automate this process while obtaining an acceptable level of accuracy, two aims that artificial neural networks (ANNs) can fulfil. ANNs possess the ability to classify novel data based on their knowledge of the domain to which they have been exposed. ANNs can also analyse non-linear data, tolerate noise within data and are capable of reducing time taken to classify large amounts of novel data once trained, making them well-suited to the field of analytical chemistry where large datasets are present (such as that collected from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)). In this study, the use of ANNs for the autonomous analysis of GC-MS profiles of Lucilia sericata larvae is investigated, where ANNs are required to estimate the age of the larvae to aid in the estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI). Two ANN analysis approaches are presented, where the ANN correctly classified the data with accuracy scores of 80.8% and 87.7% and Cohen's Kappa coefficients of 0.78 and 0.86. Inspection of these results shows the ANN to confuse two consecutive days which are of the same life stage and as a result are very similar in their chemical profile, which can be expected. The grouping of these two days into one class further improved results where accuracy scores 89% and 97.5% were obtained for the two analysis approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heart-cutting two-dimensional gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in complex groundwater and gas-phase samples. (United States)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Buscheck, Timothy E; Hunkeler, Daniel


    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is increasingly used to evaluate the origin and fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. However, as samples often contain a complex mixture of compounds and the method requires a full chromatographic separation, it can be challenging to obtain accurate and precise isotope values. In this study, in order to develop a method to analyze carbon isotopes in benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in complex environmental samples, a two-dimensional heart-cutting gas chromatograph (GC) was hyphenated to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The focus was placed on benzene and toluene, which are the main compounds of concern in contaminated sites. A full separation for BTEX was successfully achieved using a 60m polar column in the first dimension and a 30m non-polar column in the second dimension. Accuracy and precision of carbon isotope measurements of standards were not impacted by the new setup compared to classic one-dimensional (1D) GC-C-IRMS. For benzene and toluene, precision remained very good (≤0.2‰) for concentrations comprised between 5 and 20μg/L. A high matrix load did not influence the precision and accuracy of isotope measurements. The method was tested on several samples from two different field sites. For all samples tested, full chromatographic baseline resolution was achieved for benzene and toluene. Spatial variability of isotopes values linked to biodegradation was evidenced for one field site. This new 2D-GC-C-IRMS method will broaden the spectrum of samples suitable for isotope analysis and will be therefore able to give new insights into attenuation processes of BTEX in contaminated sites or source fingerprinting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial association analysis between hydrocarbon fields and sedimentary residual magnetic anomalies using Weights of Evidence: An example from the Triassic Province of Algeria (United States)

    Allek, Karim; Boubaya, Djamel; Bouguern, Abderrahmane; Hamoudi, Mohamed


    The presence of near-surface magnetic anomalies over oil and gas accumulations and their contribution to exploration remain somewhat controversial despite encouraging results and an improved understanding of genetic links between hydrocarbon seepage-induced alterations and near-surface magnetic minerals. This controversy is likely to remain since the cause of shallow-sourced sedimentary magnetic anomalies may well be microseepage related, but could also result from other sources such as cultural features and detrital magnetite. The definite way of discriminating between them remains a challenge. In this paper we examine means to deal with this particular purpose using a Bayesian technique known as 'Weights-of-Evidence'. The technique is implemented in GIS to explore spatial associations between known hydrocarbon fields within the central Triassic province of Algeria and sedimentary residual magnetic anomalies. We use the results to show possible application of the method to the recognition of some characteristics (amplitude and width) of anomalies assumed to be induced by hydrocarbon microseepages. Our results reveal strong spatial association with certain typical class of anomalies, confirming therefore hypothesis that hydrocarbon microseepages may result in detectable magnetic anomalies. It is possible to use the anomalies occurring outside the known gas and oil fields to make informed decisions in the selection of new targets for more detailed hydrocarbon exploration.

  5. Analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and supersonic aircraft with hydrogen and hydrocarbon combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starik, A.M.; Lebedev, A.B.; Titova, N.S. [Central Inst. of Aviation Motors, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    On the basic of quasi one dimensional mixing model the numerical analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and hypersonic aircraft is presented. It was found that species HNO, HNO{sub 3}, HNO{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ClO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2} could be formed as a result of nonequilibrium processes in the plume and their concentrations can essentially exceed both background values in free stream of atmosphere and their values at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 10 refs.

  6. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.


    the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils...... concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    e trapping configurations of the faults mbedding shale were presumed to be the creation of multiple reservoir of hydrocarbon bearing formations one horizon to the other and. (Figure 2). The vertical f the major and subsidiary growth t the amount of throw of both major s are small and varied from line to line survey but ...

  8. Hydrocarbon type analysis by thin-layer chromatography with flame-ionization detection: vacuum gas oils, heavy feeds, and hydroprocessed products. (United States)

    Barman, Bhajendra N


    Thin-layer chromatography with flame-ionization detection (TLC-FID) provides quantitative hydrocarbon type data as well as distribution of aromatics by ring number. This method has been applied to obtain amounts of saturates, aromatics, and polars in heavy oil distillates such as light vacuum gas oils and heavy vacuum gas oils derived from different crude sources. TLC-FID chromatograms and resultant quantitative hydrocarbon type data show that these distillates vary markedly in aromatic contents and aromatic ring types. Similar observations are made with several fluid catalytic cracking feeds. Effects of process parameters such as operating pressure and temperature on hydroconversion of aromatics and polars from a heavy oil are assessed by TLC-FID. It has been demonstrated that there is a preferential reduction of higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polars with an increase of both hydrogen partial pressure and reactor temperature.

  9. Volatile Hydrocarbon Analysis in Blood by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction: The Interpretation of VHC Patterns in Fire-Related Incidents. (United States)

    Waters, Brian; Hara, Kenji; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Takayama, Mio; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Matsusue, Aya; Kubo, Shin-Ichi


    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was used to quantitate the concentration of volatile hydrocarbons from the blood of cadavers by cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 24 compounds including aromatic and aliphatic volatile hydrocarbons were analyzed by this method. The analytes in the headspace of 0.1 g of blood mixed with 1.0 mL of distilled water plus 1 µL of an internal standard solution were adsorbed onto a 100-µm polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 0°C for 15 min, and measured using a GC-MS full scan method. The limit of quantitation for the analytes ranged from 6.8 to 10 ng per 1 g of blood. This method was applied to actual autopsy cases to quantitate the level of volatile hydrocarbons (VHCs) in the blood of cadavers who died in fire-related incidents. The patterns of the VHCs revealed the presence or absence of accelerants. Petroleum-based fuels such as gasoline and kerosene were differentiated. The detection of C8-C13 aliphatic hydrocarbons indicated the presence of kerosene; the detection of C3 alkylbenzenes in the absence of C8-C13 aliphatic hydrocarbons was indicative of gasoline; and elevated levels of styrene or benzene in the absence of C3/C4 alkylbenzenes and aliphatic hydrocarbons indicated a normal construction fire. This sensitive HS-SPME method could help aid the investigation of fire-related deaths by providing a simple pattern to use for the interpretation of VHCs in human blood. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  10. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O.


    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (Kb), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated Kb and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81 × 10- 7 M for anthracene and 3.48 × 10- 8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a

  11. X-ray, Hirshfeld surface analysis, spectroscopic and DFT studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Fluoranthene and acenaphthene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śmiszek-Lindert Wioleta


    Full Text Available The X-ray structure, theoretical calculation, Hirshfeld surfaces analysis, IR and Raman spectra of fluoranthene and acenaphthene were reported. Acenaphthene crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system and space group P21ma, with crystal parameters a = 7.2053 (9 Å, b = 13.9800 (15 Å, c = 8.2638 (8 Å, Z = 4 and V = 832.41 (16 Å3. In turn, the grown crystals of fluoranthene are in monoclinic system with space group P21/n. The unit cell parameters are a = 18.3490 (2 Å, b = 6.2273 (5 Å, c = 19.8610 (2 Å, β = 109.787 (13°, Z = 8 and unit cell volume is 2135.50 (4 Å3. Theoretical calculations of the title compounds isolated molecule have been carried out using DFT at the B3LYP level. The intermolecular interactions in the crystal structure, for both the title PAHs, were analyzed using Hirshfeld surfaces computational method.

  12. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence analysis revealed the presence of distinct known hydrocarbon degrading bacteria like Acinetobacter radioresistens strain Philippines-11, Alcaligenes sp. PAH- 43, Bacillus sp. UR2, Bacillus subtilis strain B7, Bacterium NLAE-zl-H221, Bacterium NLAE-zl-H156, Bacterium NLAE-zl-H231, Bacterium NLAE-zl-H84, ...

  13. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a suite of cytochrome P450 enzymes implicated in insect hydrocarbon degradation in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. (United States)

    Pedrini, Nicolás; Zhang, Shizhu; Juárez, M Patricia; Keyhani, Nemat O


    The insect epicuticle or waxy layer comprises a heterogeneous mixture of lipids that include abundant levels of long-chain alkanes, alkenes, wax esters and fatty acids. This structure represents the first barrier against microbial attack and for broad-host-range insect pathogens, such as Beauveria bassiana, it is the initial interface mediating the host-pathogen interaction, since these organisms do not require any specialized mode of entry and infect target hosts via the cuticle. B. bassiana is able to grow on straight chain alkanes up to n-C(33) as a sole source of carbon and energy. The cDNA and genomic sequences, including putative regulatory elements, for eight cytochrome P450 enzymes, postulated to be involved in alkane and insect epicuticle degradation, were isolated and characterized. Expression studies using a range of alkanes as well as an insect-derived epicuticular extract from the blood-sucking bug Triatomas infestans revealed a differential expression pattern for the P450 genes examined, and suggest that B. bassiana contains a series of hydrocarbon-assimilating enzymes with overlapping specificity in order to target the surface lipids of insect hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of the translated ORFs of the sequences revealed that the enzyme which displayed the highest levels of induction on both alkanes and the insect epicuticular extract represents the founding member of a new cytochrome P450 family, with three of the other sequences assigned as the first members of new P450 subfamilies. The remaining four proteins clustered with known P450 families whose members include alkane monooxygenases.

  14. Source apportionment of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Hong Kong: application of a principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model. (United States)

    Guo, H; Wang, T; Louie, P K K


    Receptor-oriented source apportionment models are often used to identify sources of ambient air pollutants and to estimate source contributions to air pollutant concentrations. In this study, a PCA/APCS model was applied to the data on non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) measured from January to December 2001 at two sampling sites: Tsuen Wan (TW) and Central & Western (CW) Toxic Air Pollutants Monitoring Stations in Hong Kong. This multivariate method enables the identification of major air pollution sources along with the quantitative apportionment of each source to pollutant species. The PCA analysis identified four major pollution sources at TW site and five major sources at CW site. The extracted pollution sources included vehicular internal engine combustion with unburned fuel emissions, use of solvent particularly paints, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or natural gas leakage, and industrial, commercial and domestic sources such as solvents, decoration, fuel combustion, chemical factories and power plants. The results of APCS receptor model indicated that 39% and 48% of the total NMHCs mass concentrations measured at CW and TW were originated from vehicle emissions, respectively. 32% and 36.4% of the total NMHCs were emitted from the use of solvent and 11% and 19.4% were apportioned to the LPG or natural gas leakage, respectively. 5.2% and 9% of the total NMHCs mass concentrations were attributed to other industrial, commercial and domestic sources, respectively. It was also found that vehicle emissions and LPG or natural gas leakage were the main sources of C(3)-C(5) alkanes and C(3)-C(5) alkenes while aromatics were predominantly released from paints. Comparison of source contributions to ambient NMHCs at the two sites indicated that the contribution of LPG or natural gas at CW site was almost twice that at TW site. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.8) between the measured and predicted values suggested that the PCA/APCS model was applicable for estimation

  15. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J


    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cuticular hydrocarbons and soldier defense secretions of Reticulitermes in southern California: a critical analysis of the taxonomy of the genus in North America (United States)

    Lori J. Nelson; Laurence G. Cool; Christopher W. Solek; Michael I. Haverty


    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) and soldier defense secretions (SDS) were characterized for collections of Reticulitermes from six counties (Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Santa Barbara) in southern California. Collection sites included the type locality for R. hesperus, Lake Arrowhead (formerly known as Little Bear Lake) in the San...

  17. Shpol'skii spectroscopy as a tool in environmental analysis for amino- and nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A critical evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozin, I.S.; Gooijer, C.; Velthorst, N.H.


    Aiming at the development of an alternative isomer-specific spectral method favourable for identification of mutagenic amino- and nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental samples, the possibility to utilize Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high-resolution cryogenic

  18. Analysis of TPH and Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Fractions in Environmental Interest Matrices; Analisis del TPH y las Fracciones de Hidrocarburos Alifaticos y Aromaticos en Matrices de Interes Medioambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindado, O.; Perez, R. M.; Garcia, S.


    Analytical methods to analyze TPH and several aliphatic and aromatic fractions present in soil and groundwater samples contaminated by hydrocarbons are showed. As a part of BIOXISOIL project, analyzing these parameters is fundamental and indispensable to know the initial contamination level, design an adequate method to decontaminate it and eventually assess decontamination accomplished. Analysis of both matrices involve different extraction stages such as microwave radiation, clean up steps based on solid phase extraction and finally a chromatograph analysis with flame ion detector. Analytical procedures have showed satisfactory analytical quality parameters and have been validated against several certified reference materials. (Author)

  19. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbon data from a monitoring station affected by oil and gas development in the Eagle Ford shale, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar W. Schade


    Full Text Available Abstract Within the last decade, unconventional oil and gas exploration in the US has become a new source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. Although a geographically dispersed source, field measurements in and downwind of a number of shale basins demonstrate the impact exploration activities have on ambient levels of hydrocarbons. Due to concerns related to ozone production, regulatory agencies are adding monitoring stations to better understand the potential influence of emissions from areas with increased oil and gas related activities. The Eagle Ford shale in south Texas is a rapidly developing shale play producing both oil and natural gas, providing 10% and 5% of US domestic oil and gas production, respectively, in 2013. We analyzed the first year of measurements from a newly established monitoring site at its central north edge. The data reveal median ethane mixing ratios—used as a marker for oil and gas exploration related emissions—at five times its typical clean air background. Ethane mixing ratios above ten times the background occurred regularly. Saturated hydrocarbons with likely origin in oil and gas exploration explain half of the data set’s variability. They dominate OH radical reactivity at levels both similar to other shale areas and similar to Houston’s ship channel area a decade ago. Air advecting slowly across the shale area from east-southeast and southwest directions shows the most elevated hydrocarbon concentrations, and evidence is presented linking elevated alkene abundances to flaring in the shale area. A case study is presented linking high emissions from an upwind facility to hydrocarbon plumes observed at the monitor.

  20. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang


    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator


    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  2. hydrocarbon mixtures: Phase strength analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Science Division, DMRL, Hyderabad, for offering cordial cooperation in recording the PXRD spectra of a large number of samples. (PBV) thanks Mr Asmamaw Molla,. Physics Department, DCTEHS, Debub University, Dilla,. Ethiopia, for extending cooperation. References. Beret S and Prausnitz J M 1975 AIChE J. 21 1123.

  3. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)


    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  4. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  5. Nestmate recognition in social insects and the role of hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; D'Ettorre, Patrizia


    A unique and critical analysis of the wealth of research conducted on the biology, biochemistry and chemical ecology of the rapidly growing field of insect cuticular hydrocarbons. Authored by leading experts in their respective fields, the twenty chapters show the complexity that has been...... discovered in the nature and role of hydrocarbons in entomology. Covers, in great depth, aspects of chemistry (structures, qualitative and quantitative analysis), biochemistry (biosynthesis, molecular biology, genetics, evolution), physiology, taxonomy, and ecology. Clearly presents to the reader the array...... of data, ideas, insights and historical disagreements that have been accumulated during the past half century. An emphasis is placed on the role of insect hydrocarbons in chemical communication, especially among the social insects. Includes the first review on the chemical synthesis of insect hydrocarbons...

  6. On the use of ionic liquid capillary columns for analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in low-boiling petrochemical products by one-dimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Krupčík, Ján; Gorovenko, Roman; Špánik, Ivan; Bočková, Ingrid; Sandra, Pat; Armstrong, Daniel W


    One-dimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional flow modulated gas chromatography with simultaneous flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection were applied for the identification and quantification of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) as well as of all C9-C11 aromatic hydrocarbons in the low-boiling petroleum products gasoline, reformate and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) samples. GC×GC experiments were performed on two reversed phase polarity column sets namely SLB-IL100 (25m×250μm i.d.×0.2μm df)+HP-5MS (5m×250μm i.d.×0.25μm df) and SLB-IL111 (30m×250μm i.d.×0.2μm df)+HP-5MS (5m×250μm i.d.×0.25μm df). The one-dimensional GC experiments were carried out on the same ionic liquid columns. The most powerful method is GC×GC on the SLB-111+HP-5MS column combination. Quantitative analysis of individual aromatic hydrocarbons (C6-C11) present in gasoline, reformate and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) samples was performed by GC×GC-FID using the internal normalization method. Mass spectra obtained by GC×GC-qMSD were used for identification of the aromatic hydrocarbons in these samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.


    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites.

  8. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.


    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.......S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic......, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j


    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  10. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire


    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  11. Risk analysis, product liability and criminal law when using ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerants; Risikoanalyse, Produktehaftpflicht und Strafrecht bei Ammoniak und Kohlenwasserstoffe als Kaeltemittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfer, M.; Seiler, H.


    This article examines the risks involved in the use of the environmentally friendly refrigerants such as ammonia and various hydrocarbons in heat pumps and refrigeration systems. The liabilities incurred by manufacturers and installers are discussed and legal questions are looked at. A quantitative method of assessing the risks involved during the operation of such systems and the safety measures to be taken during the construction, installation and operational phases is introduced. Exemplary assessments made on typical applications such as a heat pump installation in a single-family home and refrigeration systems in a supermarket or an ice rink are presented in figures and diagrams. Finally, questions of legal responsibility and liability are discussed. In particular, the situation regarding the legal liability of manufacturers, installers and operators of such installations are looked at in the light of current Swiss legislation and criminal law. Consequences that are to be taken in this respect are proposed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Scomber scombrus), suya beef and plantain (Musa paradiasca) sold and consumed in Amassoma town were screened for the presence of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concentration of chromium, lead and cadmium were also ...

  13. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  14. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  15. Approach to estimation of absorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in an automobile cabin by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats. (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshiaki


    The interior air of an automobile cabin has been demonstrated in our previous studies to be contaminated by high concentrations of a large variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from the interior materials. In the present study, the amounts of seven selected aliphatic hydrocarbons absorbed by the car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. Measured amounts of the substances were injected into a closed chamber system in which a rat had been placed, and the concentration changes in the chamber were examined. The toxicokinetics of the substances were evaluated based on concentration-time courses using a nonlinear compartment model. Their absorption amounts in humans at the levels of actual concentrations in the cabins without ventilation were extrapolated from the results found with the rats. The absorption amounts estimated for a driver during a 2 h drive were as follows: 6 microg/60 kg of human body weight for methylcyclopentane (interior concentration 23 microg/m(3) as median value in previous study), 5 microg for 2-methylpentane (36 microg/m(3)), 13 microg for n-hexane (65 microg/m(3)), 51 microg for n-heptane (150 microg/m(3)), 26 microg for 2,4-dimethylheptane (97 microg/m(3)), 17 microg for n-nonane (25 microg/m(3)) and 49 microg for n-decane (68 microg/m(3)). An inverse relationship was found between the exposure and absorption among the substances (e.g. between n-decane and 2,4-dimethylheptane). These findings suggest that not only the exposure concentrations but also the absorption amounts should be taken into account to evaluate the health effects of exposure to low concentrations of volatile compounds as environmental contaminants.

  16. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi. (United States)

    Weete, J. D.


    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  17. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.


    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  18. Separation of aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, N.F.; Yablochkina, M.N.; Shapiro, L.P.; Rogozkin, V.A.


    An optimal system of extraction has been developed making it possible to produce benzene, toluene and xylenes economically and with high efficiency.The raw material used for catalytic reforming consists of narrow-boiling-range gasoline fractiions at 62 to 85, 62 to 105 and 105 to 140/sup 0/C. Processing of the first fraction makes it possible to produce benzene; the second, benzene and toluene; and the third, toluene and xylenes. The addition of reforming extraction units has made it possible to produce aromatic hydrocarbons suitable for any specialized application. At the current time the output of benzene with extraction plants is about 60 percent of the total output, of toluene more than 80 percent and of xylene more than 50 percent. The key technological indicators are given for the processes of extraction with hydrous polyglycols. For new higher-capacity plants, in addition to extraction with tetraethylene glycol, the 'Ekstars' process has been developed for extraction with a hybrid solvent based on propylene carbonate. For eliminating the presence of unsaturated compounds, a process has been developed for the selective hydrogenation of reforming catalysis products. The process is carried out in an additional reactor included in the catalytic reforming system, at 160 to 250/sup 0/C with an aluminoplatinic catalyst in a combined steam and gas mixture flow at a pressure of 1.5 to 3.5 MPa. (JMT)

  19. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  20. Hydrocarbon distribution in the Irati shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, J.C.; Schmal, M.; Cardoso, J.N. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    This work reports a detailed characterization of the various hydrocarbon structures present in a sample of the Irati shale oil (Sao Mateus do Sul, Parana), obtained by the Petrosix Process, by means of a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (g.c.-m.s.), co-injection with authentic standards, and retention time data of model compounds. Hydrocarbon structures, the main constituents of the shale oil ({approximately} 38 wt%), include: linear, branched and isoprenoidal alkanes, linear and isoprenoidal alkenes, alkycyclopentanes and cyclohexanes, alkylcycloalkenes, hopanes, hopenes and steranes. Linear structures are dominant (43% of the total hydrocarbons), followed by isoprenoidal skeletons. Saturated compounds strongly predominate over their unsaturated counterparts. The use of several maturity parameters attested to the immaturity of the sediment. Data further suggested a predominant algal/microbial origin and a basic lacustrine depositional environment to the Irati shale, probably under a moderate oxidative condition, thus confirming previous conclusions obtained via analysis of the Irati bitumen and the shale rock. Additionally, the data confirmed the usual classification of this shale as containing Type-II kerogen. 34 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Salama, Farid


    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  3. Carbon nanotube-based benzyl polymethacrylate composite monolith as a solid phase extraction adsorbent and a stationary phase material for simultaneous extraction and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in water. (United States)

    Al-Rifai, Asma'a; Aqel, Ahmad; Wahibi, Lamya Al; ALOthman, Zeid A; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine


    A composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes incorporated into a benzyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate porous monolith was prepared, characterized and used as solid phase adsorbent and as stationary phase for simultaneous extraction and separation of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by nano-liquid chromatography analysis. The extraction and chromatographic parameters were optimized with regard to the extraction efficiency and the quality of chromatographic analytes separation. Under the optimized conditions, all PAHs were separated in 13 min with suitable resolution values (Rs = 1.74-3.98). Addition of a small amount of carbon nanotubes (0.1% with respect to monomers) to the polymerization mixture increased the efficiency for the separation column to over 41,700 plates m-1 for chrysene at flow rate of 0.5 μL min-1. The method showed a wide linear range (1-500 μg L-1 with R2 more than 0.9938), acceptable extraction repeatability (RSDs extraction cartridges) and satisfactory detection limits (0.02-0.22 μg L-1). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples. After a simple extraction procedure with preconcentration factor equal to 100, the average recovery values in ultra-pure, tap and sea water samples were found to be in the range 81.3-95.4% with %RSD less than 6.4. Again, the presence of carbon nanotubes (0.3% relatively to monomers) in native polymer enhanced the extraction performance for the solid phase adsorbent up to 78.4%. The application of the monoliths modified with CNTs in extraction and nano-scale liquid chromatography for analysis of environmental samples offered several advantages; it demonstrated an acceptable precision, low detection limits, good reproducibility, satisfying recoveries and wide dynamic linear ranges. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Internal standards for use in the comprehensive analysis of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Li, Adan; Imasaka, Totaro


    To decrease health-risks to humans, non-toxic compounds were evaluated for use as internal standards for calibrating data obtained by gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (GC-MPI-MS) using an ultraviolet femtosecond laser as the ionization source. The retention time in the mass chromatogram was calibrated using a retention index, in which a series of n-alkanes was employed as internal standards for evaluating the retention times for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To compensate for changes in signal intensity in MPI-MS, the dependence of signal intensity on the laser pulse energy was investigated for the dioxin-like compounds, in addition to five non-toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, that were used as internal standards. Based on their similar behavior,the non-toxic PCDD/PCDF, its 13C-isotope, and pentachlorobenzene behave similarly, we conclude that they can be used for calibrating the signal intensities in MPI-MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly sensitive copper fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction for online selective analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan


    A fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was developed with copper wire and copper tube, which was served as both the substrate and sorbent with high physical strength and good flexibility. Its morphology and surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment by replacing the sample loop of six-port injection valve, building the online SPME-HPLC system conveniently. Using ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model analytes, extraction conditions including sampling rate, extraction time, organic content and desorption time were investigated and optimized. The copper fiber-in-tube exhibits excellent extraction efficiency toward PAHs, with enrichment factors from 268 to 2497. The established online SPME-HPLC method provides good linearity (0.05-100μgL(-1)) and low detection limits (0.001-0.01μgL(-1)) for PAHs. It has been used to determine PAHs in water samples, with recoveries in the range of 86.2-115%. Repeatability on the same extraction tube is in the range of 0.6-3.6%, and repeatability among three tubes is in the range of 5.6-20.1%. Compared with phthalates, anilines and phenols, the copper fiber-in-tube possesses good extraction selectivity for PAHs. The extraction mechanism is probably related to hydrophobic interaction and π-electron-metal interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sampling, storage, and analysis of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Air Sampling Network glass flasks. (United States)

    Pollmann, Jan; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Tans, Pieter


    An analytical technique was developed to analyze light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), including ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isoprene, benzene and toluene from whole air samples collected in 2.5l-glass flasks used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (NOAA ESRL GMD, Boulder, CO, USA) Cooperative Air Sampling Network. This method relies on utilizing the remaining air in these flasks (which is at below-ambient pressure at this stage) after the completion of all routine greenhouse gas measurements from these samples. NMHC in sample aliquots extracted from the flasks were preconcentrated with a custom-made, cryogen-free inlet system and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). C2-C7 NMHC, depending on their ambient air mixing ratios, could be measured with accuracy and repeatability errors of generally storage (<10 pptv yr(-1)) of samples in these glass flasks. Results from flask NMHC analyses were compared to in-situ NMHC measurements at the Global Atmospheric Watch station in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. This 9-months side-by-side comparison showed good agreement between both methods. More than 94% of all data comparisons for C2-C5 alkanes, isoprene, benzene and toluene fell within the combined accuracy and precision objectives of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO-GAW) for NMHC measurements.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced in the combustion of fatty acid alkyl esters from different feedstocks: Quantification, statistical analysis and mechanisms of formation. (United States)

    Llamas, Alberto; Al-Lal, Ana-María; García-Martínez, María-Jesús; Ortega, Marcelo F; Llamas, Juan F; Lapuerta, Magín; Canoira, Laureano


    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Their emissions are mainly related with the combustion or pyrolysis of the organic matter, such as in fossil fuels combustion. It is important to characterize PAHs in the combustions of biofuels due to their increasing importance in the actual energetic setting. There is a lot of research focused in PAHs emission due to the combustion in diesel engines; but only few of them have analyzed the effect of raw material and type of alcohol used in the transesterification process. Different raw materials (i.e. animal fat, palm, rapeseed, linseed, peanut, coconut, and soybean oils) have been used for obtaining FAME and FAEE. A method for measuring PAHs generated during combustion in a bomb calorimeter has been developed. Combustion was made at different oxygen pressures and the samples were taken from the bomb after each combustion. Samples were extracted and the PAHs amounts formed during combustion were analyzed by GC-MS. This research shows the statistical relationships among the 16 PAHs of concern, biodiesel composition and oxygen pressure during combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization and validation of a method using UHPLC-fluorescence for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold-pressed vegetable oils. (United States)

    Silva, Simone Alves da; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva


    Among the different food categories, the oils and fats are important sources of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of organic chemical contaminants. The use of a validated method is essential to obtain reliable analytical results since the legislation establishes maximum limits in different foods. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate a method for the quantification of four PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene] in vegetable oils. The samples were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the validation parameters were evaluated according to the INMETRO Guidelines: linearity (r2 >0.99), selectivity (no matrix interference), limits of detection (0.08-0.30μgkg -1 ) and quantification (0.25-1.00μgkg -1 ), recovery (80.13-100.04%), repeatability and intermediate precision (oils evaluated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture (United States)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL


    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  10. Analysis of binary mixtures of aqueous aromatic hydrocarbons with low-phase-noise shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensors using multielectrode transducer designs. (United States)

    Bender, Florian; Mohler, Rachel E; Ricco, Antonio J; Josse, Fabien


    The present work investigates a compact sensor system that provides rapid, real-time, in situ measurements of the identities and concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons at parts-per-billion concentrations in water through the combined use of kinetic and thermodynamic response parameters. The system uses shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensors operating directly in the liquid phase. The 103 MHz SAW sensors are coated with thin sorbent polymer films to provide the appropriate limits of detection as well as partial selectivity for the analytes of interest, the BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), which are common indicators of fuel and oil accidental releases in groundwater. Particular emphasis is placed on benzene, a known carcinogen and the most challenging BTEX analyte with regard to both regulated levels and its solubility properties. To demonstrate the identification and quantification of individual compounds in multicomponent aqueous samples, responses to binary mixtures of benzene with toluene as well as ethylbenzene were characterized at concentrations below 1 ppm (1 mg/L). The use of both thermodynamic and kinetic (i.e., steady-state and transient) responses from a single polymer-coated SH-SAW sensor enabled identification and quantification of the two BTEX compounds in binary mixtures in aqueous solution. The signal-to-noise ratio was improved, resulting in lower limits of detection and improved identification at low concentrations, by designing and implementing a type of multielectrode transducer pattern, not previously reported for chemical sensor applications. The design significantly reduces signal distortion and root-mean-square (RMS) phase noise by minimizing acoustic wave reflections from electrode edges, thus enabling limits of detection for BTEX analytes of 9-83 ppb (calculated from RMS noise); concentrations of benzene in water as low as ~100 ppb were measured directly. Reliable quantification of BTEX

  11. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs (United States)

    ... state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On This ... get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August 1999 ...

  12. In vitro toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to cetacean cells and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvan, M.J. III.


    Cetaceans bioaccumulate high aromatic hydrocarbon tissue residues, and elevated levels of PCB residues in tissues are proposed to have occurred concurrently with recent epizootic deaths of dolphins. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and characterize an epithelial cell line derived from dolphin tissues, (2) to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon pollutants on those cells, and (3) to analyze the toxicity of hydrocarbon pollutants on cetacean tissues in vitro. An epithelial cell line, Carvan dolphin kidney (CDK), isolated from a spontaneously aborted female bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, grew rapidly. These cells were neither transformed nor immortal. Velocity sedimentation analysis showed CDK cells contained nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor, suggestive of cytochrome P450 inducibility. BaP inhibited mitosis in CDK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data indicate that CDK cells metabolize BaP, that BaP metabolites bind to cellular DNA initiating unscheduled DNA synthesis, and that the inhibition of cytochrome P450 metabolism decrease the BaP-associated inhibition of mitosis in dolphin cells. The data also suggest that TCDD acts synergistically to increase the levels of DNA damage by the procarcinogen BaP. Cetacean liver microsomes was isolated and evaluated for the presence of cytochrome P450 proteins by SDS-PAGE, apparent minimum molecular weight determination, and immunoblot analysis. P450 activity was induced in cetacean tissue samples and CDK cells by exposure in vitro to one of several cytochrome P450-inducing chemicals. The data suggest that cetacean tissues and cells can be utilized to study the in vitro induction of cytochrome P450, resultant metabolism of xenobiotic contaminants, and the subsequent cellular and molecular responses. However, the identity of specific P450 isozymes involved in this process will remain undetermined until monoclonal antibodies that recognize cetacean P450s can be generated.

  13. Insight into heterogeneity in cell-surface hydrophobicity and ability to degrade hydrocarbons among cells of two hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obuekwe, C.O.; Al-Jadi, Z.K.; Al-Saleh, E. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Biological Sciences


    Petroleum consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and related compounds, of which the physical and chemical characteristics and biodegradability vary considerably. Large amounts of petroleum products are released into the environment from natural sources, production and transport. Because of their hydrophobic nature, the use, and therefore the removal of hydrocarbon contaminants from the environment with microbial activities are prevented by the relative insolubility of hydrocarbons in aqueous systems. Bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons (BATH) and fractionations of bacterial cell suspensions suggest the existence of two basic groups of bacterial variants, namely hydrophobic and hydrophilic. This article presented the results of a study that fractionated the hydrophobic bacterial fraction in order to better understand the heterogeneity of hydrophobic characteristics in a natural population, and determine how such differences affect the ability of variants to use hydrocarbons. The materials and methods used in the study were discussed with reference to the organisms; production of hydrophobic and hydrophilic variants; storage of cultures; cultural techniques; characterization of cell fractions; hydrocarbon degradation; recovery of residual hydrocarbons and analysis; and, identification of organisms. The results of the study were presented in terms of the effects of fractionation of successive generations of hydrophobic bacterial cultures and degradation of hydrocarbon substrates. 29 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  14. Spatial correlation analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments between Taihu Lake and its tributary rivers. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonghua; Jiang, Yu; Li, Qianyu; Cai, Yongjiu; Yin, Hongbin; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Jin


    The residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from Taihu Lake basin (THB) and Taihu Lake body (THL) were investigated. Higher concentrations of both PAHs and OCPs were observed for THB than THL. The concentrations of PAHs ranged from 12.1 to 2281.1ngg-1 dw for THB and from 11.4 to 209.9ngg-1 dw for THL, while OCPs ranged from 16.3 to 96.9ngg-1 dw and from 16.8 to 61.9ngg-1 dw for THB and THL, respectively. Spatial distribution of PAHs and OCPs showed a high correspondence with the land use of THB and surrounding anthropogenic activity. Additionally, the Kriging interpolation plots demonstrated that the major upper reaches were more polluted than the lower reaches, indicating the transport of pollutants with the water flow direction. The organic matter contents were responsible for OCP distribution other than PAHs due to the biodegradation capacity difference of chemicals. Similar compositions of pollutants were observed with 3- and 4-ringed PAHs accounting for a total of 78.3% for THB and 85.8% for THL, respectively. HCHs and DDTs were predominant OCPs, which contributed to 31.8% and 21.7% for THB, and 33.6% and 21.9% for THL, respectively. The isomeric and parent substance/metabolite ratios implied fresh inputs of DDTs and chlordanes, while HCHs and endosulfans were mainly from old usage. PAH source identification performed by diagnostic ratios demonstrated the mixed sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic ones dominated by grass, wood and coal combustion. Furthermore, the hazard quotient (HQ) based on the consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was used to evaluate the ecological risks of sediments. Although no frequently adverse effects were observed, potential ecological risks induced by Ant, BaA, γ-HCH, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT and chlordanes should also be paid attention to considering the continuous inputs of such pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  16. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132. Note...

  17. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hydrocarbon occurred between the 8th and 14th day. It was therefore concluded that bacteria with ability to utilize hydrocarbons could be obtained from leaf surfaces. Such organisms could serve as seeds for bioaugmentation during remediation of polluted environments. Keywords: Phylloplane, bacteria, hydrocarbon, ...

  18. Extractive distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, F.M.; Brown, R.E.; Johnson, M.M.


    This patent describes a process for separating at least one aromatic hydrocarbon containing 6-12 carbon atoms per molecule from at least one close-boiling alkane by extractive distillation of a feed consisting essentially of the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon and the at least one alkane in the presence of a solvent consisting essentially of N-methyl-2-thiopyrrolidone, optionally in combination with at least one cosolvent selected from the group consisting of glycol compounds, sulfolane compounds and N-({beta}-mercaptoalkyl)-2-pyrrolidone compounds; wherein the extractive distillation process produces an overhead distillate product which contains a smaller volume percentage of the at least one alkane than the feed, and a bottoms product which contains the solvent and a larger volume percentage of the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon and a smaller volume percentage of the at least one alkane than the feed; and wherein the at least one aromatic hydrocarbon is separated from the solvent and recovered from the bottoms product. This patent also describes a process for separating at least one cycloalkane containing 5-10 carbon atoms per molecule from at least one close-boiling alkane by extracting distillation of a feed consisting essentially of the at least one cycloalkane and the at least one alkane in the presence of a solvent consisting essentially of N-methyl-2-thiopyrrolidone, optionally in combination with at least one cosolvent selected from the group consisting of glycol compounds, sulfone compounds and N-({beta}-mercaptoalkyl)-2-pyrrolidone compounds.

  19. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  20. Deuterated interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E; Allamandola, LJ; Bauschlicher, CW; Hudgins, DM; Sandford, SA; Tielens, AGGM


    We report infrared spectral evidence of deuterated interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two bands are detected in the infrared emission from the ionization bar in Orion at 4.4 and 4.65 mum. The one at 4.65 mum is present at the 4.4 sigma level, while the one at 4.4 mum is more

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri


    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater. (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami


    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  3. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.


    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  4. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M. [and others


    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Adamson, A. J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96729 (United States)


    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 {mu}m) and aliphatic (3.4 {mu}m) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp {sup 2} bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 {mu}m CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 {mu}m aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp {sup 3} bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp {sup 3} content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  6. [Separation of C5-C7 hydrocarbon components on Al2O3 capillary column and its application]. (United States)

    Li, Jiwen; Jiang, Liyan; Liu, Junyan; Wang, Chuan


    The separation and qualitative analysis of 54 common C5-C7 hydrocarbon components on three Al2O3 capillary columns, including S type, KCl type and M type, were investigated in detail. The results showed that the separation of the 54 C5-C7 hydrocarbon components were partly different on these three Al2O3 capillary columns, and the most of C5-C7 hydrocarbon components could be well separated, except that some of them couldn't achieve a baseline separation or co-eluted. Linear temperature programmed retention indices of the 54 C5-C7 hydrocarbon components, including 15 C5 hydrocarbons, 25 C6 hydrocarbons and 14 C7 hydrocarbons, were determined on these three Al2O3 capillary columns. The determination of linear temperature programmed retention indices for these C5-C7 hydrocarbon components on Al2O3 capillary columns provided a basis for the qualitative analysis of them. At the same time, a real pyrolysis gas sample from one of the petrochemical plants was qualitatively analyzed according to the linear temperature programmed retention indices, and the contents of C5-C7 hydrocarbon components were determined. The application field of Al2O3 capillary column was expanded and it is helpful for the analysis of light hydrocarbons in petrochemical enterprises.

  7. Riverine input of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the coastal pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Everaarts, J.M.

    of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. It deals with an in-depth analysis of pollution of the coastal ecosystem around the Netherlands, U.K. and Germany due to inputs of contaminants from the rivers namely, Elbe, Weser, Ems Ijssel, Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Thames...

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-utilizing Bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria from petroleum oily sludge collected from crude oil processing plant in Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out. Microbiological analysis of the sludge sample showed that the microbial load consisted average of 2.5 x 106 cfu/g total heterotrophic bacterial ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARIESE, F; GOOIJER, C; Velthorst, N.H.; Hofstraat, J.W.


    The applicability of high-resolution Shpol'skii spectrofluorimetry to the direct analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tern and mussel samples was investigated. The sensitivity of the measurements suffered considerably from the large amounts of interfering (e.g., fatty components)

  10. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins


    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  11. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.


    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  12. Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: model description and impact analysis of biogenic hydrocarbons on tropospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Folberth


    Full Text Available We present a description and evaluation of LMDz-INCA, a global three-dimensional chemistry-climate model, pertaining to its recently developed NMHC version. In this substantially extended version of the model a comprehensive representation of the photochemistry of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and volatile organic compounds (VOC from biogenic, anthropogenic, and biomass-burning sources has been included. The tropospheric annual mean methane (9.2 years and methylchloroform (5.5 years chemical lifetimes are well within the range of previous modelling studies and are in excellent agreement with estimates established by means of global observations. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the horizontal and vertical distribution and seasonal cycle of CO and key non-methane VOC, such as acetone, methanol, and formaldehyde as compared to observational data from several ground stations and aircraft campaigns. LMDz-INCA in the NMHC version reproduces tropospheric ozone concentrations fairly well throughout most of the troposphere. The model is applied in several sensitivity studies of the biosphere-atmosphere photochemical feedback. The impact of surface emissions of isoprene, acetone, and methanol is studied. These experiments show a substantial impact of isoprene on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide concentrations revealing an increase in surface O3 and CO levels of up to 30 ppbv and 60 ppbv, respectively. Isoprene also appears to significantly impact the global OH distribution resulting in a decrease of the global mean tropospheric OH concentration by approximately 0.7×105 molecules cm-3 or roughly 8% and an increase in the global mean tropospheric methane lifetime by approximately seven months. A global mean ozone net radiative forcing due to the isoprene induced increase in the tropospheric ozone burden of 0.09 W m-2 is found. The key role of isoprene photooxidation in the global tropospheric redistribution of NOx is demonstrated. LMDz

  13. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)


    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julián Darío Bonilla Montenegro


      The Andes-Amazon region contains the highest concentration of hydrocarbon reserves, which have been exploited by governments belonging to different ideological schools regarding both political and economic aspects...

  15. Carbon nanotube based aliphatic hydrocarbon sensor. (United States)

    Padigi, Sudhaprasanna Kumar; Reddy, Ravi Kiran Kondama; Prasad, Shalini


    A hybrid multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) based chemical sensor was designed and developed by integration of microfabrication techniques with nano-assembly. This integrated sensing mechanism on a chip, comprised of thiol functionalized MWCNTs that functioned as transducers which were integrated with micro-electrode array measurement sites. The detection of the four fundamental hydrocarbons belonging to the aliphatic hydrocarbon family--methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol was experimentally demonstrated. High degree of selectivity was demonstrated by repeated robust identification of individual hydro carbons belonging to the same family. The sensor demonstrated 1 ppm detection sensitivity. The detection mechanism was based on nano-scale transduction of the detection of the localized binding event between the functional binding sites and the chemical species of interest. Specific electrical signatures for each of these chemicals were identified using multiple levels of data analysis comprising of Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Power Spectral Density (PSD). The sensor demonstrated a rapid response time with portability, accuracy and versatility for the in situ detection of multiple chemical agents, with potential for automation.

  16. LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation (United States)

    Jensen, R. J.; Dodson, H. C.; Claflin, S. E.


    The LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation Program was structured to determine if the use of light hydrocarbon combustion fuels with liquid oxygen (LOX) produces combustion performance and stability behavior similar to the LOX/hydrogen propellant combination. In particular methane was investigated to determine if that fuel can be rated for combustion instability using the same techniques as previously used for LOX/hydrogen. These techniques included fuel temperature ramping and stability bomb tests. The hot fire program probed the combustion behavior of methane from ambient to subambient temperatures. Very interesting results were obtained from this program that have potential importance to future LOX/methane development programs. A very thorough and carefully reasoned documentation of the experimental data obtained is contained. The hot fire test logic and the associated tests are discussed. Subscale performance and stability rating testing was accomplished using 40,000 lb. thrust class hardware. Stability rating tests used both bombs and fuel temperature ramping techniques. The test program was successful in generating data for the evaluation of the methane stability characteristics relative to hydrogen and to anchor stability models. Data correlations, performance analysis, stability analyses, and key stability margin enhancement parameters are discussed.

  17. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.


    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  18. Proteomic pathway analysis of the hippocampus in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder implicates 14-3-3 signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, and glucose metabolism: potential roles in GABAergic interneuron pathology. (United States)

    Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Föcking, Melanie; Cotter, David R


    Neuropathological changes of the hippocampus have been associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent work has particularly implicated hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in the pathophysiology of these diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying structural and cellular hippocampal pathology remain poorly understood. We used data from comprehensive difference-in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) investigations of postmortem human hippocampus of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, covering the acidic (isoelectric point (pI) between pH4 and 7) and, separately, the basic (pI between pH6 and 11) sub-proteome, for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of implicated protein networks and pathways. Comparing disease and control cases, we identified 58 unique differentially expressed proteins in schizophrenia, and 70 differentially expressed proteins in bipolar disorder, using mass spectrometry. IPA implicated, most prominently, 14-3-3 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in schizophrenia, and gluconeogenesis/glycolysis in bipolar disorder. Both disorders were characterized by alterations of proteins involved in the oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and protein-endocytosis, -trafficking, -degradation, and -ubiquitination. These findings are interpreted with a focus on GABAergic interneuron pathology in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mediterranean hydrocarbons pollution from Landsat


    Wald, Lucien; Monget, Jean-Marie; Albuisson, Michel


    Previous studies have shown that oil spills have been viewed by Landsat . The setection of oil is mainly due to the variations of reflectance between the sea and the oil spill. This result is used in the framework of the European Project "ARCHIMEDES", lead by the Joint Research Center (Ispra, Italy), which purpose is the study of the pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. 800 Landsat images obtained from 1972 to 1975 were examined. The cumulative area covered by the hydrocarbons spread each year...

  20. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA


    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  1. Degradation of hydrocarbons under methanogenic conditions in different geosystems (United States)

    Straaten, Nontje; Jiménez García, Núria; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krueger, Martin


    With increasing energy demand the search for new resources is becoming increasingly important for the future energy supply. Therefore the knowledge about fossil fuels like oil or natural gas and their extraction should be expanded. Biodegraded oil is found in many reservoirs worldwide. Consequently, it is very important to get insight in the microbial communities and metabolic processes involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Due to the lack of alternative electron acceptors in hydrocarbon-rich geosystems, degradation often takes place under methanogenic conditions. The aim of the present study is to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the degradation of complex hydrocarbons, like BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using culture dependent and independent techniques. For this purpose enrichment cultures from marine sediments, shales, coal and oil reservoirs are monitored for their capability to degrade alkanes and aromatic compounds. Moreover the environmental samples of these different geosystems analysed for evidence for the in situ occurrence of methanogenic oil degradation. The gas geochemical data provided in several cases hints for a recent biological origin of the methane present. First results of the microbial community analysis showed in environmental samples and enrichment cultures the existence of Bacteria known to degrade hydrocarbons. Also a diverse community of methanogenic Archaea could be found in the clone libraries. Additionally, in oil and coal reservoir samples the degradation of model hydrocarbons, e.g. methylnaphthalene, hexadecane and BTEX, to CH4 was confirmed by 13C-labeling. To explore the mechanisms involved in biodegradation, the enrichments as well as the original environmental samples are further analysed for the presence of respective functional genes.

  2. A review of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) research progress in China based on CNKI database (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao


    This article using the retroactive content analysis method summarizes the research progress of air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during 1983 to 2016, and is based on the 72 search results about "Air Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons" in CNKI database. This article directly points out the study achievements and improvements about air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 4 aspects, the reviews of the studies of PAHs in a special stage, the studies on PAHs determination and analysis method, the studies on PAHs concentration in different places and the studies on the relationship between PAHs concentration in air and human health, respectively.

  3. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil. (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H


    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  4. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena, E-mail: [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J. [US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 193038 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for analysis of POPs and novel flame retardants in catfish was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is based on a QuEChERS extraction, d-SPE clean-up and low pressure GC/MS-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method validation demonstrated good recoveries and low detection limits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. - Abstract: A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS-MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS-MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1 h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS-MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9 min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20% (n = 5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72-119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1-0.5 ng g{sup -1} for PCBs, 0.5-10 ng g{sup -1} for PBDEs, 0.5-5 ng g{sup -1} for select pesticides and PAHs and 1-10 ng g{sup -1} for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples

  5. Bacterial community response to petroleum hydrocarbon amendments in freshwater, marine, and hypersaline water-containing microcosms. (United States)

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Seldin, Lucy


    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination.

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  7. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels via Indirect Liquefaction, Fast Pyrolysis, and Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Update of the 2016 State-of-Technology Cases and Design Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Pegallapati, Ambica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Canter, Christina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims to develop and deploy technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2016). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth technoeconomic assessments (TEA) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics and conversion technologies to produce biofuels, and life-cycle analysis of overall system sustainability.

  8. Before the Bonanza: Hydrocarbons in Greenland


    Meinild, Ebbe Dam


    The issue of Greenlandic hydrocarbons gradually moved towards the centre of the creation of autonomous Greenland. Hydrocarbons in Greenland and the Greenlandic nation were co-produced in the same process. Thus, when hydrocarbons were connected to an ecological modernisation it allowed the newly formed Home Rule administration, in a joint Danish-Greenlandic effort, to adopt this, not only as a road to independence, but as something giving credibility to Greenland as a distinct society.

  9. Comparing hydrogen and hydrocarbon booster fuels (United States)

    Martin, James A.


    The present evaluation of the consequences of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as the basis of launch vehicle booster rocket-stage performance notes that hydrocarbon fuels lead to lower vehicle dry mass, for low-velocity requirements, while hydrogen fuel furnishes lower dry mass. Vehicles employing both types of fuel attempt to take advantage of the low intercept and slope of hydrocarbon fuel at low velocity, and subsequently, of the slope of the hydrogen curves at higher velocities.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz


    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  11. Adsorption of hydrocarbons on modified nanoclays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafimasooleh, M [Department of Materials Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazgir, S [Department of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tamizifar, M [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nemati, A, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this study organically modified nanoclay were prepared by exchanging of the cetyltrimethylammonium (CTAB), with inorganic/metal ions/cations in montmorillonite structure. To investigate the influence of the amount of modifier on basal spacing and subsequent removal efficiency of hydrocarbon, different amount of modifier was used. The modified and unmodified nanoclays characterized by XRD, CHN and FTIR techniques. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the interlayer spacing of CTAB-modified clays increased from 12 to 22A. The effectiveness of the sorbent materials for sorption of a range of products was investigated using crude oil, kerosene, gasoline and toluene. The process parameters such as sorbent dosage and contact time were reported. The results showed that the adsorption capacity was in the range of 2 to 8 gram per gram of adsorbent. Results also showed that adsorption capacity of the organoclay was clearly higher than of the unmodified clay. These results were confirmed by CHN analysis.

  12. Adsorption of hydrocarbons on modified nanoclays (United States)

    Sharafimasooleh, M.; Bazgir, S.; Tamizifar, M.; Nemati, A.


    In this study organically modified nanoclay were prepared by exchanging of the cetyltrimethylammonium (CTAB), with inorganic/metal ions/cations in montmorillonite structure. To investigate the influence of the amount of modifier on basal spacing and subsequent removal efficiency of hydrocarbon, different amount of modifier was used. The modified and unmodified nanoclays characterized by XRD, CHN and FTIR techniques. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the interlayer spacing of CTAB-modified clays increased from 12 to 22Å. The effectiveness of the sorbent materials for sorption of a range of products was investigated using crude oil, kerosene, gasoline and toluene. The process parameters such as sorbent dosage and contact time were reported. The results showed that the adsorption capacity was in the range of 2 to 8 gram per gram of adsorbent. Results also showed that adsorption capacity of the organoclay was clearly higher than of the unmodified clay. These results were confirmed by CHN analysis.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Fiber Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Fundamental Study of a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalized Corona Discharge Pin for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Analysis (United States)

    Nahan, Keaton S.; Alvarez, Noe; Shanov, Vesselin; Vonderheide, Anne


    Mass spectrometry continues to tackle many complicated tasks, and ongoing research seeks to simplify its instrumentation as well as sampling. The desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) source was the first ambient ionization source to function without extensive gas requirements and chromatography. Electrospray techniques generally have low efficiency for ionization of nonpolar analytes and some researchers have resorted to methods such as direct analysis in real time (DART) or desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI) for their analysis. In this work, a carbon nanotube fiber ionization (nanoCFI) source was developed and was found to be capable of solid phase microextraction (SPME) of nonpolar analytes as well as ionization and sampling similar to that of direct probe atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DP-APCI). Conductivity and adsorption were maintained by utilizing a corona pin functionalized with a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) thread. Quantitative work with the nanoCFI source with a designed corona discharge pin insert demonstrated linearity up to 0.97 (R2) of three target PAHs with phenanthrene internal standard. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. 40 CFR 90.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified in...

  15. 40 CFR 89.319 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.319 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall... and at least annually thereafter, adjust the FID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response...

  16. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment


    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  17. Potential use of hydrocarbons for aging Lucilia sericata blowfly larvae to establish the postmortem interval. (United States)

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P


    Previous studies on Diptera have shown the potential for the use of cuticular hydrocarbons' analysis in the determination of larval age and hence the postmortem interval (PMI) for an associated cadaver. In this work, hydrocarbon compounds, extracted daily until pupation from the cuticle of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae), have been analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show distinguishing features within the hydrocarbon profile over the period of the larvae life cycle, with significant chemical changes occurring from the younger larvae to the postfeeding larvae. Further interpretation of the chromatograms using principal component analysis revealed a strong correlation between the magnitudes of particular principal components and time. This outcome suggests that, under the conditions of this study, the cuticular hydrocarbons evolve in a systematic fashion with time, thus supporting the potential for GC-MS analysis as a tool for establishing PMI where such a species is present. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna C. Nwinyi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2. Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94 ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R2 = 1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site.

  19. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others


    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  20. Do sealless pumps belong in hydrocarbon processing services?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Shawn L. [Sundyne Corporation, Arvada, CO (Brazil)


    Sealless pump technology seems unimaginable in the hot, dirty and high-pressure world of hydrocarbon processing. Furthermore the high flow rates typical of the industry seem incompatible with sealless pumps. Seals and their environmental controls used in conventional technologies are not immune from these factors making sealless worth another look. In October 2000 the Sealless Centrifugal Pump Specification API 685 was published. This specification lends sealless pumps credibility and emphasizes the proper application of the technology. In many process units seal leaks can be extremely dangerous and costly. The heavy hydrocarbons can auto-ignite and light hydrocarbons will tend to find a source of ignition. The ever-increasing requirements for clean fuels are driving many of the current refinery upgrades. Best Also available control technology requirements and additional focus on Environmental Health and Safety increase the attractiveness of sealless technology to mitigate the hazards associated with seal leaks. Sealless has a place in hydrocarbon processing to eliminate seals, provide mechanical simplification, and ensure personnel/environmental protection. The proper application involves evaluating canned motor/magnetic drive technology, API 685 Guidelines, and vapor pressure versus pump circuit pressure analysis. There are four (4) specific processes where sealless pumps should be targeted: Alkylation, Sulfur Recovery/Hydrotreating, Naphtha Reforming Production, and Neutralization. (author)

  1. Geologic and petrophysic analysis of a travertine block as hydrocarbon reservoir analogue; Analise geologica e petrofisica de um bloco de travertino como analogo de reservatorio de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Mateus; Kuroda, Michelle Chaves; Vidal, Alexandre Campane, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos do Petroleo


    Microbialitic limestones are gaining space in petroleum geology due to the existence of many reservoirs composed of these lithologies in the pre-salt producing fields. Travertine, calcareous tufa and stromatolites figure among the rocks proposed as analogous for the microbialitic rocks. This work conduces the study of geological, petrophysical and geophysical parameters of a travertine block measuring 1,60 x 1,60 x 2,70 m, weighing 21,2 tons and available in the Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO) at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The Italian block, named T-block, corresponds to the representative elementary volume of its original formation and allows the study in an intermediate scale between the hand sample and the outcrop scale. Permeability tests and gamma ray spectrometry measurements were conducted and the porosity was calculated by image analysis. Models were generated from the obtained data and then associated with descriptive geology of the block. A reduction in permeability, porosity and concentration of elements potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) was recorded, following a gradient towards the top of the T-block accompanying the reduction in the degree of development of the rock fabric. (author)

  2. Collection and analysis of samples for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust and other solids related to sealed and unsealed pavement from 10 cities across the United States, 2005-07 (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.


    Parking lots and driveways are dominant features of the modern urban landscape, and in the United States, sealcoat is widely used on these surfaces. One of the most widely used types of sealcoat contains refined coal tar; coal-tar-based sealcoat products have a mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration of about 5 percent. A previous study reported that parking lots in Austin, Texas, treated with coal-tar sealcoat were a major source of PAH compounds in streams. This report presents methods for and data from the analysis of concentrations of PAH compounds in dust from sealed and unsealed pavement from nine U.S. cities, and concentrations of PAH compounds in other related solid materials (sealcoat surface scrapings, nearby street dust, and nearby soil) from three of those same cities and a 10th city. Dust samples were collected by sweeping dust from areas of several square meters with a soft nylon brush into a dustpan. Some samples were from individual lots or driveways, and some samples consisted of approximately equal amounts of material from three lots. Samples were sieved to remove coarse sand and gravel and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of PAHs vary greatly among samples with total PAH (sigmaPAH), the sum of 12 unsubstituted parent PAHs, ranging from nondetection for all 12 PAHs (several samples from Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington; sigmaPAH of less than 36,000 micrograms per kilogram) to 19,000,000 micrograms per kilogram for a sealcoat scraping sample (Milwaukee, Wisconsin). The largest PAH concentrations in dust are from a driveway sample from suburban Chicago, Illinois (sigmaPAH of 9,600,000 micrograms per kilogram).

  3. Shale characterization on Barito field, Southeast Kalimantan for shale hydrocarbon exploration (United States)

    Sumotarto, T. A.; Haris, A.; Riyanto, A.; Usman, A.


    Exploration and exploitation in Indonesia now are still focused on conventional hydrocarbon energy than unconventional hydrocarbon energy such as shale gas. Tanjung Formation is a source rock of Barito Basin located in South Kalimantan that potentially as shale hydrocarbon. In this research, integrated methods using geochemical analysis, mineralogy, petrophysical analysis and seismic interpretation has been applied to explore the shale hydrocarbon potential in Barito Field for Tanjung formation. The first step is conducting geochemical and mineralogy analysis to the shale rock sample. Our analysis shows that the organic richness is ranging from 1.26-5.98 wt.% (good to excellent) with the depth of early mature window of 2170 m. The brittleness index is in an average of 0.44-0.56 (less Brittle) and Kerogen type is classified into II/III type that potentially produces oil and gas. The second step is continued by performing petrophysical analysis, which includes Total Organic Carbon (TOC) calculation and brittleness index continuously. The result has been validated with a laboratory measurement that obtained a good correlation. In addition, seismic interpretation based on inverted acoustic impedance is applied to map the distributions of shale hydrocarbon potential. Our interpretation shows that shale hydrocarbon potential is localized in the eastern and southeastern part of the study area.

  4. Hydrocarbons from males, females, and larvae of pecan weevil: Curculio caryae (Horn). (United States)

    Mody, N V; Hedin, P A; Neel, W W; Miles, D H


    As part of a program to identify as many as possible of the components of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), the hydrocarbons from males, females, and larvae were isolated by solvent extraction and column chromatography and subjected to gas lipuid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. n-Alkanes from C14-C32 in the larvae and unsaturated and branched chain hydrocarbons from C20-C32 in males and females were found. There are no significant differences between the hydrocarbons of the male and female pecan weevils.

  5. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (United States)


    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati interstate...

  6. Potential impact of soil microbial heterogeneity on the persistence of hydrocarbons in contaminated subsurface soils. (United States)

    Aleer, Sam; Adetutu, Eric M; Weber, John; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L


    In situ bioremediation is potentially a cost effective treatment strategy for subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, however, limited information is available regarding the impact of soil spatial heterogeneity on bioremediation efficacy. In this study, we assessed issues associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation and soil spatial heterogeneity (samples designated as FTF 1, 5 and 8) from a site in which in situ bioremediation was proposed for hydrocarbon removal. Test pit activities showed similarities in FTF soil profiles with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations detected in all soils at 2 m below ground surface. However, PCR-DGGE-based cluster analysis showed that the bacterial community in FTF 5 (at 2 m) was substantially different (53% dissimilar) and 2-3 fold more diverse than communities in FTF 1 and 8 (with 80% similarity). When hydrocarbon degrading potential was assessed, differences were observed in the extent of (14)C-benzene mineralisation under aerobic conditions with FTF 5 exhibiting the highest hydrocarbon removal potential compared to FTF 1 and 8. Further analysis indicated that the FTF 5 microbial community was substantially different from other FTF samples and dominated by putative hydrocarbon degraders belonging to Pseudomonads, Xanthomonads and Enterobacteria. However, hydrocarbon removal in FTF 5 under anaerobic conditions with nitrate and sulphate electron acceptors was limited suggesting that aerobic conditions were crucial for hydrocarbon removal. This study highlights the importance of assessing available microbial capacity prior to bioremediation and shows that the site's spatial heterogeneity can adversely affect the success of in situ bioremediation unless area-specific optimizations are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of unsaturated hydrocarbons on crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, W.C.; Heck, W.W.


    Damage to cotton and other crops in the vicinity of a Gulf Coast polyethylene plant has led to studies on the causative agent or agents responsible for crop losses. Responses exhibited by both native and cultivated plants of the area led to an initial diagnosis that the symptoms were caused by ethylene present in relatively high amounts in the atmosphere. Analysis of the stack gas showed 1.5% ethylene, 0.3% ethane, 8.7% carbon dioxide, 0.3% ethylene oxide and minute amounts of methane. Field analyses have shown concentrations of ethylene aging from 0.04 to 3 ppm depending upon atmospheric conditions (wind direction and velocity) as well as distance from the polyethylene plant. Various mixtures of hydrocarbon gases have been tested using cotton, coleus, tomato and other plant species. Ethylene has been found to be the most biologically active of the hydrocarbon gases studied. Controlled experiments have confirmed field observations that monocotyledonous plants such as sorghum and corn are relatively insensitive to ethylene, whereas dicotyledonous plants such as cotton, coleus, corn pea and tomato are extremely sensitive. Flower petal abscission in periwinkle and flower bud abscission in cotton have been found to be excellent indicators of extremely low levels of ethylene air pollution in both the field and in controlled experiments. Typical responses of cotton to low levels of ethylene include: lost of apical dominance with the resulting prostrate growth habit, flattening of upper stem and growing point, forcing of lateral buds, weakening of main stem, compacting of internodes, earlier and more profuse flowering with the abscission of squares, total loss of yield. 2 references.

  8. Evidence for large average concentrations of the nitrate radical (NO3) in Western Europe from the HANSA hydrocarbon database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penkett, S.A.; Burgess, R.A.; Coe, H.; Coll, I.; Hov, O.; Lindskog, A.; Schmidbauer, N.; Solberg, S.; Roemer, M.; Thijsse, T.; Beck, J.; Reeves, C.E.


    The nitrate radical (NO3) was first measured in the atmosphere in the 1970s and suggestions were made that it could play a major role in oxidising many unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as those emitted from the biosphere. Analysis of the hydrocarbon mix over the North Atlantic Ocean suggested

  9. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng


    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  10. short communication aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The compositional pattern of the photo-modified bitumen samples suggests that there was initial cracking of large molecular mass hydrocarbons in the bitumen, followed by recombination after long periods of exposure to sunlight. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profile of the Agbabu natural bitumen as a function of.

  11. Different collector types for sampling deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Comparison of measurement results and their uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladtke, D.; Bakker, F.; Biaudet, H.; Brennfleck, A.; Coleman, P.; Creutznacher, H.; Egmond, B.F. van; Hafkenscheid, T.; Hahne, F.; Houtzager, M.M.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Menichini, E.; Olschewski, A.; Remesch, T.


    Different collector types, sample workup procedures and analysis methods to measure the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were tested and compared. Whilst sample workup and analysis methods did not influence the results of PAH deposition measurements, using different collector

  12. Isolation and characterization of ancient hydrocarbon biomarkers from crystalline minerals (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Carrasquillo, A.; Hallmann, C.; Sherman, L. S.; Waldbauer, J. R.


    Hydrocarbon biomarker analysis is conventionally conducted on bitumen (soluble fossilized organic matter) extracted from sedimentary rocks using organic solvents. Biomarkers can also be generated by pyrolysis of kerogen (insoluble organic matter) in the same rocks. These approaches have met with much success where the organic matter has not seen significant levels of thermal metamorphism but more limited success when applied to thermally mature Archean rocks. Biomarkers have also been isolated from fluid inclusions of crystalline minerals and this approach has found wide application in petroleum exploration because of the capability of minerals that form crystals in reservoir rocks to trap organics from different episodes of fluid migration. Lastly, biogenic crystalline minerals are well known to trap organics including amino acids, fatty acids or hydrocarbons from those organisms that laid down the minerals. In fact, recent observations suggest that hydrocarbon biomarkers can be abundantly preserved in crystalline minerals where they may be protected over long periods of time and also distinguished from more recent generations of organics from endolithic organisms (modern) or anthropogenic (fossil hydrocarbon) contaminants. Here we report analyses of biomarker lipids trapped in fluid inclusions or otherwise having a "tight association" with the minerals in sedimentary rocks from Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic successions in Australia and Southern Africa. In particular, cores recovered from the Agouron Griqualand Drilling Project contain over 2500m of well-preserved late Archean Transvaal Supergroup sediments, dating from ca. 2.67 to 2.46Ga. Bitumen extracts of samples from these strata were obtained using clean drilling, sampling and handling protocols and without overprinting with contaminant hydrocarbons. Dissolution of the mineral matrix of extracted sediments, followed by another solvent extraction, yielded a second bitumen that comprised hydrocarbons that

  13. Laboratory analytical methods for the determination of the hydrocarbon status of soils (a review) (United States)

    Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Korotkov, L. A.; Smirnova, M. A.; Kovach, R. G.


    Laboratory analytical methods suitable for the determination of the hydrocarbon status of soils (a specific soil characteristic involving information on the total content and qualitative features of soluble (bitumoid) carbonaceous substances and individual hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, etc.) in bitumoid, as well as the composition and content of hydrocarbon gases) have been considered. Among different physicochemical methods of study, attention is focused on the methods suitable for the wide use. Luminescence-bituminological analysis, low-temperature spectrofluorimetry (Shpolskii spectroscopy), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, chromatography-mass spectrometry, and some other methods have been characterized, as well as sample preparation features. Advantages and limitations of each of these methods are described; their efficiency, instrumental complexity, analysis duration, and accuracy are assessed.

  14. Detection and quantification of hydrocarbons in sediments (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Williamson, Mike; Frank, Jeff


    A new technology developed by the US Geological Survey now allows for fast, direct detection of hydrocarbon plumes both in rivers and drifting in the deep ocean. Recent experiments show that the method can also detect and quantify hydrocarbons buried in river sediments and estuaries. This approach uses a variant of induced polarization, a surface-sensitive physical property of certain polarizable materials immersed in an electrolyte that can accept and adsorb charge under an inducing voltage. Known polarizable materials include most sulfides, ilmenite (FeTiO3), metallic objects such as buried wrecks and pipelines, and now hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon-in-water response to induced polarization is in fact nearly two orders of magnitude greater than the IP response of any of the hard minerals. The oil:water detection limit for hydrocarbons so far is down to 0.0002% in the laboratory.

  15. Insect Adhesion Secretions: Similarities and Dissimilarities in Hydrocarbon Profiles of Tarsi and Corresponding Tibiae. (United States)

    Gerhardt, Heike; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael


    Spatially controlled in vivo sampling by contact solid phase microextraction with a non-coated silica fiber combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized for hydrocarbon profiling in tarsal adhesion secretions of four insect species (Nicrophorus vespilloides, Nicrophorus nepalensis, Sagra femorata, and Gromphadorhina portentosa) by using distinct adhesion systems, viz. hairy or smooth tarsi. For comparison, corresponding samples from tibiae, representing the general cuticular hydrocarbon profile, were analyzed to enable the statistical inference of active molecular adhesion principles in tarsal secretions possibly contributed by specific hydrocarbons. n-Alkanes, monomethyl and dimethyl alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes, and one aldehyde were detected. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analyses) gave insights into distinctive molecular features among the various insect species and between tarsus and tibia samples. In general, corresponding hydrocarbon profiles in tarsus and tibia samples largely resembled each other, both qualitatively and in relative abundances as well. However, several specific hydrocarbons showed significantly different relative abundances between corresponding tarsus and tibia samples, thus indicating that such differences of specific hydrocarbons in the complex mixtures might constitute a delicate mechanism for fine-tuning the reversible attachment performances in tarsal adhesive fluids that are composed of substances originating from the same pool as cuticular hydrocarbons. Caused by melting point depression, the multicomponent tarsal adhesion secretion, made up of straight chain alkanes, methyl alkanes, and alkenes will have a semi-solid, grease-like consistency, which might provide the basis for a good reversible attachment performance.

  16. Simultaneous interactions of anions and cations with cyclohexane and adamantane: aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbons as charge insulators. (United States)

    Trujillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sanz, Goar; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José


    With ab initio MP2 computational methods, a theoretical study has been carried out to characterize the interaction between aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbons, as models of molecular hydrocarbon monolayers, with cations (Li(+), Na(+), and K(+)), anions (F(-), Cl(-), and Br(-)), and both simultaneously in opposite faces of the hydrocarbons. In addition, the energetic barrier for the cation crossing through the hydrocarbon ring has been calculated. The hydrocarbons chosen for this study are cyclohexane (C(6)H(12)) and adamantane (C(10)H(16)). The energies obtained for the M(+):hydrocarbon:X(-) complexes indicate positive cooperativity in the cases where the hydrocarbon is cyclohexane while diminutive effects are found in the adamantane complexes. The density functional theory-symmetry adapted perturbation theory analysis of the interaction energies shows that the most important term in the complexes with cations is the induction, while in the complexes with anion and with cations and anions simultaneously the most important term is the repulsion-exchange one. The electron density of the complexes has been analyzed using the atoms in molecules methodology and provides some insight to the electron transfer within the complexes.

  17. Pilot fluidized bed combustor system applied to thermal energy production from light hydrocarbons - part I: description and hydrodynamics analysis; Sistema combustor piloto a leito fluidizado para producao de energia termica a partir de hidrocarbonetos leves. Parte I: descricao e analise hidrodinamica do sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro P. de; Souza Junior, Francisco de Assis; Alves, Stella M.A.; Estevao, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lucena, Sergio; Souza, Phillipi R. de O. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Controle e Otimizacao de Processos; Santos, Douglas A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear


    During the last years, the employment of light hydrocarbons in combustion systems for power generation has been announced by Brazilian Government's like a great bet for diversification the energetic matrix in spite of the provisional crisis. As consequence, high demand and growing R and D investments caused immediate reflexes in all economical and industrial sectors of the Natural Gas chain, mainly considering the gas from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo offshore fields offered to the market. Regarding this, Northeast Region of Brazil shows itself to be attentive to the energy market tendencies and to environmental sector, creating conditions for developing new technologies and applications for the gas consumption. Among the possible applications of the gas consumption, the fluidized bed combustion systems are highlighted, like a real alternative for energy applying of the hydrocarbons produced, considering a good safety range to effective environmental demands. Thereby, the present work aimed to perform the description of a pilot fluidized bed combustor system with sand using light hydrocarbons - specifically, natural gas and LPG. Thereby, said pilot fluidized bed combustor operates isothermically without developing flames and/or hot spots. Besides the exposed, a hydrodynamic analysis of the system was made, identifying variables and parameters onto fluidized bed combustion process. (author.

  18. Ultradispersed Hydrocarbon Synthesis Catalyst from CO and H[2] Based on Electroexplosion of Iron Powder


    Popok, E.V.; Levashova, A.I.; Chekantsev, N.V.; Kirgina, M.V.; Rafegerst, K. V.


    The structure and properties of disperse particles of electroexplosive iron-based powder are studied with a laser diffraction method, transmission electron microscopy analysis and X-ray photography. The catalytic activity of ultradispersed iron powders in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H[2] by Fischer - Tropsch method is measured by concentration of the paramagnetic particles with electron paramagnetic resonance. In the laboratory of catalytic plant, hydrocarbons are synthesized at...

  19. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance


    Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Shuichang; Zhang, Bin; He, Kun; Wang, Xiaomei


    The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency...

  20. A rapid column technique for trapping and collecting of volatile fungal hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives. (United States)

    Booth, Eric; Strobel, Gary; Knighton, Berk; Sears, Joe; Geary, Brad; Avci, Recep


    A custom-made stainless steel column was designed to contain various materials that would trap the hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives during the processes of fungal fermentation ultimately yielding preparative amounts of volatile organic substances (VOCs). Trapping materials tested in the column were Carbotrap materials A and B (Supelco) as well as bentonite-shale from the oil bearing areas of Eastern Montana, the former allowed for the effective and efficient trapping of VOCs from purged cultures of Hypoxylon sp. Trapping efficiencies of various materials were measured by both gravimetric as well as proton transfer reaction mass spectroscopy with the Carbotraps A and B being 99% efficient when tested with known amounts of 1,8-cineole. Trapped fungal VOCs could effectively be removed and recovered via controlled heating of the stainless steel column followed by passage of the gases through a liquid nitrogen trap at a recovery rate of ca 65-70%. This method provides for the recovery of mg quantities of compounds normally present in the gas phase that may be needed for spectroscopy, bioassays and further separation and analysis and may have wide applicability for many other biological systems involving VOCs. Other available Carbotraps could be used for other applications. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  1. Review of Valero Hydrocarbons BACT Analysis (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S.S.


    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  3. Natural hydrocarbon seeps observation with underwater gliders and UV fluorescence sensor (United States)

    Rochet, V.


    Hydrocarbons may leak to the near-surface from subsurface accumulations, from mature source rock, or by buoyancy along major cross-strata routes. The presence of migrating near-surface hydrocarbons can provide strong evidence for the presence of a working petroleum system, as well as valuable information on source, maturity, and migration pathways. Detection and characterization of hydrocarbons in the water column may then help to de-risk hydrocarbon plays at a very preliminary stage of an exploration program. In order to detect hydrocarbons in the water column, an underwater glider survey was conducted in an offshore frontier area. Driven by buoyancy variation, underwater gliders enable collecting data autonomously along the water column for weeks to months. Underwater gliders are regularly piloted from shore by satellite telemetry and do not require a surface supervising vessel resulting in substantial operational costs savings. The data compiled, over 700m depth of the water column, included temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and hydrocarbon components (phenanthrene and naphthalene) measured by "MINIFLUO" sensors to particularly target representative crude oil compounds Two gliders were deployed at sea, one from coast in shallow water and the other one offshore on the survey area. Both accurately squared the survey area following pre-defined lines and cross lines. Data files were transmitted by satellite telemetry in near real time during the performance of the mission for real time observations and appropriate re-positioning of the gliders. Using rechargeable underwater gliders increased reliability reducing the risk of leakage and associated logistics during operation at sea. Despite strong evidences of seabed seepages such as pockmarks, faults, etc, over the area of interest, no hydrocarbon indices were detected in the water column, which was confirmed later by seabed sample analysis. The use of glider platforms for hydrocarbon detection has

  4. A modified microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay to account for the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. (United States)

    Zoueki, Caroline Warne; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis


    The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay has been used widely to characterize microbial cell hydrophobicity and/or the extent of cell adhesion to hydrophobic liquids. The classical MATH assay involves spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the initial and final cell concentrations in an aqueous cell suspension that has been contacted with a hydrocarbon liquid. In this study, microscopic examination of the aqueous cell suspension after contact with hexadecane or a hexadecane/toluene mixture revealed the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. The hydrocarbon droplets contributed to the absorbance values during spectrophotometric measurements and caused erroneous estimates of cell concentrations and extents of microbial adhesion. A modified MATH assay that avoids such artefacts is proposed here. In this modified assay, microscopic examination of the aqueous suspension and direct cell counts provides cell concentrations that are free of interference from hydrocarbon droplets. The presence of hydrocarbon droplets was noted in MATH assays performed with three bacterial strains, and two different hydrocarbons, at ionic strengths of 0.2 mM and 20 mM and pH 6. In these experiments, the formation of quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets cannot be attributed to the presence of biosurfactants, or stabilization by biocolloids. The presence of surface potential at the hydrocarbon-water interface that was characterized by electrophoretic mobility of up to -1 and -2 microm cm/Vs, likely caused the formation of the quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets that provided erroneous results using the classical MATH assay. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Discovery of abundant, accessible hydrocarbons nearly everywhere in the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuppero, A.


    analysis of the data gathered during the Comet Halley encounter during 1987 resulted in a body of literature asserting that all comets contain substantial percentages of hydrocarbon solids. These solids appear to have a strong similarity to petrochemicals. Arguments are made that the amount of hydrocarbon material in the accessible comets of the inner Solar system can substantially exceed the known reserves of hydrocarbons on Earth. An example is given of at least one conceptually simple method to use comet material as feedstock for space transportation schemes that can move masses through the solar system comparable to the mass carried by oil supertankers. The presentation concludes we need to send prospecting and assay probes to a sampling of the accessible comets to determine the amount of hydrocarbons and the form and location of materials needed for space transportation systems.

  6. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee


    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  7. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad


    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  8. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons from a refinery spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro-Lopez, J.R.; Serra-Socias, F.; Moreno-Garcia-Luengo, S.; Morales-Correas, N.; Dominguez-Laseca, F. [Universidad de las Islas Baleares (Spain)


    The biodegradation of several crude oil wastes from an oil refinery spill, was studied. Crude oil was spilled onto soil; with time, only the higher boiling point hydrocarbons remained as residue. Samples of this highly weathered hydrocarbon mixture were suspended in water to which Finasol OSR 51 dispersant was added in order to enhance dispersion. Also, certain microorganisms and a degradation accelerator, were both added to accelerate degradation. Each compound was identified by CG/FID. Daily records were kept of the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the percent degradation. Tables showing the degradation percentages achieved by each compound of the crude left over after several days, are included. 4 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  9. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of liquid...

  10. 40 CFR 503.44 - Operational standard-total hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. 503.44 Section 503.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... standard—total hydrocarbons. (a) The total hydrocarbons concentration in the exit gas from a sewage sludge incinerator shall be corrected for zero percent moisture by multiplying the measured total hydrocarbons...

  11. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. 172... hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the... liquid hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 93-260 °C as determined by ASTM...

  12. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided, That...

  13. Cuticular Hydrocarbons: Species and Population-Level Discrimination in Termites (United States)

    Michael I. Haverty; Marion Page; Barbara L. Thorne; Pierre Escoubas


    Hydrocarbons in the cuticle of insects are essential in protecting them from desiccation. The vast variety of hydrocarbons synthesized by insects and the apparent species-specificity of cuticular hydrocarbon mixtures make them excellent taxonomic characters for separating species within termite genera. Hydrocarbon phenotypes of dampwood termites, Zootermopsis...

  14. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James


    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), our efforts have become focused on technology transfer. To this end, we completing our theoretical developments, generating recommended processing flows, and perfecting our rock and fluid properties interpretation techniques. Some minor additional data analysis and modeling will complete our case studies. During this quarter we have: Presented findings for the year at the DHI/FLUIDS meeting at UH in Houston; Presented and published eight papers to promote technology transfer; Shown how Rock and fluid properties are systematic and can be predicted; Shown Correct values must be used to properly calibrate deep-water seismic data; Quantified and examined the influence of deep water geometries in outcrop; Compared and evaluated hydrocarbon indicators for fluid sensitivity; Identified and documented inappropriate processing procedures; Developed inversion techniques to better distinguish hydrocarbons; Developed new processing work flows for frequency-dependent anomalies; and Evaluated and applied the effects of attenuation as an indicator. We have demonstrated that with careful calibration, direct hydrocarbon indicators can better distinguish between uneconomic ''Fizz'' gas and economic hydrocarbon reservoirs. Some of this progress comes from better characterization of fluid and rock properties. Other aspects include alternative techniques to invert surface seismic data for fluid types and saturations. We have also developed improved work flows for accurately measuring frequency dependent changes in seismic data that are predicted by seismic models, procedures that will help to more reliably identify anomalies associated with hydrocarbons. We have been prolific in publishing expanded abstracts and presenting results, particularly at the SEG. This year, we had eight such

  15. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre


    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  16. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.


    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  17. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J. (Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro (United States))


    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO[sub 2] evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans.

  18. Photocatalyzed oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolite cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    Oxidation of hydrocarbons by molecular oxygen is a key process in chemical industry. But reactions that use O{sub 2} as the primary oxidant often produce large amounts of unwanted byproducts. One major reason that selectivities are low is that the desired products (such as alcohols or carbonyls) are more easily oxidized by O{sub 2} than the parent hydrocarbon. The authors recently discovered a simple method that gives partial oxidation of small alkenes, alkanes, and alkyl-substituted benzenes by O{sub 2} at unprecedented selectivity, even at high conversion of the hydrocarbon. The approach is based on visible light-induced chemistry of hydrocarbon-O{sub 2} collisional pairs in the cages of large-pore zeolites. Reactions are conducted at ambient temperature in the absence of solvent or photosensitizer. Here the authors describe the most interesting reactions established thus far and define issues that pertain to scale-up of the method.

  19. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), anthracene in different variety of fish samples in the Bangsai river of Bangladesh. F Yeasmin, SMM Rahman, S Rana, KJ Fatema, MA Hossain ...

  20. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.


    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  1. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H


    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in

  2. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.


    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  3. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin


    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least C. and up to C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  4. Process for Photochemical Chlorination of Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Beanblossom, W S


    A process for chlorination of a major portion of the hydrogen atoms of paraffinic hydrocarbons of five or more carbon atoms may be replaced by subjecting the hydrocarbon to the action of chlorine under active light. The initial chlorination is begun at 25 to 30 deg C with the chlorine diluted with HCl. The later stages may be carried out with undiluted chlorine and the temperature gradually raised to about 129 deg C.

  5. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin


    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  6. Hydrocarbon oxidation at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnatz, J.


    In this review it is described how, by suitable separation and elimination of unimportant reactions, a mechanism is developed with the aid of the present kinetic data for the elementary reactions involved. This mechanism explains, without fitting, the currently available experimental results for laminar premixed flames of alkanes, alkenes and acetylene. These experimental results are simulated by the solution of the corresponding conservation equations with suitable models describing diffusion and heat conduction in the multicomponent mixture considered. In lean and moderately rich flames the hydrocarbon is attacked by O, H, and OH in the first step. These radicals are produced by the chain-branching steps of the oxyhydrogen reaction. The alkyl radicals formed in this way always decompose to smaller alkyl radicals by fast thermal elimination of alkenes. Only the relatively slow thermal decomposition of the smallest alkyl radicals (CH/sub 3/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 5/) competes with recombination and with oxidation reactions by O atoms and O/sub 2/. This part of the mechanism is rate-controlling in the combustion of alkanes and alkenes, and is therefore the reason for the similarity of all alkane and alkene flames.

  7. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))


    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  8. Hydrocarbon profiles throughout adult Calliphoridae aging: A promising tool for forensic entomology. (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Moore, Hannah; Drijfhout, Falko; Benbow, M Eric


    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically the first insects to arrive at human remains and carrion. Predictable succession patterns and known larval development of necrophagous insects on vertebrate remains can assist a forensic entomologist with estimates of a minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin) range. However, adult blow flies are infrequently used to estimate the PMImin, but rather are used for a confirmation of larval species identification. Cuticular hydrocarbons have demonstrated potential for estimating adult blow fly age, as hydrocarbons are present throughout blow fly development, from egg to adult, and are stable structures. The goal of this study was to identify hydrocarbon profiles associated with the adults of a North American native blow fly species, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) and a North American invasive species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Flies were reared at a constant temperature (25°C), a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) (h), and were provided water, sugar and powdered milk ad libitum. Ten adult females from each species were collected at day 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 post-emergence. Hydrocarbon compounds were extracted and then identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 37 and 35 compounds were detected from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively. There were 24 and 23 n-alkene and methyl-branched alkane hydrocarbons from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively (10 compounds were shared between species), used for statistical analysis. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the hydrocarbon profiles with significant differences (P<0.001) detected among post-emergence age cohorts for each species, and unique hydrocarbon profiles detected as each adult blow fly species aged. This work provides empirical data that serve as a foundation for future research into improving PMImin estimates made by forensic

  9. Hydrocarbon biodegradation by Arctic sea-ice and sub-ice microbial communities during microcosm experiments, Northwest Passage (Nunavut, Canada). (United States)

    Garneau, Marie-Ève; Michel, Christine; Meisterhans, Guillaume; Fortin, Nathalie; King, Thomas L; Greer, Charles W; Lee, Kenneth


    The increasing accessibility to navigation and offshore oil exploration brings risks of hydrocarbon releases in Arctic waters. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons is a promising mitigation strategy but challenges remain, particularly due to low microbial metabolic rates in cold, ice-covered seas. Hydrocarbon degradation potential of ice-associated microbes collected from the Northwest Passage was investigated. Microcosm incubations were run for 15 days at -1.7°C with and without oil to determine the effects of hydrocarbon exposure on microbial abundance, diversity and activity, and to estimate component-specific hydrocarbon loss. Diversity was assessed with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial activity was measured by (3)H-leucine uptake rates. After incubation, sub-ice and sea-ice communities degraded 94% and 48% of the initial hydrocarbons, respectively. Hydrocarbon exposure changed the composition of sea-ice and sub-ice communities; in sea-ice microcosms, Bacteroidetes (mainly Polaribacter) dominated whereas in sub-ice microcosms, the contribution of Epsilonproteobacteria increased, and that of Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. Sequencing data revealed a decline in diversity and increases in Colwellia and Moritella in oil-treated microcosms. Low concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sub-ice seawater may explain higher hydrocarbon degradation when compared to sea ice, where DOM was abundant and composed of labile exopolysaccharides. © Fisheries and Oceans Canada [2016].

  10. Hydrogen bond dynamics at the water/hydrocarbon interface. (United States)

    Chowdhary, Janamejaya; Ladanyi, Branka M


    The dynamics of hydrogen bond formation and breakage for water in the vicinity of water/hydrocarbon liquid interfaces is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Several liquid alkanes are considered as the hydrocarbon phase in order to determine the effects of their chain length and extent of branching on the properties of the adjacent water phase. In addition to defining the interface location in terms of the laboratory-frame density profiles, the effects of interfacial fluctuations are considered by locating the interface in terms of the proximity of the molecules of the other phase. We find that the hydrogen bond dynamics of interfacial water is weakly influenced by the identity of the hydrocarbon phase and by capillary waves. In addition to calculating hydrogen bond time correlations, we examine how the hydrogen bond dynamics depend on local coordination and determine the extent of cooperativity in the population relaxation of the hydrogen bonds that a given molecule participates in. The contributions of translational diffusion and reorientation of molecular O-H bonds to the mechanism of hydrogen bond breakage and reformation are investigated. In previous work, we have shown that rotation of the principal axes of water is anisotropic at the interface and depends on the initial orientation of the molecule relative to the interface. Here, we extend this analysis to the reorientation of the O-H vector and to hydrogen bond time correlation. We find that hydrogen bond dynamics are also sensitive to the initial orientation of the molecules participating in the hydrogen bond.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; O. Djordjevic


    The ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342) began September 1, 2002. During this second quarter: A Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator (DHI) symposium was held at UH; Current DHI methods were presented and forecasts made on future techniques; Dr. Han moved his laboratory from HARC to the University of Houston; Subcontracts were re-initiated with UH and TAMU; Theoretical and numerical modeling work began at TAMU; Geophysical Development Corp. agreed to provide petrophysical data; Negotiations were begun with Veritas GDC to obtain limited seismic data; Software licensing and training schedules were arranged with Paradigm; and Data selection and acquisition continues. The broad industry symposium on Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators was held at the University of Houston as part of this project. This meeting was well attended and well received. A large amount of information was presented, not only on application of the current state of the art, but also on expected future trends. Although acquisition of appropriate seismic data was expected to be a significant problem, progress has been made. A 3-D seismic data set from the shelf has been installed at Texas A&M University and analysis begun. Veritas GDC has expressed a willingness to provide data in the deep Gulf of Mexico. Data may also be available from TGS.

  12. Pharmaceuticals that contain polycyclic hydrocarbon scaffolds. (United States)

    Stockdale, Tegan P; Williams, Craig M


    Numerous variations on structural motifs exist within pharmaceutical compounds that have entered the clinic. These variations have amounted over many decades based on years of drug development associated with screening natural products and de novo synthetic systems. Caged (or bridged) bicyclic structural elements offer a variety of diverse features, encompassing three-dimensional shape, and assorted pharmacokinetic properties. This review highlights approximately 20 all carbon cage containing pharmaceuticals, ranging in structure from bicyclo[2.2.1] through to adamantane, including some in the top-selling pharmaceutical bracket. Although, a wide variety of human diseases, illnesses and conditions are treated with drugs containing the bicyclic motif, a common feature is that many of these lipophilic systems display CNS and/or neurological activity. In addition, to an extensive overview of the history and biology associated with each drug, a survey of synthetic methods used to construct these entities is presented. An analysis section compares natural products to synthetics in drug discovery, and entertains the classical caged hydrocarbon systems potentially missing from the clinic. Lastly, this unprecedented review is highly pertinent at a time when big pharma is desperately trying to escape flatland drugs.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the bakery chain. (United States)

    Ciecierska, M; Obiedziński, M W


    The level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurrence and the possibility of their formation in the bakery chain, its raw materials and final products, were examined. Experimental bread baking, with different baking temperatures, was performed in the Warsaw bakery, using cyclothermic deck ovens. PAHs determination was performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescent and diode array detectors (HPLC-FLD/DAD) and confirmed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Total content of 19 PAHs in the grain, flour and bran varied from 1.07 to 3.65 μg/kg and, in bread, from 1.59 to 13.6 μg/kg depending on the part of bread and baking temperature. Based on the dough's contamination level and the influence of the baking temperature on the bread's PAHs content, it was confirmed that PAHs are formed during baking. Considering the results of the average dietary exposure to PAHs and the MOE (Margin of Exposure) analysis, it could be concluded that analysed bread and cereal products constitute little concern for consumer health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling impacts to Arctic lake ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Thienpont

    Full Text Available Recent attention regarding the impacts of oil and gas development and exploitation has focused on the unintentional release of hydrocarbons into the environment, whilst the potential negative effects of other possible avenues of environmental contamination are less well documented. In the hydrocarbon-rich and ecologically sensitive Mackenzie Delta region (NT, Canada, saline wastes associated with hydrocarbon exploration have typically been disposed of in drilling sumps (i.e., large pits excavated into the permafrost that were believed to be a permanent containment solution. However, failure of permafrost as a waste containment medium may cause impacts to lakes in this sensitive environment. Here, we examine the effects of degrading drilling sumps on water quality by combining paleolimnological approaches with the analysis of an extensive present-day water chemistry dataset. This dataset includes lakes believed to have been impacted by saline drilling fluids leaching from drilling sumps, lakes with no visible disturbances, and lakes impacted by significant, naturally occurring permafrost thaw in the form of retrogressive thaw slumps. We show that lakes impacted by compromised drilling sumps have significantly elevated lakewater conductivity levels compared to control sites. Chloride levels are particularly elevated in sump-impacted lakes relative to all other lakes included in the survey. Paleolimnological analyses showed that invertebrate assemblages appear to have responded to the leaching of drilling wastes by a discernible increase in a taxon known to be tolerant of elevated conductivity coincident with the timing of sump construction. This suggests construction and abandonment techniques at, or soon after, sump establishment may result in impacts to downstream aquatic ecosystems. With hydrocarbon development in the north predicted to expand in the coming decades, the use of sumps must be examined in light of the threat of accelerated

  15. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling impacts to Arctic lake ecosystems. (United States)

    Thienpont, Joshua R; Kokelj, Steven V; Korosi, Jennifer B; Cheng, Elisa S; Desjardins, Cyndy; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M; Pisaric, Michael F J; Smol, John P


    Recent attention regarding the impacts of oil and gas development and exploitation has focused on the unintentional release of hydrocarbons into the environment, whilst the potential negative effects of other possible avenues of environmental contamination are less well documented. In the hydrocarbon-rich and ecologically sensitive Mackenzie Delta region (NT, Canada), saline wastes associated with hydrocarbon exploration have typically been disposed of in drilling sumps (i.e., large pits excavated into the permafrost) that were believed to be a permanent containment solution. However, failure of permafrost as a waste containment medium may cause impacts to lakes in this sensitive environment. Here, we examine the effects of degrading drilling sumps on water quality by combining paleolimnological approaches with the analysis of an extensive present-day water chemistry dataset. This dataset includes lakes believed to have been impacted by saline drilling fluids leaching from drilling sumps, lakes with no visible disturbances, and lakes impacted by significant, naturally occurring permafrost thaw in the form of retrogressive thaw slumps. We show that lakes impacted by compromised drilling sumps have significantly elevated lakewater conductivity levels compared to control sites. Chloride levels are particularly elevated in sump-impacted lakes relative to all other lakes included in the survey. Paleolimnological analyses showed that invertebrate assemblages appear to have responded to the leaching of drilling wastes by a discernible increase in a taxon known to be tolerant of elevated conductivity coincident with the timing of sump construction. This suggests construction and abandonment techniques at, or soon after, sump establishment may result in impacts to downstream aquatic ecosystems. With hydrocarbon development in the north predicted to expand in the coming decades, the use of sumps must be examined in light of the threat of accelerated permafrost thaw, and the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James


    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we have moved forward on several fronts, including data acquisition as well as analysis and application. During this quarter we have: (1) Completed our site selection (finally); (2) Measured fluid effects in Troika deep water sand sample; (3) Applied the result to Ursa ''fizz gas'' zone; (4) Compared thin layer property averaging on AVO response; (5) Developed target oriented NMO stretch correction; (6) Examined thin bed effects on A-B crossplots; and (7) Begun incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models. Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Reservoirs composed of thin bed effects will broaden the reflection amplitude distribution with incident angle. Normal move out (NMO) stretch corrections based on frequency shifts can be applied to offset this effect. Tuning will also disturb the location of extracted amplitudes on AVO intercept and gradient (A-B) plots. Many deep water reservoirs fall this tuning thickness range. Our goal for the remaining project period is to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration.

  17. Fingerprinting aliphatic hydrocarbon pollutants over agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery. (United States)

    Bayat, Javad; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein; Khoshbakht, Korros; Deihimfard, Reza


    The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are composed of n-alkanes as well as branched and cyclic alkanes, can be used to distinguish between the sources of hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons, soil pH, and organic matter in agricultural soils located south of Tehran were monitored. Eighty-three soil samples were taken from two depth ranges of 0-30 and 30-60 cm. The results showed that aliphatic compounds ranged from 0.22-68.11 mg kg(-1) at the top to 0.33-53.18 mg kg(-1) at subsoil. The amount of hydrocarbons increases from the northern parts toward the south, and hydrocarbon pollutants originated from both petroleum and non-petroleum sources. Higher concentrations of aliphatic compounds in the southern parts indicated that, aside from the practice of irrigating with untreated wastewater, leakage from oil refinery storage tanks possibly contributed to soil pollution. The results also showed that several sources have polluted the agricultural soils. It is necessary to develop a new local pollution criterion as a diagnostic index that includes not only hydrocarbons but also other parameters such as heavy metal content in both soil and untreated wastewater, surface runoff, and other irrigation water resources to determine the exact origin of pollution.

  18. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur


    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  19. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants. (United States)

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami


    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  20. The bacterial community structure of hydrocarbon-polluted marine environments as the basis for the definition of an ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure. (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; Marcos, Magalí S; Commendatore, Marta G; Gil, Mónica N; Dionisi, Hebe M


    The aim of this study was to design a molecular biological tool, using information provided by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, that could be suitable for environmental assessment and bioremediation in marine ecosystems. We selected 63 bacterial genera that were previously linked to hydrocarbon biodegradation, representing a minimum sample of the bacterial guild associated with this process. We defined an ecological indicator (ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure, EIHE) using the relative abundance values of these genera obtained by pyrotag analysis. This index reflects the proportion of the bacterial community that is potentially capable of biodegrading hydrocarbons. When the bacterial community structures of intertidal sediments from two sites with different pollution histories were analyzed, 16 of the selected genera (25%) were significantly overrepresented with respect to the pristine site, in at least one of the samples from the polluted site. Although the relative abundances of individual genera associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation were generally low in samples from the polluted site, EIHE values were 4 times higher than those in the pristine sample, with at least 5% of the bacterial community in the sediments being represented by the selected genera. EIHE values were also calculated in other oil-exposed marine sediments as well as in seawater using public datasets from experimental systems and field studies. In all cases, the EIHE was significantly higher in oiled than in unpolluted samples, suggesting that this tool could be used as an estimator of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of microbial communities.

  1. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry


    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of fossil hydrocarbons and their conversion products in Posidonia shale soils (Ith-Hils trough); Quantitative und qualitative Analyse von fossilen Kohlenwasserstoffen und ihren Umwandlungsprodukten in Boeden aus Posidonienschiefer (Ith-Hils-Mulde)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramedei, R.


    Samples of unaltered Posidenra skale out of shallow wells were compared with samples of weathered persidonia stale from soils in order to investigate the conversion of the organic material by weathering and the soil burden of geogenic hydrocarbons from carbonaceons rocks. (orig./EF). [Deutsch] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Proben des unverwitterten Posidonienschiefers der Flachbohrungen mit denen des verwitterten Posidonienschiefers der Boeden verglichen, um die Umsetzung des organischen Materials durch die Verwitterung und die Belastung von Boeden durch geogene Kohlenwasserstoffe aus kohlenstoffreichen Gesteinen zu untersuchen. (orig./EF).

  3. Assessment of five bioaccessibility assays for predicting the efficacy of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in aged contaminated soils. (United States)

    Dandie, Catherine E; Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Adetutu, Eric M; Ball, Andy S; Juhasz, Albert L


    In this study, the bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in aged contaminated soils (1.6-67gkg(-1)) was assessed using four non-exhaustive extraction techniques (100% 1-butanol, 100% 1-propanol, 50% 1-propanol in water and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) and the persulfate oxidation method. Using linear regression analysis, residual hydrocarbon concentrations following bioaccessibility assessment were compared to residual hydrocarbon concentrations following biodegradation in laboratory-scale microcosms in order to determine whether bioaccessibility assays can predict the endpoint of hydrocarbon biodegradation. The relationship between residual hydrocarbon concentrations following microcosm biodegradation and bioaccessibility assessment was linear (r(2)=0.71-0.97) indicating that bioaccessibility assays have the potential to predict the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation. However, the slope of best fit varied depending on the hydrocarbon fractional range assessed. For the C(10)-C(14) hydrocarbon fraction, the slope of best fit ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 indicating that the non-exhaustive or persulfate oxidation methods removed 3.5-8 times more hydrocarbons than biodegradation. Conversely, for the higher molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions (C(29)-C(36) and C(37)-C(40)), biodegradation removed up to 3.3 times more hydrocarbons compared to bioaccessibility assays with the resulting slope of best fit ranging from 1.0-1.9 to 2.0-3.3 respectively. For mid-range hydrocarbons (C(15)-C(28)), a slope of approximately one was obtained indicating that C(15)-C(28) hydrocarbon removal by these bioaccessibility assays may approximate the extent of biodegradation. While this study demonstrates the potential of predicting biodegradation endpoints using bioaccessibility assays, limitations of the study include a small data set and that all soils were collected from a single site, presumably resulting from a single contamination source. Further evaluation and validation is

  4. A polyphasic approach for assessing the suitability of bioremediation for the treatment of hydrocarbon-impacted soil. (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Smith, Renee J; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Mitchell, James G; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L


    Bioremediation strategies, though widely used for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, suffer from lack of biodegradation endpoint accountability. To address this limitation, molecular approaches of alkB gene analysis and pyrosequencing were combined with chemical approaches of bioaccessibility and nutrient assays to assess contaminant degrading capacity and develop a strategy for endpoint biodegradation predictions. In long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil containing 10.3 g C10-C36 hydrocarbons kg(-1), 454 pyrosequencing detected the overrepresentation of potential hydrocarbon degrading genera such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Mycobacterium and Gordonia whilst amplicons for PCR-DGGE were detected only with alkB primers targeting Pseudomonas. This indicated the presence of potential microbial hydrocarbon degradation capacity in the soil. Using non-exhaustive extraction methods of 1-propanol and HP-β-CD for hydrocarbon bioaccessibility assessment combined with biodegradation endpoint predictions with linear regression models, we estimated 33.7% and 46.7% hydrocarbon removal respectively. These predictions were validated in pilot scale studies using an enhanced natural attenuation strategy which resulted in a 46.4% reduction in soil hydrocarbon content after 320 days. When predicted biodegradation endpoints were compared to measured values, there was no significant difference (P=0.80) when hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed with HP-β-CD. These results indicate that a combination of molecular and chemical techniques that inform microbial diversity, functionality and chemical bioaccessibility can be valuable tools for assessing the suitability of bioremediation strategies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photochemistry on Pluto - I. Hydrocarbons and aerosols (United States)

    Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Mandt, Kathleen; Jessup, Kandis-Lea; Kammer, Joshua; Hue, Vincent; Hamel, Mark; Filwett, Rachael


    In light of the recent New Horizons flyby measurements, we present a coupled ion-neutral-photochemistry model developed for simulating the atmosphere of Pluto. Our model results closely match the observed density profiles of CH4, N2 and the C2 hydrocarbons in the altitude range where available New Horizons measurements are most accurate (above ∼100-200 km). We found a high eddy coefficient of 106 cm2 s-1 from the surface to an altitude of 150 km, and 3 × 106 cm2 s-1 above 150 km for Pluto's atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that C2 hydrocarbons must stick to and be removed by aerosol particles in order to reproduce the C2 profiles observed by New Horizons. Incorporation into aerosols in Pluto's atmosphere is a significantly more effective process than condensation, and we found that condensation alone cannot account for the observed shape of the vertical profiles. We empirically determined the sticking efficiency of C2 hydrocarbons to aerosol particles as a function of altitude, and found that the sticking efficiency of C2 hydrocarbons is inversely related to the aerosol surface area. Aerosols must harden and become less sticky as they age in Pluto's atmosphere. Such hardening with ageing is both necessary and sufficient to explain the vertical profiles of C2 hydrocarbons in Pluto's atmosphere. This result is in agreement with the fundamental idea of aerosols hardening as they age, as proposed for Titan's aerosols.

  6. Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks. (United States)

    French, Katherine L; Hallmann, Christian; Hope, Janet M; Schoon, Petra L; Zumberge, J Alex; Hoshino, Yosuke; Peters, Carl A; George, Simon C; Love, Gordon D; Brocks, Jochen J; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E


    Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from the Pilbara Craton, Australia, that were drilled and sampled using unprecedented hydrocarbon-clean protocols. Hopanes and steranes in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates from these new cores were typically at or below our femtogram detection limit, but when they were detectable, they had total hopane (hydrocarbons and diamondoids, which exceed blank concentrations, exhibit individual concentrations up to 80 ng per gram of rock in rock extracts and up to 1,000 ng per gram of rock in hydropyrolysates from the ultraclean cores. These results demonstrate that previously studied Archean samples host mixtures of biomarker contaminants and indigenous overmature hydrocarbons. Therefore, existing lipid biomarker evidence cannot be invoked to support the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes by ∼ 2.7 billion years ago. Although suitable Proterozoic rocks exist, no currently known Archean strata lie within the appropriate thermal maturity window for syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarker preservation, so future exploration for Archean biomarkers should screen for rocks with milder thermal histories.

  7. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.


    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  8. Coliform Bacteria for Bioremediation of Waste Hydrocarbons (United States)


    Raw, domestic sewage of Kuwait City contained about 106 ml−1 colony forming units of Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae (56.6%), Klebsiella spp. (36%), and Escherichia coli (7.4%), as characterized by their 16S rRNA-gene sequences. The isolated coliforms grew successfully on a mineral medium with crude oil vapor as a sole source of carbon and energy. Those strains also grew, albeit to different degrees, on individual n-alkanes with carbon chains between C9 and C36 and on the individual aromatic hydrocarbons, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl as sole sources of carbon and energy. These results imply that coliforms, like other hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, oxidize hydrocarbons to the corresponding alcohols and then to aldehydes and fatty acids which are biodegraded by β-oxidation to acetyl CoA. The latter is a well-known key intermediate in cell material and energy production. E. coli cells grown in the presence of n-hexadecane (but not in its absence) exhibited typical intracellular hydrocarbon inclusions, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Raw sewage samples amended with crude oil, n-hexadecane, or phenanthrene lost these hydrocarbons gradually with time. Meanwhile, the numbers of total and individual coliforms, particularly Enterobacter, increased. It was concluded that coliform bacteria in domestic sewage, probably in other environmental materials too, are effective hydrocarbon-biodegrading microorganisms. PMID:29082238

  9. Biological treatment with mass balance analysis for two types of groundwaters contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and tetrachloroethylene; Sekiyukei tanka suiso oyobi tetrachloroethylene osen chikasui no seibutsu shori ni okeru busshitsu shushi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogure, K. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan); Kuraishi, J.; Tsuchiya, Y. [Nishihara Environmental Sanitation Research Corp., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A depollution experiment with microbial decomposition was carried out on simulated groundwaters contaminated by a jet fuel (JP-4) composed of petroleum hydrocarbons as the main constituent and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). An aerobic batch reactor (SBR) was used for a purification experiment on the JP-4 contaminated groundwater. An anaerobic batch reactor (AnSBR) connected with the SBR in series was used for a purification experiment on the PCE contaminated groundwater. For microbe sources, the Formulation L-104 and sludge in a sludge digestion tank were used. The following conclusions were obtained as the result of the experiment: 98-99% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons existing in the simulated JP-4 contaminated water is decomposed by the biological treatment, and 0.06-1.3% thereof is discharged in the treated water; and in the depollution experiment on the PCE using the AnSBR reactor connected with the SBR in series, a PCE removal rate of 99.2% was obtained in a PEC load with 35.1{mu}mol per cycle in average. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Paleozoic Hydrocarbon-Seep Limestones (United States)

    Peckmann, J.


    To date, five Paleozoic hydrocarbon-seep limestones have been recognized based on carbonate fabrics, associated fauna, and stable carbon isotopes. These are the Middle Devonian Hollard Mound from the Antiatlas of Morocco [1], Late Devonian limestone lenses with the dimerelloid brachiopod Dzieduszyckia from the Western Meseta of Morocco [2], Middle Mississippian limestones with the dimerelloid brachiopod Ibergirhynchia from the Harz Mountains of Germany [3], Early Pennsylvanian limestones from the Tantes Mound in the High Pyrenees of France [4], and Late Pennsylvanian limestone lenses from the Ganigobis Shale Member of southern Namibia [5]. Among these examples, the composition of seepage fluids varied substantially as inferred from delta C-13 values of early diagenetic carbonate phases. Delta C-13 values as low as -50 per mil from the Tantes Mound and -51 per mil from the Ganigobis limestones reveal seepage of biogenic methane, whereas values of -12 per mil from limestones with Dzieduszyckia associated with abundant pyrobitumen agree with oil seepage. Intermediate delta C-13 values of carbonate cements from the Hollard Mound and Ibergirhynchia deposits probably reflect seepage of thermogenic methane. It is presently very difficult to assess the faunal evolution at seeps in the Paleozoic based on the limited number of examples. Two of the known seeps were typified by extremely abundant rhynchonellide brachiopods of the superfamily Dimerelloidea. Bivalve mollusks and tubeworms were abundant at two of the known Paleozoic seep sites; one was dominated by bivalve mollusks (Hollard Mound, Middle Devonian), another was dominated by tubeworms (Ganigobis Shale Member, Late Pennsylvanian). The tubeworms from these two deposits are interpreted to represent vestimentiferan worms, based on studies of the taphonomy of modern vestimentiferans. However, this interpretation is in conflict with the estimated evolutionary age of vestimentiferans based on molecular clock methods

  11. Chemometric characterization of the hydrogen bonding complexes of secondary amides and aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Branislav


    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of the study of hydrogen bonding complexes between secondary amides and various aromatic hydrocarbons. The possibility of using chemometric methods was investigated in order to characterize N-H•••π hydrogen bonded complexes. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA have been applied on infrared spectroscopic and Taft parameters of 43 N-substituted amide complexes with different aromatic hydrocarbons. Results obtained in this report are in good agreement with conclusions of other spectroscopic and thermodynamic analysis.

  12. The effects of group type and young silverbacks on wounding rates in western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) groups in North American zoos. (United States)

    Leeds, Austin; Boyer, Dawn; Ross, Stephen R; Lukas, Kristen E


    In North American zoos, male gorillas are often housed in all-male (bachelor) groups to provide socialization for males not managed in breeding groups. These groups exhibit long-term cohesion and stability and males in bachelor groups are no more aggressive than males in mixed-sex groups. Previous studies have shown that aggression in male gorillas is more directly related to age rather than group type, with young silverbacks (YSB; males 14-20 years of age) having higher rates of aggressive behavior than males of other age classes. Despite this, anecdotal reports have persisted that bachelor groups have higher wounding rates than mixed-sex groups. To assess wounding in zoo-housed gorillas, all instances of wounding across 28 zoos (180 gorillas, 45 social groups) were recorded over a 26 months period via a standardized data sheet. Similar to previous reports, we found age to be an important determinant in wounding. Bachelor groups that contained YSB's had significantly more wounds than bachelor groups without YSB's (U = 14.0, z = -2.193, P = 0.029). There was no difference in wounding rates between mixed-sex and bachelor groups without YSB's (U = 69.5, z = -0.411, P = 0.689). These data further demonstrate the importance of behavioral management of YSB's in zoos and the viability of bachelor groups as a long-term housing solution for male gorillas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle


    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  14. Development of an analysis method for determining chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine sediments and suspended matter giving particular consideration to supercritical fluid extraction; Entwicklung eines Analysenverfahrens zur Bestimmung von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen in marinen Sedimenten und Schwebstoffen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der ueberkritischen Fluidextraktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzenbach, D.


    The purpose of the present study was to develop an analysis method for chlorinate hydrocarbons in marine environments using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) instead of conventional approaches. In order to apply this extraction method the available SFE device had to be extended and all the individual steps of the analysis method had to be optimised and adapted. As chlorinated hydrocarbons only occur at very low concentrations in marine environments (ppm to ppt range) the analysis method had to be extremely sensitive. High sensitivity, in town, is generally associated with a high susceptibility of an analysis method to faults through contamination or losses. This meant that the entire method and all its individual steps had to scrutinised for such weak points and improved where necessary. A method for sampling suspended matter in marine environments had to be developed which permits efficient separation of the smallest possible particles from seawater. The designated purpose of the developed analysis method is to deal with topical aspects of marine chemistry relating to sources, transport, distribution, and the fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine environments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist, ein Analysenverfahren fuer chlorierte Kohlenwasserstoffe in der marinen Umwelt zu entwickeln. Dabei soll die ueberkritische Fluidextraktion (SFE) anstelle herkoemmlicher Verfahren eingesetzt werden. Fuer die Anwendung dieser Extraktionsmethode ist es erforderlich, das zur Verfuegung stehende SFE-Geraet zu erweitern und saemtliche Teilschritte des Analysenverfahrens zu optimieren und auf diese Methode abzustimmen. Der Umstand, dass die chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe nur in sehr geringen Konzentrationen in der marinen Umwelt vorkommen (ppm- bis ppt-Bereich), erfordert eine sehr hohe Empfindlichkeit des Analysenverfahrens. Eine hohe Empfindlichkeit bedingt eine grosse Stoeranfaelligkeit des Analysenverfahrens durch Kontaminationen oder Verluste. Aus

  15. Atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons: Formation of hydroperoxides and peroxyacids (United States)

    Hanst, Philip L.; Gay, Bruch W.

    Hydrocarbons at ppm levels in air have been oxidized in the absence of nitrogen oxides. Chlorine atoms served as initiators of the oxidations. Infrared analysis showed alkyl hydroperoxides to be formed early in the oxidation sequences. Aldehydes and ketones were also formed, followed by the appearance of peroxyacids. Peroxyacetic acid was found to be an especially stable reaction product. Laboratory rate data and recent atmospheric measurements of NO, NO 2 and HO 2 indicate that hydroperoxides and peroxyacids are also formed in the real atmosphere.

  16. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee


    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin


    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  18. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul


    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  19. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  20. Prediction of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins (United States)

    Harff, J.E.; Davis, J.C.; Eiserbeck, W.


    To estimate the undiscovered hydrocarbon potential of sedimentary basins, quantitative play assessments specific for each location in a region may be obtained using geostatistical methods combined with the theory of classification of geological objects, a methodology referred to as regionalization. The technique relies on process modeling and measured borehole data as well as probabilistic methods to exploit the relationship between geology (the "predictor") and known hydrocarbon productivity (the "target") to define prospective stratigraphic intervals within a basin. It is demonstrated in case studies from the oil-producing region of the western Kansas Pennsylvanian Shelf and the gas-bearing Rotliegend sediments of the Northeast German Basin. ?? 1993 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  1. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray


    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  2. Activation of hydrocarbons and the octane number (United States)

    Peschard, Marcel


    This report presents an examination of the history of research on engine knocking and the various types of fuels used in the investigations of this phenomenon. According to this report, the spontaneous ignition of hydrocarbons doped with oxygen follows the logarithmic law within a certain temperature range, but not above 920 degrees K. Having extended the scope of investigations to prove hydrocarbons, the curves of the mixtures burned by air should then be established by progressive replacement of pure iso-octane with heptane. Pentane was also examined in this report.

  3. Hydrocarbonization of coal in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Miller, C.L.


    Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple method of producing oil, substitute natural gas, and devolatilized char from coal. Oil and gas yields have been determined for hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.10-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 850 K. Subbituminous coal and bituminous coal that was pretreated with CaO, NaOH, and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to eliminate agglomeration was used. Oil yields up to 21% (based on moisture- and ash-free coal) were achieved. Data on the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

  4. Environmental Remediation: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistent semi-volatile organic compounds. They are contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods due to their high degree of conjugation, and aromaticity. PAHs are present in industrial effluents as products of incomplete combustion processes of organic compounds. Petroleum, coal and shale oil contain extremely complex mixtures of these PAHs, and their transport and refining process can also result in the release of PAHs. It is therefore prudent that such effluents are treated before discharge into the environment. In this project, different approaches to the treatment of PAHs have been investigated. Hydrous pyrolysis has been explored as a potential technique for degrading PAHs in water using anthracene as a model compound. The experiments were performed under different conditions of temperature, substrate, redox systems and durations. The conditions include oxidising systems comprising pure water, hydrogen peroxide and Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts to assess a range of reactivities. Products observed in GCMS analysis of the extract from the water phase include anthrone, anthraquinone, xanthone and multiple hydro-anthracene derivatives (Paper I). In addition a modified version of the Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water oxidising system was tested; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts were adopted for the conversion of a mixture of anthracene, fluorene and fluoranthene. The rate of conversion in the mixture was high as compared to that of only anthracene (Paper II). Also the use of LECA (Lightweight expanded clay aggregates) as an adsorbent (Paper III) for PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) removal from water has been.(Author)

  5. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S


    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  6. Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and enrichment laws of multi-layered reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang


    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin represents the earliest area where natural gas is explored, developed and comprehensively utilized in China. After over 50 years of oil and gas exploration, oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in 24 gas-dominant layers in this basin. For the purpose of predicting natural gas exploration direction and target of each layer in the Sichuan Basin, the sedimentary characteristics of marine and continental strata in this basin were summarized and the forms of multi-cycled tectonic movement and their controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the following characteristics were identified. First, the Sichuan Basin has experienced the transformation from marine sedimentation to continental sedimentation since the Sinian with the former being dominant. Second, multiple source–reservoir assemblages are formed based on multi-rhythmed deposition, and multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics are vertically presented. And third, multi-cycled tectonic movement appears in many forms and has a significant controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation. Then, oil and gas reservoir characteristics and enrichment laws were investigated. It is indicated that the Sichuan Basin is characterized by coexistence of conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon supply, multiple reservoir types, multiple trap types, multi-staged hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple hydrocarbon accumulation models. Besides, its natural gas enrichment is affected by hydrocarbon source intensity, large paleo-uplift, favorable sedimentary facies belt, sedimentary–structural discontinuity plane and structural fracture development. Finally, the natural gas exploration and research targets of each layer in the Sichuan Basin were predicted according to the basic petroleum geologic conditions

  7. A study of light hydrocarbons (C{sub 4}-C{sub 1}3) in source rocks and petroleum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odden, Wenche


    This thesis consists of an introduction and five included papers. Of these, four papers are published in international journals and the fifth was submitted for review in April 2000. Emphasis has been placed on both naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons in petroleum fluids and their proposed source rocks as well as direct application of light hydrocarbons to oil/source rock correlations. Collectively, these papers describe a strategy for interpreting the source of the light hydrocarbons in original oils and condensates as well as the source of the asphaltene fractions from the reservoir fluids. The influence of maturity on light hydrocarbon composition has also been evaluated. The papers include (1) compositional data on the light hydrocarbons from thermal extracts and kerogen pyrolysates of sediment samples, (2) light hydrocarbon data of oils and condensates as well as the pyrolysis products of the asphaltenes from these fluids, (3) assessment of compositional alteration effects, such as selective losses of light hydrocarbons due to evaporation, thermal maturity, phase fractionation and biodegradation, (4) comparison of naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons, and (5) compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of the whole range of hydrocarbons of all sample types. (author)

  8. Monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in surface waters by a direct comparison of fluorescence spectroscopy and remote sensing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Domenico, L.; Crisafi, E. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Messina (Italy). Thalassografic Inst.); Magazzu, G. (Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biology); Puglisi, A. (Mediterranean Oceanological Centre (CEOM), Palermo (Italy)); La Rosa, A. (Air-Survey, Italy s.r.l., Catania (Italy))


    Oil pollution levels were estimated using simultaneous acquisition of data from remote sensing by helicopter and fluorescence spectroscopy on surface samples. Laboratory quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons was used to calibrate remotely sensed data. The data were treated using a computer to generate a colour-coded map not attainable with conventional methods representing seawater pollution. Results were in good agreement and indicated that remotely sensed data together with those achieved by fluorescence spectroscopy are applicable for monitoring hydrocarbon pollution. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 172.884 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 172.884... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.884 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use in...

  11. 21 CFR 573.740 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 573.740... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.740 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons complying with § 172.884(a) and (b) of this chapter may be safely used in an amount not in excess...

  12. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)


    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 52.777 - Control strategy: photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (United States)


    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.777 Section 52.777 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy: photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter... for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Region by May 31...

  14. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (United States)

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  15. Selection of ionic liquids for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Podt, J.G.; de Haan, A.B.


    The separation of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes) from C4 to C10 aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures is challenging since these hydrocarbons have boiling points in a close range and several combinations form azeotropes. In this work, we investigated the separation of

  16. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 86.521-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.521-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibration. The...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1221-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1221-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations. (a) Initial and periodic...

  20. 40 CFR 86.331-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86....331-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The following steps are followed in sequence to calibrate the hydrocarbon analyzer. It is suggested, but not required, that efforts be made to minimize relative response...

  1. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to a...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  3. Trace Metals and Volatile Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    knowledge of this hydrocarbon and non hydrocarbon contents and their behaviour when discharged on shore is very useful in the decontamination and effective management of the affected environment. (Osuji and. Achugasim, 2007). An important group of the hydrocarbon content of crude oil is the Benzene Toluene.

  4. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  5. Associated petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals of an oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of 1.13×105±2.91 ×104 mg/kg of the affected soil revealed a high level of petroleum hydrocarbon ... aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with naphthalene which may actually be oxidized before many saturates which are the most prone to biodegradation and attenuation, while

  6. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  7. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.


    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate.

  8. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. In this study, two bacterial strains were isolated from a contaminated soil of a refinery of Arzew (Oran). The isolated strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P3) and Pseudomonas fluoresens (P4).

  9. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 13, 2014 ... Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from Pleurotus ostreatus in agricultural soils. A. Mauricio-Gutiérrez1, T. Jiménez-Salgado2, A. Tapia-Hernández2, J. Cavazos-Arroyo1 and. B. Pérez-Armendáriz1*. 1Interdisciplinary Research and Consulting, Autonomus Popular University of State ...

  10. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 18, 2010 ... de hidrocarburos en el suelo de playas de presa agua de mina. Texistepec, Veracruz. Tesis de Licenciatura. División Académica de. Ciencias Biológicas. Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. p. 51. Atlas RM (1986). Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the environment,. In: Enviromental biotechnology ...

  11. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ter and its facies are considered very important while evaluating source rock potential. These types of organic matter must be identified and distin- guished, for different types of organic matter have different hydrocarbon potentials and products. The dispersed organic matter is classified in to various categories depending on ...

  12. Accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon waste. (United States)

    Ward, Owen; Singh, Ajay; Van Hamme, J


    Conventional landfarming approaches to bioremediation of refinery and other petroleum sludges are not acceptable environmentally and are banned in most North American jurisdictions. While initial bioreactor-based systems for treatment of these sludges required batch-cycle process-times of 1-3 months, an accelerated process has now been developed which can be completed in 10-12 days. In this process, up to 99% of total petroleum hydrocarbons are degraded and the sludges are converted from hazardous to non-hazardous according to the United States EPA's toxicity characteristic leachate procedure criteria. Understanding and exploiting mechanisms to improve hydrocarbon accession to the degrading microorganisms was a key development component of the process. Contrasting physiological mechanisms were observed for different component organisms of the mixed culture with respect to their associations with the hydrocarbon substrate; and the beneficial effects of using surfactants were demonstrated. The mixed culture used in the process exhibited a capacity for high-rate degradation of volatile organic carbons and the potential use of the culture as a liquid biofilter was demonstrated. The culture was also effective as an inoculant for the bioaugmentation of total petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and as a de-emulsifier of oilfield emulsions and could transform some other environmental contaminants which are not predominant components of crude oil.

  13. Predicting the Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the prediction of biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using a mixture of naphthalene; anthracene and pyrene in a continuously stirred tank reactor by an artificial neural network. Artificial neural networks are relatively crude electronic networks of "neurons" whose operations are based ...

  14. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability of freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability and growth profile of indigenous filamentous freshwater fungi from four (4) different streams were determined in vitro. The result indicated that the streams under investigation contained an average heterotrophic fungal count of 5.55 0.25x105 cfu ml-1 while the mean count of ...

  16. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted systems: Exploiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The irrepressible quest for a cheap source of energy to meet the extensive global industrialization demand has expanded the frontiers of petroleum hydrocarbon exploration. These exploration activities amongst others often result in pollution of the environment, thus creating serious imbalance in the biotic and abiotic ...

  17. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was then mixed in a ratio ...

  18. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  19. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 5. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate catalyzed by manganese(III) tetra-arylporphyrins, to study the axial ligation of imidazole. Reza Tayebee. Volume 118 Issue 5 September 2006 pp 429-433 ...

  20. Superlattice configurations in linear chain hydrocarbon binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monoclinic, monoclinic-monoclinic) are realizable, because of discrete orientational changes in the alignment of molecules of -C28H58 hydrocarbon, through an angle , where = 1, 2, 3 … and angle has an average value of 3.3°.

  1. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica


    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory studies were carried out to assess the bacterial population dynamics and distribution in composite soil samples collected from five (5) different automobile workshops at various locations (Ikpa road, Nwaniba road, Udi street, Idakokpo lane and Mechanic village) within Uyo metropolis. The hydrocarbon utilizing ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil and implies ... biodegradation. Obahiagbon and Erhabor [4] compared with the effectiveness of treating refinery wastewater with pseudomonas and that of using Fusarium, and found the latter ... the study were to determine the effects.

  4. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy. Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. *1. IWUOHA, G;. 1. ORUBITE, O;. 1. OKITE I. 1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Port Harcourt. ABSTRACT: This article is focused ...

  5. A method for isolating aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, N.F.; Feofilov, Ye.Ye.; Nesterchuk, G.T.; Yablochkina, M.N.; Yakushkin, M.I.


    A method is proposed for separating aromatic hydrocarbons (ArU) from their mixtures with nonaromatic through extraction using cyanethylated semiformals of methyl alcohol with additives of polar substances, for instance, water or glycol in a volume of up to 20 percent at a temperature from -15 to +30 degrees.

  6. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles. (United States)

    Botella-Cruz, María; Villastrigo, Adrián; Pallarés, Susana; López-Gallego, Elena; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa


    Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae), using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae) compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae). Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  7. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.


    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and crabs in the mangrove ecosystems of Zanzibar. Sediments and crabs from eight sampling sites were analysed for eleven selected PAHs. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonication, ...

  9. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo


    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  10. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    can be degraded by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria and microalgae. However, bacteria are the most active agents in petroleum degradation, and they .... them use the hydrocarbons as substrates (Thenmozhi et al., 2012). These findings have revealed that there is an appreciable population of active ...

  11. 6 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and.

  12. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  13. Biosurfactant-enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude biosurfactant extract produced by two microbial isolates, Pseudomonas mallei and Pseudomonas pseudomallei were used to enhance the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in a mangrove swamp in Nigeria. Nutrient application in combination with biosurfactants showed very significant ...

  14. Controlling Hydrocarbon Emissions from Tank Vessel Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... of Hydrocarbon Vapors from Ships and Barges Marine Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1987 i Copyrightthe true use are Please breaks Page inserted. accidentally typesetting been have may original the from errors not the retained, typographic book, paper some orig...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, Jan; Poolman, Bert; de Bont, J.A.M.

    Microbial transformations of cyclic hydrocarbons have received much attention during the past three decades. Interest in the degradation of environmental pollutants as well as in applications of microorganisms in the catalysis of chemical reactions has stimulated research in this nl ea. The

  16. The sulfurous compounds consisting of hydrocarbon fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.В. Медвєдєва


    Full Text Available  The sulfurous compounds have been studied and their negative influence on operation properties of the oil and products of its processing have been described. Basic methods of definition of the hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans in the hydrocarbon fuels have been shown.

  17. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  18. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of sunlight on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of Agbabu natural bitumen in Nigeria was investigated. The raw flow type of the bitumen was purified and exposed to sunlight for six consecutive months. Different portions of the bitumen were withdrawn at an interval of one month and were ...

  19. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich


    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  20. Prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recalcitrant pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are difficult to degrade and have been the focus for biodegradation. They form a class of pollutant on a global scale. In an attempt to contribute to the search for suitable microbial culture with potential to biodegrade low and high molecular weight PAHs ...

  1. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil production activities take place were analyzed for the presence of 16 US EPA priority polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) namely: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, ...

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by laccase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laccase enzyme was produced from an isolate of the white rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum Chaaim-001 BCU. The enzyme was subsequently evaluated for its degradative ability towards sixteen types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The G. lucidum laccase degraded antracene completely with or without a ...

  3. Measurements of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was designed to examine the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soot deposited at the Mariannhill toll plaza situated on the N3 highway in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were collected from the toll plaza either by scraping the toll booth walls and surrounding areas, or by wiping ...

  4. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao


    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James


    We are now entering the final stages of our ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342). We have now developed several techniques to help distinguish economic hydrocarbon deposits from false ''Fizz'' gas signatures. These methods include using the proper in situ rock and fluid properties, evaluating interference effects on data, and doing better constrained inversions for saturations. We are testing these techniques now on seismic data from several locations in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we are examining the use of seismic attenuation as indicated by frequency shifts below potential reservoirs. During this quarter we have: Began our evaluation of our latest data set over the Neptune Field; Developed software for computing composite reflection coefficients; Designed and implemented stochastic turbidite reservoir models; Produced software & work flow to improve frequency-dependent AVO analysis; Developed improved AVO analysis for data with low signal-to-noise ratio; and Examined feasibility of detecting fizz gas using frequency attenuation. Our focus on technology transfer continues, both by generating numerous presentations for the upcoming SEG annual meeting, and by beginning our planning for our next DHI minisymposium next spring.

  6. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region - II. Sedimentary diterpenoid, steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons (United States)

    Barrick, Robert C.; Hedges, John I.


    Cyclic components of the 'aliphatic' hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from Puget Sound sediment cores include a suite of C 19 and C 20 diterpenoid hydrocarbons of which fichtelite. sandaracopimaradiene, and isopimaradiene have been identified. Although apparently also derived from vascular plants, these diterpenoid hydrocarbons have relative abundances distinctly different from the co-existing plant wax n-alkane suite. Five C 27, C 28 and C 29 diasteranes and four C 29, C 30 and C 31 17α(H), 21β(H) hopanes occur in relatively constant proportion as components of a highly weathered fossil hydrocarbon assemblage. These chromatographically resolved cycloalkanes. along with the strongly covarying unresolved complex mixture, have been introduced to Puget Sound sediments from adjacent urban centres at increasing levels over the last 100 yr in the absence of any major oil spill. Naturally-occurring triterpenoid hydrocarbons, including hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene), are also present. A new group of C 30 polyenes has been detected which contains compounds apparently structurally related to a co-existing bicyclic C 25 diene and to C 20 and C 25 acyclic multibranched hydrocarbons described in a previous paper ( BARRICK et al., 1980).

  7. Study of hydrocarbon--shale interaction. Progress report No. 1, July 1, 1976--October 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettler, P.D. Jr.


    Work on Hydrocarbon-Shale Interaction at Juniata College from June 1, 1976 through September 30, 1976 is summarized. Work was accomplished in the following areas: constrictive and geometric effects associated with gas production from shale wells, diffusion constants, hydrocarbon gas analysis, adsorption isotherms and powder x-ray diffraction. A bibliography on adsorption and diffusion in shale was prepared and is included. A detailed description of the procedures used in construction and calibration of the apparatus used for sorption measurements is included. All experimental work was done on cores from Well No. 20403 in Lincoln County, West Virginia.

  8. Dioxin increases the interaction between aryl hydrocarbon receptor and estrogen receptor alpha at human promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shaaima; Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin Gustav


    Recent studies have shown that activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) induced the recruitment of estrogen receptor- (ER ) to AHR-regulated genes and that AHR is recruited to ER -regulated genes. However, these findings were limited to a small number of well-characterized AHR- or ER -responsive...... regions bound by both AHR and ER . Conventional and sequential ChIPs confirmed the recruitment of AHR and ER to many of the identified regions. Transcription factor binding site analysis revealed an overrepresentation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor response elements in regions bound by both AHR and ER...

  9. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.


    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  10. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX) (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.


    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  11. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China. (United States)

    Li, Chun-Quan; Chen, Hong-Han; Li, Si-Tian; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Chen, Han-Lin


    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was characterized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematic analysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions under UV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoir indicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings occurred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya, respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian.

  12. Quantification and evaluation of safety risks related to the use of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerwen, R.J.M.; Verwoerd, M. [Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)


    Models and techniques for the quantification and evaluation of safety aspects related to the use of ammonia and hydrocarbons as working fluids are discussed. TNO has been working with Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) for a number of years, and have applied the advanced models in many case studies. 9 refs.

  13. Analytical system for stable carbon isotope measurements of low molecular weight (C2-C6) hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.; Holzinger, R.; Roeckmann, T.


    We present setup, testing and initial results from a new automated system for stable carbon isotope ratio measurements on C2 to C6 atmospheric hydrocarbons. The inlet system allows analysis of trace gases from air samples ranging from a few liters for urban samples and samples with high mixing

  14. Occurrence and sources of particulate nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Poulsen, M.W.B.; Nielsen, T.


    The occurrence of selected nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) associated with atmospheric particulate matter has been investigated at an urban site and at a semi-rural site. For this purpose an analysis method based on gas chromatography and tandem ion trap mass spectrometry has...

  15. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked fish using pressurized liquid extraction with integrated fat removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mette; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Jan H.


    Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish products often requires multiple clean-up steps to remove fat and other compounds that may interfere with the chemical analysis. We present a novel pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method that integrates exhaustive...

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Bacteria. (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi


    Hydrocarbons are relatively recalcitrant compounds and are classified as high-priority pollutants. However, these compounds are slowly degraded by a large variety of microorganisms. Bacteria are able to degrade aliphatic saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons via both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Branched hydrocarbons and cyclic hydrocarbons are also degraded by bacteria. The aerobic bacteria use different types of oxygenases, including monooxygenase, cytochrome-dependent oxygenase and dioxygenase, to insert one or two atoms of oxygen into their targets. Anaerobic bacteria, on the other hand, employ a variety of simple organic and inorganic molecules, including sulphate, nitrate, carbonate and metals, for hydrocarbon oxidation.

  17. Isoprene hydrocarbons production upon heterologous transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Hong, S-Y; Zurbriggen, A S; Melis, A


      Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene; C(5) H(8) ) is naturally produced by photosynthesis and emitted in the atmosphere by the leaves of many herbaceous, deciduous and woody plants. Fermentative yeast and fungi (Ascomycota) are not genetically endowed with the isoprene production process. The work investigated whether Ascomycota can be genetically modified and endowed with the property of constitutive isoprene production.   Two different strategies for expression of the IspS gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were employed: (i) optimization of codon usage of the IspS gene for specific expression in S. cerevisiae and (ii) multiple independent integrations of the IspS gene in the rDNA loci of the yeast genome. Copy number analysis showed that IspS transgenes were on the average incorporated within about 25% of the endogenous rDNA. Codon use optimization of the Pueraria montana (kudzu vine) IspS gene (SckIspS) for S. cerevisiae showed fivefold greater expression of the IspS protein compared with that of nonoptimized IspS (kIspS). With the strategies mentioned earlier, heterologous expression of the kudzu isoprene synthase gene (kIspS) in S. cerevisiae was tested for stability and as a potential platform of fermentative isoprene production. The multi-copy IspS transgenes were stably integrated and expressed for over 100 generations of yeast cell growth and constitutively produced volatile isoprene hydrocarbons. Secondary chemical modification of isoprene to a number of hydroxylated isoprene derivatives in the sealed reactor was also observed.   Transformation of S. cerevisiae with the Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu vine) isoprene synthase gene (IspS) conferred to the yeast cells constitutive isoprene hydrocarbons production in the absence of adverse or toxic effects.   First-time demonstration of constitutive isoprene hydrocarbons production in a fermentative eukaryote operated through the mevalonic acid pathway. The work provides concept validation for the

  18. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment. (United States)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos


    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants. (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A


    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  20. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting


    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  1. Thermodynamic and Thermo-graphic Research of the Interaction Process of the Lisakovsky Gravitymagnetic Concentrate with Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Мuhtar


    Full Text Available The relevance of this work consists in treatment of complex brown iron ores. Large volumes of off-balance ores are an additional source of production raw materials, however, there is still a problem of their treatment by effective complex methods.This work shows a possibility of using liquid hydrocarbons as the reducers during thermochemical preparation of brown iron concentrates of the Lisakovsky field to metallurgical conversion and studies the features and main regularities of a roasting process of Lisakovsky gravitymagnetic concentrate in the presence of liquid hydrocarbons.The initial concentrate was treated by solution of a liquid hydrocarbon reducer (oil: phenyl hydride: water, which was subjected to heat treatment with the subsequent magnetic dressing.Research by the X-ray phase analysis of reducing products has shown that the main phases of magnetic fraction of a roasted product are presented by magnetite in a small amount hematite and quartz. Generally, only relative intensity of peaks is changed.The thermodynamic analysis of interaction between the hydrocarbons, which are a part of oil, and iron oxides was carried out. This analysis allowed us to suppose a reducing mechanism for the brown iron ores by liquid reducers.The data obtained by the thermodynamic analysis are confirmed by experimental results. It is proved that with increasing hydrogen-to-carbon ratio the probability of proceeding reactions of interaction between oxide of iron (III and liquid hydrocarbon increases.The differential and thermal analysis allowed us to study a heat treatment process of the Lisakovsky gravity-magnetic concentrate, which is pre-treated by oil solutions, as well as to show a possibility for proceeding the process of interaction between liquid hydrocarbon and ferriferous products of Lisakovsky gravity-magnetic concentrate.It is found that with increasing temperature in the treated samples of LGMK the hydrogoethite dehydration product interacts with

  2. Prospects for development of hydrocarbon raw materials resources reproduction (United States)

    Vertakova, Y. V.; Babich, T. N.; Polozhentseva, Y. S.; Zvyagintsev, G. L.


    The article presents data on the influence of factors in the field of innovative technology of thermocatalytic depolymerization of solid household wastes (SHW) on the efficiency and prospects for the development of technogenic hydrocarbon raw materials resource reproduction. Process thermodynamics, reactions kinetics, the mechanism of thermolysis of secondary polymers in organic solvents have been studied by means of laboratory experiments. It is shown that different morphological groups of wastes dissolve practically at the same rate at temperatures of 250-310°C. A homogeneous product is formed in the liquid phase; the spread of values for the elements lies in the interval of 1.5-4.5 %; technological requirements of the stages of formation of boiler fuels are satisfied. Using the principles of patent analysis, new techniques of processing household waste components are proposed. The basics of energy-efficient and energy-saving processes of technogenic hydrocarbon raw materials resource reproduction have been laid. The possibility of increasing the production payback and intensification is shown. Ecological and demographic safety for population and technical and economic benefits from SHW processing are achieved.

  3. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Phytoremediation Using Terrestrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushrifah Idris


    Full Text Available This study focused on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH degradation in phytoremediation of spiked diesel in sand. The diesel was added to the sand that was planted with terrestrial plants. Four selected terrestrial plants used were Paspalum vaginatum Sw, Paspalums crobiculatum L. varbispicatum Hack, Eragrotis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud and Cayratia trifolia (L. Domin since all the plants could survive at a hydrocarbon petroleum contaminated site in Malaysia. The samplings were carried out on Day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 72. The analysis of the TPH was conducted by extracting the spiked sand using ultrasonic extraction. The determination of the TPH concentration in the sand was performed using GC-FID. The degradation of TPH depends on the plant species and time of exposure. The highest percentage degradation by P. vaginatum, P. scrobiculatum, E. atrovirens and C. trifolia were 91.9, 74.0, 68.9 and 62.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the ability to degrade TPH by plants were P. vaginatum > P. scrobiculatum > E. atrovirens> C. trifolia.

  4. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters. (United States)

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad


    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well.

  5. Assessment of Hydrocarbon Generation Potential of Permian Gondwana Coals, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Zakir Hossain


    Full Text Available This paper represents the geochemical characteristics of Gondwana coals from the Barapukuria coal mine, Bangladesh in order to investigate the potential for hydrocarbon generation. A total number of twenty three coal samples were analyzed Rock-Eval pyrolysis, CHNS elemental analyses, maceral analysis and vitrinite reflectance. The samples were collected from drill hole GDH-40 of the Barapukuria coal mine encountered within Gondwana succession of Permian age. The TOC contents of the coal samples range between ~50 and 76 wt.% and the organic matter consists predominantly of type III and type IV kerogen with respect to hydrocarbon generation. The GP, HI, PI and Tmax values range between 7 and 35 mg HC/g rock, 20 and 62 mg HC/g TOC, 0.02 and 0.04, and 430 and 437oC, respectively. The organic matter is mainly gas prone and thermally immature to early mature level. The potential coal bed methane (CBM generation of the Barapukuria basin is estimated to be 11 Gm3. Thus, underground coal gasification (UCG is helpful for better development of subsurface coals at the Barapukuria basin, Bangladesh.

  6. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.


    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  7. Importance of fundamental sp, sp2, and sp3 hydrocarbon radicals in the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Shukla, Bikau; Koshi, Mitsuo


    The most basic chemistry of products formation in hydrocarbons pyrolysis has been explored via a comparative experimental study on the roles of fundamental sp, sp(2), and sp(3) hydrocarbon radicals/intermediates such as ethyne/ethynyl (C(2)H(2)/C(2)H), ethene/ethenyl (C(2)H(4)/C(2)H(3)), and methane/methyl (CH(4)/CH(3)) in products formations. By using an in situ time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique, gas-phase products of pyrolysis of acetylene (ethyne, C(2)H(2)), ethylene (ethene, C(2)H(4)), and acetone (propanone, CH(3)COCH(3)) were detected and found to include small aliphatic products to large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of mass 324 amu. Observed products mass spectra showed a remarkable sequence of mass peaks at regular mass number intervals of 24, 26, or 14 indicating the role of the particular corresponding radicals, ethynyl (C(2)H), ethenyl (C(2)H(3)), or methyl (CH(3)), in products formation. The analysis of results revealed the following: (a) product formation in hydrocarbon pyrolysis is dominated by hydrogen abstraction and a vinyl (ethenyl, C(2)H(3)) radical addition (HAVA) mechanism, (b) contrary to the existing concept of termination of products mass growth at cyclopenta fused species like acenaphthylene, novel pathways forming large PAHs were found succeeding beyond such cyclopenta fused species by the further addition of C(2)H(x) or CH(3) radicals, (c) production of cyclopenta ring-fused PAHs (CP-PAHs) such as fluoranthene/corannulene appeared as a preferred route over benzenoid species like pyrene/coronene, (d) because of the high reactivity of the CH(3) radical, it readily converts unbranched products into products with aliphatic chains (branched product), and (e) some interesting novel products such as dicarbon monoxide (C(2)O), tricarbon monoxide (C(3)O), and cyclic ketones were detected especially in acetone pyrolysis. These results finally suggest that existing kinetic models of product formation should be modified to include

  8. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.


    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  9. Ballistic Diffusion in Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons on Graphite. (United States)

    Calvo-Almazán, Irene; Sacchi, Marco; Tamtögl, Anton; Bahn, Emanuel; Koza, Marek M; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Fouquet, Peter


    This work presents an experimental picture of molecular ballistic diffusion on a surface, a process that is difficult to pinpoint because it generally occurs on very short length scales. By combining neutron time-of-flight data with molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations, we provide a complete description of the ballistic translations and rotations of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) adsorbed on the basal plane of graphite. Pyrene, C16H10, adsorbed on graphite is a unique system, where at relative surface coverages of about 10-20% its mean free path matches the experimentally accessible time/space scale of neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy (IN6 at the Institut Laue-Langevin). The comparison between the diffusive behavior of large and small PAHs such as pyrene and benzene adsorbed on graphite brings a strong experimental indication that the interaction between molecules is the dominating mechanism in the surface diffusion of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on graphite.

  10. An AVAF inversion method for detecting hydrocarbons (United States)

    Luo, Chunmei; Sen, Mrinal K.; Wang, Shangxu; Yuan, Sanyi


    Rock physics studies have shown that velocity dispersion is often associated with hydrocarbon deposit, which results in P-wave reflection coefficients varying with frequency. This effect is often neglected in the conventional amplitude versus angle or offset inversion, and thus error is introduced. Here we propose a method for inverting for dispersive velocity from the frequency-dependent P-wave reflection coefficients; the method is called amplitude variation with angle and frequency AVAF inversion. We employ forward modeling based on propagator matrices that include frequency-dependent elastic coefficients and a variant of the simulated annealing method called the heat-bath algorithm for inversion of layer parameters. In our application, the thickness of the dispersive layer is inverted for simultaneously. Synthetic and field data examples demonstrate the ability and usefulness of this method for detecting hydrocarbon bearing formations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež


    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  12. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)


    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.


    Sarsfield, N.F.


    This patent relates to improvements in the production of fluorine- containing hydrocarbon derivatives. The process for increasing the degree of fluorination of a fluorochlorohydrocarbon comprises subjecting a highly fluorinated fluorochlorohydrocarbon to the action of a dehydrochlorinating agent, and treating the resulting unsaturated body with fluorine, cobalt trifluoride, or silver difluoride. A number of reagents are known as dehydrochlorinaling agents, including, for example, the caustic alkalies, either in an anhydrous condition or dissolved in water or a lower aliphatic alcohol.

  14. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.


    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  15. Hydrocarbon Deposition Attenuates Osteoblast Activity on Titanium (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ueno, T.; Migita, S.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Doi, H.; Ogawa, T.; Hanawa, T.; Wakabayashi, N.


    Although the reported percentage of bone-implant contact is far lower than 100%, the cause of such low levels of bone formation has rarely been investigated. This study tested the negative biological effect of hydrocarbon deposition onto titanium surfaces, which has been reported to be inevitable. Osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on titanium disks on which the carbon concentration was experimentally regulated to achieve carbon/titanium (C/Ti) ratios of 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0. Initial cellular activities such as cell attachment and cell spreading were concentration-dependently suppressed by the amount of carbon on the titanium surface. The osteoblastic functions of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were also reduced by more than 40% on the C/Ti (1.0) surface. These results indicate that osteoblast activity is influenced by the degree of hydrocarbon contamination on titanium implants and suggest that hydrocarbon decomposition before implant placement may increase the biocompatibility of titanium. PMID:24868012

  16. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.


    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  17. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.


    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  18. Atmospheric behaviors of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Beijing, China from 2004 to 2010 (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Suzuki, Genki; Morisaki, Hiroshi; Tokuda, Takahiro; Yang, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Lixia; Lin, Jinming; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi


    Airborne particulates were collected at an urban site (site 1) from 2004 to 2010 and at a suburban site (site 2) in 2010 in Beijing. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and five nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in the airborne particulates were determined by HPLC with fluorescence and chemiluminescence detection, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs were higher in heating season than in non-heating season at the two sites. Both the concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs decreased in the non-heating season but only the concentrations of NPAHs decreased in heating season at site 1, from 2004 to 2010. These findings suggest that source control measures implemented by the city of Beijing helped to reduce air pollution in Beijing. The concentrations of PAHs increased at site 1 in 2010, possibly because of the transport of emissions from windward other areas, such as Shanxi province. Several diagnostic ratios of PAHs and NPAHs showed that the different sources contributed to Beijing's air pollution, although coal combustion was the main source in the heating season and vehicle emission was the main source in the non-heating season. An analysis of physical parameters at Beijing showed that high wind speed can remove atmospheric PAHs and NPAHs in the heating season and that high relative humidity can remove them in the non-heating season.

  19. Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects. (United States)

    Schwander, Tanja; Arbuthnott, Devin; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Nosil, Patrik; Crespi, Bernard J


    Individuals commonly prefer certain trait values over others when choosing their mates. If such preferences diverge between populations, they can generate behavioral reproductive isolation and thereby contribute to speciation. Reproductive isolation in insects often involves chemical communication, and cuticular hydrocarbons, in particular, serve as mate recognition signals in many species. We combined data on female cuticular hydrocarbons, interspecific mating propensity, and phylogenetics to evaluate the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in diversification of Timema walking-sticks. Hydrocarbon profiles differed substantially among the nine analyzed species, as well as between partially reproductively-isolated T. cristinae populations adapted to different host plants. In no-choice trials, mating was more likely between species with similar than divergent hydrocarbon profiles, even after correcting for genetic divergences. The macroevolution of hydrocarbon profiles, along a Timema species phylogeny, fits best with a punctuated model of phenotypic change concentrated around speciation events, consistent with change driven by selection during the evolution of reproductive isolation. Altogether, our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles vary among Timema species and populations, and that most evolutionary change in hydrocarbon profiles occurs in association with speciation events. Similarities in hydrocarbon profiles between species are correlated with interspecific mating propensities, suggesting a role for cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in mate choice and speciation in the genus Timema.

  20. Using variances in hydrocarbon concentration and carbon stable isotope to determine the important influence of irrigated water on petroleum accumulation in surface soil. (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Renqing; Yang, Juncheng; Hou, Hong; Du, Xiaoming; Dai, Jiulan


    Hunpu is a wastewater-irrigated area southwest of Shenyang. To evaluate petroleum contamination and identify its sources at the area, the aliphatic hydrocarbons and compound-specific carbon stable isotopes of n-alkanes in the soil, irrigation water, and atmospheric deposition were analyzed. The analyses of hydrocarbon concentrations and geochemical characteristics reveal that the water is moderately contaminated by degraded heavy oil. According to the isotope analysis, inputs of modern C3 plants and degraded petroleum are present in the water, air, and soil. The similarities and dissimilarities among the water, air, and soil samples were determined by concentration, isotope, and multivariate statistical analyses. Hydrocarbons from various sources, as well as the water/atmospheric deposition samples, are more effectively differentiated through principal component analysis of carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C) relative to hydrocarbon concentrations. Redundancy analysis indicates that 57.1 % of the variance in the δ(13)C of the soil can be explained by the δ(13)C of both the water and air, and 35.5 % of the variance in the hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil can be explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of both the water and the air. The δ(13)C in the atmospheric deposition accounts for 28.2 % of the δ(13)C variance in the soil, which is considerably higher than the variance in hydrocarbon concentrations of the soil explained by hydrocarbon concentrations of the atmospheric deposition (7.7 %). In contrast to δ(13)C analysis, the analysis of hydrocarbon concentrations underestimates the effect of petroleum contamination in the irrigated water and air on the surface soil. Overall, the irrigated water exerts a larger effect on the surface soil than does the atmospheric deposition.

  1. Dosages d'hydrocarbures dans l'eau et le sédiment marins par infrarouge et chromatographie gazeuse sur colonne capillaire Hydrocarbon Titration in Water and Marine Sediments by Infrared Analysis and Gas Chromatography in a Capillary Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel G.


    Full Text Available Nous avons étudié l'évolution des hydrocarbures pétroliers dans un site confiné, celui de l'Aber-Benoît (Finistère, à la suite de l'accident du super-pétrolier Amoco-Cadiz en mars 1978. Pour ce faire, plusieurs méthodes ont été mises en oeuvre, et tout particulièrement la chromato-graphie gazeuse sur colonne capillaire : le protocole analytique est décrit pour l'eau et pour le sédiment, après optimisation des techniques de filtration, de préconcentration et de fractionnement préalables à la mesure. Il est possible de travailler sur des échantillons de deux litres d'eau de mer ou de cinquante grammes de sédiment, avec des seuils de détection du niveau de la partie par trillion (ppt dans l'eau et de la centaine de ppt dans le sédiment. The evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons was analyzed in a confined site, at Aber-Benoît in the Finistère department, following the accident of the supertanker Amoco Cadiz in March 1978. To do this, several methods were developed, including, in particular, capillary coulumn as chromatography. The analytical procedure is described for water and sediment after optimization of filtering, preconcentrating and fractionating techniques prior to measuring. Analyses can be made with two liters of seawater or fifty grams of sediment, with detection thresholds in parts per trillion (ppt in water and the hundredth of a ppt in sediment.

  2. UV-Screening Strategies of a Lower Eukaryote Grown in Hydrocarbon Media (United States)

    Marcano, Vicente; Benitez, Pedro; Palacios-Prü, Ernesto


    In this paper, a detailed analysis of the UV-screening strategies of the fungus Fusarium alkanophyllum is offered using spectroscopic (UV-VIS, FTIR), chromatographic (TLC, HPLC) and physiological analysis methods. Fusarium alkanophyllum showed an optimum growth when exposed to UV radiation at 253.7 (inducing DNA and protein damages) or 354.5 nm (inducing photoxidative damage) in several hydrocarbon media. Further, no ultrastructural difference was seen when cultures were or not irradiated with monochromatic UV. High absorbance between 200 300 nm of F. alkanophyllum indole derivatives, viz. melanin-type pigments, suggests a protector effect for proteins and nucleic acids. The presence of sulfur linked to aliphatic groups in hydrocarbons which is itself a strong UV absorber in the region of λ significant relic of the early evolution of microbial pigmentation. Likewise, it is thought that sulfur-enriched heterogeneous hydrocarbon environments could have occurred on the surface of the early Earth and could have absorbed and scattered UV-radiation avoiding or minimizing the damage produced on the biochemical machinery of early microorganisms able to metabolize those hydrocarbons.

  3. Investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming using apparent electrical conductivity measurements (United States)

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Seuntjens, Piet


    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons through landfarming has been widely applied commercially at large scale. Biodegradation is one of the dominant pollutant removal mechanisms involved in landfarming, but strongly depends on the environmental conditions (e.g. presence of oxygen, moisture content). Conventionally the biodegradation process is monitored by the installation of field monitoring equipment and repeated sample collection and analysis. Because the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons and their degradation products can affect the electrical properties of the soil, proximal soil sensors such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors may provide an alternative to investigate the biodegradation process of these contaminants. We investigated the relation between the EMI-based apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of a landfarm soil and the presence and degradation status of petroleum hydrocarbons. The 3 ha study area was located in an oil refinery complex contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly composed of diesel. At the site, a landfarm was constructed in 1999. The most recent survey of the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations was conducted between 2011 and 2013. The sampling locations were defined by a grid with a 10 m by 10 m cell size and on each location a sample was taken from four successive soil layers with a thickness of 0.5 m each. Because the survey was carried out in phases using different georeferencing methods, the final dataset suffered from uncertainty in the coordinates of the sampling locations. In September 2013 the landfarm was surveyed for ECa with a multi-receiver electromagnetic induction sensor (DUALEM-21S) using motorized conveyance. The horizontal measurement resolution was 1 m by 0.25 m. On each measurement location the sensor recorded four ECa values representative of measurement depths of 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.6 m and 3.2 m. After the basic processing, the ECa measurements were filtered to remove

  4. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk


    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  5. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  6. Low cost optic sensor for hydrocarbon detection in open oceans


    PARRA BORONAT, LORENA; Sendra, Sandra; Lloret, Jaime; Mendoza, Jonatan


    Hydrocarbons are one of the most important toxics in the oceans. Their presence may cause the death of organisms. They even can affect to the human beings, when they consume products that have been in contact with the hydrocarbons. After a hydrocarbon spillage, the fishing activity, the tourism, the safety and the wildlife are endangered. The fast detection is very important in order to start as soon as possible the cleaning tasks. It can be done using sensor networks. The firs...

  7. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land


    Cunningham, Colin John


    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  8. Hydrocarbon utilization by Brevibacterium, Azotomonas, Protaminobacterium, Mycococcus and Aeromonas spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonsane, B.K.; Vadalkar, K.; Singh, H.D.; Baruah, J.N.


    Morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics of 7 bacterial isolates, capable of utilizing hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon, reveal that 3 isolates belong to genus Aeromonas and one each to genera Brevibacterium, Protaminobacter, Mycococcus and Azotomonas. The isolates are studied for biomass formation on gas oil, substrate specificities for petroleum hydrocarbons and fermentation of gas oil by Brevibacterium sp. The hydrocarbon utilizing abilities of the strains of Protaminobacter, Azotomonas and Aeromonas are not known previously.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waste derived pyrolytic oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Besler, Serpil (Dept. of Fuel and Energy, The Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom))


    Waste material in the form of wood waste, municipal solid waste and rice husks was pyrolysed in a gas-purged static batch reactor and a fluidised bed reactor. The condensed pyrolytic oils were analysed for their content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The oils were fractionated into chemical classes using mini-column liquid chromatography followed by analysis using GC/FID and GC/MS for identification and quantitation of PAH. The waste derived oils were found to contain substantial concentrations of PAH, which were formed via secondary Diels-Alder and deoxygenation reactions. The concentrations of PAH were influenced by reactor temperature and residence time. The PAH consisted mainly of naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene and their alkylated homologues, but also included some PAH which were of known carcinogenic or mutagenic activity

  10. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphaltenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Morales, Y. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Lazaro (Mexico). Programa de Ingenieria Molecular; Ballard Andrews, A.; Mullins, O.C. [Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in asphaltenes is a strong determinant for asphaltene physical properties. PAHs also provide the UV and visible absorption and emission profiles of asphaltenes. All PAHs absorb light in the UV-visible spectrum and many also emit light in this spectral range. This study combined a molecular orbital theory with an experimental approach to quantitatively link the UV-visible absorption and emission profiles to the asphaltene PAH distribution. Key features of the absorption and emission spectral data were found to be reproduced with PAH distributions centered at 7 fused rings. The study also identified other highly different distributions of PAHs in terms of plausibility to account for the measured optical data. The paper also described the affect that heteroatoms had on the analysis.

  11. Derivation of validated methods of sampling and analysis for intermediate and final products of the anaerobic material utilization of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (LCFC) in groundwater in the context of analyses of contaminated soils; Ableitung validierter Probenahme- und Analysenmethoden fuer Zwischen- und Endprodukte der anaeroben Stoffverwertungsprozesse von Leichtfluechtigen Chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser im Rahmen von Altlastenuntersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgerloh, Ute; Becker, Roland; Win, Tin [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Theissen, Hubert [IMAGO GbR (Germany)


    The results of the project ''Methods of sampling and analysis of intermediate and final products of the anaerobic degradation of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater in frame of analysis of contaminated sites'' of the German Federal States Program ''Water, Soil, Waste'' (Laenderfinanzierungsprogramm ''Wasser, Boden, Luft'') LFP B2.08 are presented in these report. Different methods of sampling and analysis for the determination of hydrogen, methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in groundwater are developed and validated: For the sampling are described and discussed: i. active sampling: purge and sample of water samples and purging of solvated gases in groundwater in gas sampling tubes ii. passive sampling: diffusion sampling in polyethylene diffusion bags (PDB) and plastic syringes as diffusion sampler for solvated gases The use of active (purge and sample, downhole sampler) and passive (diffusion sampling) sampling techniques for the quantification of VOC, ethene, and methane are evaluated from the viewpoint of public authorities and regarding the reproducibility of measurement results. Based on a groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride it is shown that passive sampling is restricted by low groundwater flow and biological activity inside the well casing. Therefore, active sampling is to be preferred in case of unknown or insufficient flow conditions in the aquifer. The methods of chromatography for the determination of the compounds are validated and compared with other appropriate analytical methods: I. Headspace-GC-FID for the determination of methane, ethene and vinyl chloride in water of the purged sample (i) and the water of the PDB (ii) II. Direct injection - GC-PDD for the determination of hydrogen from the collected gas samples of the gas sampling tube (i) and the plastic syringes (ii) The gas chromatographic procedure for vinyl chloride using

  12. 30 CFR 250.1162 - When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons? (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... Requirements Flaring, Venting, and Burning Hydrocarbons § 250.1162 When may I burn produced liquid hydrocarbons... hydrocarbons. The Regional Supervisor may allow you to burn liquid hydrocarbons if you demonstrate that...

  13. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric


    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about C. to about C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  14. 40 CFR 86.121-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... the manufacturer's instructions or good engineering practice for instrument startup and basic... Hydrocarbons in Diluted Automobile Exhaust”; author, Glenn D. Reschke. (iii) For HFIDs only, the following...

  15. Alternative Hydrocarbon Propulsion for Nano / Micro Launch Vehicle Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical innovation proposed here is the application of an alternative hydrocarbon fuel – densified propylene, in combination with liquid oxygen (LOX)...

  16. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID


    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  17. Surface geochemical data evaluation and integration with geophysical observations for hydrocarbon prospecting, Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Satish Kumar


    Full Text Available The Deccan Syneclise is considered to have significant hydrocarbon potential. However, significant hydrocarbon discoveries, particularly for Mesozoic sequences, have not been established through conventional exploration due to the thick basalt cover over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. In this study, near-surface geochemical data are used to understand the petroleum system and also investigate type of source for hydrocarbons generation of the study area. Soil samples were collected from favorable areas identified by integrated geophysical studies. The compositional and isotopic signatures of adsorbed gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane were used as surface indicators of petroleum micro-seepages. An analysis of 75 near-surface soil-gas samples was carried out for light hydrocarbons (C1–C4 and their carbon isotopes from the western part of Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India. The geochemical results reveal sites or clusters of sites containing anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbon gases. High concentrations of adsorbed thermogenic methane (C1 = 518 ppb and ethane plus higher hydrocarbons (ΣC2+ = 977 ppb were observed. Statistical analysis shows that samples from 13% of the samples contain anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbons in the soil-gas constituents. This seepage suggests largest magnitude of soil gas anomalies might be generated/source from Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, beneath Deccan Traps. The carbon isotopic composition of methane, ethane and propane ranges are from −22.5‰ to −30.2‰ PDB, −18.0‰ to 27.1‰ PDB and 16.9‰–32.1‰ PDB respectively, which are in thermogenic source. Surface soil sample represents the intersection of a migration conduit from the deep subsurface to the surface connected to sub-trappean Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Prominent hydrocarbon concentrations were associated with dykes, lineaments and presented on thinner basaltic cover in the study area

  18. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment (United States)

    Pogorzelec, Marta; Piekarska, Katarzyna


    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland). To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  19. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.


    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  20. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, Christophe; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.


    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Remediation of a soil chronically contaminated with hydrocarbons through persulfate oxidation and bioremediation. (United States)

    Medina, Rocío; David Gara, Pedro Maximiliano; Fernández-González, Antonio José; Rosso, Janina Alejandra; Del Panno, María Teresa


    The impact of remediation combining chemical oxidation followed by biological treatment on soil matrix and microbial community was studied, of a chronically hydrocarbon contaminated soil sourced from a landfarming treatment. Oxidation by ammonium persulfate produced a significant elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an increase in PAH bioavailability. Organic-matter oxidation mobilized nutrients from the soil matrix. The bacterial populations were affected negatively, with a marked diminution in the diversity indices. In this combined treatment with oxidation and bioremediation working in tandem, the aliphatic-hydrocarbon fractions were largely eliminated along with additional PAHs. The chemical and spectroscopic analyses indicated a change in soil nutrients. In spite of the high residual-sulfate concentration, a rapid recovery of the cultivable bacterial population and the establishment of a diverse and equitable microbial community were obtained. Pyrosequencing analysis demonstrated a marked succession throughout this twofold intervention in accordance with the chemical and biologic shifts observed. These remediation steps produced different effects on the soil physiology. Spectroscopic analysis became a useful tool for following and comparing those treatments, which involved acute changes in a matrix of such chronically hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The combined treatment increased the elimination efficiency of both the aliphatic hydrocarbons and the PAHs at the expense of the mobilized organic matter, thus sustaining the recovery of the resilient populations throughout the treatment. The high-throughput-DNA-sequencing techniques enabled the identification of the predominant populations that were associated with the changes observed during the treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Helium passage through homogeneous ultrafine hydrocarbon layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenchikov Michael A.


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the problem of helium atoms and methane molecules moving through a hydrocarbon layer of evenly distributed energy sources. A computational technique for integrating the Schrödinger equation based on formulation of two fundamental numerical solutions to the problem of waves passing through a barrier is suggested. A linear combination of these solutions defines the required wave function, while cross-linking with asymptotic boundary conditions allows determining the coefficients of transmission and particle reflection from the potential layer barrier.

  3. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    , when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...... higher stratigraphic levels. The second migration phase is suggested to have been much more complex including lateral, vertical and even downwards migration to basement. The occurrence of pyrobitumen in basement rocks outside the Oslo Graben, where no Palaeozoic rocks have been preserved, indicates...

  4. Hydrocarbon transport in the laboratory plasma (MAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Tanaka, Satoru


    Hydrocarbons are admitted in the laboratory plasma in order to investigate the transport processes of carbon - containing molecules in relation to redeposition processes in the fusion boundary plasma. When CH{sub 4} was introduced into the plasma, CH radical band spectra were optically identified, while in the case of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} introduction, C{sub 2} radicals were also identified in addition to CH radicals. Excitation temperature was determined from CH and C{sub 2} spectra band, which was observed to increase on approaching to the target. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.


    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  6. Hydrogen Abstraction from Hydrocarbons by NH2. (United States)

    Siddique, Kamal; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Gore, Jeff; Westmoreland, Phillip R; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z


    This contribution investigates thermokinetic parameters of bimolecular gas-phase reactions involving the amine (NH2) radical and a large number of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. These reactions play an important role in combustion and pyrolysis of nitrogen-rich fuels, most notably biomass. Computations performed at the CBS-QB3 level and based on the conventional transition-state theory yield potential-energy surfaces and reaction rate constants, accounting for tunnelling effects and the presence of hindered rotors. In an analogy to other H abstraction systems, we demonstrate only a small influence of variational effects on the rate constants for selected reaction. The studied reactions cover the abstraction of hydrogen atoms by the NH2 radical from the C-H bonds in C1-C4 species, and four C5 hydrocarbons of 2-methylbutane, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-2-butene, and 3-methyl-1-butyne. For the abstraction of H from methane, in the temperature windows 300-500 and 1600-2000 K, the calculated reaction rate constants concur with the available experimental measurements, i.e., kcalculated/kexperimetal = 0.3-2.5 and 1.1-1.4, and the previous theoretical estimates. Abstraction of H atom from ethane attains the ratio of kcalculated/kexperimetal equal to 0.10-1.2 and 1.3-1.5 over the temperature windows of available experimental measurements, i.e., 300-900 K and 1500-2000 K, respectively. For the remaining alkanes (propane and n-butane), the average kexperimental/kcalculated ratio remains 2.6 and 1.3 over the temperature range of experimental data. Also, comparing the calculated standard enthalpy of reaction (ΔrH°298) with the available experimental measurements for alkanes, we found the mean unsigned error of computations as 3.7 kJ mol-1. This agreement provides an accuracy benchmark of our methodology, affording the estimation of the unreported kinetic parameters for H abstractions from alkenes and alkynes. On the basis of the Evans-Polanyi plots

  7. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  8. Computer simulation study of water/hydrocarbon interfaces: Effects of hydrocarbon branching on interfacial properties (United States)

    Chowdhary, Janamejaya; Ladanyi, Branka M.


    We review here the results of our molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of water/hydrocarbon liquid/liquid interfaces. In order to examine the effects of chain length and branching on interfacial properties, we considered five different alkanes (n-pentane, 2-methyl pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl pentane, 2-methyl heptane, and n-octane) as the hydrocarbon phase. We used a recently-proposed procedure to identify molecular surface sites and constructed intrinsic density profiles, in addition to the more familiar laboratory-frame profiles, in order to determine the effects of interface fluctuations on the structure and dynamics of the two phases. We found that interfacial properties of the aqueous phase are relatively insensitive to the molecular structure of the hydrocarbon, even though both branching and chain length have significant influence on the hydrocarbon interfacial properties. We found that translational and rotational mobilities of molecules of both phases are affected by the presence of the interface and that rotational relaxation of water molecules is significantly more anisotropic in the interfacial region than in the bulk.

  9. Recruitment of benthic animals as a function of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J. W.; Riley, R. G.; Bean, R. M.


    Three separate field installations, consisting of clean and oiled sediment in fiberglass trays, were placed in the intertidal zone of Sequim Bay, Washington to determine rates of hydrocarbon depuration and recruitment of benthic organisms. Detailed chemical analysis, using glass capillary gas chromatography, and GC/MS, were conducted such that individual components and hydrocarbon classes associated with the sediment after varying periods of field depuration could be quantitated. Depuration rates of hydrocarbon types in sediment receiving oil on the surface decreased in the order of saturates, methylnaphthalenes and methylphenanthrenes. The time to 50% depuration (half-time) for these coarse sediments was approximately 100 days, while sediment mixed with oil had only decreased by about 20 to 30% by 100 days. Levels of the aromatics (naphthalenes and phenanthrenes) in the two systems followed the general pattern, but very little loss was exhibited when oil was mixed with sediment. No substantial inhibition of benthic organism recruitment was produced by either type of sediment contamination. There was a tendency for suppression of populations of mature and juvenile bivalves (Mysella tumida) at the last sampling interval for all three installations. Future sampling of these populations and further analyses of all benthic organisms may provide a better evaluation of effects of specific hydrocarbon components in sediments on benthic recruitment. These results are discussed in light of oil spill studies and other field experiments.

  10. Production Of Low Molecular Weight Hydrocarbons By Volcanic Eruptions On Early Mars (United States)

    Segura, Antígona; Navarro-González, Rafael


    Methane and other larger hydrocarbons have been proposed as possible greenhouse gases on early Mars. In this work we explore if volcanic processes may have been a source for such molecules based on theoretical and experimental considerations. Geologic evidence and numerical simulations indicate that explosive volcanism was widely distributed throughout Mars. Volcanic lightning is typically produced in such explosive volcanism. Therefore this geologic setting was studied to determine if lightning could be a source for hydrocarbons in volcanic plumes. Volcanic lightning was simulated by focusing a high-energy infrared laser beam inside of a Pyrex reactor that contained the proposed volcanic gas mixture composed of 64% CH4, 24% H2, 10% H2O and 2% N2, according to an accretion model and the nitrogen content measured in Martian meteorites. The analysis of products was performed by gas chromatography coupled to infrared and mass spectroscopy. Eleven hydrocarbons were identified among the products, of which acetylene (C2H2) was the most abundant. A thermochemical model was used to determine which hydrocarbons could arise only from volcanic heat. In this case, acetylene and ethylene are formed at magmatic temperatures. Our results indicate that explosive volcanism may have injected into the atmosphere of early Mars ˜6×1012 g yr-1 of acetylene, and ˜2×1012 g yr-1 of 1,3-butadiyne, both produced by volcanic lightning, ˜5×1011 g yr-1 of ethylene produced by volcanic heat, and 1013 g yr-1 of methane.

  11. Effect of salinity on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a saline-alkaline soil. (United States)

    Qin, X; Tang, J C; Li, D S; Zhang, Q M


     The aim of this paper is to check the effect of salinity on the bioremediation process of petroleum hydrocarbons in the saline-alkaline soil.  In this study, soil salinity was adjusted to different levels by water leaching method and the bioremediation process was conducted for 28 days. Soil pH increased after leaching and decreased during bioremediation process. At initial time, moderate salinity enhanced the biodegradation and addition of microbial consortium was not effective in enhancing degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons. At day of 28 days, higher degradation rate was found in treatments with more leaching times with a maximum value of 42·36%. Dehydrogenase activity increased with the progress of bioremediation and positive correlation was found between dehydrogenase activity and degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbons. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis result showed decreased microbial community diversity with increased salt content.  The result suggested that salinity had great impact on bioremediation, and leaching and addition of inoculated consortium were effective in enhancing biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the saline-alkaline soil.  The result of this study is important for understanding the bioremediation process of petroleum in contaminated soil. New remediation method of petroleum contaminated soil can be developed based on this study. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Historical changes in trace metals and hydrocarbons in nearshore sediments, Alaskan Beaufort Sea, prior and subsequent to petroleum-related industrial development: part II. Hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Venkatesan, M Indira; Naidu, A Sathy; Blanchard, Arny L; Misra, Debasmita; Kelley, John J


    Composition and concentration of hydrocarbons (normal and isoprenoid alkanes, triterpenoids, steranes, and PAHs) in nearshore surface sediments from Elson Lagoon (EL), Colville Delta-Prudhoe Bay (CDPB) and Beaufort Lagoon (BL), Alaskan Beaufort Sea, were assessed for spatio-temporal variability. Principal component analysis of the molecules/biomarkers concentrations delineated CDPB and BL samples into two groups, and cluster analysis identified three station groups in CDPB. Overall there was no geographic distribution pattern in the groups. The diversities between groups and individual samples are attributed to differences in n-alkanes and PAHs contents, which are influenced predominantly by sediment granulometry and sitespecific fluvial input. The predominant hydrocarbon source is biogenic, mainly terrigenous, with hardly any contribution from natural oil seeps, oil drill effluents and/or refined crude. The terrigenous source is corroborated by δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and OC/N of sediment organic matter. Time interval (1976-1977, 1984 and 1997) changes in hydrocarbon compositions and concentrations in CDPB are not significant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microstructural analysis of metal solution interfacial films in the multiphase brine CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S hydrocarbon inhibitor system; Analise microestrutural de filmes na interface metal-solucao no sistema multifasico salmoura Co{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S hidrocarboneto inibidor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forero, Adriana; Yesid Pena, Dario [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Bott, Ivani de S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia


    This work presents an analysis of the formation of different films obtained at the metal - solution interface in a multiphase Brine - CO{sub /}H{sub 2}S Hydrocarbon - Inhibitor - Steel AISI SAE 1020 system. Tests were carried out on loss of mass test pieces in a static autoclave, for exposure times of 21 days. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (IAS), X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) techniques, were used for the analysis of the products of corrosion and the inhibitor films formed. The results obtained for XRD indicate the formation hydrous oxide of iron, Siderite, Magnetite, and in some cases chloride crystals and iron sulphates. The results obtained by SEM, show that the thin films of the inhibitor and corrosion products have irregular surfaces, are porous, fragile and have little adhesion to the metal. Additionally the generation of primary films of carbonate of iron saturated with carbon and oxide of iron was confirmed and also the formation of secondary carbonates of iron due to recrystallization of the of iron carbonate. (author)

  14. Integrity management, hydrocarbons transport: NAG 100-RES 1460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutonico, Jose Mauricio; Soula, Gerardo [GIE S.A., Lima (Peru)


    In May, 2007, a series of tasks were implemented in the actives of the client at Patagonia, Argentina, with the purpose of applying a Pipeline Integrity System. The purpose of this system is to effectively operate their facilities in such a way that no adverse effects are suffered by their employees, the environment, or the public at large, which is one of the main goals followed by any oil pipeline operator. In this paper, all tasks, inspections, controls and records made by the operator about gas and liquid hydrocarbons Pipelines contemplated by local requirements, NAG 100 and Resolution 1460 are described. Firstly, a description of gas and liquid hydrocarbons transport systems was made. This description consisted in the recollection of basic information about construction, maintenance, operation and inspection. Later, tasks to complete the ILI process started by the company in the past were implemented. This implementation consisted in the analysis of inspections that were made, priority of anomalies to verify, definition of verifications, direct assessment and analysis of the results. A gap analysis was made with the purpose of stating the compliance level of the normative requirements for each system. This analysis consisted in the determination of the company's practices about applicable regulations. As a result of this, a series of duties were developed from the collection and integration of information, using the database that was already implemented by the company. A risk analysis was also made, based on the determination of the kind of events or adverse conditions that can make an impact in the oil pipeline, the possibilities that these events or condition can conduct to a failure, and the seriousness of the possible consequences that these failures can produce. With the results of the risk analysis, the Inspection plan developed by the company was refreshed and it resulted in an improvement Plan in data collection and identification of sensitive

  15. High-Precision Spectral Decomposition Method Based on VMD/CWT/FWEO for Hydrocarbon Detection in Tight Sandstone Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen


    Full Text Available Seismic time-frequency analysis methods can be used for hydrocarbon detection because of the phenomena of energy and abnormal attenuation of frequency when the seismic waves travel across reservoirs. A high-resolution method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD, continuous-wavelet transform (CWT and frequency-weighted energy operator (FWEO is proposed for hydrocarbon detection in tight sandstone gas reservoirs. VMD can decompose seismic signals into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMF in the frequency domain. In order to avoid meaningful frequency loss, the CWT method is used to obtain the time-frequency spectra of the selected IMFs. The energy separation algorithm based on FWEO can improve the resolution of time-frequency spectra and highlight abnormal energy, which is applied to track the instantaneous energy in the time-frequency spectra. The difference between the high-frequency section and low-frequency section acquired by applying the proposed method is utilized to detect hydrocarbons. Applications using the model and field data further demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect hydrocarbons in tight sandstone reservoirs, with good anti-noise performance. The newly-proposed method can be used as an analysis tool to detect hydrocarbons.

  16. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures (United States)


    ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2B Table 2B to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205 Alkanes... + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ...

  17. Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.B.


    A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.

  18. Radical recombination in a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoyuan


    Full Text Available To reveal the radical recombination process in the scramjet nozzle flow and study the effects of various factors of the recombination, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO schemes are applied to solve the decoupled two-dimensional Euler equations with chemical reactions to simulate the hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow. The accuracy of the numerical method is verified with the measurements obtained by a shock tunnel experiment. The overall model length is nearly 0.5 m, with inlet static temperatures ranging from 2000 K to 3000 K, inlet static pressures ranging from 75 kPa to 175 kPa, and inlet Mach numbers of 2.0 ± 0.4 are involved. The fraction Damkohler number is defined as functions of static temperature and pressure to analyze the radical recombination progresses. Preliminary results indicate that the energy releasing process depends on different chemical reaction processes and species group contributions. In hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow, reactions with H have the greatest contribution during the chemical equilibrium shift. The contrast and analysis of the simulation results show that the radical recombination processes influenced by inflow conditions and nozzle scales are consistent with Damkohler numbers and potential dissociation energy release. The increase of inlet static temperature improves both of them, thus making the chemical non-equilibrium effects on the nozzle performance more significant. While the increase of inlet static pressure improves the former one and reduces the latter, it exerts little influence on the chemical non-equilibrium effects.

  19. Thin-layer chromatography with UV-scanning detection for quantitative analysis of coal-derived products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, J.; Cebolla, V.L.; Membrado, L.; Ferrando, A.C. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry


    Quantitative analysis of hydrocarbon groups (HGTA) is important in the characterization of products derived from coal conversion. The heaviest products are usually analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with flame-ionization detection (TLC-FID). TLC with ultraviolet (UV) scanning densitometry was investigated as an alternative to TLC-FID for the rapid determination of aromatic, polar, and noneluted compounds in coal-derived products. The results obtained show that TLC-UV is adequate in terms of speed, repeatability, and quantitative analysis, and furnishes results similar to those obtained by TLC-FID. Preparative TLC enables isolation of fractions suitable for preparative purposes and is less time-consuming (hours rather than days) than LC methods. Rapid calibration of TLC-UV is possible by use of fractions isolated by preparative TLC (derived from the actual fossil fuels to be analyzed) as external standards. A method of fast internal calibration has been tested for hydrocarbon group-type analysis. Direct acquisition of UV spectra from the separated peaks can be used to determine whether this method of calibration is applicable to the sample.

  20. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds in Agbabu natural bitumen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of the bitumen were separately inoculated with each of the bacteria for 14 days and the hydrocarbon profiles before and after inoculation were quantified using gas chromatography technique. The total aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds (C11 - C29) in the bitumen degraded by P. putrefaciens and P. nigrificans was ...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1321-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... optimum hydrocarbon response. (1) Follow good engineering practices for initial instrument start-up and... species that are expected to be in the exhaust. Good engineering judgement is to be used to trade off... Detector for Determination of Hydrocarbons in Diluted Automobile Exhaust”; author, Glenn D. Reschke, as an...

  3. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, B. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)


    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    work was aimed at isolating hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from three (3) mechanic workshop soils in. Benin City and to ascertain their ability to grow efficiently in hydrocarbon based medium. MATERIALS AND METHOD. The Study Site: Topsoil and subsoil samples were collected from auto-mechanic workshops at three.

  5. Geothermal and hydrocarbon esploration - The double play synergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Kramers, L.; Mijnlieff, H.F.; Jong, S. de; Scheffers, B.


    There is a clear synergy possible in geothermal and hydrocarbon exploration if wells are targeted in a double play concept. In the Netherlands, clastic aquifers which have been explored extensively by the hydrocarbon industry and are now targeted for geothermal energy qualify well for a double play.

  6. Hydrocarbon radical thermochemistry: Gas-phase ion chemistry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, Kent M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Final Scientific/Technical Report for the project "Hydrocarbon Radical Thermochemistry: Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Techniques." The objective of this project is to exploit gas-phase ion chemistry techniques for determination of thermochemical values for neutral hydrocarbon radicals of importance in combustion kinetics.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A process for producing an alcohol from a gaseous hydrocarbon, e.g. a lower alkane such as methane, via oxidative reaction of the hydrocarbon in a concentrated sulfuric acid medium in the presence of a catalyst employs an added catalyst comprising a substance selected from iodine, iodine compounds...

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial species isolated were Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. The isolates were also subjected to hydrocarbon degradation/utilization test where it was observed that Pseudomonas spp utilized the hydrocarbon in the medium more efficiently than the other isolates.

  9. BioDegradation of Refined Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil | Obire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-dioxide production and hydrocarbon degradation of refined petroleum hydrocarbon in soils treated with 5% gasoline, kerosene and diesel oil were investigated. Soil for study was bulked from around a car park in Port Harcourt. Soil samples were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks and subsequently at ...

  10. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic ...

  11. A reassessment of hydrocarbon prospectivity of the chad basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High resolution digital aeromagnetic data acquired by the Nigerian Geologic Survey Agency (NGSA) over a part of the Chad Basin, Nigeria, were analyzed to investigate the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the basin using various magnetic hydrocarbon indicators. The digital aeromagnetic data were processed to produce total ...

  12. Mixture including hydrogen and hydrocarbon having pressure-temperature stability (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)


    The invention relates to a method of storing hydrogen that employs a mixture of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon that can both be used as fuel. In one embodiment, the method involves maintaining a mixture including hydrogen and a hydrocarbon in the solid state at ambient pressure and a temperature in excess of about 10 K.

  13. 40 CFR 86.221-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86.221-94 Section 86.221-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.221-94 Hydrocarbon analyzer...

  14. Studies on the diversity, abundance and succession of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research was carried out in a tropical region to study the population of hydrocarbon utilizers in soil polluted with oily sludge. Plots were prepared to receive treatments with neat and emulsified oily sludge. These plots were further treated with fertilizer and bioaugmented with a consortium of hydrocarbon utilizers for six ...

  15. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.


    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  16. Phenomenology of tremor-like signals observed over hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangel, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Stoll, E.P.; Carniel, R.; Barzandji, O.; Rode, E.D.; Singer, J.M.


    We have observed narrow-band, low-frequency (1.5-4 Hz, amplitude 0.01-10 mum/s) tremor signals on the surface over hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil, gas and water multiphase fluid systems in porous media) at currently 15 sites worldwide. These 'hydrocarbon tremors' possess remarkably similar spectral and

  17. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.


    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  18. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.


    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  19. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A.; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.


    The present invention is directed to the one step selective conversion of starch, cellulose, or glucose to molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. The invention is also directed to the conversion of those intermediates to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  20. Distribution of Lead and total Hydrocarbon in Tissues of Periwinkles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed higher concentrations of lead and hydrocarbons in the creeks than in the open river. The concentrations of lead and total hydrocarbons measured at the control site were lower than the concentrations measured at the study sites. The concentrations of Pb and THC were generally higher in the shells than ...

  1. Glucose And Hydrocarbon Utilization By Bacteria Isolated From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of the bacterial isolates to utilize glucose and hydrocarbon as substrates for energy and carbon has beneficial application in bioremediation technology in the Niger Delta. KEY WORDS: Hydrocarbon utilization, glucose metabolism, bioremediation technology. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ...

  2. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon utilizing capability of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (PM-1), isolated from oil contaminated soil composts from Western Ghats region of Karnataka was analyzed. In the bioremediation experiment, ONGC heavy crude oil and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilization by the bacterial isolate was studied.

  3. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52.987 Section 52.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon emissions. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions...

  4. Evaluating the Role of Hydrocarbon Seepage in Carbonate Mound Formation (Offshore Ireland) using Basin Modelling (United States)

    Naeth, J.; di Primio, R.; Horsfield, B.; Shannon, P.; Bailey, W. R.; Henriet, J. P.


    The goal of this project was to assess whether deep water coral mound growth on the continental slope of the north Atlantic could be related to active hydrocarbon leakage. The objects of interest are numerous buried and non-buried carbonate mounds, consisting mainly of corals, carbonate crusts and fine grained clastic sediments in the Porcupine Basin, which is located on the eastern Atlantic continental slope 200 km offshore Ireland and contains the sub-commercial Connemara oil field. To evaluate the possible link between hydrocarbon leakage and mound growth we used 2D and 3D basin modelling in combination with geochemical analysis of sediments from gravity cores. A total of 5 intersecting seismic lines were used as a basis for 2D modelling of basin evolution, hydrocarbon generation and migration. Data from six exploration wells were used for calibration of the basin burial and thermal history using vitrinite reflectance, bottom hole temperatures and apatite fission track data. 3D basin modelling was performed using data provided by UCD in the northern part of the Porcupine Basin. The results of this study indicate that a link between modelled hydrocarbon leakage and carbonate mound growth is possible both in the Belgica mound province on the eastern flank of the basin where stratigraphic pinch outs of carrier beds can lead to the localised leakage of hydrocarbons to the seafloor, as well as in the Hovland Magellan mound area in the northern half of the Porcupine Basin, where small-scale structural closures mapped on the main Miocene surfaces correlate roughly to observed mound locations. This study demonstrates the applicability of basin modelling in testing and identifying geologic processes related to geosphere/biosphere interactions.

  5. Determination of Beeswax Hydrocarbons by Gas Chromatography with a Mass Detector (GC -MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa


    Full Text Available Here we describe a method of hydrocarbon (alkanes, alkenes, dienes identification and quantitative determination of linear saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes in beeswax using gas chromatography with a mass detector technique (GC -MS . Beeswax hydrocarbons were isolated using a solid-phase extraction (SPE technique with neutral aluminum oxide (Alumina - N, 1000 mg, 6 mL, then were separated on a non-polar gas chromatography column ZB-5HT INFERNO (20 m×0.18 mm×0.18 μm. Qquantitative analysis of n-alkanes was conducted by the method of internal standard with squalane used as the internal standard. The basic parameters of validation (linearity and working range, limit of determination, repeatability and reproducibility, recovery were determined. For all of the identified compounds, satisfactory (≥0.997 coefficients of correlation in the working ranges of the method (from 0.005 to 5.0 g/100 g were obtained. The elaborated method was characterized by satisfactory repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility. The average coefficients of variation for the total n-alkanes did not exceed 2% under conditions of repeatability or 4% under conditions of reproducibility. The recovery for individual n-alkanes was above 94%; for their total content, it was 100.5%. In beeswax originating from Apis mellifera, n-alkanes containing from 20 to 35 carbon atoms in their molecules were determined. The total content of these alkanes was between 9.08 g and 10.86 g/100 g (on average, 9.81 g/100 g. Additionally, apart from the saturated hydrocarbons, unsaturated hydrocarbons and dienes were identified.

  6. Microbial metabolism and community structure in response to bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huggins, Tyler; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong Jason


    This study demonstrates that electrodes in a bioelectrochemical system (BES) can potentially serve as a nonexhaustible electron acceptor for in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The deployment of BES not only eliminates aeration or supplement of electron acceptors as in contemporary bioremediation but also significantly shortens the remediation period and produces sustainable electricity. More interestingly, the study reveals that microbial metabolism and community structure distinctively respond to the bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation. Tubular BESs with carbon cloth anode (CCA) or biochar anode (BCA) were inserted into raw water saturated soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons for enhancing in situ remediation. Results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal rate almost doubled in soils close to the anode (63.5-78.7%) than that in the open circuit positive controls (37.6-43.4%) during a period of 64 days. The maximum current density from the BESs ranged from 73 to 86 mA/m(2). Comprehensive microbial and chemical characterizations and statistical analyses show that the residual TPH has a strongly positive correlation with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (HDM) numbers, dehydrogenase activity, and lipase activity and a negative correlation with soil pH, conductivity, and catalase activity. Distinctive microbial communities were identified at the anode, in soil with electrodes, and soil without electrodes. Uncommon electrochemically active bacteria capable of hydrocarbon degradation such as Comamonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas putida, and Ochrobactrum anthropi were selectively enriched on the anode, while hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria were dominant in soil samples. Results from genus or phylum level characterizations well agree with the data from cluster analysis. Data from this study suggests that a unique constitution of microbial communities may play a key role in BES enhancement of petroleum hydrocarbons

  7. Earthworm Comet Assay for Assessing the Risk of Weathered Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils: Need to Look Further than Target Contaminants. (United States)

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Palanisami, Thavamani; Smith, Euan; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi


    Earthworm toxicity assays contribute to ecological risk assessment and consequently standard toxicological endpoints, such as mortality and reproduction, are regularly estimated. These endpoints are not enough to better understand the mechanism of toxic pollutants. We employed an additional endpoint in the earthworm Eisenia andrei to estimate the pollutant-induced stress. In this study, comet assay was used as an additional endpoint to evaluate the genotoxicity of weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils containing 520 to 1450 mg hydrocarbons kg-1 soil. Results showed that significantly higher DNA damage levels (two to sixfold higher) in earthworms exposed to hydrocarbon impacted soils. Interestingly, hydrocarbons levels in the tested soils were well below site-specific screening guideline values. In order to explore the reasons for observed toxicity, the contaminated soils were leached with rainwater and subjected to earthworm tests, including the comet assay, which showed no DNA damage. Soluble hydrocarbon fractions were not found originally in the soils and hence no hydrocarbons leached out during soil leaching. The soil leachate's Electrical Conductivity (EC) decreased from an average of 1665 ± 147 to 204 ± 20 µS cm-1. Decreased EC is due to the loss of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate. The leachate experiment demonstrated that elevated salinity might cause the toxicity and not the weathered hydrocarbons. Soil leaching removed the toxicity, which is substantiated by the comet assay and soil leachate analysis data. The implication is that earthworm comet assay can be included in future eco (geno) toxicology studies to assess accurately the risk of contaminated soils.

  8. Characteristics of hydrocarbon uptake in cultures with two liquid phases. (United States)

    Nakahara, T; Erickson, L E; Gutierrez, J R


    In hydrocarbon fermentation, the efficiency of hydrocarbon uptake by cells is one of the keys to the economical production of single-cell protein. This work is concerned with characterization of cultures with two liquid phases for understanding the hydrocarbon uptake process by cells. Batch cultivation of Candida lipolytica was carried out in shaking flasks and in a tower fermentor with motionless mixers. Microscopic observation and cell and hydrocarbon concentration distribution in batch cultivation showed that some cells are attached to the large oil drops and others are free from them. Interfacila tension between oil and water and Sauter mean drop size decreased as cultivation proceeded. On the basis of the experimental results, the process of hydrocarbon uptake by cells is discussed.

  9. Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. The device is capable of determining hydrocarbon gases in water to the concentration of less than 5 x 10{sup -4} ml/l of water. According to the results of microbiological studies, the plate count technique can be a useful supplementary method for hydrocarbon exploration. This is based on the facts that the average survival rate to hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane) for heterotrophs is higher in the area known as containing considerable hydrocarbon gases than other areas in the Pohang region. However, it is still necessary to develop techniques to treat the bacteria with gaseous hydrocarbons. (author). 2 figs., 41 tabs.

  10. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process (United States)

    Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX


    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  11. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX


    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  12. Divergent mechanisms of iron-containing enzymes for hydrocarbon biosynthesis. (United States)

    Wise, Courtney E; Grant, Job L; Amaya, Jose A; Ratigan, Steven C; Hsieh, Chun H; Manley, Olivia M; Makris, Thomas M


    Increasing levels of energy consumption, dwindling resources, and environmental considerations have served as compelling motivations to explore renewable alternatives to petroleum-based fuels, including enzymatic routes for hydrocarbon synthesis. Phylogenetically diverse species have long been recognized to produce hydrocarbons, but many of the enzymes responsible have been identified within the past decade. The enzymatic conversion of Cn chain length fatty aldehydes (or acids) to Cn-1 hydrocarbons, alkanes or alkenes, involves a C-C scission reaction. Surprisingly, the enzymes involved in hydrocarbon synthesis utilize non-heme mononuclear iron, dinuclear iron, and thiolate-ligated heme cofactors that are most often associated with monooxygenation reactions. In this review, we examine the mechanisms of several enzymes involved in hydrocarbon biosynthesis, with specific emphasis on the structural and electronic changes that enable this functional switch.

  13. Blending of Hydrocarbon and Rosin Ester-basedResins to Study its Effect on the Physical andMechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Road Markings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mirabedini


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of hydrocarbon and rosin ester resins combination on the physical and mechanical properties of thermoplastic road markings were evaluated. At first, two basic thermoplastic road marking formulations based on hydrocarbon and rosin ester resins were prepared. Several samples of the blends of two basic formulations for thermoplastic road marking were characterized and compared by their softening points, abrasion resistance, color data changes, DMTA and tensile strength values. The results showed that hydrocarbon-based thermoplastic road markings have better weathering resistance and rosin ester based materials illustrated enhanced heat resistance. The inclusion of rosin ester thermoplastic road marking into the hydrocarbon-based formulations, improves compatibility of the hydrocarbon resin and dibutyl phthalate (DBP(, as well as their physical and mechanical properties. The unique properties of rosin arise from its hydrophobic chain skeleton and its hydrophilic carboxy groups which contribute to its excellent solubility and compatibility with a variety of other synthetic resins. The best performance was obtained with 50 wt % inclusion of rosin ester to hydrocarbon based compound. DMTA analysis revelation with combination of hydrocarbon and rosin ester-based road markings showed that the decreasing trend in elastic modulus is shifted to higher temperature, and as a result it keeps the hardness and ductile properties of thermoplastic road markings unchanged. More favored raw materials for compatibilization of compounds in road marking formulations lead to higher elongation- at-break and an increased toughness.

  14. Receptor modeling of C2─C7 hydrocarbon sources at an urban background site in Zurich, Switzerland: changes between 1993─1994 and 2005─2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reimann


    Full Text Available Hourly measurements of 13 volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C7 were performed at an urban background site in Zurich (Switzerland in the years 1993–1994 and again in 2005–2006. For the separation of the volatile organic compounds by gas-chromatography (GC, an identical chromatographic column was used in both campaigns. Changes in hydrocarbon profiles and source strengths were recovered by positive matrix factorization (PMF. Eight and six factors could be related to hydrocarbon sources in 1993–1994 and in 2005–2006, respectively. The modeled source profiles were verified by hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The source strengths were validated by independent measurements, such as inorganic trace gases (NOx, CO, SO2, methane (CH4, oxidized hydrocarbons (OVOCs and meteorological data (temperature, wind speed etc.. Our analysis suggests that the contribution of most hydrocarbon sources (i.e. road traffic, solvents use and wood burning decreased by a factor of about two to three between the early 1990s and 2005–2006. On the other hand, hydrocarbon losses from natural gas leakage remained at relatively constant levels (−20%. The estimated emission trends are in line with the results from different receptor-based approaches reported for other European cities. Their differences to national emission inventories are discussed.

  15. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications. (United States)

    James, K. H.


    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history

  16. Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trigger human skin cells aging through aryl hydrocarbon receptor. (United States)

    Qiao, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Du, Hong-Yang; Wang, Qiao-Wei; Huang, Ye; Liu, Wei


    Accumulating evidence suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which adsorbed on the surface of ambient air particulate matters (PM), are the major toxic compound to cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, even cancer. However, its detrimental effects on human skin cell remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that SRM1649b, a reference urban dust material of PAH, triggers human skin cells aging through cell cycle arrest, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Principally, SRM1649b facilitated Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) translocated into nucleus, subsequently activated ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, and upregulated aging-related genes expression. Most important, we found that AhR antagonist efficiently revert the aging of skin cells. Thus our novel findings firstly revealed the mechanism of skin aging under PAH contamination and provided potential strategy for clinical application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Applying petroleum biomarkers as a tool for confirmation of petroleum hydrocarbons in high organic content soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G.; Martin, E.J.; Waddell, J.; Sandau, C.D. [TRIUM Environmental Solutions, Cochrane, AB (Canada); Denham, G. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Samis, M.W. [Great Plains Environmental Management Ltd., Medecine Hat, AB (Canada)


    It is often difficult to separate naturally occurring phytogenic organic materials from petrogenic sources in routine gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analyses. Phytogenic compounds include tannins, waxes, terpenes, fats and oils. This study examined the use of petroleum biomarkers as a means of determining the nature, sources, type and geological conditions of the formation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). The analysis was conducted at a former well site consisting of low-lying peat marshlands that had the potential to interfere with the delineation of PHC impacts. Fourteen boreholes and 8 hand auger holes were placed at the site. Soil samples were analyzed for salinity, metals, and PHC constituents. Biomarker targets included acyclic isoprenoid compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, terpanes, hopanes, and triaromatic steranes. A grain-size analysis showed the presence of peat materials within the saturated zone. Results of the study demonstrated the presence of PHC constituents that exceeded applicable guidelines. The biomarker analysis was used to statistically determine site-specific background levels of hydrocarbons. Nearly 3000 tonnes of soil were excavated from the site. It was concluded that site-specific conditions should be taken into consideration when evaluating reclamation targets. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Structure of bacterial communities along a hydrocarbon contamination gradient in a coastal sediment. (United States)

    Paissé, Sandrine; Coulon, Frédéric; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; McGenity, Terry J; Duran, Robert


    The bacterial diversity of a chronically oil-polluted retention basin sediment located in the Berre lagoon (Etang-de-Berre, France) was investigated. This study combines chemical and molecular approaches in order to define how the in situ petroleum hydrocarbon contamination level affects the bacterial community structure of a subsurface sediment. Hydrocarbon content analysis clearly revealed a gradient of hydrocarbon contamination in both the water and the sediment following the basin periphery from the pollution input to the lagoon water. The nC17 and pristane concentrations suggested alkane biodegradation in the sediments. These results, combined with those of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, indicated that bacterial community structure was obviously associated with the gradient of oil contamination. The analysis of bacterial community composition revealed dominance of bacteria related to the Proteobacteria phylum (Gamma-, Delta-, Alpha-, Epsilon- and Betaproteobacteria), Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobium groups and Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria phyla. The adaptation of the bacterial community to oil contamination was not characterized by dominance of known oil-degrading bacteria, because a predominance of populations associated to the sulphur cycle was observed. The input station presented particular bacterial community composition associated with a low oil concentration in the sediment, indicating the adaptation of this community to the oil contamination.

  19. Reducing Uncertainties in Hydrocarbon Prediction through Application of Elastic Domain (United States)

    Shamsuddin, S. Z.; Hermana, M.; Ghosh, D. P.; Salim, A. M. A.


    The application of lithology and fluid indicators has helped the geophysicists to discriminate reservoirs to non-reservoirs from a field. This analysis is conducted to select the most suitable lithology and fluid indicator for the Malaysian basins that could lead to better eliminate pitfalls of amplitude. This paper uses different rock physics analysis such as elastic impedance, Lambda-Mu-Rho, and SQp-SQs attribute. Litho-elastic impedance log is generated by correlating the gamma ray log with extended elastic impedance log. The same application is used for fluid-elastic impedance by correlation of EEI log with water saturation or resistivity. The work is done on several well logging data collected from different fields in Malay basin and its neighbouring basin. There's an excellent separation between hydrocarbon sand and background shale for Well-1 from different cross-plot analysis. Meanwhile, the Well-2 shows good separation in LMR plot. The similar method is done on the Well-3 shows fair separation of silty sand and gas sand using SQp-SQs attribute which can be correlated with well log. Based on the point distribution histogram plot, different lithology and fluid can be separated clearly. Simultaneous seismic inversion results in acoustic impedance, Vp/Vs, SQp, and SQs volumes. There are many attributes available in the industry used to separate the lithology and fluid, however some of the methods are not suitable for the application to the basins in Malaysia.

  20. Hydrocarbons on the Icy Satellites of Saturn (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.


    The Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Cassini Spacecraft has obtained spectral reflectance maps of the satellites of Saturn in the wavelength region 0.4-5.1 micrometers since its insertion into Saturn orbit in late 2004. We have detected the spectral signature of the C-H stretching molecular mode of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the low albedo material covering parts of several of Saturn's satellites, notably Iapetus and Phoebe (Cruikshank et al. 2008). The distribution of this material is complex, and in the case of Iapetus we are seeking to determine if it is related to the native grey-colored materials left as lag deposits upon evaporation of the ices, or represents in-fall from an external source, notably the newly discovered large dust ring originating at Phoebe. This report covers our latest exploration of the nature and source of this organic material.