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Sample records for hydrocarbon cut-off number

  1. A PROBLEM OF CUTTING OFF THE LAMINATED SEMIS TYPE PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Ciofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem often coped on many domains such as wood manufacturing, glass, plastics and metallic platework industry, is the shaping or cutting off a big plate in many pieces. With this purpose there are algorithms of optimizing for positioning the parts following to be cut off from a row plate. From mathematical point of view, in positioning the parts on a raw plate the number of solutions increase four times evrey time a new part is added, and in case of finding the best solution for about few hundreds of pieces or parts would require years of processing on the most performant computers nowadays – for an analogy remember the famous story with the rice beads which the King had to pay to the master teaching him the chess: twice more for each square of the chessboard; for the total quantity assessment, King ascertained that the crops in his whole life wouldn’t have been enough.

  2. On the Cut-off Point for Combinatorial Group Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Klasner, N.; Wegener, I.

    1999-01-01

    is answered by 1 if Q contains at least one essential object and by 0 otherwise. In the statistical setting the objects are essential, independently of each other, with a given probability p combinatorial setting the number k ... group testing is equal to p* = 12(3 - 5), i.e., the strategy of testing each object individually minimizes the average number of queries iff p >= p* or n = 1. In the combinatorial setting the worst case number of queries is of interest. It has been conjectured that the cut-off point of combinatorial...

  3. Mineralogical and chemical-physical effects of hydrocarbon permeation in composite liners and cut-off walls. Final report; Mineralogische und chemisch-physikalische Auswirkungen der Permeation von Kohlenwasserstoffen in Kombinationsdichtungen und -dichtwaenden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbe, U; Berger, W; Mueller, W; Brune, M; Eckardt, J; Tatzky-Gerth, R; Ache, W; Goebbels, J [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Breu, J; Kerzdoerfer, H [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2000-05-31

    Composite liner systems (HDPE geomembrane and compacted mineral liner) are used in Germany in landfills and for the lining of contaminated sites according to the technical regulations. It is expected that these lining systems provide a highly efficient and reliable technical barrier for the long-term groundwater protection. To support these expectations and assess the performance of the liner system even under extreme conditions, various composite liner systems were exposed to a mixture of 9 liquid hydrocarbons and their permeation behaviour was studied in permeation cells over 12 years. The cells were now dismantled and changes in the liner materials were carefully measured and controlled. The following issues were pursued in the research project: - effect of long-term hydrocarbon permeation and immersion on the properties of the geomembrane, - determination of the vertical distribution of organic contaminants in the mineral liner, - changes in the mineralogical, micromorphological and soil mechanical properties of the mineral liner brought about by the contaminant mixture, - investigation of the influence of microbial activity on the mineral layer, - modelling of the pollutant transport in the composite liner system. Neither geomembrane nor most of the tested mineral liners exhibited significant changes. Hydrocarbon permeation was proved to have been substantially suppressed by the composite liner. (orig.) [German] Zur Sicherung von Deponien und Altlasten mit dem Ziel eines langfristig wirksamen Grundwasserschutzes werden seit Mitte der 80er Jahre Kombinationsdichtungen (Verbund aus Kunststoffdichtungsbahn und mineralischer Dichtschichten) eingesetzt. Um deren Langzeitbestaendigkeit auch unter extremen Bedingungen bewerten zu koennen, wurden Permeationsmesszellen, welche die Verhaeltnisse in der Deponie nachstellen und ueber einen Zeitraum von 12 Jahren mit einem Mehrkomponentengemisch konzentrierter organischer Verbindungen beaufschlagt worden waren, zerlegt und

  4. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m(2) in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  5. Using Cut-off grade isograms to delineate ore body and calculate parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongfeng; Zhu Xiaobing; Deng Yonghui

    2014-01-01

    Taking a uranium mine for an example, using cut-off grade isograms to achieve automatic delineation of ore body and calculation of parameters are explored. With center line of catalog sampling as baseline, the number of sampling and length of sampling constructing rectangular grid and grade as elevation value, isograms of cut-off grade were drawn, thus achieving the delineation of the ore body. Then, the other parameters of the ore body can be calculated. Compared with the traditional hand drawing method, the work efficiency was greatly improved, and the material inquiry was more convenient. (authors)

  6. Systematic review of the evidence for Trails B cut-off scores in assessing fitness-to-drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mononita; Molnar, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Fitness-to-drive guidelines recommend employing the Trail Making B Test (a.k.a. Trails B), but do not provide guidance regarding cut-off scores. There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal cut-off score on the Trails B test. The objective of this study was to address this controversy by systematically reviewing the evidence for specific Trails B cut-off scores (e.g., cut-offs in both time to completion and number of errors) with respect to fitness-to-drive. Systematic review of all prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, correlation, and cross-sectional studies reporting the ability of the Trails B to predict driving safety that were published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals. Forty-seven articles were reviewed. None of the articles justified sample sizes via formal calculations. Cut-off scores reported based on research include: 90 seconds, 133 seconds, 147 seconds, 180 seconds, and Trails B cut-offs of 3 minutes or 3 errors (the '3 or 3 rule'). Major methodological limitations of this body of research were uncovered including (1) lack of justification of sample size leaving studies open to Type II error (i.e., false negative findings), and (2) excessive focus on associations rather than clinically useful cut-off scores.

  7. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  8. Rendimento da pupunheira em função da densidade de plantio, diâmetro de corte e manejo dos perfilhos no Vale do São Francisco Effect of density, cut-off diameter classes and shoot number on production and yield of irrigated plant peach palm at San Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Egidio Flori

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o rendimento de palmito de pupunheira irrigada em função da densidade de plantio, diâmetro de corte do estipe e o manejo dos perfilhos, instalou-se um experimento na Estação Experimental de Bebedouro da Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, PE. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas constituídas por dois espaçamentos (2,0 x 1,0 m - E1 e 2,0 x 2,0 m - E2 e as subparcelas em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2, compreendendo dois manejos de perfilhos e duas classes de diâmetros de corte. As colheitas foram feitas a partir de 16 meses até os 69 meses após o plantio e realizadas com intervalos consecutivos de mais ou menos três meses. Pelos resultados, evidenciaram-se efeitos significativos para espaçamento, manejo de perfilhos e classe de diâmetro de corte. Não foram constatadas interações entre os tratamentos. Houve efeito significativo de espaçamento sobre o rendimento, diâmetro de corte, comprimento e peso médio do palmito. O rendimento e o peso do palmito da pupunheira foram de 545 e 434 kg ha-1 ano-1 e 147 g e 180 g nos espaçamentos E1 e E2, respectivamente. O diâmetro de corte afetou a altura da planta e peso médio do palmito. O manejo de perfilho afetou o rendimento e o peso médio do palmito, com 532 e 446 kg ha-1 e 177 e 149 g de palmito, respectivamente, no manejo de quatro e todos os perfilhos por planta. Pelos resultados, infere-se, como orientação técnica para os produtores de áreas irrigadas do Submédio São Francisco, o cultivo da pupunha no espaçamento de 2 m x 1 m, o manejo de quatro perfilhos por planta e o corte da planta com diâmetro variando de 10 a 12 cm, a 30 cm do nível do solo.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of planting density, cut-off diameter classes and shoot number on heart of palm production on irrigated peach palm. The experimental layout was a randomized split-plot design with a factorial arrangement

  9. Poverty and cutting off the power: Evaluation of the social contract of the Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodon, Q. T.

    2003-01-01

    Measures put in place by the French Electric Utility, Electricite de France (EDF) to assist those in default of payment of their electricity bills are evaluated. When introduced in 1996, it was expected that the new measures would reduce the necessity of cutting off power to the poor by one third. Notwithstanding these expectations and some progress in reducing the rate of power cut-off, the number of instances where service was denied, has risen. The evaluation is based on the annual survey of poor clients of the EDF undertaken by the Polling Institute Lavialle. The annual survey concerns itself chiefly with the attitude towards the service and the quality of dialogue between the Utility and its clients. The analysis resulted in three conclusions: (1) EDF appears to make progress in dealing with the problem based on evidence of higher client satisfaction and lower rate of cutting off power; (2) there is evidence of important beneficial changes in the policies of local EDF centres; and (3) there is noticeable evidence of improved coordination with social services agencies and higher quality of information made available; both these factors should contribute to higher client satisfaction. In general, EDF is to be congratulated for their efforts to date, for commissioning the survey and for participating in the evaluation. Nevertheless, in France the instances of cutting off electricity to poor households is still a fact of life, despite the commitment and the new measures put in place by EDF. 21 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  10. A geometric classification of traveling front propagation in the Nagumo equation with cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, N

    2011-01-01

    An important category of solutions to reaction-diffusion systems of partial differential equations is given by traveling fronts, which provide a monotonic connection between rest states and maintain a fixed profile when considered in a co-moving frame. Reaction-diffusion equations are frequently employed in the mean-field (continuum) approximation of discrete (many-particle) models; however, the quality of this approximation deteriorates when the number of particles is not sufficiently large. The (stochastic) effects of this discreteness have been modeled via the introduction of (deterministic) 'cut-offs' that effectively deactivate the reaction terms at points where the particle concentration is below a certain threshold. In this article, we present an overview of the effects of such a cut-off on the front propagation dynamics in a prototypical reaction-diffusion system, the classical Nagumo equation. Our analysis is based on the method of geometric desingularization ('blow-up'), in combination with dynamical systems techniques such as invariant manifolds and normal forms. Using these techniques, we categorize front propagation in the cut-off Nagumo equation in dependence of a control parameter, and we classify the corresponding propagation regimes ('pulled,' 'pushed,' and 'bistable') in terms of the bifurcation structure of a projectivized system of equations that is obtained from the original traveling front problem, after blow-up. In particular, our approach allows us to determine rigorously the asymptotics (in the cut-off parameter) of the correction to the front propagation speed in the Nagumo equation that is due to a cut-off. Moreover, it explains the structure of that asymptotics (logarithmic, superlinear, or sublinear) in dependence of the front propagation regime. Finally, it enables us to calculate the corresponding leading-order coefficients in the resulting expansions in closed form.

  11. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI. PMID:23986904

  12. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  13. Enhanced CT perfusion cut-off sign in midgut volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henesch, Stephen M.; Jaramillo, Diego M.; Nance, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of malrotation with midgut volvulus in an infant in which we discovered a unique CT sign called the perfusion cut-off sign. We hope this case will help establish this crucial diagnosis in other cases. (orig.)

  14. Enhanced CT perfusion cut-off sign in midgut volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henesch, Stephen M.; Jaramillo, Diego M. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nance, Michael L. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We present a case of malrotation with midgut volvulus in an infant in which we discovered a unique CT sign called the perfusion cut-off sign. We hope this case will help establish this crucial diagnosis in other cases. (orig.)

  15. Defining obesity cut-off points for migrant South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Gray

    Full Text Available Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population.4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40-75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans.For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m(2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI 20.7 kg/m(2 to 24.5 kg/m(2 for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m(2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m(2 to 27.3 kg/m(2 for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m(2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m(2 to 30.4 kg/m(2 for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC.Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  16. The Cut-off Values of Triglycerides and Glucose Index for Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Park, Joon Sung; Ahn, Youhern

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ethnic- and gender-specific cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose index (TyG index) for clinical usefulness in a representative sample of Mexican American, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Korean adolescents. The data were collected from datasets of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2012, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2005 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to find valid cut-off values of the TyG index for metabolic syndrome. The total number of eligible participants was 3,164 in the US and 4,873 in Korea. The optimal cut-off value with the Cook et al. definition revealed 8.55 in Mexican American, 8.55 in Non-Hispanic White, 8.35 in Non-Hispanic Black, and 8.45 in Korean, respectively. The cut-off value with the de Ferranti et al. definition was 8.45, 8.45, 8.15, and 8.35, and the cut-off value with the International Diabetes Federation definition was 8.65, 8.65, 8.15, and 8.55, respectively. These findings may be clinically useful for evaluating insulin resistance for determining metabolic abnormalities in adolescents.

  17. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  18. Environmental sampling: Issues for the cut-off regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT) initiative under the Conference on Disarmament mandate is envisioned to include certain aspects of environmental sampling and monitoring. One of the intents of this treaty is to bring certain non-NPT signatories (e.g., threshold states) under this treaty agreement along with the nuclear weapon states (NWSs). This paper provides a brief overview of some of the relevant issues that may be involved in the implementation and use of environmental monitoring for (1) verification of the cut-off regime declarations, (2) the detection of undeclared activities, and, (3) application in non-routine inspections. The intent is to provide backstopping information important for treaty negotiators. Specific issues addressed within this paper include signature sampling, differences in the proposed detection regime, potential signature integrators, specific examples and spoofing concerns. Many of these issues must be carefully considered and weighed in order to create a credibly verifiable inspection regime. Importantly, the cut-off treaty must enable nondiscriminatory implementation, while carefully assuring that nonproliferation treaty requirements are maintained (i.e., preventing unintentional release of critical weapons design information--potentially through environmental sampling and analysis)

  19. Quantum fields and Poisson processes: Interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.; Rideau, G.; Gaveau, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schroedinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful. (orig.)

  20. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    . Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee...... on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella...

  1. Physical and cut-off effects of heavy sea quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco; Bruno, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Leder, Björn; Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a theory with two dynamical O($a$) improved Wilson quarks whose mass $M$ ranges from a factor eight up to a factor two below the charm quark mass and at three values of the lattice spacing ranging from 0.066 to 0.034 fm. This theory is a prototype to study the decoupling of heavy quarks. We measure the mass and cut-off dependence of ratios of gluonic observables defined from the Wilson flow or the static potential. The size of the 1/$M$ corrections can be determined and disentangled from the lattice artifacts. The difference with the pure gauge theory is at the percent level when two quarks with a mass of the charm quark are present.

  2. Finite GUE Distribution with Cut-Off at a Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P. L.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with initial conditions generating a shock. The fluctuations of particle positions are asymptotically governed by the randomness around the two characteristic lines joining at the shock. Unlike in previous papers, we describe the correlation in space-time without employing the mapping to the last passage percolation, which fails to exists already for the partially asymmetric model. We then consider a special case, where the asymptotic distribution is a cut-off of the distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a finite GUE matrix. Finally we discuss the strength of the probabilistic and physically motivated approach and compare it with the mathematical difficulties of a direct computation.

  3. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne O.; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    evidence on consumers’ heterogeneous use of attribute cut-offs with a unique focus on the relationship with consumer involvement, a key component in consumer choice theory. Behavioral data from an online choice experiment on beef steak employing shelf simulations are combined with questions defining...... a latent class model identifies several key consumer segments (e.g., a price sensitive group) based on their choice behavior and reveals that the relationship between involvement, cut-off use and cut-off violations is not uniform across consumer segments....... respondents’ attribute cut-off values and their validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit attribute cut-off values and are less likely to violate their cut-off values. Further investigation using...

  4. Open Skies and monitoring a fissile materials cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentuck, J.; Lemley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) is intended among other things to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ''to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.'' Open Skies permits overflights of the territory of member states by aircraft equipped with an array of sensors of various types. Their types and capabilities are treaty-limited. To find useful application in monitoring a cut-off treaty Open Skies would need to be amended. The number of signatories would need to be expanded so as to provide greater geographical coverage, and restrictions on sensor-array capabilities would need to be relaxed. To facilitate the detection of impending violations of a cut-off convention by Open Skies overflights, the data base provided by parties to the former should include among other things an enumeration of existing and former fuel cycle and research facilities including those converted to other uses, their precise geographic location, and a site plan

  5. On Computations of Duct Acoustics with Near Cut-Off Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Thomas Z.; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1997-01-01

    The cut-off is a unique feature associated with duct acoustics due to the presence of duct walls. A study of this cut-off effect on the computations of duct acoustics is performed in the present work. The results show that the computation of duct acoustic modes near cut-off requires higher numerical resolutions than others to avoid being numerically cut off. Duct acoustic problems in Category 2 are solved by the DRP finite difference scheme with the selective artificial damping method and results are presented and compared to reference solutions.

  6. Critical test of isotropic periodic sum techniques with group-based cut-off schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takuma; Yasuoka, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuaki Z

    2018-03-08

    Truncation is still chosen for many long-range intermolecular interaction calculations to efficiently compute free-boundary systems, macromolecular systems and net-charge molecular systems, for example. Advanced truncation methods have been developed for long-range intermolecular interactions. Every truncation method can be implemented as one of two basic cut-off schemes, namely either an atom-based or a group-based cut-off scheme. The former computes interactions of "atoms" inside the cut-off radius, whereas the latter computes interactions of "molecules" inside the cut-off radius. In this work, the effect of group-based cut-off is investigated for isotropic periodic sum (IPS) techniques, which are promising cut-off treatments to attain advanced accuracy for many types of molecular system. The effect of group-based cut-off is clearly different from that of atom-based cut-off, and severe artefacts are observed in some cases. However, no severe discrepancy from the Ewald sum is observed with the extended IPS techniques.

  7. Can semiquantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values differentiate colorectal malignant from benign lessions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , which also precludes a clinically significant cut-off value. The same applies to SUVpeak and SUVmean while TLG measures may be more indicative. CONCLUSION: Semi-quantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values proved inadequate for differentiating colorectal malignancies from benign findings...

  8. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender difference exists in some cut-off values for LVH. This study defined the normal limits for electrocardiographic variables for young adult Nigerians. Racial factor should be taken into consideration in interpretation of ECG. Keywords: Normal limits, Electrocardiogram, Cut-off values, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Young ...

  9. 76 FR 33161 - Installation and Use of Engine Cut-off Switches on Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ``Proposed Rule'' and insert ``USCG-2009-0206'' in the ``Keyword'' box. Click ``Search,'' then click on the... ``read comments'' box, which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Keyword'' box, insert ``USCG... add definitions that describe the terms ``engine cut-off switch link,'' ``engine cut- off switch...

  10. Cut-off frequencies of circumferential horizontal shear waves in various functionally graded cylinder shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqin; Ren, Dawei; Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ji

    2018-03-01

    In this study, cut-off frequencies of the circumferential SH waves in functionally graded piezoelectric-piezomagnetic material (FGPPM) cylinder shells with traction free, electrical and magnetic open boundary conditions are investigated analytically. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method is employed for solving differential equations with variable coefficients for general cases. For comparison, Bessel functions and Kummer functions are used for solving cut-off frequency problems in homogenous and ideal FGPPM cylinder shells. It is shown that the WKB solution for the cut-off frequencies has good precise. The set of cut-off frequencies is a series of approximate arithmetic progressions, for which the difference is a function of the density and the effective elastic parameter. The relationship between the difference and the gradient coefficient is described. These results provide theoretical guidance for the non-destructive evaluation of curved shells based on the cut-off frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a high-quality cut-off wall using electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, T.; Murahashi, H.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques to build a high-quality cut-off wall have been developed for storage facilities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) as an emergency measures to prevent leakages. The cut-off wall is highly impermeable, nucleid-adsorptive and have long-term durability. Electrophoresis is used to form impermeable membrane of bentonite as main features of the cut-off wall. First of all, laboratory tests have been conducted to study ways of building barriers on site and to collect data on the barriers properties. Afterwards, on-site construction tests of a high-quality cut-off wall have been carried out. In this paper, we describe the process and results on the studies of the high-quality cut-off wall using electrophoresis

  12. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  13. Revisiting AdS/CFT at a finite radial cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Gautam; Nayak, Pranjal [Department of Theoretical Physics,Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2016-12-22

    We revisit AdS/CFT at a finite radial cut-off, specifically in the context of double trace perturbations, O{sub n}= O(x)(∂{sup 2}){sup n}O(x), with arbitrary powers n. As well-known, the standard GKPW prescription, applied to a finite radial cut-off, leads to contact terms in correlators. de Haro et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002200100381 introduced bulk counterterms to remove these. This prescription, however, yields additional terms in the correlator corresponding to spurious double trace deformations. Further, if we view the GKPW prescription coupled with the prescription in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002200100381, in terms of a boundary wavefunction, we find that it is incompatible with radial Schrödinger evolution (in the spirit of holographic Wilsonian RG). We consider a more general wavefunction satisfying the Schrödinger equation, and find that generically such wavefunctions generate both (a) double trace deformations and (b) contact terms. However, we find that there exist special choices of these wavefunctions, amounting to a new AdS/CFT prescription at a finite cut-off, so that both (a) and (b) are removed and we obtain a pure power law behaviour for the correlator. We compare these special wavefunctions with a specific RG scheme in field theory. We give a geometric interpretation of these wavefunctions; these correspond to some specific smearing of boundary points in the Witten diagrams. We present a comprehensive calculation of exact double-trace beta-functions for all couplings O{sub n} and match with a holographic computation using the method described above. The matching works with a mapping between the field theory and bulk couplings; such a map is highly constrained because the beta-functions are quadratic and exact on both sides. Our discussions include a generalization of the standard double-trace Wilson-Fisher flow to the space of the infinite number of couplings.

  14. Cut-off frequency of magnetostrictive materials based on permeability spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Hao; Zhang Tianli; Jiang Chengbao

    2012-01-01

    The loss behavior and cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite have been investigated by measuring their permeability spectra. The loss factor of TbDyFe alloy increases exponentially as the frequency goes up, while it is almost unchanged for the TbDyFe/epoxy composite. The loss factor value for the TbDyFe composite is only 4.3% of that for the monolithic TbDyFe alloy at high frequency of 10 kHz under the peak magnetic induction of 10 mT. The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe/epoxy composite is 6800 kHz, 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of TbDyFe alloy. The cut-off frequency is found to be the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and can be calculated from Snoek's law. - Highlights: ► The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite has been investigated. ► Permeability spectra are used to study loss behavior and cut-off frequency. ► A mathematic formula is deduced to predict the cut-off frequency. ► TbDyFe/epoxy composite presents high cut-off frequency of 6800 kHz.

  15. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  16. The continuous cut-off method and the relativistic scattering of spin-1/2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1979-07-01

    A high energy formula, obtained in the framework of the continuous cut-off approach, is shown to improve the correctness of the standard phase shift expression for Dirac scattering by two orders of magnitude in energy. (author)

  17. Surface effect theory in binary alloys: surfaces with cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Moran-Lopez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A surface effect theory in binary alloys which ore ordered with surfaces with cut-off is presented. This theory is based in a model of pair interaction between first neighbours and includes long and short range effects. The (120) surface with sup(-) (110) monoatomic cut-off and terrace in the (110) planes of an alloy with body centered cubic structure is presented as example. Results for the concentrations in all the different surface sites are given. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  19. Localization of fluctuation measurement by wave scattering close to a cut off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Laurent, L.; Rax, J.M.; Lehner, T.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic of plasma fluctuations in tokamaks based on the scattering of an electromagnetic wave close to a cut off layer is investigated. A linear density profile is considered. An one-dimensional exact analysis is performed. Spatial and spectral localization of scattering process close to the cut off layer is studied and a modified Bragg rule is derived. The structure of pump and of scattered waves is analyzed. The diagnostic seems to be local and sensitive for low R fluctuations

  20. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena; Vitriana; Irma Ruslina Defi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM) value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four ma...

  1. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  2. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  3. Cut-off of electric consumption in France. Assessment of the cut-off potential by process modulation in industrial and tertiary sectors in metropolitan France. Final report + Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertholon, Marion; Streiff, Frederic; Marchal, David; Bouchet, Alexandre; Foucher, Julie-Anne; Hoffer, Alexandre; Millet, Bruno; Sorlier, Pierre; Peron, Nicolas; Creon, Nicolas; Lenet, Sylvain; Guillet, Frederic; Mounier, Cyril; Charton, Franck; Duclos, Herve; Lenain, Yves; MADEC, Marc; Lepretre, Pascale; Vasseur, Olivier; Rigard-Cerison, Aude; Guedou, Benjamin; Houvenagel, Olivier; Epelbaum, David; Briant, Marie-Helene; Osmont, Robin; Elasri, Sofia; Barreyre, Gildas; Adam, Julien

    2017-09-01

    This study mainly aims at characterising and assessing the cut-off potential in the French industrial and tertiary sectors by providing qualitative as well as quantitative elements, and by highlighting the different mechanisms of valorisation of existing and currently developed cut-off. It also proposes a comparison of the French context with that of some foreign countries (notably United Kingdom, Japan, and some regions of the USA). Thus, it comprises an identification and analysis of cut-off mechanisms and practices, an assessment of technical and technical-economic cut-off sources in France, and a discussion of economic and organisational brakes and obstacles to cut-off developments

  4. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  5. Classifying post-stroke fatigue: Optimal cut-off on the Fatigue Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Toby B; Mead, Gillian

    2017-12-01

    Post-stroke fatigue is common and has debilitating effects on independence and quality of life. The Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) is a valid screening tool for fatigue after stroke, but there is no established cut-off. We sought to identify the optimal cut-off for classifying post-stroke fatigue on the FAS. In retrospective analysis of two independent datasets (the '2015' and '2007' studies), we evaluated the predictive validity of FAS score against a case definition of fatigue (the criterion standard). Area under the curve (AUC) and sensitivity and specificity at the optimal cut-off were established in the larger 2015 dataset (n=126), and then independently validated in the 2007 dataset (n=52). In the 2015 dataset, AUC was 0.78 (95% CI 0.70-0.86), with the optimal ≥24 cut-off giving a sensitivity of 0.82 and specificity of 0.66. The 2007 dataset had an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.94), and applying the ≥24 cut-off gave a sensitivity of 0.84 and specificity of 0.67. Post-hoc analysis of the 2015 dataset revealed that using only the 3 most predictive FAS items together ('FAS-3') also yielded good validity: AUC 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.89), with sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.75 at the optimal ≥8 cut-off. We propose ≥24 as a cut-off for classifying post-stroke fatigue on the FAS. While further validation work is needed, this is a positive step towards a coherent approach to reporting fatigue prevalence using the FAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of cut-off values as meaningfulness limits in probabilistic studies and its effect on NPPs risk assessment and safety improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrangeli, G.; Valeri, A.; Zaffiro, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of cut-off values in probabilistic risk assessment/probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), in order to explore under which conditions this practice may help improve the meaningfulness of the results of the analyses and safety of plants, and how it may affect the assessment of risk. Reference is made, in particular, to some past practical applications, also taken from the experience of the authors within the frame of the Italian licensing process. The paper describes the Italian probabilistic criteria which use probabilistic targets and cut-off values to assess safety and identify plant safety improvements. The rationale of the approach is also discussed in the paper and results of sample applications are illustrated. The paper concludes that the use of cut-off values, if properly implemented, could be productive to improve the plant safety as it helps the analyst to focus on a restricted field of analysis, ignoring lower probability and less known events. It also points out that cut-off values should be considered as living numbers to be lowered and even eliminated as soon as significant advancements are made, through research and operational experience, in the knowledge of the pertinent events

  7. ARFI cut-off values and significance of standard deviation for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Sturm, Joerg; Pfeifer, Lukas; Wildner, Dane; Wachter, David L; Neurath, Markus F; Strobel, Deike

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastometry quantifies hepatic stiffness, and thus degree of fibrosis, non-invasively. Our aim was to analyse the diagnostic accuracy of ARFI cut-off values, and the significance of a defined limit of standard deviation (SD) as a potential quality parameter for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). 153 patients with CLD (various aetiologies) undergoing liver biopsy, and an additional 25 patients with known liver cirrhosis, were investigated. ARFI measurements were performed in the right hepatic lobe, and correlated with the histopathological Ludwig fibrosis score (inclusion criteria: at least 6 portal tracts). The diagnostic accuracy of cut-off values was analysed with respect to an SD limit of 30% of the mean ARFI value. The mean ARFI elastometry showed 1.95 ± 0.87 m/s (range 0.79-4.40) in 178 patients (80 female, 98 male, mean age: 52 years). The cut-offs were 1.25 m/s for F ≥ 2, 1.72 m/s for F ≥ 3 and 1.75 m/s for F = 4, and the corresponding AUROC 80.7%, 86.2% and 88.7%, respectively. Exclusion of 31 patients (17.4%) with an SD higher than 30% of the mean ARFI improved the diagnostic accuracy: The AUROC for F ≥ 2, F ≥ 3 and F = 4 were 86.1%, 91.2% and 91.5%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of ARFI can be improved by applying a maximum SD of 30% of the mean ARFI as a quality parameter--which however leads to an exclusion of a relevant number of patients. ARFI results with a high SD should be interpreted with caution.

  8. Putative Dementia Cases Fluctuate as a Function of Mini-Mental State Examination Cut-Off Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ilka M; Henriques, Ana G; Wiltfang, Jens; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B

    2018-01-01

    As the population ages, there is a growing need to quickly and accurately identify putative dementia cases. Many cognitive tests are available; among those commonly used are the Cognitive Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). The aim of this work was to compare the validity and reliability of these cognitive tests in a primary care based cohort (pcb-Cohort). The MMSE and the CDR were applied to 568 volunteers in the pcb-Cohort. Distinct cut-off points for the MMSE were considered, namely MMSE 27, MMSE 24, and MMSE PT (adapted for the Portuguese population). The MMSE 27 identified the greatest number of putative dementia cases, and, as determined by the ROC curve, it was the most sensitive and specific of the MMSE cut-offs considered. Putative predictive or risk factors identified included age, literacy, depression, and diabetes mellitus (DM). DM has previously been indicated as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Comparatively, the MMSE 27 cut-off has the greatest sensibility (94.9%) and specificity (66.3%) when compared to MMSE PT and MMSE 24. Upon comparing MMSE and CDR scores, the latter identified a further 146 putative dementia cases, thus permitting one to propose that in an ideal situation, both tests should be employed. This increases the likelihood of identifying putative dementia cases for subsequent follow up work, thus these cognitive tests represent important tools in patient care. Further, this is a significant study for Portuguese populations, where few of these studies have been carried out.

  9. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P; Endris, R; Kronvall, G; Thomas, V; Verner-Jeffreys, D; Wilhelm, C; Dalsgaard, I

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five antibiotics, the data sets were of sufficient quality and quantity to allow the setting of valid epidemiological cut-off values. For these agents, the cut-off values, calculated by the application of the statistically based normalized resistance interpretation method, were ≤16 mg L(-1) for erythromycin, ≤2 mg L(-1) for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L(-1) for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L(-1) for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L(-1) for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values could not be calculated. For ormetoprim/sulphadimethoxine, the data were excessively diverse and a valid cut-off could not be determined. For flumequine, the putative wild-type data were extremely skewed, and for enrofloxacin, there was inadequate separation in the MIC values for putative wild-type and non-wild-type strains. It is argued that the adoption of OXO as a class representative for the quinolone group would be a valid method of determining susceptibilities to these agents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was <7.5% (sensitivity and specificity 88.99% and 81.4% respectively). Compared with group achieving lactate clearance target, group not achieving lactate clearance target had to increase early mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 13.42; 95%CI 7.19-25.07). In conclusion, the best lactate clearance cut off as anearly mortality predictor in sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  11. BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION MODEL WITH ZETAc OPTIMAL CUT-OFF SCORE TO CORRECT TYPE I ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Iwan

    2005-06-01

    This research has successfully attained the following results: (1 type I error is in fact 59,83 times more costly compared to type II error, (2 22 ratios distinguish between bankrupt and non-bankrupt groups, (3 2 financial ratios proved to be effective in predicting bankruptcy, (4 prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score predicts more companies filing for bankruptcy within one year compared to prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score, (5 Although prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score is more accurate, prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score proved to be able to minimize cost incurred from classification errors.

  12. Vertical cut-off walls for the containment of contaminated ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessberger, H.L.; Krubasik, K.; Beine, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical cut-off walls are widely used for the containment of contaminated sites, where a capping system is not sufficient for the protection of groundwater. Various types of cut-off walls are introduced and new developments are prescribed. Design and testing principles are outlined. Containment techniques are the appropriate measure for old landfills and abandoned industrial sites with contaminated ground and groundwater, too, since the shortage of financial resources in many countries classifies clean-up techniques as too cost intensive in most cases

  13. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths.

  14. Cut-off parameters in the one-dimensional two-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.

    1982-07-01

    It is shown that the usual cut-off procedure (α cut-off parameter) employed in the boson representation of the fermion field opepators of the one-djmensional two-fermion model (TFM) is an incorrect one as the computator of the hermitean-conjugate field operators at the same space-point fails to fulfil a certain relationship which was pointed out long ago by Jordan. The complete form of the boson representation (including the zero-mode) of a single fermion field and the correct values of the cut-off parameter α is reviewed following Jordan and generalized to the TFM. The cut-off parameter α corresponds to a bandwidth cut-off and Jordan's boson representation is exact only in the limit α → 0. The additional zero-mode terms make the exact solution of the backscattering and umklapp scattering problem to be valid only if a supplementary condition is imposed on the coupling constants. Using the present bosonization technique all the inconsistencies of the TFM are removed. The one-particle Green's function and response functions of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model (TLM) are calculated and found to be identical with those obtained by direct diagram summation. The energy gap appearing in the spectrum of the TFM with backscattering and umklapp scattering for certain values of the coupling constants is shown to be proportional to the momentum transfer cut-off γ -1 which has to be kept finite while α goes to zero. Under such conditions the anticommunication relations and Jordan's commutator are invariant under the canonical transformation on the boson operators that diagonalizes the Hamiltonian of the TLM. The charge-density response function of the TFM with backscattering is perturbationally calculated up to the first order. The cut-off α -1 applies in the same way to terms which differ only by their spin indices in the expression of this response function. The charge-density response function is also evaluated at low frequencies for the exactly soluble TFM with

  15. Establishing pathological cut-offs for lateral ventricular volume expansion rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Dwyer

    Full Text Available Background: A percent brain volume change (PBVC cut-off of −0.4% per year has been proposed to distinguish between pathological and physiological changes in multiple sclerosis (MS. Unfortunately, standardized PBVC measurement is not always feasible on scans acquired outside research studies or academic centers. Percent lateral ventricular volume change (PLVVC is a strong surrogate measure of PBVC, and may be more feasible for atrophy assessment on real-world scans. However, the PLVVC rate corresponding to the established PBVC cut-off of −0.4% is unknown. Objective: To establish a pathological PLVVC expansion rate cut-off analogous to −0.4% PBVC. Methods: We used three complementary approaches. First, the original follow-up-length-weighted receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis method establishing whole brain atrophy rates was adapted to a longitudinal ventricular atrophy dataset of 177 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients and 48 healthy controls. Second, in the same dataset, SIENA PBVCs were used with non-linear regression to directly predict the PLVVC value corresponding to −0.4% PBVC. Third, in an unstandardized, real world dataset of 590 RRMS patients from 33 centers, the cut-off maximizing correspondence to PBVC was found. Finally, correspondences to clinical outcomes were evaluated in both datasets. Results: ROC analysis suggested a cut-off of 3.09% (AUC = 0.83, p < 0.001. Non-linear regression R2 was 0.71 (p < 0.001 and a − 0.4% PBVC corresponded to a PLVVC of 3.51%. A peak in accuracy in the real-world dataset was found at a 3.51% PLVVC cut-off. Accuracy of a 3.5% cut-off in predicting clinical progression was 0.62 (compared to 0.68 for PBVC. Conclusions: Ventricular expansion of between 3.09% and 3.51% on T2-FLAIR corresponds to the pathological whole brain atrophy rate of 0.4% for RRMS. A conservative cut-off of 3.5% performs comparably to PBVC for clinical outcomes. Keywords: Brain atrophy

  16. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papini, P.; Grimani, C.; Stephens, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths

  17. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than

  18. Prevalensi Sarkopenia pada Lansia di Komunitas (Community Dwelling berdasarkan Dua Nilai Cut-off Parameter Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, aging muscle mass loss, and function syndromes can lead to decreased quality of life and increased elderly mortality. The availability of various screening methods and operational definitions in different studies has produced different findings of sarcopenia prevalence. The purpose of this study was to discover the prevalence of sarcopenia in Indonesian community-dwelling elderly based on muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using hand dynamometer, and physical performance based on six minutes walking test with two different cut-off point parameters of sarcopenia, i.e. the cut-off point recommended by Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS and the cut-off point based on the reference used in Taiwan elderly population reference due to the lack of references for Indonesian elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted to 229 participants (71 men and 158 women from the community-dwelling elderly population between August and December 2014 in Bandung and Jatinangor. The results of the study showed that the sarcopenia prevalence in this study based on AWGS was 9.1% (7.4% in men and 1.7% in women while the prevalence based on the Taiwan reference revealed a prevalence of 40.6% (20.1% in men and 20.5% in women. This highly different prevalences shows the importance of defining a specific cut-off point for elderly population in community-dwelling Indonesia to get a more accurate sarcopenia prevalence.

  19. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...

  20. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    -1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values...

  1. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to establish a triage cut-off point or threshold for peripheral bone mineral density (BMD), applicable to black postmenopausal women, and that could be used as a screening method to differentiate between women with normal BMD, and those with possible central osteoporosis.

  2. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    The cut-off values for Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell and Araoye criteria for assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy. (LVH) were higher than those previously in ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. This was a cross-sectional descriptive ..... criteria, Araoye code system and Ogunlade criterion were derived from the addition of two or ...

  3. Effect of the cut off frequency on rough point and flat surface contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fan Ming

    2012-01-01

    In the past years, contact between two bodies has been studied from various ways that do not consider the cut off frequency effect on the contact mechanism. This paper reports the correlation between rough point contact and flat surface contact at different cut off frequencies of filter. The similarity and difference between the two types of contact mechanisms are presented for materials with linear or elastic perfectly plastic deformation. The conjugate gradient method (CGM) is used for analysing the rough point contact, while the rough flat surface contact is studied with an improved CGM in which the influence coefficient for the elastic deformation of the rough flat surface is obtained with finite element method. Numerical results show that for the above two types of contacts, their von Mises stress and maximum shear stress are greatly affected by the cut-off frequency of a high pass filter. Moreover, a decrease in the cut-off frequency leads to an increase in the contact area and a decrease in the approach for the rough flat surface contact, while the opposite variations is for the point contact between rough bodies with the small radii

  4. The normative score and the cut-off value of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosu, Juichi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Matsudaira, Ko; Kato, So; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Chikuda, Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common scoring systems used for patients with low back pain (LBP). Although the normative score of the ODI was reported to be 10.19 in a review article, no study has calculated the normative score after adjusting the value based on the age distribution. In addition, none of the previous studies has estimated the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The purpose of this study was to estimate the normative score by adjusting the data for age distribution in Japan, and to determine the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. We conducted an internet survey on LBP using the Japanese version of the ODQ. A total of 1,200 respondents, composed of 100 males and 100 females in each age group (from the 20s to 70s), participated in this study. We also asked them to provide information about their backgrounds. We estimated the normative score after correcting for the age distribution of Japan. We also estimated the ODI of those with or without disability, the factors associated with the ODI, and the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The participants' backgrounds were similar to the national survey. The normative score of the ODI was estimated at 8.73. The ODI of the LBP with disability group was 22.07. Those with sciatica and obese subjects showed higher ODI than those without. The optimal cut-off value was estimated to be 12. We defined the normative score and the cut-off value of the ODI.

  5. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  6. Waist circumference cut-off points for identification of abdominal obesity among the tunisian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguerra, R; Alberti, H; Smida, H; Salem, L B; Rayana, C B; El Atti, J; Achour, A; Gaigi, S; Slama, C B; Zouari, B; Alberti, K G M M

    2007-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a convenient measure of abdominal adipose tissue. It itself is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes-risk factor and is strongly linked to other CVD risk factors. There are, however, ethnic differences in the relationship of WC to the other risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC and body mass index (BMI) at which cardiovascular risk factors can be identified with maximum sensitivity and specificity in a representative sample of the Tunisian adult population and to investigate any correlation between WC and BMI. We used a sample of the Tunisian National Nutrition Survey, a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 1996 on a large nationally representative sample, which included 3435 adults (1244 men and 2191 women) of 20 years or older. WC, BMI, blood pressure and fasting blood measurements (plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify optimal cut-off values of WC and BMI to identify with maximum sensitivity and specificity the detection of high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, high blood cholesterol and hypertriglyceridaemia. ROC curve analysis suggested WC cut-off points of 85 cm in men and 85 cm in women for the optimum detection of high blood pressure, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. The optimum BMI cut-off points for predicting cardiovascular risk factors were 24 kg/m(2) in men and 27 kg/m(2) in women. The cut-off points recommended for the Caucasian population differ from those appropriate for the Tunisian population. The data show a continuous increase in odds ratios of each cardiovascular risk factor, with increasing level of WC and BMI. WC exceeding 85 cm in men and 79 cm in women correctly identified subjects with a BMI of >/=25 kg/m(2), sensitivity of >90% and specificity of >83%. Based on the ROC analysis, we suggest a WC of 85 cm for both men and women as appropriate cut-off

  7. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  8. Casimir effect in a d-dimensional flat spacetime and the cut-off method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svaiter, N.F.; Svaiter, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    The CasiMir efeect in a D-dimensional spacetime produced by a Hermitian massless scalar field in the presence of a pair of perfectly reflecting parallel flat plates is discussed. The exponential cut-off regularization method is employed. The regularized vacuum energy and the Casimir energy of this field are evaluated and a detailed analysis of the divergent terms in the regularized vacuum energy is carried out. The two-dimensional version of the Casimir effect is discussed by means of the same cut-off method. A comparison between the above method and the zeta function regularization procedure is presented in a way which gives the unification between these two methods in the present case. (author) [pt

  9. Flocking of the Motsch-Tadmor Model with a Cut-Off Interaction Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunyin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the flocking behavior of the Motsch-Tadmor model with a cut-off interaction function. Our analysis shows that connectedness is important for flocking of this kind of model. Fortunately, we get a sufficient condition imposed only on the model parameters and initial data to guarantee the connectedness of the neighbor graph associated with the system. Then we present a theoretical analysis for flocking, and show that the system achieves consensus at an exponential rate.

  10. The Cut-off Value of Blood Mercury Concentration in Relation to Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased blood mercury concentration is associated with inflammation, and chronic inflammation can cause insulin resistance. We examined the cut-off value of blood mercury in relation to an increased score on the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Methods : We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010. Relevant data from 5,184 subjects (2,523 men and 2,661 women were analyzed cross-sectionally. General linear analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration. In addition, we determined the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased HOMA-IR score (> 2.34 using an ROC curve. Results : The mean value of blood mercury concentration in men and women was 5.88 μg/L and 4.11 μg/L, respectively. In men, comparing to the first quartile, HOMA-IR score increased significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles. In women, however, the increase in HOMA-IR score was not significant. The cut-off value that best represented the association between increased HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration in men was found to be 4.71 μg/L. Conclusion : Blood mercury concentration was associated with increased HOMA-IR score in men, and the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration that was correlated with increased HOMA-IR score was around 4.71 μg/L.

  11. The analytic regularization ζ function method and the cut-off method in Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svaiter, N.F.; Svaiter, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The zero point energy associated to a hermitian massless scalar field in the presence of perfectly reflecting plates in a three dimensional flat space-time is discussed. A new technique to unify two different methods - the ζ function and a variant of the cut-off method - used to obtain the so called Casimir energy is presented, and the proof of the analytic equivalence between both methods is given. (author)

  12. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, J.; Gizzi, L. A.; Londrillo, P.; Mirzanejad, S.; Rovelli, T.; Sinigardi, S.; Turchetti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for the rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations, for a model target given by a uniform foil plus a contaminant layer that is hydrogen-rich. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitting 2D and 3D simulations for the same target and laser pulse configuration, are comparable. This suggests that parametric scans can be performed with 2D simulations since 3D ones are computationally very expensive, delegating their role only to a correspondence check. In this paper, the simulations are carried out with the PIC code ALaDyn by changing the target thickness L and the incidence angle α, with a fixed a0 = 3. A monotonic dependence, on L for normal incidence and on α for fixed L, is found, as in the experimental results for high temporal contrast pulses.

  13. Clinically Relevant Cut-off Points for the Diagnosis of Sarcopenia in Older Korean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yu-Ri; Joh, Ju-Youn; Kim, Yeon-Pyo

    2017-11-09

    The optimal criteria applied to older Korean people have not been defined. We aimed to define clinically relevant cut-off points for older Korean people and to compare the predictive validity with other definitions of sarcopenia. Nine hundred and sixteen older Koreans (≥65 years) were included in this cross-sectional observational study. We used conditional inference tree analysis to determine cut-off points for height-adjusted grip strength (GS) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), for use in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. We then compared the Korean sarcopenia criteria with the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health and Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria, using frailty, assessed with the Korean Frailty Index, as an outcome variable. For men, a residual GS (GSre) of ≤ 0.25 was defined as weak, and a residual ASM (ASMre) of ≤ 1.29 was defined as low. Corresponding cut-off points for women were a GSre of ≤ 0.17 and an ASMre of ≤ 0.69. GSre and ASMre values were adjusted for height. In logistic regression analysis with new cut-off points, the adjusted odds ratios for pre-frail or frail status in the sarcopenia group were 3.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-7.83) for the men and 1.74 (95% CI 0.91-3.35) for the women. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the unadjusted area under the curve for Korean sarcopenia criteria in men and women were 0.653 and 0.608, respectively (p sarcopenia in older Korean people. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A study of insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and its cut-off value to identify metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashpal; Garg, M K; Tandon, Nikhil; Marwaha, Raman Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and associated metabolic abnormalities are increasingly being reported in the adolescent population. Cut-off value of homeostasis model of assessment IR (HOMA-IR) as an indicator of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents has not been established. This study aimed to investigate IR by HOMA-IR in urban Indian adolescents and to establish cut-off values of HOMA-IR for defining MS. A total of 691 apparently healthy adolescents (295 with normal body mass index (BMI), 205 overweight, and 199 obese) were included in this cross-sectional study. MS in adolescents was defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. IR was calculated using the HOMA model. Mean height, waist circumference (WC), waist/hip ratio (WHR), waist/height ratio (WHtR), and blood pressure were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls. The HOMA-IR values increased progressively from normal weight to obese adolescents in both sexes. Mean HOMA-IR values increased progressively according to sexual maturity rating in both sexes. HOMA-IR value of 2.5 had a sensitivity of >70% and specificity of >60% for MS. This cut-off identified larger number of adolescents with MS in different BMI categories (19.7% in normal weight, 51.7% in overweight, and 77.0% in obese subjects) as compared to the use of IDF or ATP III criteria for diagnosing MS. Odds ratio for having IR (HOMA-IR of >2.5) was highest with WHtR (4.9, p pHOMA-IR increased with sexual maturity and with progression from normal to obese. A HOMA-IR cut-off of 2.5 provided the maximum sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing MS in both genders as per ATP III and IDF criteria.

  15. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four major regions in Bandung, Indonesia: Sukajadi, Cicadas, Buah Batu, and Cibaduyut. Results: The average appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI in females and males based on body mass index (BMI were identified. The average ASMI values for normal BMI in females was 5.982±0.462 kg/m2 while the average ASMI values normal BMI for males was 7.581±0.744 kg/m2 Conclusions: A correlation between BMI and ASMI that was considered statistically significant was found in females (0.7712; p<0.05 and a very significant correlation was seen in males (0.870; p<0.05. The cut off points were defined by the normal BMI, which were 5.059 for females and 6.093 for males.

  16. Equilibrium properties of blackbody radiation with an ultraviolet energy cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheeraj Kumar; Chandra, Nitin; Vaibhav, Vinay

    2017-10-01

    We study various equilibrium thermodynamic properties of blackbody radiation (i.e. a photon gas) with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We find that the energy density, specific heat etc. follow usual acoustic phonon dynamics as have been well studied by Debye. Other thermodynamic quantities like pressure, entropy etc. have also been calculated. The usual Stefan-Boltzmann law gets modified. We observe that the values of the thermodynamic quantities with the energy cut-off is lower than the corresponding values in the theory without any such scale. The phase-space measure is also expected to get modified for an exotic spacetime appearing at Planck scale, which in turn leads to the modification of Planck energy density distribution and the Wien's displacement law. We found that the non-perturbative nature of the thermodynamic quantities in the SR limit (for both unmodified and modified cases), due to nonanalyticity of the leading term, is a general feature of the theory accompanied with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We have also discussed the possible modification in the case of Big Bang and the Stellar objects and have suggested a table top experiment for verification in effective low energy case.

  17. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il

    2003-01-01

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with 99m TcO 4 point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm ∼ 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency

  18. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Babai

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2. Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%. When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%. Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190. By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc = 69% and 61%, respectively] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65% with sensitivity and

  19. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  20. Defining Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy from a Continuous Measure of Optic Nerve Damage - The Optimal Cut-off Point for Risk-factor Analysis in Population-based Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diseases characterized by a continuous trait can be defined by setting a cut-off point for the disease measure in question, accepting some misclassification. The 97.5th percentile is commonly used as a cut-off point. However, it is unclear whether this percentile is the optimal cut-off

  1. Efficient Closed Form Cut-Off Planes and Propagation Planes Characteristics for Dielectric Slab Loaded Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Junaid

    2012-01-01

    The geometrical relationship between the cut-off and propagating planes of any waveguide system is a prerequisite for any design process. The characterization of cut-off planes and optimisation are challenging for numerical methods, closed-form solutions are always preferred. In this paper Maxwells coupled field equations are used to characterise twin E-plane and H-plane slab loaded boundary value problems. The single mode bandwidths and dispersion characteristics of these structures are pres...

  2. Cut-off effect of radical TEMPO derivatives in olive oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Arbina, Amaia; Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Aliaga, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Three oil-in-water emulsions were prepared from mixtures of olive oil and Tween 20 in water. The effectiveness of a series of radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (TEMPO) derivatives of variable lipophilicity in reactions with antioxidant Trolox, and as pyrene-fluorescence quenchers, was compared in the three emulsions. A "cut-off" effect was observed for the pyrene quenching by the probes, but not for their reaction with Trolox. The results were rationalized in terms of the amphiphobic nature of the probes, and the different locations of probe, pyrene and Trolox in the three-phase microheterogeneous systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. European quality assurance and quality control for cut-off walls and caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cut-off walls and caps both may be seriously compromised by small areas of substandard materials or work. Quality assurance/quality control is therefore of crucial importance and the paper sets out the issues that need to be addressed when designing a quality plan for a containment. Consideration is given to the purpose of the containment, the parameters to be controlled, specifications and standards and tests on raw and manufactured materials and on the in-situ containment. It is not the purpose of the paper to give detailed test procedures but rather to identify the questions that must be answered to develop a quality plan

  4. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data set is scored. Thus demonstrating how an arbitrarily set of cut-off point in prevalence studies can yield wildly varying prevalence rates. The data further show that making implicit assumptions about...

  5. Attenuation bands and cut-off frequencies for ELF electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, J.L.; Lefeuvre, F.; Cerisier, J.C.; Berthelier, J.J.; Boud'ko, N.; Michailova, G.; Kapustina, O.

    1985-01-01

    The propagation characteristic of ELF (10 Hz - 1500 Hz) electromagnetic waves observed on ARCAD 3, in three different zones: low L value (L 6). Unambiguous determinations of the wave normal directions are obtained from the interpretations of the measurements of four (3 magnetic, 1 electric) wave field components. The technique that is used, is based on the Means method in the cases of highly polarized waves and on the Storey and Lefeuvre WDF method in the other cases. A particular emphasis is put on the propagation characteristics of the waves, in a multiple ion plasma, and on the cut-off frequencies which appear at and below the local proton gyrofrequency

  6. Effective moments of inertia and spin cut off parameters in Hf isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, R.; Sharifzadeh, N.; Farahmand, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In all statistical theories the nuclear level density is the most characteristic quantity and plays a major role in the study of nuclear structure. Most experimental data on nuclear level density have been analyzed with analytical functions of the level density. On the basis of statistical models, the effective moments of inertia and spin cut off parameters have been determined for 176 Hf, 178 Hf and 180 Hf nuclei from extensive and complete level schemes and neutron resonance densities in low excitation energy levels. Then, moments of inertia of these nuclei have been determined by nuclear rotational model. The results have been compared with their corresponding rigid body value

  7. Prospects for a fissile material cut-off: Achieving a successful NPT review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, M.

    1999-01-01

    Finding new and creative ways to overcome the current deadlock in progress in nuclear arms control became the most important question in the past year. For a long time it had been expected that after the conclusion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the next step would be to ban production of fissile materials for weapon purposes. Three strategies are proposed for reaching relevant cut-off agreements. First suggests possible fore for achievement of relevant agreements, second is the proposal to begin with international register of inventories and production capabilities for all relevant nuclear materials, and the third one is ti identify equivalent steps obligatory for all the parties involved

  8. Azimuth cut-off model for significant wave height investigation along coastal water of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged; Ibrahim, Zelina; Van Genderen, Johan

    2002-11-01

    The present work is used to operationalize the azimuth cut-off concept in the study of significant wave height. Three ERS-1 images have been used along the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia. The quasi-linear transform was applied to map the SAR wave spectra into real ocean wave spectra. The azimuth cut-off was then used to model the significant wave height. The results show that azimuth cut-off varied with the different period of the ERS-1 images. This is because of the fact that the azimuth cut-off is a function of wind speed and significant wave height. It is of interest to find that the significant wave height modeled from azimuth cut-off is in good relation with ground wave conditions. It can be concluded that ERS-1 can be used as a monitoring tool in detecting the significant wave height variation. The azimuth cut-off can be used to model the significant wave height. This means that the quasi-linear transform could be a good application to significant wave height variation during different seasons.

  9. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); pvalue of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  10. Optimised cut-off function for Tersoff-like potentials for a BN nanosheet: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Rajasekaran, G; Parashar, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    In this article, molecular dynamics based simulations were carried out to study the tensile behaviour of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs). Four different sets of Tersoff potential parameters were used in the simulations for estimating the interatomic interactions between boron and nitrogen atoms. Modifications were incorporated in the Tersoff cut-off function to improve the accuracy of results with respect to fracture stress, fracture strain and Young’s modulus. In this study, the original cut-off function was optimised in such a way that small and large cut-off distances were made equal, and hence a single cut-off distance was used with all sets of Tersoff potential parameters. The single value of cut-off distance for the Tersoff potential was chosen after analysing the potential energy and bond forces experienced by boron and nitrogen atoms subjected to bond stretching. The simulations performed with the optimised cut-off function help in identifying the Tersoff potential parameters that reproduce the experimentally evaluated mechanical behaviour of BNNSs. (paper)

  11. Scanning tunnelling microscope light emission: Finite temperature current noise and over cut-off emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Vijith; Dawson, Paul; Mitra, J

    2017-06-14

    The spectral distribution of light emitted from a scanning tunnelling microscope junction not only bears its intrinsic plasmonic signature but is also imprinted with the characteristics of optical frequency fluc- tuations of the tunnel current. Experimental spectra from gold-gold tunnel junctions are presented that show a strong bias (V b ) dependence, curiously with emission at energies higher than the quantum cut-off (eV b ); a component that decays monotonically with increasing bias. The spectral evolution is explained by developing a theoretical model for the power spectral density of tunnel current fluctuations, incorporating finite temperature contribution through consideration of the quantum transport in the system. Notably, the observed decay of the over cut-off emission is found to be critically associated with, and well explained in terms of the variation in junction conductance with V b . The investigation highlights the scope of plasmon-mediated light emission as a unique probe of high frequency fluctuations in electronic systems that are fundamental to the electrical generation and control of plasmons.

  12. A specially designed cut-off gamma camera for high resolution SPECT of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.A.; Bergstrand, G.; Bergstedt, H.; Berg, J.; Flygare, O.; Schnell, P.O.; Anderson, N.; Lagergren, C.

    1984-01-01

    A modern gamma camera system for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has been modified in order to optimize examinations of the head. By cutting off a part of the detector housing at one edge, it has been possible to rotate the camera close to the skull, still covering the entire brain and the skull base. The minimum radius of rotation used was thereby reduced, in the mean, from 21.2 cm to 13.0 cm in examination of 18 patients. In combination with an adjustment of the 64 x 64 acquisition matrix to a field of view of 26x26 cm/sup 2/, the spatial resolution improved from 18.6 mm (FWHM) to 12.6 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the conventional LEGP-collimator and to 10.4 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the LEHR-collimator. No other modification than a slight cut of the light guide was made in the internal construction of the camera. Thus, the physical properties of the detector head are not essentially changed from those of a non-modified unit. The improved spatial resolution of the cut-off camera SPECT-system implies certain clinical advantages in studies of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-space and the skull base

  13. Defining the optimal cut-off values for liver enzymes in diagnosing blunt liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomohide; Hamada, Hirohisa; Nishida, Masamichi; Naess, Paal A; Gaarder, Christine; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Patients with blunt trauma to the liver have elevated levels of liver enzymes within a short time post injury, potentially useful in screening patients for computed tomography (CT). This study was performed to define the optimal cut-off values for serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with blunt liver injury diagnosed with contrast enhanced multi detector-row CT (CE-MDCT). All patients admitted from May 2006 to July 2013 to Teikyo University Hospital Trauma and Critical Care Center, and who underwent abdominal CE-MDCT within 3 h after blunt trauma, were retrospectively enrolled. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal cut-off values for AST and ALT were defined, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Of a total of 676 blunt trauma patients 64 patients were diagnosed with liver injury (Group LI+) and 612 patients without liver injury (Group LI-). Group LI+ and LI- were comparable for age, Revised Trauma Score, and Probability of survival. The groups differed in Injury Severity Score [median 21 (interquartile range 9-33) vs. 17 (9-26) (p tool for CT scan in patients otherwise eligible for observation only or as a transfer criterion to a facility with CT scan capability.

  14. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbman, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed

  15. Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and adolescents: English norms and cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Christine; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2013-08-01

    The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (PAQ-C/-A) provides general estimates of physical activity levels. Following recent expert recommendations for using the PAQ for population surveillance, the aim of this paper was twofold: first, to describe normative PAQ data for English youth; and second, to determine a criterion-referenced PAQ-score cut-off point. Participants (n = 7226, 53% boys, 10-15 years) completed an anglicized version of the PAQ. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ) was predicted from PACER lap count according to latest FITNESSGRAM standards and categorized into "at-risk" and "no-risk" for metabolic syndrome. ROC curves were drawn for each age-sex group to identify PAQ scores, which categorized youth into "sufficiently active" versus "low-active" groups, using cardiorespiratory fitness as the criterion-referenced standard. PAQ scores were higher in boys than in girls and declined with age. Mean PAQ score was a significant, albeit relatively weak (area under the curve PAQ scores of ≥2.9 for boys and ≥2.7 for girls were identified as cut-off points, although it may be more appropriate to use lower, age-specific PAQ scores for girls of 13, 14 and 15 years (2.6, 2.4, 2.3, respectively). The normative and criterion-referenced PAQ values may be used to standardize and categorize PAQ scores in future youth population studies. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC to Determine Cut-Off Points of Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Weiss

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively; while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  17. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbman, G. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed.

  18. Projection systems with a cut-off line for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    2005-08-01

    The lighting systems of a car provide a variety of challenges from the point of view of illumination science and technology. Engineering work in this field has to deal both with reflector and lens design as well as with opto-mechanical design and sensor technology. It has direct implications on traffic safety and the efficiency in which energy is used. Therefore, these systems are continuously improved and optimized. In this context, adaptive systems that we investigate for automotive applications gain increasing importance. The properties of the light distribution in the vicinity of the cut-off line are of key importance for the safe and efficient operation of automotive headlamps. An alternative approach is proposed to refine the description of these properties in an attempt to make it more quantitative. This description is intended to facilitate intercomparison between different systems and/or to study environmental influences on the cut-off line of a system under investigation. Designing projection systems it is necessary to take a delicate trade-off between efficiency, light-distribution characteristics, mechanical boundary conditions, and legal requirements into account. Considerations and results on optical properties of three-axial reflectors in dependence of layout parameters will be given. They can serve as a guideline for the optical workshop and for free-form optimization.

  19. The warm dark matter halo mass function below the cut-off scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies are a viable alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. Unfortunately, an accurate scrutiny of the WDM predictions with N-body simulations has proven difficult due to numerical artefacts. Here, we report on cosmological simulations that, for the first time, are devoid of those problems, and thus are able to accurately resolve the WDM halo mass function well below the cut-off. We discover a complex picture, with perturbations at different evolutionary stages populating different ranges in the halo mass function. On the smallest mass scales we can resolve, identified objects are typically centres of filaments that are starting to collapse. On intermediate mass scales, objects typically correspond to fluctuations that have collapsed and are in the process of relaxation, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by objects similar to haloes identified in CDM simulations. We then explicitly show how the formation of low-mass haloes is suppressed, which translates into a strong cut-off in the halo mass function. This disfavours some analytic formulations that predict a halo mass function that would extend well below the free streaming mass. We argue for a more detailed exploration of the formation of the smallest structures expected to form in a given cosmology, which, we foresee, will advance our overall understanding of structure formation.

  20. Third molar cut-off value in assessing the legal age of 18 in Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Sakher; Kawthar, Alemad; AlAraik, Ayman; AlShalan, Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Teeth plays a major role in forensic sciences especially in age assessment of an individual, which can be used to aid in criminal or civil matters. The importance of teeth comes from their ability to survive inhumation well and because they are hardly affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Third molars are the only teeth still developing after the age of 14 years and during the legal age of adulthood, which is 18 years. The consequences of criminal violation can strongly affect the individual's life, it is important to set different parameters to decide whether an individual is a minor or an adult in the absence of documents. Depending on the different legal requirement, such parameters can set above 90% probability for criminal matters and from 51% to civil matters. The aim of this research was to find the cut-off value of third molar development for the legal age of 18 amongst Saudi individuals using the third molar maturity index method by Cameriere et al. (2008) [17]. This was a cross sectional study on 300 archived orthopantomogram (OPG) of healthy Saudi patients between the ages 14 and 22 years attending the Dental Hospital at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All OPGs were taken by PLANMECA - ProMax machine and evaluated by the Romaxis software. The inclusion criteria were good quality OPGs taken during the course of treatment. All patients were healthy with no systemic diseases or disorders with the presence of third molars and clear root apex. The lower left mandibular third molar (LL3rdM) was assessed using third molar maturity index (I3m) to determine if the individual is younger or older than 18 years old. The cut-off value of I3m for the Saudi population was (I3mage of adulthood in Saudi population and the cut-off value of I3m is similar to other populations. Although dental age assessment by means of third molar development is useful, it still has its limitation because of its variation in position, morphology and development

  1. Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Liepelt-Scarfone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparable to Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI is associated with an increased risk for dementia. However different definitions of PD-MCI may have varying predictive accuracy for dementia. In a cohort of 101 nondemented Parkinson patients who underwent neuropsychological testing, the frequency of PD-MCI subjects and PD-MCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic/nonamnestic was determined by use of varying healthy population-based cut-off values. We also investigated the association between defined PD-MCI groups and ADL scales. Varying cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI were found to affect frequency of PD-MCI subjects (9.9%–92.1% and, maybe more important, lead to a “shift” of proportion of detected PD-MCI subtypes especially within the amnestic single-domain subtype. Models using a strict cut-off value were significantly associated with lower ADL scores. Thus, the use of defined cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI is highly relevant for comparison purposes. Strict cut-off values may have a higher predictive value for dementia.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors with overweight and obesity among Vietnamese adults: Caucasian and Asian cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh T H; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Dibley, Michael J; Bauman, Adrian E

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) using Caucasian and Asian cut-offs. A cross-sectional survey. In 2005, 1,971 adults aged 25-64 years in HCMC were randomly selected using a proportional to population size sampling method to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Multivariable logistic models were used to examine associations between overweight/obesity and socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and biochemical indices of chronic disease risk. The prevalence of overweight and obesity using the Caucasian BMI cut-offs were 13.9% and 1.8% respectively, and those with the Asian BMI cut-offs were 27.5% and 5.7%, respectively. The abdominal adiposity rates were higher than the BMI overweight and obesity rates in women, but not in men. Increasing age, low education, high household wealth index, high levels of sitting and reclining time, cholesterol and high blood pressure were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Current smoking and sedentary leisure time was significantly negatively associated with this status in men. Associations between overweight/obesity and metabolic disorders were evident using both cut-offs. Asian cut-offs identified more risk factors and therefore could be considered for defining at-risk groups. The results highlight the importance of intervention programs to prevent overweight/obesity in young adults.

  3. Derivation of the cut-off length from the quantum quadratic enhancement of a mass in vacuum energy constant Lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Sato, Hikaru

    2018-04-01

    Ultraviolet self-interaction energies in field theory sometimes contain meaningful physical quantities. The self-energies in such as classical electrodynamics are usually subtracted from the rest mass. For the consistent treatment of energies as sources of curvature in the Einstein field equations, this study includes these subtracted self-energies into vacuum energy expressed by the constant Lambda (used in such as Lambda-CDM). In this study, the self-energies in electrodynamics and macroscopic classical Einstein field equations are examined, using the formalisms with the ultraviolet cut-off scheme. One of the cut-off formalisms is the field theory in terms of the step-function-type basis functions, developed by the present authors. The other is a continuum theory of a fundamental particle with the same cut-off length. Based on the effectiveness of the continuum theory with the cut-off length shown in the examination, the dominant self-energy is the quadratic term of the Higgs field at a quantum level (classical self-energies are reduced to logarithmic forms by quantum corrections). The cut-off length is then determined to reproduce today's tiny value of Lambda for vacuum energy. Additionally, a field with nonperiodic vanishing boundary conditions is treated, showing that the field has no zero-point energy.

  4. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Grygorowicz

    Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for

  5. Flow rates through earthen, geomembrane ampersand composite cut-off walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachavises, C.; Benson, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Flow rates through soil-bentonite (SIB), geomembrane (GM), and composite geomembrane-soil (CGS) cut-off walls were determined using a numerical model of ground water flow. Various geological and wall conditions were simulated. Results of the simulations show that flow rates past all wall types are affected by hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer and underlying confining layer. Flow rates past GM walls with perfect joints are very low, provided the confining layer has low hydraulic conductivity. However, if a small fraction of the joints are defective, GM walls can be ineffective in blocking flow. CGS walls with a low hydraulic conductivity shell are less sensitive to joint defects. CGS walls with good shells typically have lower flow rates than SB and GM walls, even if the CGS wall contains defective joints

  6. The influence of cut off lows on sulfate burdens over the North Atlantic during April, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Miller, M.A.; Schwartz, S.E.; Kwon, O.U.

    2001-01-14

    The authors have presented examples from a modeling study of the development of sulfur burdens over North America, the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe during April, 1987 using observation-derived meteorological data to represent the actual conditions for this period, focusing on the influence of cut-off lows on SO{sub 2} and sulfate column burdens over the North Atlantic Ocean. The analysis demonstrates that these systems can serve either as sources or sinks of sulfate, and that the major factor governing their resulting effect is the position during its formative stages relative to (a) sources of moisture, and (b) sulfur emissions, which regulates the availability of sulfur, cloud liquid water for sulfur oxidation, and the amount of precipitation for sulfate removal produced in the later stages of the life cycle.

  7. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  8. Determination of the stresses and displacements in the cut off curtain body executed by the > method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snisarenko, V.I.; Mel'nikov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    Construction of the cut-off-curtain (COC) is analyzed as a possible variant to reduce the rate of radioactive horizontal migration. Such constructions can be executed by the > method. The theoretical analysis of the stress-strained state of the carried out using the methods of the theory of elasticity and of the limit equilibrium of the strewing medium. Theoretical dependences are obtained and formulas for practical calculations of the COC-body stress-strained state in the depth intervals which are of practical interest are suggested. The dependences obtained may be used to calculate the consolidation parameters and filtration coefficients, to choose materials for the COC body, geometrical size and film elements included

  9. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data...... is unique in the field of prevalence studies of computer game addiction both in its design and its findings. The findings and conclusions need to be addressed by future research in the area.......’ from ‘addicted gamers’ by making implicit assumptions about negative effects explicit will cause prevalence rates to drop even further. Unexpectedly, the data from this modified questionnaire provides preliminary evidence for a natural cut-off point that clearly separates addicted play from normal play...

  10. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, D V; Eryukova, T A; Kolesnikov, V A; Rudnev, S G; Starunova, O A; Ponomareva, E G; Soboleva, N P; Sterlikov, S A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5–80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  11. India and the fissile material cut-off treaty: policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayan, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    The international community inside and outside the Conference of Disarmament is underscoring the need for concluding a fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT). The Indian government, for a long period, has been sponsoring the idea. Notwithstanding the international stagnation, the issue has been instigating periodic debate in India on the Indian approach. The periodic revival of the issue requires that India revisit its policy on fissile material production as well as its approach towards a possible EVICT. This article examines the question: should India's approach to conclude an FMCT be within the UN institutional framework? The new international reality is pushing for a new context, new realignments and a fresh outlook for an FMCT. India should take its own time to support conclusion of an FMCT so that its national interests and security are not adversely affected. (author)

  12. ELISA validation and determination of cut-off level for chloramphenicol residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki Bogumił

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical validation of a screening ELISA for detection of chloramphenicol (CAP in honey was conducted according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Guidelines for the Validation of Screening Methods for Residues of Veterinary Medicines. The analyte was extracted from honey with a water and ethyl acetate mixture, and CAP concentrations were measured photometrically at 450 nm. The recovery rate of the analyte from spiked samples was 79%. The cut-off level of CAP in honey as the minimum recovery (0.17 units was established. Detection capability (CCβ was fixed at 0.25 μg kg−1. No relevant interferences between matrix effects and structurally related substances including florfenicol and thiamphenicol were observed. The ELISA method should be useful for determination of CAP residues in honey monitoring.

  13. Verification arrangements for the proposed fissile material cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragin, V.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1950's, an agreement to terminate the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons has been on the agenda. On December 16, 1993, the UNGA adopted Resolution A/RES/48/75/L which recommends ''the negotiation in the most appropriate international forum of a non-discriminatory, multilateral and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices''. The proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) is still one of the most important items on the multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation agenda. Successful achievement of the FMCT would be an important step towards the goal of eliminating nuclear weapons. (author)

  14. High cut-off membranes in acute kidney injury and continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-11-24

    Innovation in continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) utilized to treat acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis, has brought new machines and techniques. Part of these new advances are due to the availability of innovative biomaterials and the construction of membranes with larger pores and wide distribution of pore sizes. This includes the creation of a new generation of high cut-off membranes whose utilization in clinical practice is promising for the wide spectrum of solutes that are removed during extracorporeal therapies.However, the enlargement of pore diameters brings some loss of albumin during treatment and this effect is still under evaluation, since there is a possibility that this is detrimental for the patient. A thorough review of the available clinical literature is reported in this paper with a reappraisal of the potential application of these new technologies.

  15. Measurement of current drive profile using electron cyclotron wave attenuation near the O-mode cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.

    1991-01-01

    A method for determining the radial profile of the lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks uing electron-cyclotron attenuation of the O-mode for frequencies ω near the cut-off frequency is discussed. The basic idea is that for a given wave frequency, the cut-off plays the role of a spatial filter selecting a variable portion of the non-inductive current. It is shown that the incremental attenuation resulting from a small increase of ω displays specific features related to the current density near the cut-off point. Using the relation between the wave damping and the current density it is possible to determine the radial profile of the current drive from the wave attenuation measurements. A numerical application is also presented for plasma parameters in the reactor regime

  16. Fatigue life analysis of cracked gas receiver of emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junzhi; Zhou, Jiyong; Li, Siyuan

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale air compressor and gas receiver are used as the driving gas of the emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station. Operation of block valve is ensured by starting and stopping compressor automatically. The frequent start-stop of compressor and the pressure fluctuation pose a threat to the service life of gas receiver, and then affect normal operation of the emergency cut-off system and security of gas gathering station. In this paper, the fatigue life of a pressure vessel with axial semi-elliptical surface crack in the inner wall is analyzed under the varying pressure by means of the theory of fracture mechanics. The influences of the amplitude of pressure fluctuation and the initial crack size on the residual life of gas receiver are discussed. It provides a basis for setting the working parameters of gas receiver of emergency cut-off system and determining the maintenance cycle.

  17. Age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for patients above 50 years increases utility of the diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism. Evidence for the same approach regarding diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is, however, unclear. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted following the PRISMA Statement guideline to gather the existing knowledge on the use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for DVT. Studies were extracted from Medline and the Cochrane Library. The search period ended...

  18. [Research progress on the clinical value of Ki-67 in breast cancer and its cut-off definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Wu, Kejin

    2015-08-01

    Ki-67 has an important application value in clinical practice. However, it is still a little tough in clinical application because of the debate on the cut-off definition of Ki-67 index. This review summarizes most studies on the prognostic and predictive value of Ki-67, analyzes the reasons for the discrepancies among the studies cited, and presents the necessity and clinical significance of scientifically defining the cut-off of Ki-67 index, providing a theoretical basis for Ki-67 in clinical application.

  19. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI) than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5

  20. Sinus cut-off sign: A helpful sign in the CT diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture associated with pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Karabulut, Nevzat; Yuncu, Gokhan; Sevinc, Serpil; Kiroglu, Yilmaz

    2006-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the 'sinus cut-off' sign at CT in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in patients with blunt abdominal trauma complicated with pleural effusion, and evaluate its utility in an experimental model. Between January 2004 and March 2005, we observed an unusual interruption of costophrenic sinus at CT in three patients with blunt abdominal trauma accompanied with pleural effusion. This observation prompted us to evaluate the utility of this sign in an experimental model. Laparotomically, we created 2 cm diapragmatic lacerations at each hemidiaphragm in two rabbits and pushed up the abdominal viscera with omentum through the defect. To simulate hemothorax, we also injected 5-10 mL of diluted contrast material into the pleural space. Using a dual-slice helical CT scanner, limited thoracoabdominal CT examination was performed before and after injection of intrapleural contrast material. The images were analyzed for the presence of CT signs for diaphragmatic injury. The left posterior costophrenic sulcus was interrupted in all of the three patients with left pleural effusion. While it was associated with other findings of diaphragmatic injury, the 'sinus cut-off sign' was the sole finding in one patient. The sinus cut-off sign was observed on the CT scans of 100% of the rabbits with a left and right sided diaphragmatic rupture. The 'sinus cut-off sign' is useful and can increase the CT detection of acute diaphragmatic injury associated with pleural effusion

  1. Spectrally selective solar absorber with sharp and temperature dependent cut-off based on semiconductor nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Qinghui; Lu, Hong; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Yu, Zongfu; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-01

    Spectrally selective absorbers (SSA) with high selectivity of absorption and sharp cut-off between high absorptivity and low emissivity are critical for efficient solar energy conversion. Here, we report the semiconductor nanowire enabled SSA with not only high absorption selectivity but also temperature dependent sharp absorption cut-off. By taking advantage of the temperature dependent bandgap of semiconductors, we systematically demonstrate that the absorption cut-off profile of the semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can be flexibly tuned, which is quite different from most of the other SSA reported so far. As an example, silicon nanowire based selective absorbers are fabricated, with the measured absorption efficiency above (below) bandgap ˜97% (15%) combined with an extremely sharp absorption cut-off (transition region ˜200 nm), the sharpest SSA demonstrated so far. The demonstrated semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can enable a high solar thermal efficiency of ≳86% under a wide range of operating conditions, which would be competitive candidates for the concentrated solar energy utilizations.

  2. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  3. Screening for Internet Addiction: An Empirical Study on Cut-off Points for the Chen Internet Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Ko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the optimal cut-off points of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, to screen for and diagnose Internet addiction among adolescents in the community by using the well- established diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction. This survey of 454 adolescents used screening (57/58 and diagnostic (63/64 cut-off points of the CIAS, a self-reported instrument, based on the results of systematic diagnostic interviews by psychiatrists. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that CIAS has good diagnostic accuracy (89.6%. The screening cut-off point had high sensitivity (85.6% and the diagnostic cut-off point had the highest diagnostic accuracy, classifying 87.6% of participants correctly. Accordingly, the screening point of the CIAS could provide a screening function in two-stage diagnosis, and the diagnostic point could serve as a diagnostic criterion in one-stage massive epidemiologic research.

  4. Anthropometric parameters’ cut-off points and predictive value for metabolic syndrome in women from Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Mora-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate anthropometric parameters’ (APs cut-off points and association for metabolic syndrome (MetS. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a total of 434 adult women from Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in 2012. APs measured were waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Cut-off points were estimated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC. Logistic regression was applied to estimate possible associations. Results. Cut-off points for WC, BMI, BAI, WHR and WHtR were 85 cm, 28 kg/m2, 39%, 0.80 and 56, respectively. Only WHtR was associated to MetS (OR=1.11, CI95% [1.07-1.15]. Conclusion. WC cut-off point was higher than those proposed for Latin-American women by the Joint Interim Statement (JIS. WHtR had a low predictive value for MetS.

  5. High harmonic generation at the tunneling ionization of atoms by intense laser radiation near the classical cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gets, A. V.; Krainov, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    The yield of spontaneous photons at the tunneling ionization of atoms by intense low-frequency laser radiation near the classical cut-off is estimated analytically by using the three-step model. The Bell-shaped dependence in the universal photon spectrum is explained qualitatively.

  6. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia : The al-Ándalus Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010)

  7. Interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast of South Africa linked to cut-off low associated rainfall

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cut-off low (COL) associated rainfall on interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast region of South Africa for the period 1979-2011 is investigated. COLs are objectively identified and tracked on daily average 500 h...

  8. The mysterious age invariance of the planetary nebula luminosity function bright cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Planetary nebulae mark the end of the active life of 90% of all stars. They trace the transition from a red giant to a degenerate white dwarf. Stellar models1,2 predicted that only stars above approximately twice the solar mass could form a bright nebula. But the ubiquitous presence of bright planetary nebulae in old stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, contradicts this: such high-mass stars are not present in old systems. The planetary nebula luminosity function, and especially its bright cut-off, is almost invariant between young spiral galaxies, with high-mass stars, and old elliptical galaxies, with only low-mass stars. Here, we show that new evolutionary tracks of low-mass stars are capable of explaining in a simple manner this decades-old mystery. The agreement between the observed luminosity function and computed stellar evolution validates the latest theoretical modelling. With these models, the planetary nebula luminosity function provides a powerful diagnostic to derive star formation histories of intermediate-age stars. The new models predict that the Sun at the end of its life will also form a planetary nebula, but it will be faint.

  9. Spinal sagittal contour affecting falls: cut-off value of the lumbar spine for falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Hongo, Michio; Shimada, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    Spinal deformities reportedly affect postural instability or falls. To prevent falls in clinical settings, the determination of a cut-off angle of spinal sagittal contour associated with increase risk for falls would be useful for screening for high-risk fallers. The purpose of this study was to calculate the spinal sagittal contour angle associated with increased risk for falls during medical checkups in community dwelling elders. The subjects comprised 213 patients (57 men, 156 women) with a mean age of 70.1 years (range, 55-85 years). The upright and flexion/extension thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and the spinal inclination were evaluated with SpinalMouse(®). Postural instability was evaluated by stabilometry, using the total track length (LNG), enveloped areas (ENV), and track lengths in the lateral and anteroposterior directions (X LNG and Y LNG, respectively). The back extensor strength (BES) was measured using a strain-gauge dynamometer. The relationships among the parameters were analyzed statistically. Age, lumbar lordosis, spinal inclination, LNG, X LNG, Y LNG, and BES were significantly associated with falls (Pfalls about lumbar lordosis angles revealed that angles of 3° and less were significant for falls. The present findings suggest that increased age, spinal inclination, LNG, X LNG, Y LNG, and decreased BES and lumbar lordosis, are associated with falls. An angle of lumbar lordosis of 3° or less was associated with falls in these community-dwelling elders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cut-off scaling and multiplicative reformalization in the theory of critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacs, G.; Solyom, J.; Zawadowski, A.

    1976-03-01

    In the paper a new method to study the critical fluctuations in systems of 4-epsilon dimensions around the phase transition point is developed. This method unifies the Kadanoff scaling hypothesis as formulated by Wilson by help of his renormalization group technique and the simple mathematical structure of the Lie equations of the Gell-Mann-Low multiplicative renormalization. The basic idea of the new method is that a change in the physical cut-off can be compensated by an effective coupling in such a way that the Green's function and vertex in the original and transformed system differ only by a multiplicative factor. The critical indices, the anomalous dimensions and the critical exponent describing the correction to scaling are determined to second order in epsilon. The specific heat exponent is also calculated, in four dimensions the effect of fluctuations appears in the form of logarithmic corrections. In the last sections the new method is compared to other ones and the differences are discussed. (Sz.N.Z.)

  11. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3Mage or older was 95.6%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs

  13. Solute removal capacity of high cut-off membrane plasma separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Kurashima, Naoki; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyamoto, Satoko; Iimori, Soichiro; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2013-10-01

    In vitro blood filtration was performed by a closed circuit using high cut-off membrane plasma separators, EVACURE EC-2A10 (EC-2A) and EVACURE EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Samples were obtained from sampling sites before the plasma separator, after each plasma separator, and from the ultrafiltrate of each separator. The sieving coefficient (S.C.) of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), IgG, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), fibrinogen (Fib), antithrombin III (AT-III), and coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) were calculated. The S.C. of each solute using EC-2A and EC-A4 were as follows; TP: 0.25 and 0.56, Alb: 0.32 and 0.73, IgG: 0.16 and 0.50, IL-6:0.73 and 0.95, IL-8:0.85 and 0.82, TNF-α: 1.07 and 0.99, Fib: 0 and 0, FXIII: 0.07 and 0.17, respectively. When compared with the conventional type of membrane plasma separators, EVACURE could efficiently remove cytokines while retaining coagulation factors such as fibrinogen. Moreover, EC-2A prevented protein loss, whereas EC-4A could remove approximately 50% of IgG. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  14. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  15. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Retrospective study. Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs

  16. Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio cut-offs as predictors of high blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Febriana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with increased risk for high blood pressure (BP. Although a routine BP measurement is indicated for all children visiting pediatric practice, recognition of children particularly at risk may save times. The aim of this study was to assess the cut-off point for body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR to predict high BP in adolescents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 928 children aged 11 to 16 years in Yogyakarta. BP were measured using standard technique described by The Fourth Report on The Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. BMI was adjusted for age and sex using the WHO 2007 growth reference. WHtR was ratio of waist circumference related to height in centimeters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to estimate the best cut-offs. Results: The best cut-off point for BMI-for-age Z-score (BMIZ to predict high BP was 0.51 with sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 76% (95% CI = 67-78 for systolic BP and sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 72% (95% CI = 68-76 for diastolic BP. The best cut-off point for WHtR was 0.45, with sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 67-78 and specificity of 74% (95% CI = 71-79 for systolic BP and sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 72-80 and specificity of 70% (95% CI = 61-75 for diastolic BP.Conclusion: BMIZ of 0.51 and WHtR of 0.45 are the best cut-off point to predict high BP in adolescents.

  17. The Portuguese version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Normative data, reliability, and clinical significance cut-offs scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering

  18. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  19. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  20. Linezolid extracorporeal removal during haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Gianluca; Cassetta, Maria Iris; Tofani, Lorenzo; Valente, Serafina; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Falsini, Silvia; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele; Novelli, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio; Adembri, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Continuous venovenous haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane (HCO-CVVHD) is often used in critically ill septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) to sustain renal function and to remove circulating inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to analyse the extracorporeal removal of linezolid and related alterations in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters during HCO-CVVHD. Three critically ill septic patients with AKI, treated with linezolid and HCO-CVVHD, were prospectively observed. To calculate the extracorporeal clearance of linezolid and the PK parameters, effluent, pre-filter and post-filter samples were contemporaneously collected before linezolid infusion, just after 1-h infusion (maximum serum concentration; C(max)), at 3 h and 6 h after dosing, and before the next dose (trough serum concentration; C(min)). Linezolid C(max) and C(min) (pre-filter) ranged from 10.4-23.5 mg/L and from 2.9-10.3 mg/L. The dialysate saturation coefficient was 0.66-0.85 and the extracorporeal clearance with a diffusive dose of 35 m L/kg/h ranged from 2.1-2.5 L/h. Total linezolid clearance was between 1.7 L/h and 6.3 L/h. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) ranged from 95.1 mgh/L to 352.9 mgh/L, in accordance with the different clinical conditions. AUCfree/MIC ratios were always linezolid total clearance, the clinical features of critically ill septic patients appear to be mainly responsible for the high variability of linezolid serum concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Thirteen treated of acute renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma with high cut off filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Wennekers, Ana; Martín Azara, María Pilar; Dourdil Sahun, Victoria; Bergasa Liberal, Beatriz; Ruiz Laiglesia, José Esteban; Vernet Perna, Patricia; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological tumour that is characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells and a significant volume of serum free light chains (sFLCs), which can cause acute renal failure due to intratubular precipitation, resulting in cast nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a complication that can arise in more than 20% of patients with multiple myeloma, half of which will require dialysis. We report our experience with 13 patients who were treated with dialysis using high cut off filters (HCO) between July 2011 and February 2015. A total of 6 consecutive 6-hour sessions were performed using a 2.1 m(2) HCO filter (Theralite® by Gambro®). Afterwards, further 6-hour sessions were continued on alternate days. A total of 151 sessions were conducted, with an average of 11.6 sessions per patient (range 6-27). The treatment proved to be effective in removing both kappa and lambda sFLCs, resulting in a 93.7% fall in sFLCs by the end of treatment. The average reduction was 57.7% per dialysis session. 10 out of the 13 cases recovered sufficient renal function to become independent of dialysis. There were no major changes in albumin levels using an infusion protocol of 2 50-mL vials of 20% albumin at the end of the dialysis session. Combination treatment with chemotherapy and long dialysis with HCO filters was effective in reducing the sFLC levels and recovering sufficient renal function in 77% of cases. With HCO filters, significant cost savings are achieved, contrary to what was previously believed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying clinically meaningful symptom response cut-off values on the SANS in predominant negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The treatment and measurement of negative symptoms are currently at issue in schizophrenia, but the clinical meaning of symptom severity and change is unclear. To offer a clinically meaningful interpretation of severity and change scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients were intention-to-treat participants (n=383) in two double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that compared amisulpride with placebo for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms. Equipercentile linking was used to examine extrapolation from (a) CGI-S to SANS severity ratings, and (b) CGI-I to SANS percentage change (n=383). Linking was conducted at baseline, 8-14 days, 28-30 days, and 56-60 days of the trials. Across visits, CGI-S ratings of 'not ill' linked to SANS scores of 0-13, and ranged to 'extreme' ratings that linked to SANS scores of 102-105. The relationship between the CGI-S and the SANS severity scores assumed a linear trend (1=0-13, 2=15-56, 3=37-61, 4=49-66, 5=63-75, 6=79-89, 7=102-105). Similarly the relationship between CGI-I ratings and SANS percentage change followed a linear trend. For instance, CGI-I ratings of 'very much improved' were linked to SANS percent changes of -90 to -67, 'much improved' to -50 to -42, and 'minimally improved' to -21 to -13. The current results uniquely contribute to the debate surrounding negative symptoms by providing clinical meaning to SANS severity and change scores and so offer direction regarding clinically meaningful response cut-off scores to guide treatment targets of predominant negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determining the optimal system-specific cut-off frequencies for filtering in-vitro upper extremity impact force and acceleration data by residual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Timothy A; Dunning, Cynthia E; Andrews, David M

    2011-10-13

    The fundamental nature of impact testing requires a cautious approach to signal processing, to minimize noise while preserving important signal information. However, few recommendations exist regarding the most suitable filter frequency cut-offs to achieve these goals. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is twofold: to illustrate how residual analysis can be utilized to quantify optimal system-specific filter cut-off frequencies for force, moment, and acceleration data resulting from in-vitro upper extremity impacts, and to show how optimal cut-off frequencies can vary based on impact condition intensity. Eight human cadaver radii specimens were impacted with a pneumatic impact testing device at impact energies that increased from 20J, in 10J increments, until fracture occurred. The optimal filter cut-off frequency for pre-fracture and fracture trials was determined with a residual analysis performed on all force and acceleration waveforms. Force and acceleration data were filtered with a dual pass, 4th order Butterworth filter at each of 14 different cut-off values ranging from 60Hz to 1500Hz. Mean (SD) pre-fracture and fracture optimal cut-off frequencies for the force variables were 605.8 (82.7)Hz and 513.9 (79.5)Hz, respectively. Differences in the optimal cut-off frequency were also found between signals (e.g. Fx (medial-lateral), Fy (superior-inferior), Fz (anterior-posterior)) within the same test. These optimal cut-off frequencies do not universally agree with the recommendations of filtering all upper extremity impact data using a cut-off frequency of 600Hz. This highlights the importance of quantifying the filter frequency cut-offs specific to the instrumentation and experimental set-up. Improper digital filtering may lead to erroneous results and a lack of standardized approaches makes it difficult to compare findings of in-vitro dynamic testing between laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seismic analysis of the frame structure reformed by cutting off column and jacking based on stiffness ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. K.; Xu, X. S.

    2017-11-01

    The cutting off column and jacking technology is a method for increasing story height, which has been widely used and paid much attention in engineering. The stiffness will be changed after the process of cutting off column and jacking, which directly affects the overall seismic performance. It is usually necessary to take seismic strengthening measures to enhance the stiffness. A five story frame structure jacking project in Jinan High-tech Zone was taken as an example, and three finite element models were established which contains the frame model before lifting, after lifting and after strengthening. Based on the stiffness, the dynamic time-history analysis was carried out to research its seismic performance under the EL-Centro seismic wave, the Taft seismic wave and the Tianjin artificial seismic wave. The research can provide some guidance for the design and construction of the entire jack lifting structure.

  5. Establishing the cut-off score for remission and severity-ranges on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Rothschild, Anthony J; Flint, Alastair J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) is a rating scale dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to establish the PDAS cut-off for remission of PD as well as PDAS score-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD...... on the PDAS and the severity-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD were defined using the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale (CGI-S) as reference by means of pair-wise receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Subsequently, it was tested whether remission on the PDAS could separate...... the effects of Olanzapine+Sertraline vs. Olanzapine+Placebo through an intention-to-treat, mixed-effects logistic regression of the data from STOP-PD. RESULTS: According to the ROC analyses, the ideal cut-off for remission of PD was a PDAS total score moderate...

  6. Factors in selecting serum samples for use in determining the positive/negative threshold (cut-off) in ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The threshold (cut-off) that defines whether a test result is seropositive or seronegative is calculated by testing serum samples from a subpopulation of animals that is assumed to represent the target population in all aspects. For this proposition to be true, it is essential to consider the variables in the target population that must be represented in the subpopulation. Without representation of the variables in the subpopulation, it is likely that the cut-off selected for the test will be errant and will misclassify animals as to their infection status. The purpose of this paper is to identify a few of the principal variables that need to be taken into account when selecting a subpopulation of animals for test validation. (author)

  7. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L.

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author)

  8. Current Observational Constraints to Holographic Dark Energy Model with New Infrared cut-off via Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuting; Xu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the holographic dark energy model with new infrared (IR) cut-off for both the flat case and the non-flat case are confronted with the combined constraints of current cosmological observations: type Ia Supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, current Cosmic Microwave Background, and the observational hubble data. By utilizing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, we obtain the best fit values of the parameters with $1\\sigma, 2\\sigma$ errors in the flat model: $\\Omega_{b}h...

  9. Cut-Off Value for Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire in Predicting Surgical Success in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Azimi

    Full Text Available Various factors related to predict surgical success were studied; however, a standard cut-off point for the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ measure has not yet been established for a favorable surgical outcome for lumbar disc herniation (LDH. This study was to find the optimal cut-off point on the PSQ to distinguish surgical success in patients with LDH. A total of 154 patients with LDH consecutively referred to our clinic were enrolled into this prospective study between February 2011 and January 2014. All participants completed the PSQ. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI score before surgery, and at 2 years after surgery. Surgical success was defined as a 13-point improvement from the baseline ODI scores. The cut-off value for PSQ was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC. The mean age of patients was 49.3±9.6 years, and there were 80 women. The mean time for follow-up assessment was 31±5 months (range 24-35. Post-surgical success was 79.9% (n = 123 at 2 years follow up. The mean score for the total PSQ, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate were 6.0 (SD = 1.6, 5.4 (SD = 1.9 and 6.5 (SD = 1.7, respectively. Total PSQ score was also significantly correlated with the total scores of the ODI. The optimal total PSQ cut-off point was determined as > 5.2 to predict surgical success in LDH patients, with 80.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity (AUC-0.814, 95% CI 0.703-0.926. This study showed that the PSQ could be considered a parameter for predicting surgical success in patients with LDH, and can be useful in clinical practice.

  10. Successful use of combined high cut-off haemodialysis and bortezomib for acute kidney injury associated with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, F

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.

  11. Adiposity cut-off points for cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk in the Portuguese population: The PORMETS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Milton; Santos, Ana Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The contribution of adiposity to cardiovascular and diabetes risk justifies the inclusion of an adiposity measure, usually waist circumference, in the definition of metabolic syndrome. However, waist circumference thresholds differ across populations. Our aim was to assess which adiposity measure performs the best in identifying the metabolic syndrome in a sample of Portuguese participants and to estimate cut-off values for these measures. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study (PORMETS study) conducted in Portugal between 2007 and 2009. A representative sample of non-institutionalized adults, comprising 3,956 participants, aged 18 years and older, was evaluated. A structured questionnaire was administered, collecting information on personal medical history, socio-demographics and behavioral characteristics. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and venous blood samples were also obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology recommended criteria. Elevated cardiometabolic risk was considered when two or more of the four criteria of metabolic syndrome were present, excluding the waist circumference component. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate cut-off points. Results This study found that waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index performed better than other adiposity measures, such as body mass index. The estimated cut-off points for waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index in women and men were 0.564 / 89 cm / 27.4 and 0.571 / 93.5 cm / 25.5, respectively. Conclusion As waist circumference is currently used as the adiposity measure in the definition of metabolic syndrome and as no relevant differences were observed between this measure and waist-to-height ratio, it is likely that no modification to the metabolic syndrome definition needs to be proposed. Moreover

  12. Cut-off value of body fat in association with metabolic syndrome in Thai peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintvihok, W; Chaikittisilpa, S; Panyakamlerd, K; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2013-06-01

    Pathophysiologic changes during the menopause transition may contribute to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Body fat composition, particularly visceral fat, is highly associated with increased insulin resistance, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and high blood pressure. We purposefully wished to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat composition, including visceral fat, in order to predict MetS and to assess the prevalence of MetS in peri- and postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based, prospective cohort at the Menopause and Gynecology clinics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Body fat percentage and visceral fat rating were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Tanita SC 330). MetS was diagnosed using the Harmonizing criteria of A Joint Interim Statement of IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 2009. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference and body mass index to identify peri- and postmenopausal women at risk of MetS. Ninety-two perimenopausal and 446 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited for the analyses. The optimal cut-off values for body fat percentage, visceral fat rating, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying women at risk of MetS were 34%, 7, 88 cm and 24 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 27.9%. The optimal cut-off values to predict MetS of body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist circumference were established. Using the Harmonizing 2009 criteria, we found that approximately one out of four peri- and postmenopausal women in this study had MetS.

  13. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination and Individual Domain Cut-Off Scores for Discriminating between Different Cognitive Subtypes of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berankova, Dagmar; Janousova, Eva; Mrackova, Martina; Eliasova, Ilona; Kostalova, Milena; Skutilova, Svetlana; Rektorova, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The main aim of this study was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in discriminating between Parkinson's disease (PD) with normal cognition (PD-NC) and PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and between PD-MCI and PD with dementia (PD-D). We also evaluated how ACE-R correlates with neuropsychological cognitive tests in PD. Methods. We examined three age-matched groups of PD patients diagnosed according to the Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria: PD-NC, PD-MCI, and PD-D. ROC analysis was used to establish specific cut-off scores of ACE-R and its domains. Correlation analyses were performed between ACE-R and its subtests with relevant neuropsychological tests. Results. Statistically significant differences between groups were demonstrated in global ACE-R scores and subscores, except in the language domain. ACE-R cut-off score of 88.5 points discriminated best between PD-MCI and PD-NC (sensitivity 0.68, specificity 0.91); ACE-R of 82.5 points distinguished best between PD-MCI and PD-D (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.73). The verbal fluency domain of ACE-R demonstrated the best discrimination between PD-NC and PD-MCI (cut-off score 11.5; sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.73) while the orientation/attention subscore was best between PD-MCI and PD-D (cut-off score 15.5; sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.97). ACE-R scores except for ACE-R language correlated with specific cognitive tests of interest.

  14. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: HOMA-IR cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz; Kendirici, Mustafa; Keskin, Mehmet; Kondolot, Meda

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism for the physiological increase in insulin levels in puberty is not clearly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese children and adolescents according to gender and pubertal status. Two hundred and eight obese children and adolescents (141 girls, 127 boys) aged between 5 and 18 years were included in the study. The children were divided into prepubertal and pubertal groups. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out in all children. A total insulin level exceeding 300 μU/mL in the blood samples, collected during the test period, was taken as the insulin resistance criterion. Cut-off values for HOMA-IR were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the prepubertal period, the rate of insulin resistance was found to be 37% in boys and 27.8% in girls,while in the pubertal period, this rate was 61.7% in boys and 66.7% in girls. HOMA-IR cut-off values for insulin resistance in the prepubertal period were calculated to be 2.67 (sensitivity 88.2%, specificity 65.5%) in boys and 2.22 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 42.3%) in girls, and in the pubertal period, they were 5.22 (sensitivity 56%, specificity 93.3%) in boys and 3.82 (sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 71.4%) in girls. Since gender, obesity and pubertal status are factors affecting insulin resistance, cut-off values which depend on gender and pubertal status, should be used in evaluation of insulin resistance.

  15. Appraisal and standardization of curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values for CASA analysis of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, U; Malecki, I A; Mahmood, M; Martin, G B

    2017-06-01

    One of the basic steps in objective analysis of sperm motility is the subdivision of a motile sperm population into slow, medium and rapid categories based on their velocity. However, for CASA analysis of quail sperm, the velocity values for categorization of slow, medium and rapid sperm have not yet been standardized. To identify the cut-off values of "velocity curvilinear" (VCL) for quail sperm categorization, we captured and analysed 22,300 tracks of quail sperm using SCA ® -CASA. The median and mean VCL values were 85 and 97 μm/s. To define the VCL cut-off values, we used two methods. In the first, we identified the upper (rapid sperm) and lower (slow sperm) cut-off values using: (i) median VCL ± 25% or ± 50% or ± 75% of median VCL value; (ii) first and third quartile values of VCL data (i.e. 25% cut-off setting); and (iii) 33% and 66% of VCL data. Among these settings, sperm categories and their corresponding motility characteristics recorded using the "25%" setting (i.e. slow ≤36 ≤ medium ≤154 ≤ rapid) were found the most realistic and coherent with male ranking by fertility. In the second method, we calculated heteroscedasticity in the total VCL data using PCA and the two-step clustering method. With this approach, the mean of the high and low clusters was 165 and 51 μm/s, respectively. Together, the mean from two methods suggested that, for SCA ® -CASA categorization of quail sperm, sperm should be classed as "rapid" at VCL ≥160 μm/s and "slow" at VCL ≤45 μm/s. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Performance tests of an abrasive cut-off systems for the finishing of high-precision casts

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fedoryszyn; W. T. Meksa; G. Woźnicki

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the performance data of a newly designed and engineered grinding and cut-off system. The machine is used for separation of models manufactured by the investment casting method. The machine comprises the following units:- base supporting other assemblies and elements: abrasive disc holder and drives; this solution enables an easy replacement and access to holding elements while a belt transmission allows the disc rpm to be varied,- mechanism moving the spindle in the horiz...

  17. Fourier phase analysis on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography: range of phase spread and cut-off limits in normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaiah, Vijayaraghavan L.; Harish, B.; Sunil, H.V.; Selvakumar, Job; Ravi Kishore, A.G.; Nair, Gopinathan

    2011-01-01

    To define the range of phase spread on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV) in normal individuals and derive the cut-off limit for the parameters to detect cardiac dyssynchrony. ERNV was carried out in 30 individuals (age 53±23 years, 25 males and 5 females) who had no history of cardiovascular disease. They all had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 55-70%) as determined by echocardiography, were in sinus rhythm, with normal QRS duration (≤120 msec) and normal coronary angiography. First harmonic phase analysis was performed on scintigraphic data acquired in best septal view. Left and right ventricular standard deviation (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), the absolute difference of mean phase angles of right and left ventricle, were computed and expressed in milliseconds. Mean + 3 standard deviation (SD) was used to derive the cut-off limits. Average LVEF and duration of cardiac cycle in the study group were 62.5%±5.44% and 868.9±114.5 msec, respectively. The observations of LVSD, RVSD and right and left ventricular mean phase angles were shown to be normally distributed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Cut-off limits for LVSD, RVSD and IVMD were calculated to be 80 msec, 85 msec and 75 msec, respectively. Fourier phase analysis on ERNV is an effective tool for the evaluation of synchronicity of cardiac contraction. The cut-off limits of parameters of dyssynchrony can be used to separate heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony from those without. ERNV can be used to select patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. (author)

  18. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia: The al-Ándalus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010) better discriminate fibromyalgia symptomatology. A total of 488 women with fibromyalgia and 200 non-fibromyalgia (control) women participated. All participants underwent both the 1990 and the modified 2010 ACR preliminary criteria (hereinafter 1990c and m-2010c, respectively). We used fitness cut-off points (Senior Fitness Tests Battery plus handgrip strength test) to discriminate between presence and absence of fibromyalgia. Additionally, we employed several instruments to assess fibromyalgia symptoms. Fitness cut-off points discriminated between high and low levels of the main symptoms the disease in all age groups (P from fibromyalgia diagnosis and monitoring. Moreover, the effect size of the differences in symptoms between women with fibromyalgia and controls were overall larger using the m-2010c compared with the 1990c, except for the tender points count, reflecting better the polysymptomatic distress condition of fibromyalgia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Establishing the cut off values of androgen markers in the assessment of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaraja, R N D; Sthaneshwar, P; Razali, N

    2018-04-01

    Hyperandrogenism remains as one of the key features in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and can be assessed clinically or determined by biochemical assays. Hirsutism is the most common clinical manifestation of hyperandrogenism. The clinical assessment is subjected to wide variability due to poor interobserver agreement and multiple population factors such as ethnic variation, cosmetic procedures and genetic trait. The difficulty in resolving the androgen excess biochemically is due to a lack of consensus as to which serum androgen should be measured for the diagnosis of PCOS. The aim of the study was to compare and establish the diagnostic cut off value for different androgen biomarker for the diagnosis of PCOS. A total of 312 patients classified to PCOS (n = 164) and non PCOS (n = 148) cohorts were selected from the Laboratory Information System (LIS) based on serum total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) from the period of 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2016. PCOS was diagnosed based on Rotterdam criteria. Clinical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology were obtained from the clinical records. The other relevant biochemical results such as serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and albumin were also obtained from LIS. Free androgen index (FAI), calculated free testosterone (cFT) and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT) were calculated for these patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for serum TT, SHBG, FAI, cFT, cBT and LH: FSH ratio to determine the best marker to diagnose PCOS. All the androgen parameters (except SHBG) were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in control (pandrogen indices (FAI, cFT and cBT) showed good correlation with each other. Furthermore, cFT, FAI and calculated BT were shown to be more specific with higher positive likelihood ratio than measured androgen markers. Based on our study, the calculated testosterone

  20. Adult or not? Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age for legal purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, R; Pacifici, A; Viva, S; Carbone, D; Pacifici, L; Polimeni, A

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of reliable means to determine the age of an individual is a fundamental objective in forensic medicine, in consideration of the constant increase of illegal immigration into the European community. In 2008 Cameriere et al. developed a method based on the relationship between age and the third molar index (I3m), which assesses the degree of maturation of the third molar through measurements made on orthopantomography. The purpose of this work was to test the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off for I3m as a tool to assess full age (18) on a new sample of living subjects. Orthopantomographs of 287 Italian living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years have been randomly selected and included in the study. Identification number, gender, date of birth and date of execution of the radiograph were recorded for each patient on a Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet. Radiographs were digitalized and analyzed using a computerized image-processing program (Adobe® Photoshop® CS4). The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 84.1% and the specificity was 92.5%. The estimated post-test probability was 90.1%, with a confidence interval of 95% (83.6%, 95.2%). Thus, the probability that a person being positive to the test has 18 or more years of age was 90.1%. The results highlight the contribution of Cameriere's cut-off value for the I3m in the assessment of full age, always remembering that the simultaneous employment of previously introduced complementary methods is essential for the purpose.

  1. Accuracy of unfolded map method for determining the left ventricular border. Evaluation of the cut-off value from autopsy finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugibayashi, Keiichi; Abe, Yoshiteru; Suga, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    To improve the quantification of the left ventricular surface area (LVSA) by unfolded map method, we evaluated the cut-off value for determining the left ventricular border. The LVSA measured by unfolded map was compared with those measured using myocardial phantom and autopsy findings. The relative error (RE) was calculated as difference between LVSA in phantom and area of unfolded map. In phantom study, the cut-off value was calculated as 73.3±0.5% when the RE was zero. In autopsy study, the cut-off value was 74.0±7.2%. The area of unfolded map had good correlation with LVSA at autopsy when the cut-off value was 74% (r=0.83, p<0.003). The diameter of left ventricle at autopsy was compared with that of beating heart obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography, because the area of unfolded map was greater than LVSA at autopsy. The ratio of LVSA at autopsy to beating heart was calculated as 1.37. The suitable cut-off value was evaluated as 55.6% when the unfolded map area obtained by autopsy was increased 1.37 magnifications. There was a good correlation between LVSA of unfolded map (cut-off=56%) and the LVSA at autopsy (r=0.90, p<0.001). These results suggest that the cut-off value for determining the left ventricular border in vivo is 56%. (author)

  2. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo Il [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm {approx} 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency.

  3. The first cut-off wall in the Indian Himalayas for the dam of the Dhauliganga hydroelectric project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, W.G. [Bauer Maschinen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details a Bauer cutter used to build a cut-off wall for the Dhaulinganga power plant project in the Himalayan mountains. The dam for the project was built as a 56 m high concrete-faced rockfill dam with a length of 270 m at the crown. A cut-off wall was constructed on the upstream side of the dam extending down from the dam's plinth to the bedrock level. A Bauer cutter was used to key the cut-off wall straight into the bedrock, which omitted the need for a grout curtain. The cut-off wall is 1 m thick and 70 m deep, with a total area of 8000 m{sup 2}. The wall was constructed as a series of primary and secondary panels. Excavation of the panels was carried out in single bites by the Bauer DHG hydraulic diaphragm wall grabs, supported a box chisel, cross chisel and a Bauer BC 40 rock cutter. Trench stability was provided by bentonite slurry. The closing forces were activated by a cylinder which was installed vertically inside the base body. The Bauer cutter continuously removed soil and rock from the bottom of the trench for mixing with the bentonite slurry. The slurry was then pumped through a ring main of hose pipes to a desanding plant where it was cleaned and returned to the trench. Advantages offered by using the cutter included a consistently high output, an extremely high degree of verticality, watertight joints, and the ability to cut through hard boulders. Use of the cutter at the Dhaulinganga site showed that the project could not be carried out successfully without the use of the cutter, which was used whenever grab and chisel methods were unable to achieve satisfactory rates of penetration. Deployment of the cutter was essential to key the cut-off wall into the underlying bedrock. It was concluded that the Dhualinganga project will provide a model for future power generation projects in the Indian Himalayas. 11 figs.

  4. X-ray Spectral Survey of WGACAT Quasars, II: Optical and Radio Properties of Quasars with Low Energy X-ray Cut-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Two other cut-off quasars show reddening associated with the quasar. We conclude that absorption is highly likely to be the cause of the X-ray cut-offs, and that the abso...

  5. Diagnostic Cut-Off Levels of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide to Distinguish Left Ventricular Failure in Emergency Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Afridi, F. I.; Lutfi, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic cut-off values of brain natriuretic (BNP) peptide to establish left ventricular failure in patients presenting with dyspnoea in emergency department. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: BNP estimation was done on Axysm analyzer with kit provided by Abbott diagnostics, while the Doppler echocardiography was done on Toshiba style (UICW-660A) using 2.5 MHz and 5.0 MHz probes. Log transformation was done to normalize the original BNP values. A receiver operating curve was plotted to determine the diagnostic cut-off value of BNP which can be used to distinguish CHF from other causes of dyspnoea. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 92 patients presenting with dyspnoea in the emergency department were studied. There were 38/92 (41.3%) males and 54/92 (58.7%) females, and the average age of the study population was 64 A +- 14.1 years. These patients had BNP levels and Doppler echocardiography done. The average BNP was found to be 1117.78 A +- 1445.74 pg/ml. In log transformation, the average was found to be 2.72 A +- 0.58. BNP value of 531 pg/ml was found to be the cut off to distinguish between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of dyspnoea. Conclusion: BNP value of 531 pg/ml can distinguish CHF from other conditions as a cause of dyspnoea in emergency. (author)

  6. Cut-off scores of a brief neuropsychological battery (NBACE for Spanish individual adults older than 44 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Alegret

    Full Text Available The neuropsychological battery used in Fundació ACE (NBACE is a relatively brief, and easy to administer, test battery that was designed to detect cognitive impairment in the adulthood. The NBACE includes measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis and executive functions. The aim of the present study was to establish the cut-off scores for impairment for different levels of age and education that could be useful in the cognitive assessment of Spanish subjects who are at risk for cognitive impairment, especially dementia. Data from 1018 patients with a mild dementia syndrome, and 512 cognitively healthy subjects, older than 44 years, from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE (Barcelona, Spain were analyzed. In the whole sample, cut-off scores and sensitivity/specificity values were calculated for six conditions after combining 3 age ranges (44 to 64; 65 to 74; and older than 74 years old by 2 educational levels (until Elementary school; and more than Elementary school. Moreover, general cut-offs are reported for Catalan and Spanish speakers. The results showed that most of NBACE tests reached good sensitivity and specificity values, except for Ideomotor praxis, Repetition and Verbal Comprehension tests, which had a ceiling effect. Word List Learning from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III and Semantic Verbal Fluency were the most useful tests to discriminate between cognitively healthy and demented subjects. The NBACE has been shown to be a useful tool able to detect cognitive impairment, especially dementia, in older than 44 years Spanish persons.

  7. Accurate cut-offs for predicting endoscopic activity and mucosal healing in Crohn's disease with fecal calprotectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan María Vázquez-Morón

    Full Text Available Background: Fecal biomarkers, especially fecal calprotectin, are useful for predicting endoscopic activity in Crohn's disease; however, the cut-off point remains unclear. The aim of this paper was to analyze whether faecal calprotectin and M2 pyruvate kinase are good tools for generating highly accurate scores for the prediction of the state of endoscopic activity and mucosal healing. Methods: The simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease and the Crohn's disease activity index was calculated for 71 patients diagnosed with Crohn's. Fecal calprotectin and M2-PK were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Results: A fecal calprotectin cut-off concentration of ≥ 170 µg/g (sensitivity 77.6%, specificity 95.5% and likelihood ratio +17.06 predicts a high probability of endoscopic activity, and a fecal calprotectin cut-off of ≤ 71 µg/g (sensitivity 95.9%, specificity 52.3% and likelihood ratio -0.08 predicts a high probability of mucosal healing. Three clinical groups were identified according to the data obtained: endoscopic activity (calprotectin ≥ 170, mucosal healing (calprotectin ≤ 71 and uncertainty (71 > calprotectin < 170, with significant differences in endoscopic values (F = 26.407, p < 0.01. Clinical activity or remission modified the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity (100% vs 89% or mucosal healing (75% vs 87% in the diagnostic scores generated. M2-PK was insufficiently accurate to determine scores. Conclusions: The highly accurate scores for fecal calprotectin provide a useful tool for interpreting the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity or mucosal healing, and are valuable in the specific clinical context.

  8. An optimal cut-off point for the calving interval may be used as an indicator of bovine abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The bovine abortion surveillance system in France aims to detect as early as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification and testing of each aborting cow, but under-reporting is high. This research uses a new and simple approach which considers the calving interval (CI) as a "diagnostic test" to determine optimal cut-off point c and estimate diagnostic performance of the CI to identify aborting cows, and herds with multiple abortions (i.e. three or more aborting cows per calving season). The period between two artificial inseminations (AI) was considered as a "gold standard". During the 2006-2010 calving seasons, the mean optimal CI cut-off point for identifying aborting cows was 691 days for dairy cows and 703 days for beef cows. Depending on the calving season, production type and scale at which c was computed (individual or herd), the average sensitivity of the CI varied from 42.6% to 64.4%; its average specificity from 96.7% to 99.7%; its average positive predictive value from 27.6% to 65.4%; and its average negative predictive value from 98.7% to 99.8%. When applied to the French bovine population as a whole, this indicator identified 2-3% of cows suspected to have aborted, and 10-15% of herds suspected of multiple abortions. The optimal cut-off point and CI performance were consistent over calving seasons. By applying an optimal CI cut-off point to the cattle demographics database, it becomes possible to identify herds with multiple abortions, carry out retrospective investigations to find the cause of these abortions and monitor a posteriori compliance of farmers with their obligation to report abortions for brucellosis surveillance needs. Therefore, the CI could be used as an indicator of abortions to help improve the current mandatory notification surveillance system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Establishing a sample-to cut-off ratio for lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Indian context

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Aseem K.; Pandey, Prashant K.; Negi, Avinash; Bagga, Ruchika; Shanker, Ajay; Baveja, Usha; Vimarsh, Raina; Bhargava, Richa; Dara, Ravi C.; Rawat, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is based on detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) or chemiluminescence immuno-assay (CIA). Center for Disease Control reported that signal-to-cut-off (s/co) ratios in anti-HCV antibody tests like EIA/CIA can be used to predict the probable result of supplemental test; above a certain s/co value it is most likely to be true-HCV positive result and below that certain s/co it is most likely to be false-positive result. A...

  10. The cut-off point of dual energy X-ray and laser of calcaneus osteoporosis diagnosis in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimzadeh, A.; Forough, B.; Olia, B.; Alishiri, G. H.; Ghasemzadeh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry is a method which can extensively be used for bone mineral densitometry . Another more recent method is dual energy X-ray and laser, which associate with dual X ray absorptiometry, assisted by laser measure heel thickness. In this study the cut off points for dual energy X-ray and laser of calcaneus in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in different bone regions in postmenopausal women had been determined. Materials and Methods: In 268 postmenopausal women, BMD of the spinal and femoral regions was measured by DM, and the value for the calcaneous was measured by dual energy X-ray and laser. The agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and optimal cut-off point for dual energy X-ray and laser in defining osteoporosis was obtained. What obtained was the agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, as well as the optimal cut-off point for dual energy X-ray and laser in defining osteoporosis. Results: Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry showed osteoporosis in 40.7% of cases with 35.2% in L2-L4, 16.2% in the femoral neck, and 11.7% for the femoral total region. The dual energy X-ray and laser found osteoporosis, considering -2.5 SD as a threshold, in 26.1% of cases. Agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis (Kappa score) was 0.443 for the lumbar region, 0.464 for the neck, and, 0.421 for total femur regions (all P values were significant). Using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, it was found that a T-score of -2.1, -2.6 and -2.4 as the optimal cut-off point of dual energy X-ray and laser in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine, the neck and total region of femur, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a moderate agreement between the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. It seems that the dual energy X-ray and laser cannot be used as a substitute for the DM method, but it can be used as a screening method to find (to diagnose) osteoporosis

  11. Detecting outliers and/or leverage points: a robust two-stage procedure with bootstrap cut-off points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Marubini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust two-stage procedure for identification of outlying observations in regression analysis. The exploratory stage identifies leverage points and vertical outliers through a robust distance estimator based on Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD. After deletion of these points, the confirmatory stage carries out an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS analysis on the remaining subset of data and investigates the effect of adding back in the previously deleted observations. Cut-off points pertinent to different diagnostics are generated by bootstrapping and the cases are definitely labelled as good-leverage, bad-leverage, vertical outliers and typical cases. The procedure is applied to four examples.

  12. Exploration of the optimal diameter cut-off value in patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor suitable for surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan LIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the pathology of the patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor (NFA, and explore the optimal diameter cut-off value. Methods  The clinical data of 243 patients with NFA, evaluated in the Department of Endocrinology and operated in the Department of Urology of General Hospital of Chinese PLA from Feb. 1996 to Jan. 2016, were collected. The patients were divided into two groups according to pathology: those in real demand of surgery were classified to the surgery-need group (n=57, while the others were categorized as the surgery-unwanted group (n=186. The general situation, pathological type and tumor diameter of the two groups and the factors affecting the surgery were analyzed, and the ROC curve was used to explore the optimal surgery cut-off value, which represents the maximum value of the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Results  Of the 57 patients in surgery-need group (27 males and 30 females, the lesions were on the right in 31 cases, on the left in 25 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 4.5cm, and the average age was 41.5±12.1 years old. Of the 186 patients in surgery-unwanted group (87 males and 99 females, the lesions were on the right in 99 cases, on the left in 86 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 3.0cm, and the average age was 50.6±10.9 years old. Logistic regression revealed that lesion diameter might be a risk factor (OR=1.340, 95%CI 1.266-1.418, P=0.000 and age be a protective factor (OR=0.942, 95%CI 0.929-0.955, P=0.000 for real demand of surgery. The area under the ROC curve (AUC of lesion diameter was 0.757(95%CI 0.681-0.833. The optimal cut-off value was 4.1cm (sensitivity 60.7% and specificity 83.0%. Conclusions  Younger patients with bigger lesion diameter may have greater possibility for surgery. The optimal surgery cut-off value of the lesion diameter is 4.1cm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.11

  13. Current MUAC Cut-Offs to Screen for Acute Malnutrition Need to Be Adapted to Gender and Age: The Example of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Whitney, Sophie; de Groot, Richard; Perignon, Marlène; Kuong, Khov; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification of children malnutrition is a priority. Acute malnutrition is defined by the World Health Organization as a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) malnutrition in communities, but MUAC cut-offs currently recommended by WHO do not identify the majority of children with weight-for-height Z-score (5 yrs. Therefore, this study aimed at defining gender and age-specific cut-offs to improve sensitivity of MUAC as an indicator of acute malnutrition. Methods To establish new age and gender-specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 14,173 children from 5 surveys in Cambodia (2011–2013). Sensitivity, false positive rates, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated using wasting for children 80% with the new cut-offs in comparison with the current WHO cut-offs. Conclusion Gender and age specific MUAC cut-offs drastically increased sensitivity to identify children with WHZ-score malnutrition at the community level. PMID:26840899

  14. Problems in future negotiations for a treaty on the cut-off of fissile material for nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, A.

    1999-01-01

    A treaty to end the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons, the so-called cutoff, is one of the most important next steps on the disarmament agenda.' But meanwhile, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) is deadlocked, and confidence in negotiations taking place in the near future is replaced by bewilderment at the inaction. The underlying conflict of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation. The same conflict is now blocking progress with negotiations in the CD on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). Nevertheless, the cut-off would be the major policy driver to insert transparency and irreversibility into the disarmament process,' and we need to harness all our efforts to overcome the current difficulties. The CTBT can be regarded as a tool to cap the qualitative nuclear arms race, for example to hinder the future development of qualitatively new nuclear explosives, and an FMCT can be seen as its quantitative counterpart, capping the amount of material available for new nuclear weapons. The complex questions involve political, technical, legal, and economic aspects and constitute a challenge for diplomats and decision makers

  15. Preoperative diagnosis of breast diseases by dynamic MR mammography. Cut off point establishment for signal intensity ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Juji; Nagata, Takayasu; Kawagoe, Hajime; Tachibana, Susumu; Kajima, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Mutsuo; Uno, Takashi; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu.

    1997-01-01

    We have revealed that a dynamic study of the breast using MR imaging technique can estimate objectively benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis. Subjects were 41 cases of breast lesion, including 13 cases of breast cancer, 21 cases of mastopathy, six cases of fibroadenoma and one case of intraductal papillomatosis and the results of them were investigated in comparison with histopathological diagnosis. As so the method, we drew up time-signal intensity ratio curve plotting signal intensity ratio at each 30 second of dynamic MR mammography after Gd-DTPA administration. We found a especially high significant difference between cancer and mastopathy, within 90 second after Gd-DTPA administration (p=0.0000). Still more, we established cut off point concerning with establishment of 95% confidence interval, that is, at 30 second after Gd-DTPA administration of point equivalent 1.53 at 60 second equivalent 2.00, at 90 second equivalent 2.47, and about this estimating maneuver using the cut off point we named Dynamic ratio method. We can estimate preoperatively not only benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis with breast tumor, but also neighboring infiltration and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer using this Dynamic ratio method. Over again, Dynamic ratio method provides fine information to preoperative decision of resecting region for breast conserving surgery. The efficiency of this method is sensitivity=92.3%, specificity=89.3% and positive predictive value=80.0%. (author)

  16. Preoperative diagnosis of breast diseases by dynamic MR mammography. Cut off point establishment for signal intensity ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Juji; Nagata, Takayasu; Kawagoe, Hajime; Tachibana, Susumu; Kajima, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Mutsuo [Ibi General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Uno, Takashi; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu

    1997-12-01

    We have revealed that a dynamic study of the breast using MR imaging technique can estimate objectively benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis. Subjects were 41 cases of breast lesion, including 13 cases of breast cancer, 21 cases of mastopathy, six cases of fibroadenoma and one case of intraductal papillomatosis and the results of them were investigated in comparison with histopathological diagnosis. As so the method, we drew up time-signal intensity ratio curve plotting signal intensity ratio at each 30 second of dynamic MR mammography after Gd-DTPA administration. We found a especially high significant difference between cancer and mastopathy, within 90 second after Gd-DTPA administration (p=0.0000). Still more, we established cut off point concerning with establishment of 95% confidence interval, that is, at 30 second after Gd-DTPA administration of point equivalent 1.53 at 60 second equivalent 2.00, at 90 second equivalent 2.47, and about this estimating maneuver using the cut off point we named Dynamic ratio method. We can estimate preoperatively not only benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis with breast tumor, but also neighboring infiltration and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer using this Dynamic ratio method. Over again, Dynamic ratio method provides fine information to preoperative decision of resecting region for breast conserving surgery. The efficiency of this method is sensitivity=92.3%, specificity=89.3% and positive predictive value=80.0%. (author)

  17. Evaluation of model for end-stage liver disease score cut off values in patients with hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Qayyum, W.; Umar, M.; Abedin, Z.U.; Bushra, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) is scoring system used for prioritization of patients waiting liver transplantation. Patients with decompensated chronic liver disease (DCLD) with higher MELD score and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have poor outcome. We planned to note association between short term mortality and various cut-off values of at admission MELD score in HCV related DCLD patients presenting with HE. Methods: In this descriptive case series, 208 Hepatitis C (HCV) related chronic liver disease (CLD) patients with HE were included. At admission serum bilirubin, creatinine and INR were sought to calculate MELD score. Patients who improved were discharged and kept under regular follow up. Outcome was categorized into alive or expired in 3 months after admission. Based on MELD score cut off values of >15, >20, >25 and >30, association with outcome was determined using Chi-square test. Results: One hundred and six (51%) patients were female. Mean patient age was 55.3±10.6 years. Outcome wise, 128 (61.5%) were alive and 80 (38.5%) expired. Mean MELD score of expired was 22.17±9.14. 55 (51%) patients with MELD score >15, 44 (65.7%) patients with >20, 30 (73.2%) patients with >25, and 21 (72.5%) patients with >30 expired. MELD score >20 had strongest association with outcome, p value less than o.01. Conclusion: At admission MELD score >20 are most significantly associated with poor outcome in DCLD patients with HE. (author)

  18. Cut-off scaling of high-harmonic generation driven by a femtosecond visible optical parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirmi, Giovanni; Lai, Chien-Jen; Granados, Eduardo; Huang, Shu-Wei; Sell, Alexander; Hong, Kyung-Han; Moses, Jeffrey; Keathley, Phillip; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 µJ energy at the 1 kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping other parameters (energy, duration and beam size) constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in helium. Our measurements show a λ 1.7+0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source, the high-order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ∼25 and ∼100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.

  19. In Vitro Dialysis of Cytokine-Rich Plasma With High and Medium Cut-Off Membranes Reduces Its Procalcific Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Kevin; Hulko, Michael; Storr, Markus; Speidel, Rose; Gauss, Julia; Schindler, Ralf; Zickler, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Recently developed high-flux (HF) dialysis membranes with extended permeability provide better clearance of middle-sized molecules such as interleukins (ILs). Whether this modulation of inflammation influences the procalcific effects of septic plasma on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is not known. To assess the effects of high cut-off (HCO) and medium cut-off (MCO) membranes on microinflammation and in vitro vascular calcification we developed a miniature dialysis model. Plasma samples from lipopolysaccharide-spiked blood were dialyzed with HF, HCO, and MCO membranes in an in vitro miniature dialysis model. Afterwards, IL-6 concentrations were determined in dialysate and plasma. Calcifying VSMCs were incubated with dialyzed plasma samples and vascular calcification was assessed. Osteopontin (OPN) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) were measured in VSMC supernatants. IL-6 plasma concentrations were markedly lower with HCO and MCO dialysis. VSMC calcification was significantly lower after incubation with MCO- and HCO-serum compared to HF plasma. MGP and OPN levels in supernatants were significantly lower in the MCO but not in the HCO group compared to HF. In vitro dialysis of cytokine-enriched plasma samples with MCO and HCO membranes reduces IL-6 levels. The induction of vascular calcification by cytokine-enriched plasma is reduced after HCO and MCO dialysis. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Objective assessment of subjective tinnitus through contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions by white noise; suggested cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V

    2016-12-01

    Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.

  1. Revisiting the Phadia/EliA cut-off values for anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies: a systematic evaluation according to the guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, M V; Jacobsen, I-L Søtang; Gram, J B; Sidelmann, J J

    2018-01-01

    Background Phadia/EliA fluorescence enzyme immunoassays are widely used automated assays for anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) antibodies. To date, cut-off values for these assays have not been evaluated systematically and the evidence behind manufacturer's recommended cut-off values is not clear. Objective To determine Phadia/EliA cut-off values for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) according to the procedures suggested by guidelines. Methods A total of 266 blood donors (135 females and 131 males) were included. The pre-handling and analysis of the samples were performed according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) guideline for solid phase aPL assays. Cut-off values and corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CI) for each antibody were established and outliers were handled according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline for reference intervals. Samples from 377 consecutive patients, referred to our thrombophilia center with evidence of thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity were included for aPL testing. Results The in-house 99th (97.5th) percentile cut-off values were 11 (8.7), 12 (6.9) 8.5 (5.0) AU/mL for aβ2GPI IgG, IgM and IgA, and 21 (13) GPL-U/mL and 41 (25) MPL-U/mL for aCL IgG and IgM, respectively. The prevalence of positive results (%) defined by these cut-off values in patients with evidence of thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity was 9.5 (12.2), 1.6 (2.9), and 7.0 (9.9), and 0.8 (3.8) for aβ2GPI IgG, IgM, and aCL IgG and IgM respectively. The use of in-house 99th percentile cut-off values compared to the manufacturer suggested cut-off values resulted in 1 and 39 fewer samples for aβ2GPI and aCL to be classified as positive for aPL, respectively. Conclusions We present Phadia/EliA cut-off values with 90% CI for aPL determined systematically according to the ISTH and CLSI guidelines. These values are different from values previously determined, suggesting variation of a

  2. Relationship between the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio in 99mTc myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihin Yusoff, M. N.; Zakaria, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the lung-heart ratio parameter can be used to identify the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter in 99m Tc myocardial SPECT imaging. Materials and Methods: This study involved a cardiac phantom system consisting of cardiac insert in which 1.10 cm cold defect was inserted into its myocardium wall and filled with 4.0 μCi/ml (0.148 MBq/ml) 99m Tc concentration. The cardiac insert was then put into a cylindrical tank which filled with six different 99m Tc concentrations as background. Thus, six target background concentrations ratios (T/B) were carried out. The lung-heart ratio was determined for every SPECT raw image obtained corresponding to each T/B. Then, 130 different combinations of filter parameters from Butter worth filter were utilized to reconstruct each SPECT raw image. The determination of count in myocardium, background, and defect regions of interest were performed for every reconstructed image. All the count values were then used to calculate contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and defect size. Each criterion was graded (1 to 100) and then summed together to obtain total grade. The optimum cut off frequency for each lung-heart ratio was determined from the total grade. The relation between optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio was established using linear regression. Results: There were good relationship between the optimum Butter worth cut off frequency and lung-heart ratio (R 2 = 0.864, p<0.01). The optimal cut off frequency correspond to the change in lung-heart ratio can be expressed by the equation: Optimum cut off frequency=0.715*lung-heart ratio + 0.227. Conclusion: This study suggests that the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter should be determined by referring to lung-heart ratio in each patient study.

  3. [Segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum in thoracic spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-dong; Zhang, Jian; Sheng, Wei-bin

    2013-10-08

    To explore the efficacy and safety of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) in thoracic spine. Retrospective study was performed in 98 patients with thoracic OLF who under went operation. There was 56 males and 42 females with an average age of 45.8 (35-73) years. The average duration of onset was 17 (3-51) months. The main clinical symptoms were numbness and paraesthesia (n = 90), lower limb weakness and walking trouble (n = 46), positive pyramidal tract signs (n = 33) and sphincter function obstacle (n = 9). OLF was screened and diagnosed by radiology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or CT myelography (CTM). A total of 142 OLF nidus were spotted. The lesions involved single segment (n = 32), double segments (n = 56), three segments (n = 6) and ≥ four segments (n = 4). And the locations were at upper thoracic segment (T1-4) (n = 34), middle thoracic segment (T5-8) (n = 23) and lower thoracic segment (T9-12) (n = 42). The OLF nidus were removed by local floating technology oft windowing at cephalic and caudal ends and a cut-off bridge at both sides of involved segments. Pre- and post-operative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and Epstein grades were recorded to evaluate the outcomes. The mean loss volume of blood was 320 ml and operative duration 155 min. All cases recovered independent activities. The mean follow-up period was 28 (13-48) months. The mean preoperative JOA score was 4.3 (1-8) points and the mean postoperative JOA score 9.7 (5-11) points. The recovery rate was 78.8%. According to Epstein grade, the excellent and good rate was 86.7%. As a common cause of thoracic spinal cord compression, OLF should be operated as early as possible. Based upon clinical and imaging findings, the application of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology is both safe and efficacious in the treatment of OLF in thoracic spine.

  4. Practical use of visual medial temporal lobe atrophy cut-off scores in Alzheimer's disease: Validation in a large memory clinic population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, Jules J.; Holl, Dana C.; Roorda, Jelmen J.; Staekenborg, Salka S.; Schuur, Jacqueline; Koster, Pieter; Tielkes, Caroline E.M.; Scheltens, Philip

    2017-01-01

    To provide age-specific medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) cut-off scores for routine clinical practice as marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD (n = 832, mean age 81.8 years) were compared with patients with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 333, mean age 71.8 years) in a large single-centre memory clinic. Mean of right and left MTA scores was determined with visual rating (Scheltens scale) using CT (0, no atrophy to 4, severe atrophy). Relationships between age and MTA scores were analysed with regression analysis. For various MTA cut-off scores, decade-specific sensitivity and specificity and area under the curve (AUC) values, computed with receiver operator characteristic curves, were determined. MTA strongly increased with age in both groups to a similar degree. Optimal MTA cut-off values for the age ranges <65, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 were: ≥1.0, ≥1.5, ≥ 2.0 and ≥2.0. Corresponding values of sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 86.4%; 73.7% and 84.6%; 73.7% and 76.2%; and 84.0% and 62.5%. From this large unique memory clinic cohort we suggest decade-specific MTA cut-off scores for clinical use. After age 85 years, however, the practical usefulness of the MTA cut-off is limited. (orig.)

  5. The dischargeable cut-off score of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in the inpatient care for low back pain with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Won; Shin, Ye-Sle; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Jin-Ho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2014-10-01

    The admission due to low back pain (LBP) became prevalent cause of international economic losses. Since LBP patients with disability are often subject to inpatient care, it is important to determine the appropriate time of discharge. The purpose of this study is to set the cut-off value of appropriate Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at the time of discharge. Of 1,394 LBP patients admitted in hospital specialized in spinal disease, 774 eligible patients with disability were included in this study. And several clinical variables including numerical rating score, ODI, satisfaction level were observed during the hospital stay. We considered satisfaction level as an important factor for discharge, categorized patients into satisfied group and dissatisfied group. Through the statistical analysis, appropriate factor for determining dischargeable patients satisfied with their current condition and its cut-off value of ODI were found. And proper predictors for the cut-off value were extracted statistically and logically from a pool of several clinical indexes. The ODI at the time of discharge was most accurate in determining dischargeable patients. The cut-off value of ODI was 30. Predictors were ODI questions 4 and 6. We set the cut-off value of dischargeable ODI for LBP inpatient with disability and found its predictor.

  6. Suggested cut-off values for vitamin D as a risk marker for total and cardiac death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Naesgaard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut off levels are still under debate. Objectives: To assess two cut-off levels, 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of data. 2-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in the total patient population were analyzed, applying univariate and multivariable analysis. Results: 255 patients with known vitamin D concentrations died. In the multivariable analysis, there was a decrease in total mortality above a cut-off level of 40 nmol/L and a decrease in cardiac death above a cut-off level of 70 nmol/L, [HRs of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50 – 0.88, p = 0.004 and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22 – 0.94, p = 0.034, respectively].Conclusion: Vitamin D cut-off levels of 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, were related to total mortality and cardiac death, respectively.

  7. Practical use of visual medial temporal lobe atrophy cut-off scores in Alzheimer's disease: Validation in a large memory clinic population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, Jules J.; Holl, Dana C.; Roorda, Jelmen J. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Neurology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Staekenborg, Salka S. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Neurology, Blaricum (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schuur, Jacqueline [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Geriatrics, Blaricum (Netherlands); Koster, Pieter [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Tielkes, Caroline E.M. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Medical Psychology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To provide age-specific medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) cut-off scores for routine clinical practice as marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD (n = 832, mean age 81.8 years) were compared with patients with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 333, mean age 71.8 years) in a large single-centre memory clinic. Mean of right and left MTA scores was determined with visual rating (Scheltens scale) using CT (0, no atrophy to 4, severe atrophy). Relationships between age and MTA scores were analysed with regression analysis. For various MTA cut-off scores, decade-specific sensitivity and specificity and area under the curve (AUC) values, computed with receiver operator characteristic curves, were determined. MTA strongly increased with age in both groups to a similar degree. Optimal MTA cut-off values for the age ranges <65, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 were: ≥1.0, ≥1.5, ≥ 2.0 and ≥2.0. Corresponding values of sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 86.4%; 73.7% and 84.6%; 73.7% and 76.2%; and 84.0% and 62.5%. From this large unique memory clinic cohort we suggest decade-specific MTA cut-off scores for clinical use. After age 85 years, however, the practical usefulness of the MTA cut-off is limited. (orig.)

  8. Fish hook injury: removal by ''push through and cut off'' technique: a case report and brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Kamal, Younis; Lone, Ansar Ul Haq

    2014-04-01

    Fishing is a leisure activity for some people around the world. Accidently the fish hook can get hooked in the hand. If the hook is barbed, removal becomes difficult. We report a case of such a injury in the hand and discuss the technique for its removal with a brief review of the literature. A thirty-two year old male accidently suffered a fishhook injury to his hand. He came to the orthopaedic ward two hours after the incident with pain; the fish hook was hanging from the hand. Unsuccessful attempts to remove it were made by his relatives. A push-through and cut-off technique was used for removal of barbed hook. Barbed hooks are to be removed atraumatically with controlled incision over properly anaesthetised skin. Proper wound management and prophylactic antibiotics suitable for treatment of Aeromonas species should be initiated to prevent complications.

  9. Re-evaluation of the fludrocortisone test: duration, NaCl supplementation and cut-off limits for aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Larsson, Johanna; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig; Wihl, Anders; Isaksson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Thus, the aims of this study were: (1) to clarify whether the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), which confirms autonomous aldosterone secretion, is reliable when carried out during a shorter period of time and (2) to confirm the importance of NaCl supplementation. The cut-off limits already obtained for aldosterone in healthy subjects during the FST were applied in hypertensive patients with a high aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR). The healthy subjects were allocated to three groups. Fludrocortisone was administered 4 times daily over 4 days and sodium chloride was supplemented in 3 different doses. The result was applied in 24 hypertensive patients, in 24 healthy subjects (10 women (23-38 years old) and 14 men (23-58 years old)) and in 24 patients with hypertension and high ARR (16 women (45-74 years old) and 8 men (56-73 years old)). Blood pressure, aldosterone, renin, potassium and sodium were measured. After three days of FST, there was a significant decrease in the serum level of aldosterone in the healthy subjects, regardless of high or low sodium chloride supplementation (p<0.001). The decrease in serum aldosterone was significantly less pronounced in patients with PA than in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients without PA (p<0.001). The 95th percentile of plasma aldosterone at the end of the test was 225 pmol/L. The FST can be shortened to 3 days and a daily 500 mg NaCl supplementation is sufficient. A cut-off value for aldosterone of 225 pmol/L after 4 days with FST is appropriate.

  10. A cut-off in the TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the SNR Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colak, M.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Inada, T.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Righi, C.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in supernova remnants (SNRs). However, no observational evidence of the presence of particles of PeV energies in SNRs has yet been found. The young historical SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) appears as one of the best candidates to study acceleration processes. Between 2014 December and 2016 October, we observed Cas A with the MAGIC telescopes, accumulating 158 h of good quality data. We derived the spectrum of the source from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We also analysed ∼8 yr of Fermi-LAT to obtain the spectral shape between 60 MeV and 500 GeV. The spectra measured by the LAT and MAGIC telescopes are compatible within the errors and show a clear turn-off (4.6σ) at the highest energies, which can be described with an exponential cut-off at E_c = 3.5(^{+1.6}_{-1.0})_{stat} (^{+0.8}_{-0.9})_{sys} TeV. The gamma-ray emission from 60 MeV to 10 TeV can be attributed to a population of high-energy protons with a spectral index of ∼2.2 and an energy cut-off at ∼10 TeV. This result indicates that Cas A is not contributing to the high energy (∼PeV) cosmic ray sea in a significant manner at the present moment. A one-zone leptonic model fails to reproduce by itself the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. Besides, if a non-negligible fraction of the flux seen by MAGIC is produced by leptons, the radiation should be emitted in a region with a low magnetic field (B⪅180 μG) like in the reverse shock.

  11. To choose the cut-off point of ferritin for differentiation between benign from malignant pleural-peritoneal effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Yang Wenjing; Liu Junfeng; Yu Jiuru

    2005-01-01

    To explore the level of ferritin for differentiating the benign from malignant pleural and peritoneal effusion, 218 pleural-peritoneal effusion samples from patients with different kinds of diseases were determined for ferritin (P Ft ) by RIA, in the meanwhile serum ferritin (S Ft ) was also determined. According to clinical diagnosis, these samples were divided into two groups: benign and malignant. P Ft and S Ft were compared between these two groups, and the ratio of P Ft to S Ft was counted. The ROC curve was used to choose the best cut-off point P Ft for differentiating benign from malignant pleural and peritoneal effusion. The results showed that in the benign effusion group the P Ft was 142.4±38.6 μg/L, S Ft was 89.7±43.5 μg/L, and P Ft / S Ft was 1.46±0.55, whereas in the group of malignant effusion the corresponding figures were 576.5±239.l μg/L, 189.±81.7 μg/L, and 3.67±1.48, respectively. The cut-off point for differentiating benign from malignant pleural and peritoneal effusion was 400 μg/L. Our differentiation standards are: P Ft ≥400 μg/L,P Ft /S Ft ≥3 for the malignant pleural and peritoneal ef- fusion, and P Ft Ft /S Ft <3 for the benign effusion. The sensitivity is 84.5%, the specificity is 87.5%, and the accuracy is 92.8%. (authors)

  12. Appropriate neck circumference cut-off points for metabolic syndrome in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ismail; Yardimci, Bulent; Tunckale, Aydin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC), overweight, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 264 diabetic patients (mean age: 52.9±8.1 years) were recruited from two centers in Istanbul to perform anthropometric measurements, including waist and hip circumference, NC, and body mass index. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels) were determined. NC correlated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides in men, whereas NC only correlated with waist circumference in women. Additionally, NC was shown to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both men and women. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for NC and overweight was 0.95 for both men and women (P<0.001). Moreover, a NC of 38cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point for determining overweight. The area under the curve for NC and MS was 0.87 for men and 0.83 for women (P<0.001). A NC of 39cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point to determine participants with MS. Our findings suggest a positive correlation of NC with MetS in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes, and could be a useful and accurate tool to identify MS. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer: cut-off values for the FAACT-A/CS and the VAS for appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, S; Ruijgrok, C; Ostelo, R W; de Vet, H C W; Verheul, H M W; de van der Schueren, M A E; Langius, J A E

    2016-02-01

    Anorexia is a frequently observed symptom in patients with cancer and is associated with limited food intake and decreased quality of life. Diagnostic instruments such as the Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale (A/CS) of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) questionnaire and the visual analog scale (VAS) for appetite have been recommended in the assessment of anorexia, but validated cut-off values are lacking. This study aimed to obtain cut-off values of these instruments for the assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer. The FAACT-A/CS and the VAS for appetite were administered to patients with cancer before start of chemotherapy. As reference standard for anorexia, two external criteria were used: (1) a cut-off value of ≥2 on the anorexia symptom scale of the EORTC QLQ C-30 and (2) the question "Do you experience a decreased appetite?" (yes/no). ROC curves were used to examine the optimal cut-off values for the FAACT-A/CS and VAS. A total of 273 patients (58 % male; 64.0 ± 10.6 years) were included. The median score on the FAACT-A/CS was 38 (IQR 32-42) points and 77 (IQR 47-93) points on the VAS. Considering both external criteria, the optimal cut-off value for the FAACT-A/CS was ≤37 (sensitivity (se) 80 %, specificity (sp) 81 %, positive predictive value (PV(+)) 79 %, negative predictive value (PV(-)) 82 %) and for the VAS was ≤70 (se 76 %, sp 83 %, PV(+) 80 %, PV(-) 79 %). For the assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer, our study suggests cut-off values of ≤37 for the FAACT-A/CS and ≤70 for the VAS. Future studies should confirm our findings in other patient samples.

  14. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro González-Álvaro

    Full Text Available To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI in patients with chronic polyarthritis.Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR] including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28. ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI.The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5, moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756 and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728. HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values.The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  15. Optimal cut-off levels to define obesity: body mass index and waist circumference, and their relationship to cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Zaki Morad Mohd; Zambari, Robayaah; Pheng, Chan Siew; Muruga, Vadivale; Ng, Bernard; Appannah, Geeta; Onn, Lim Teck

    2009-01-01

    Many studies in Asia have demonstrated that Asian populations may require lower cut-off levels for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to define obesity and abdominal obesity respectively, compared to western populations. Optimal cut-off levels for body mass index and waist circumference were determined to assess the relationship between the two anthropometric- and cardiovascular indices. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off levels. The study sample included 1833 subjects (mean age of 44+/-14 years) from 93 primary care clinics in Malaysia. Eight hundred and seventy two of the subjects were men and 960 were women. The optimal body mass index cut-off values predicting dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or at least one cardiovascular risk factor varied from 23.5 to 25.5 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 to 27.4 kg/m2 in women. As for waist circumference, the optimal cut-off values varied from 83 to 92 cm in men and from 83 to 88 cm in women. The optimal cut-off values from our study showed that body mass index of 23.5 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 kg/m2 in women and waist circumference of 83 cm in men and women may be more suitable for defining the criteria for overweight or obesity among adults in Malaysia. Waist circumference may be a better indicator for the prediction of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors in men and women compared to BMI. Further investigation using a bigger sample size in Asia needs to be done to confirm our findings.

  16. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoney, Sreevidya; Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ≥25 and ≥30), waist circumference (WC; ≥80 cm and ≥88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ≥35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. The sensitivity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ≥80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ≥88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ≥80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ≥88 cm showed better validity than WC ≥80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  18. Exploring optimum cut-off scores to screen for probable posttraumatic stress disorder within a sample of UK treatment-seeking veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Ross, Jana; Ashwick, Rachel; Armour, Cherie; Busuttil, Walter

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Previous research exploring the psychometric properties of the scores of measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests there is variation in their functioning depending on the target population. To date, there has been little study of these properties within UK veteran populations. Objective: This study aimed to determine optimally efficient cut-off values for the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) that can be used to assess for differential diagnosis of presumptive PTSD. Methods: Data from a sample of 242 UK veterans assessed for mental health difficulties were analysed. The criterion-related validity of the PCL-5 and IES-R were evaluated against the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). Kappa statistics were used to assess the level of agreement between the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems. Results: The optimal cut-off scores observed within this sample were 34 or above on the PCL-5 and 46 or above on the IES-R. The PCL-5 cut-off is similar to the previously reported values, but the IES-R cut-off identified in this study is higher than has previously been recommended. Overall, a moderate level of agreement was found between participants screened positive using the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems of PTSD. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PCL-5 and IES-R can be used as brief measures within veteran populations presenting at secondary care to assess for PTSD. The use of a higher cut-off for the IES-R may be helpful for differentiating between veterans who present with PTSD and those who may have some sy`mptoms of PTSD but are sub-threshold for meeting a diagnosis. Further, the use of more accurate optimal cut-offs may aid clinicians to better monitor changes in PTSD symptoms during and after treatment. PMID:29435200

  19. Exploring optimum cut-off scores to screen for probable posttraumatic stress disorder within a sample of UK treatment-seeking veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Ross, Jana; Ashwick, Rachel; Armour, Cherie; Busuttil, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous research exploring the psychometric properties of the scores of measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests there is variation in their functioning depending on the target population. To date, there has been little study of these properties within UK veteran populations. Objective : This study aimed to determine optimally efficient cut-off values for the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) that can be used to assess for differential diagnosis of presumptive PTSD. Methods : Data from a sample of 242 UK veterans assessed for mental health difficulties were analysed. The criterion-related validity of the PCL-5 and IES-R were evaluated against the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). Kappa statistics were used to assess the level of agreement between the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems. Results : The optimal cut-off scores observed within this sample were 34 or above on the PCL-5 and 46 or above on the IES-R. The PCL-5 cut-off is similar to the previously reported values, but the IES-R cut-off identified in this study is higher than has previously been recommended. Overall, a moderate level of agreement was found between participants screened positive using the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems of PTSD. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that the PCL-5 and IES-R can be used as brief measures within veteran populations presenting at secondary care to assess for PTSD. The use of a higher cut-off for the IES-R may be helpful for differentiating between veterans who present with PTSD and those who may have some sy`mptoms of PTSD but are sub-threshold for meeting a diagnosis. Further, the use of more accurate optimal cut-offs may aid clinicians to better monitor changes in PTSD symptoms during and after treatment.

  20. [Analysis of Cut-off Value in Screening of Thalassemia by Capillary Hemoglobin Electrophoresis for Pregnant Women from Shenzhen Region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Mei; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Mei; Gan, Zhi-Biao; Mao, Wei-Yu; Lin, Rong-Yao; Liu, Ai-Qin; He, Gui-Rong

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the cut-off value in screening of thalassemia in pregnant women from Shenzhen region by capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis. The data of capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis and genetic diagnosis of thalassemia from 2122 examined prenatal women were retrospectively analyzed. Capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis and α-, β- genetic diagnosis of thalassemia were carried out for every woman. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed using Capillarys 2 full-automated electrophoresis instrument. Gap polymerase chain reaction and reverse dot blot were used for genetic diagnosis of thalassemia genotyping test. The cut-off value in screening of thalassemia was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve and next to analyze the value of HbA2 and HbF in screening of thalassemia using the decided cut-off value. The areas under the curve (AUC(Roc)) of HbA2 for diagnosis of α-, β- thalassemia were 0.75 and 0.981 respectively, and the AUC(Roc) of HbF for diagnosis of β-thalassemia was 0.787. When HbA2 ≤ 2.55 was taken as the cut-off value of HbA2 for diagnosis of α-thalassemia, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR(+)) and negative likelihood ratio (LR(-)) were 89.5%, 54.8%, 1.98, 0.19 respectively. When HbA2 ≥3.9 was taken as the cut off value of HbA2 for diagnosis of β-thalassemia, the sensitivity, specificity, LR(+) and LR(-) were 96.1%, 99.8% 480.5, 0.04 respectively. When HbF ≥0.75 was taken as the cut off value of HbF for diagnosis of β-thalassemia, the sensitivity, specificity, LR(+) and LR(-) were 83.6%, 61.8% respectively. The cut-off value in screening of thalassemia by capillarys 2 full automated electrophoresis instrument is different from that of the traditional method of hemoglobin electrophoresis, such as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and agarose gel electrophoresis. Each laboratory should establish their own respective cut off value.

  1. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mattos de Souza

    Full Text Available An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI. Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW in Brazil.A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points.We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31, and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22. We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value.Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  2. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-01-01

    An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  3. The cut-off values of anthropometric variables for predicting mild cognitive impairment in Malaysian older adults: a large population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Huiloo Won,1 Zahara Abdul Manaf,2 Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin,3 Mohd Azahadi Omar,4 Rosdinom Razali,5 Suzana Shahar2 1Nutrition Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 3Biomedical Science Program, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 4Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Older adults are at risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and simple anthropometric measurements can be used to screen for this condition. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the cut-off values of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC for predicting the risk of MCI in older Malaysian adults.Methods: A total of 2,240 Malaysian older adults aged ≥60 years were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population based cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine the cut-off values of BMI and WC with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MCI. Age, gender, years of education, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, depression, and medical conditions were used as confounding factors in this analysis.Results: A BMI cut-off value of 26 kg/m2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.725; sensitivity 90.5%; specificity 38.8% was appropriate in identifying the risk of getting MCI in both men and women. The optimum WC cut-offs for likelihood of MCI were 90 cm (AUC 0.745; sensitivity 78.0%; specificity 59.8% for men and 82 cm (AUC 0.714; sensitivity 84.3%; specificity 49.7% for women. The optimum calf circumference (CC cut-off values for identifying MCI were 29 cm (AUC 0.731; sensitivity 72.6%; specificity

  4. Definition of new cut-offs of BMI and waist circumference based on body composition and insulin resistance: differences between children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Pourhassan, M; Braun, W; Geisler, C; Müller, M J

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m -2 ). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT total , SAT trunk ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Bivariate as well as partial correlations and regression analyses were used. Cut-off values of BMI and WC related to regional fat depots and HOMA-IR were analysed by receiver operating characteristics curve. In adults, TAT, SAT total and SAT trunk increased linearly with increasing BMI and WC, whereas they followed a cubic function in children and adolescents with a steep increase at BMI and WC ≥1 standard deviation score and VAT at WC ≥2 standard deviation score. Sex differences were apparent in adults with women having higher masses of TAT and SAT and men having higher VAT. Using established BMI or WC cut-offs, correspondent masses of TAT, SAT total , SAT trunk and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood. In all age groups, there were positive associations between BMI, WC, SAT trunk , VAT and HOMA-IR. When compared with normative cut-offs of BMI or WC, HOMA-IR-derived cut-offs of regional fat depots were lower in all age groups. Associations between BMI, WC and regional fat depots varied between children, adolescents, young and older adults. When compared with BMI-derived and WC-derived values, an insulin resistance-derived cut-off corresponded to lower masses of regional fat depots. Thus, established BMI and WC cut-offs are not appropriate to assess metabolic disturbances associated

  5. Determination of cosmic ray (CR) ionization path and iono/atmospheric cut-off energy from CR intervals III, IV and V in the planetary environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velinov, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are determined the ionization path and cut-off energies of the cosmic ray (CR) nuclei in relation to the general interaction model 'CR - ionosphere-middle atmosphere'. Here the ionization path and the iono/atmospheric cut-off energies of the galactic CR, solar CR and anomalous CR are separately considered in each energetic range, without taking into account the particle transfer from one range in another. This more general approach will be the object of a further paper

  6. Modal analysis and cut-off conditions of multichannel surface-acoustic-waveguide structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, G; Golan, G; Ruschin, S; Seidman, A; Croitoru, N

    1988-01-01

    Multichannel guides for surface acoustic waves can improve the efficiency of SAW (surface acoustic-wave) devices significantly. Focusing, steering, and modulating the propagating acoustical modes can be achieved similarly to optical waveguided devices. A general formulation is presented for the analysis of the lateral waveguiding properties of Rayleigh modes in surfaces loaded with deposited strips of different materials. General expressions are obtained for the number of modes and cutoff conditions in these structures. As examples of applications, a simple directional coupler and an electrically controlled coupler are proposed.

  7. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; Andrade, Armèle Dornelas de; Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. Determinar os pontos de corte de resposta ao broncodilatador do VEF1, VEF0,75, VEF0,5 e FEF25-75% em crianças pré-escolares saudáveis e gerar valores de referência para o VEF0,75. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base comunitária em crianças de 3-5 anos de idade. Pré-escolares saudáveis foram selecionados por um questionário padronizado. Foi realizada espirometria antes e depois do uso de broncodilatador. Foram definidos os pontos de corte dessa resposta como o percentil 95 de variação em cada parâmetro. Foram recrutadas 266 crianças, e 160 (60,0%) foram capazes de gerar manobras expiratórias aceitáveis e reprodut

  8. Diagnostic assessment without cut-offs: application of serology for the modelling of bovine digital dermatitis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, W D; Jones, G; Johnson, W O; Brown, J; Demirkan, I; Carter, S D; French, N P

    2009-11-15

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an epidermitis which is a leading cause of infectious lameness. The only recognized diagnostic test is foot inspection, which is a labour-intensive procedure. There is no universally recognized, standardized lesion scoring system. As small lesions are easily missed, foot inspection has limited diagnostic sensitivity. Furthermore, interpretation is subjective, and prone to observer bias. Serology is more convenient to carry out and is potentially a more sensitive indicator of infection. By carrying out 20 serological assays using lesion-associated Treponema spp. isolates, three serogroups were identified. The reliability of the tests was established by assessing the level of agreement and the concordance correlation coefficient. Subsequently, an ELISA suitable for routine use was developed. The benchmark of diagnostic test validation is conventionally the determination of the key test parameters, sensitivity and specificity. This requires the imposition of a cut-off point. For serological assays with outcomes on a continuous scale, the degree by which the test result differs from this cut-off is disregarded. Bayesian statistical methodology has been developed which enables the assay result also to be interpreted on a continuous scale, thereby optimizing the information inherent in the test. Using a cross-sectional study dataset carried out on 8 representative dairy farms in the UK, the probability of infection, P(I), of each individual animal was estimated in the absence of a 'Gold Standard' by modelling I as a latent variable which was determined by lesion status, L as well as serology, S. Covariate data (foot hygiene score and age) were utilized to estimate P(L) when no lesion inspection was performed. Informative prior distributions were elicited where possible. The model was utilized for predictive inference, by computing estimates of P(I) and P(L) independently of the data. A more detailed and informative analysis of the farm

  9. Phase- and size-adjusted CT cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Kroll, M.; Wetter, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Toussaint, T.L.; Hoepffner, N.; Holzer, K.; Kluge, A.

    2004-01-01

    A computed tomography (CT) cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions (polyps/carcinoma) from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC) relating to the contrast phase and lesion size is determined. CT values of 64 colonic lesions (27 polyps 0 . The slope m was determined by linear regression in the correlation (lesion ∝[xA + (1 - x)V]//H) and the Y-intercept y 0 by the minimal shift of the line needed to maximize the accuracy of separating the colonic wall from the lesions. The CT value of the lesions correlated best with the intermediate phase: 0.4A+ 0.6V(r=0.8 for polyps ≥10 mm, r=0.6 for carcinomas, r=0.4 for polyps <10 mm). The accuracy in the differentiation between lesions and normal colonic wall increased with the height implemented as divisor, reached 91% and was obtained by the dynamic cut-off described by the formula: cut-off(A,V,H) = 1.1[0.4A + 0.6V]/H + 69.8. The CT value of colonic polyps or carcinomas can be increased extrinsically by scanning in the phase in which 0.4A + 0.6V reaches its maximum. Differentiating lesions from normal colon based on CT values is possible in contrast-enhanced CTC and improves when the cut-off is adjusted (normalized) to the contrast phase and lesion size. (orig.)

  10. Optimal cut?off value of alanine aminotransferase level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver in patients with poorly controlled type?2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Akihito; Tatsumi, Fuminori; Okauchi, Seizo; Yabe, Hiroki; Tsuda, Tomohiro; Okutani, Kazuma; Yamashita, Kazuki; Nakashima, Koji; Kaku, Kohei; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Optimal cut?off value of ALT level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver was as low as 28.0?U/L. We should consider the possibility of fatty liver even when ALT level is within normal range in subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

  11. DMol3/COSMO-RS prediction of aqueous solubility and reactivity of selected Azo dyes: Effect of global orbital cut-off and COSMO segment variation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wahab, OO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solubility and reactivity of four azo dyes were investigated by DMol3/COSMO-RS calculation to examine the effects of global orbital cut-off and COSMO segment variation on the accuracies of theoretical solubility and reactivity. The studied...

  12. Using Logistic Regression for Validating or Invalidating Initial Statewide Cut-Off Scores on Basic Skills Placement Tests at the Community College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secolsky, Charles; Krishnan, Sathasivam; Judd, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The community colleges in the state of New Jersey went through a process of establishing statewide cut-off scores for English and mathematics placement tests. The colleges wanted to communicate to secondary schools a consistent preparation that would be necessary for enrolling in Freshman Composition and College Algebra at the community college…

  13. Insulin Resistance Distribution and Cut-Off Value in Koreans from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyung-Jin; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Yong-Moon; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify the distribution and cut-off value of the ‘homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance’ (HOMA-IR) according to gender and menopausal status for metabolic syndrome in Koreans. Methods Data were from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2010. The subjects included adults aged 20 years or older. We excluded participants who had diabetes or fasting serum glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L. Finally, 11,121 subjects (4,911 men, 3,597 premenopausal women, 2,613 postmenopausal women) were enrolled. The modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Results The mean HOMA-IR was 2.11 (2.07–2.15) for men, 2.0 (1.97–2.04) for premenopausal women, and 2.14 (2.2–2.19) for postmenopausal women. The first cut-off values in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women were 2.23 (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 66.9%), 2.39 (sensitivity 72.3%, specificity 76.4%), and 2.48 (sensitivity 51.9%, specificity 80.2%), respectively. Based on the first HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.9% in men, 13.7% in premenopausal women, and 51.6% in postmenopausal women. The second cut-off value was around 3.2 in all three groups. Based on the second HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.8% in men, 42.5% in premenopausal women, and 71.6% in postmenopausal women. Conclusion In conclusion, the first cut-off values for HOMA-IR were 2.2–2.5 and the second cut-off value was 3.2 in Korea. The distribution of HOMA-IR showed differences according to gender and menopausal status. When we apply HOMA-IR, we should consider gender, menopausal status, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27128847

  14. Serum anti-PLA2R antibody as a diagnostic biomarker of idiopathic membranous nephropathy: The optimal cut-off value for Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yipeng; Li, Xuan; Ma, Chaoqun; Wang, Ping; Liu, Ju; Su, Hong; Zhuo, Hao; Kong, Xianglei; Xu, Dayu; Xu, Dongmei

    2018-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a specific target autoantigen identified in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The autoantibody against PLA2R (anti-PLA2R) may be used to diagnose IMN. However, the appropriate diagnosis cut-off value for Chinese patients with IMN has not been established. In total, 119 patients who underwent renal biopsy (57 patients with IMN and 62 patients with non-IMN glomerulonephritis) and 22 healthy individuals were recruited for our observation study from Qianfoshan Hospital between September 2011 and March 2016. The serum concentration of anti-PLA2R was measured using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of anti-PLA2R in diagnosing IMN were analysed based on the ELISA detection. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of anti-PLA2R in the diagnosis of IMN in the Chinese patients were 82.5, 75, 69.1, and 86.3% for the 2RU/ml cut-off value; 78.9, 91.7, 86.5, and 86.5% for the 2.6RU/ml cut-off value; 59.6, 95.2, 89.5, and 77.7% for the 14RU/ml cut-off value; 50.9, 96.4, 90.6, and 74.3% for the 20RU/ml cut-off value; and 47.4, 97.6, 93.1, and 73.2% for the 40RU/ml cut-off value, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.879. The cut-off value of 2.6RU/ml is recommended for the use of anti-PLA2R for the diagnosis of IMN in Chinese patients based on the ELISA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Investigation of the performance of cement-bentonite cut-off walls in aggressive ground at a disused gasworks site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedd, P.; Holton, I.R.; Butcher, A.P.; Wallace, S.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an increased use of cement-bentonite slurry trench cut-off walls to control the lateral migration of pollution in the UK. Concerns inevitably exist about their performance in chemically aggressive ground particularly in the long term. To address some of the uncertainties a programme of field and laboratory research is being undertaken at a disused gasworks in the UK. Elevated levels of sulphate and other contaminants are present on the site and could potentially change the properties of the cement-bentonite. Two boxes, 10m square in plan, by 5m deep have been constructed, one with and one without an HDPE membrane, to isolate parts of the site. Local hydraulic gradients across the walls have been created by pumping from within the boxes. Isolated lengths of wall have been constructed which are being used to assess and develop in-situ testing techniques such as the piezocone for measuring permeability, strength and overall integrity of the wall

  16. Effect sizes and cut-off points: a meta-analytical review of burnout in latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arroyo, Jose; Osca Segovia, Amparo

    2018-05-02

    Burnout is a highly prevalent globalized health issue that causes significant physical and psychological health problems. In Latin America research on this topic has increased in recent years, however there are no studies comparing results across countries, nor normative reference cut-offs. The present meta-analysis examines the intensity of burnout (emotional exhaustion, cynicism and personal accomplishment) in 58 adult nonclinical samples from 8 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela). We found low intensity of burnout but there are significant differences between countries in emotional exhaustion explained by occupation and language. Social and human service professionals (police officers, social workers, public administration staff) are more exhausted than health professionals (physicians, nurses) or teachers. The samples with Portuguese language score higher in emotional exhaustion than Spanish, supporting the theory of cultural relativism. Demographics (sex, age) and study variables (sample size, instrument), were not found significant to predict burnout. The effect size and confidence intervals found are proposed as a useful baseline for research and medical diagnosis of burnout in Latin American countries.

  17. Performance tests of an abrasive cut-off systems for the finishing of high-precision casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the performance data of a newly designed and engineered grinding and cut-off system. The machine is used forseparation of models manufactured by the investment casting method. The machine comprises the following units:- base supporting other assemblies and elements: abrasive disc holder and drives; this solution enables an easy replacement and access toholding elements while a belt transmission allows the disc rpm to be varied,- mechanism moving the spindle in the horizontal, hence the abrasive disc position with respect to the batch can be precisely controlled,depending on the cast position and their shape,- holding and positioning-control of the batch to enable the fore and aft movements and rotations,- guide systems ensuring the travel of the batch in the specified direction and adjusting the travel speed to the required cutting rate,- centering, control, exhaust system, housing.Extensive tests were performed, including the tests of operating parameters of abrasive discs depending on the cast material, cyclograms ofthe applied treatment are obtained accordingly.

  18. Performance tests of an abrasive cut-off systems for the finishing of high-precision casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the performance data of a newly designed and engineered grinding and cut-off system. The machine is used for separation of models manufactured by the investment casting method. The machine comprises the following units:- base supporting other assemblies and elements: abrasive disc holder and drives; this solution enables an easy replacement and access to holding elements while a belt transmission allows the disc rpm to be varied,- mechanism moving the spindle in the horizontal, hence the abrasive disc position with respect to the batch can be precisely controlled, depending on the cast position and their shape,- holding and positioning-control of the batch to enable the fore and aft movements and rotations,- guide systems ensuring the travel of the batch in the specified direction and adjusting the travel speed to the required cutting rate,- centering, control, exhaust system, housingExtensive tests were performed, including the tests of operating parameters of abrasive discs depending on the cast material, cyclograms of the applied treatment are obtained accordingly.

  19. Experimental determination of the atmospheric gamma photons spectra at 12 GeV cut-off rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.; Vedrenne, G.; Albernhe, F.

    1974-01-01

    The energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays from 0.9 to 18.0 MeV has been measured as a function of altitude in a series of two balloon flights from Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil (12 GV cut-off rigidity). The detector used was a 4' x 4' NaI (Tl) crystal with a 1 cm thick plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield, connected to a 128 channel pulse height analyser. Above 20g/cm 2 , the energy spectrum could be fitted to a power law with exponent 1.0 +- -+ 0.1 independent of the altitude. From 20 to 760 g/cm 2 , the spectrum was found to be somewhat steeper with the exponential index being 1.3 +- -+ 0.1. At 3.5 g/cm 2 , the gamma-ray flux was 0.30 photons/cm 2 -s at 1 MeV. These measurements are discussed and compared with calculated results [pt

  20. Low prevalence of hypopituitarism after subarachnoid haemorrhage using confirmatory testing and with BMI-specific GH cut-off levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Chris J; Javadpour, Mohsen; Stoneley, Catherine; Purthuran, Mani; Biswas, Shubhabrata; Daousi, Christina; MacFarlane, Ian A; Cuthbertson, Daniel J

    2013-04-01

    Hypopituitarism following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has been reported to be a frequent occurrence. However, there is considerable heterogeneity between studies with differing patient populations and treatment modalities and most importantly employing differing endocrine protocols and (normal) reference ranges of GH. We aimed to examine prospectively a cohort of SAH survivors for development of hypopituitarism post-SAH using rigorous endocrine testing and compare GH response to glucagon stimulation with a cohort of healthy controls of a similar BMI. Sixty-four patients were investigated for evidence of hypopituitarism 3 months post-SAH with 50 patients tested again at 12 months. Glucagon stimulation testing (GST), with confirmation of deficiencies by GHRH/arginine testing for GH deficiency (GHD) and short synacthen testing for ACTH deficiency, was used. Basal testing of other hormonal axes was undertaken. Mean age of patients was 53±11.7 years and mean BMI was 27.5±5.7 kg/m(2). After confirmatory testing, the prevalence of hypopituitarism was 12% (GHD 10%, asymptomatic hypocortisolaemia 2%). There was no association between hypopituitarism and post-SAH vasospasm, presence of cerebral infarction, Fisher grade, or clinical grading at presentation. There was a significant correlation between BMI and peak GH to glucagon stimulation in both patients and controls. Identification of 'true' GHD after SAH requires confirmatory testing with an alternative stimulation test and application of BMI-specific cut-offs. Using such stringent criteria, we found a prevalence of hypopituitarism of 12% in our population.

  1. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Wiedemann, Baerbel [University Hospital Dresden, Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometrics, Dresden (Germany); Wehrmann, Ursula [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin [University Hospital Dresden, Oncoray, Dresden (Germany); Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Aust, Daniela [University Hospital Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas {>=}10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV{sub max} was {>=}5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV{sub max}. FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV{sub max}{>=} 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  2. Break-apart interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization assay in papillary thyroid carcinoma: on the road to optimizing the cut-off level for RET/PTC rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colato, Chiara; Vicentini, Caterina; Cantara, Silvia; Pedron, Serena; Brazzarola, Paolo; Marchetti, Ivo; Di Coscio, Giancarlo; Chilosi, Marco; Brunelli, Matteo; Pacini, Furio; Ferdeghini, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene is one of the most common molecular events in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, their pathogenic role and clinical significance are still debated. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangement in a cohort of BRAF WT PTCs by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and to search a reliable cut-off level in order to distinguish clonal or non-clonal RET changes. Forty BRAF WT PTCs were analyzed by FISH for RET rearrangements. As controls, six BRAFV600E mutated PTCs, 13 follicular adenomas (FA), and ten normal thyroid parenchyma were also analyzed. We performed FISH analysis on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercially available RET break-apart probe. A cut-off level equivalent to 10.2% of aberrant cells was accepted as significant. To validate FISH results, we analyzed the study cohort by qRT-PCR. Split RET signals above the cut-off level were observed in 25% (10/40) of PTCs, harboring a percentage of positive cells ranging from 12 to 50%, and in one spontaneous FA (1/13, 7.7%). Overall, the data obtained by FISH matched well with qRT-PCR results. Challenging findings were observed in five cases showing a frequency of rearrangement very close to the cut-off. FISH approach represents a powerful tool to estimate the ratio between broken and non-broken RET tumor cells. Establishing a precise FISH cut-off may be useful in the interpretation of the presence of RET rearrangement, primarily when this strategy is used for cytological evaluation or for targeted therapy. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang; Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wiedemann, Baerbel; Wehrmann, Ursula; Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim; Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank; Aust, Daniela; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas ≥10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV max was ≥5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV max . FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV max ≥ 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  4. Effect of Irrigation CutOff on Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Various Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-02-01

    plants and proline contents were assessed. The results showed that irrigation treatment had a significant effect on all the studied traits except number of branches and umbels per plant. The irrigation cutoff at flowering stage caused a significant increase in seeds per umbel, infected plants and seed yield per plant and hectare Whereas harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield and proline contents were higher in irrigation cutoff treatment compared to completely irrigated treatment. The value of decrease in seed yield per hectare as affected by irrigation cutoff was so lower than that per plant; because more infected plants were observed in completely irrigatedtreatment in comparison with cutoff irrigated treatment. Decreasing the value of the seed yield per plant and hectare affected by irrigation cut-off were 58 and 15%, respectively. Proline contents in irrigation cut-off treatment were about two times more than completely irrigatedtreatment. Khorasan and Kerman ecotypes had higher value in comparison with Esfahan in all studied traits.. Seed yield per hectare for Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan ecotypes were 525, 306 and 525 kg, respectively. The highest essential oil yield (14.92 kg ha-1 was gained in 1 Mm spermidine for Khorasan ecotype and the lowest (6.87 kg ha-1 was observed in 0 Mm spermidine for Esfahan ecotype. There was no significant difference between foliar application levels in terms of the studied traits such as…. Conclusion: Irrigation cutoff at flowering stage caused a significant increase in seeds per umbel, infected plants and seed yield per plant and hectare Whereas harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield and proline contents were higher in irrigation cutoff treatment compared to completely irrigated treatment. Khorasan and Kerman ecotypes achieved higher potential for cultivation in Kerman climate condition compared to Esfahan ecotype.

  5. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  6. Establishing a sample-to cut-off ratio for lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aseem K; Pandey, Prashant K; Negi, Avinash; Bagga, Ruchika; Shanker, Ajay; Baveja, Usha; Vimarsh, Raina; Bhargava, Richa; Dara, Ravi C; Rawat, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is based on detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) or chemiluminescence immuno-assay (CIA). Center for Disease Control reported that signal-to-cut-off (s/co) ratios in anti-HCV antibody tests like EIA/CIA can be used to predict the probable result of supplemental test; above a certain s/co value it is most likely to be true-HCV positive result and below that certain s/co it is most likely to be false-positive result. A prospective study was undertaken in patients in tertiary care setting for establishing this "certain" s/co value. The study was carried out in consecutive patients requiring HCV testing for screening/diagnosis and medical management. These samples were tested for anti-HCV on CIA (VITROS(®) Anti-HCV assay, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, New Jersey) for calculating s/co value. The supplemental nucleic acid test used was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Abbott). PCR test results were used to define true negatives, false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Performance of different putative s/co ratios versus PCR was measured using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value and most appropriate s/co was considered on basis of highest specificity at sensitivity of at least 95%. An s/co ratio of ≥6 worked out to be over 95% sensitive and almost 92% specific in 438 consecutive patient samples tested. The s/co ratio of six can be used for lab-diagnosis of HCV infection; those with s/co higher than six can be diagnosed to have HCV infection without any need for supplemental assays.

  7. Establishing a sample-to cut-off ratio for lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV is based on detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA or chemiluminescence immuno-assay (CIA. Center for Disease Control reported that signal-to-cut-off (s/co ratios in anti-HCV antibody tests like EIA/CIA can be used to predict the probable result of supplemental test; above a certain s/co value it is most likely to be true-HCV positive result and below that certain s/co it is most likely to be false-positive result. A prospective study was undertaken in patients in tertiary care setting for establishing this "certain" s/co value. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in consecutive patients requiring HCV testing for screening/diagnosis and medical management. These samples were tested for anti-HCV on CIA (VITROS ® Anti-HCV assay, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, New Jersey for calculating s/co value. The supplemental nucleic acid test used was polymerase chain reaction (PCR (Abbott. PCR test results were used to define true negatives, false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Performance of different putative s/co ratios versus PCR was measured using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value and most appropriate s/co was considered on basis of highest specificity at sensitivity of at least 95%. Results: An s/co ratio of ≥6 worked out to be over 95% sensitive and almost 92% specific in 438 consecutive patient samples tested. Conclusion: The s/co ratio of six can be used for lab-diagnosis of HCV infection; those with s/co higher than six can be diagnosed to have HCV infection without any need for supplemental assays.

  8. Modelling the Turbocharger Cut Off Application Due to Slow Steaming Operation 12RTA96C-B Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Wehner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Out of the total operational costs of a ship, fuel costs account for by far the highest proportion. In view of the global economic situation and the rising oil prices, shipowners and charterers are looking for solutions to cut costs by reducing fuel consumption. Low load operation, also well-known as “slow steaming”, represents the currently most effective and popular measure to cut fuel costs and, in consequence, the total operational costs for increased competitiveness in the market. Low load operation is possible and there is an increasing trend to operate in these very low engine load ranges. As the engines were not designed for this operational condition, various retrofit modifications to the engine can compensate for this. By using low load operation, the reduction of the RPM gives problems when sailing at low speed.  A turbocharger (TC compresses inlet air to a high pressure and after cooling this compressed air it results in higher mass of air in the cylinder. But when running at a low power load this air reaches temperatures that are too low for an optimal combustion process. One of the solution comes from the company Wärtsilä. They install so called “low steam engine kits”. When this kit is installed it allows the engine operators to cut off one turbocharger of the engine, this result’s in a higher RPM for the operating turbochargers. When the remaining TC’s have a higher RPM their efficiency improves and gives the engine more air for combustion.The goal of this Bachelor thesis is to make a calculation modelling and prove that by switching off one or more turbocharger on the system will improve the efficiency in slow steaming operation. Beside that, this thesis is aims to estimated the performance of the engine in both operation condition.

  9. Cut-Off Levels of Anti-Mullerian Hormone for The Prediction of Ovarian Response, In Vitro Fertilization Outcome and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salmassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH cut-off levels in assisted reproductive technology (ART as predictive factor for individualization of stimulation protocols and to avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 177 infertile patients were assessed for AMH in serum and follicular fluid (FF on the day of follicular puncture (FP, between 2012 and 2013 in Kiel, Germany. AMH levels and pregnancy rates were compared between low, moderate and high responders and cut-off levels of low and high responders. AMH cut-off levels in pathological cases were evaluated in analysis 1 (OHSS and in analysis 2 [polycystic ovarian syndrome, (PCOS] and compared in analysis 3 to normal endocrinological parameters. Results: AMH levels in FF were higher than in serum (P<0.001. AMH levels in serum and FF increased from low through moderate to high responders (P<0.001. Pregnancy rates were 14.7, 23.3 and 44.9% (P=0.009, respectively. AMH cut-off level for poor responders was 0.61 ng/ml in serum with a pregnancy rate of 13.8 and 37.1% for below and above of this level, respectively. For FF, it was 1.43 ng/ml. AMH levels in analysis 1 and 2 were significantly higher than in analysis 3 (P=0.001. AMH cut-off level for OHSS was 1.5 ng/ml in serum with OHSS rates of 80.8 and 19.2 % for above and below of the level, respectively. For FF, it was 2.7 ng/ml. PCOS patients had an AMH cut-off level of 3.9 ng/ml in serum and 6.8 ng/ml in FF, resulting in a PCOS rate of 100% above this level. Conclusion: AMH levels can help to assess ovarian response potential and guide ovarian stimulation while avoiding OHSS.

  10. Evaluation of an Optimal Cut-Off Point for the Ki-67 Index as a Prognostic Factor in Primary Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Tashima

    Full Text Available The Ki-67 index is an important biomarker for indicating the proliferation of cancer cells and is considered to be an effective prognostic factor for breast cancer. However, a standard cut-off point for the Ki-67 index has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was to determine an optimal cut-off point in order to establish it as a more accurate prognostic factor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Ki-67 index was performed on 4329 patients with primary breast cancer from August 1987 to March 2012. Out of this sample, there were 3186 consecutive cases from September 1997 with simultaneous evaluations of ER, PgR and HER2 status. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the factors related to OS. The hazard ratios (HR and the p values were then compared to determine the optimal cut-off point for the Ki-67 index. The median Ki-67 index value was 20.5% (mean value 26.2%. The univariate analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant negative correlation with DFS and OS and the multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index value was a significant factor for DFS and OS. The top seven cut-off points were then carefully chosen based on the results of the univariate analysis using the lowest p-values and the highest HR as the main selection criteria. The multivariate analysis of the factors for OS showed that the cut-off point of 20% had the highest HR in all of the cases. However, the cutoff point of 20% was only a significant factor for OS in the Luminal/HER2- subtype. There was no correlation between the Ki-67 index value and OS in any of the other subtypes. These data indicate that the optimal cut-off point of 20% is the most effective prognostic factor for Luminal/HER2- breast cancer.

  11. Identification of petroleum hydrocarbons using a reduced number of PAHs selected by Procrustes rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Varela, R; Andrade, J M; Muniategui, S; Prada, D; Ramírez-Villalobos, F

    2010-04-01

    Identifying petroleum-related products released into the environment is a complex and difficult task. To achieve this, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of outstanding importance nowadays. Despite traditional quantitative fingerprinting uses straightforward univariate statistical analyses to differentiate among oils and to assess their sources, a multivariate strategy based on Procrustes rotation (PR) was applied in this paper. The aim of PR is to select a reduced subset of PAHs still capable of performing a satisfactory identification of petroleum-related hydrocarbons. PR selected two subsets of three (C(2)-naphthalene, C(2)-dibenzothiophene and C(2)-phenanthrene) and five (C(1)-decahidronaphthalene, naphthalene, C(2)-phenanthrene, C(3)-phenanthrene and C(2)-fluoranthene) PAHs for each of the two datasets studied here. The classification abilities of each subset of PAHs were tested using principal components analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and Kohonen neural networks and it was demonstrated that they unraveled the same patterns as the overall set of PAHs. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung KS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Soo Chung,1,2 Ji Ye Jung,1,2 Moo Suk Park,1,2 Young Sam Kim,1,2 Se Kyu Kim,1,2 Joon Chang,1,2 Joo Han Song1,2 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6 has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction.Materials and methods: We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal.Results: Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women, 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990. This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut-off

  13. A cautionary note about the cross-national and clinical validity of cut-off points for the Maslach Burnout Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufeli, W B; Van Dierendonck, D

    1995-06-01

    In the present study, burnout scores of three samples, as measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, were compared: (1) the normative American sample from the test-manual (N = 10,067), (2) the normative Dutch sample (N = 3,892), and (3) a Dutch outpatient sample (N = 142). Generally, the highest burnout scores were found for the outpatient sample, followed by the American and Dutch normative samples, respectively. Slightly different patterns were noted for each of the three components. Probably sampling bias, i.e., the healthy worker effect, or cultural value patterns, i.e., femininity versus masculinity, might be responsible for the results. It is concluded that extreme caution is required when cut-off points are used to classify individuals by burnout scores; only nation-specific and clinically derived cut-off points should be employed.

  14. Comparative study of food transfers in the three castes of the honeybee (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) in which four distal sections of both antennae have been cut off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1978-01-01

    The study of food transfers between the three castes of Apis mellifica ligustica S., in which four distal sections have been cut off, has been carried out by means of a radioactive tracer 198 Au, which cannot be metabolized. The begging behavior of queens with cut off antennae towards 4-day-old worker Bees and workers of unknown age is not changed. So it is with drones and operated worker Bees which beg food of a worker Bee, that is 4 days old and undamaged. On the other hand the begging behavior of drones and workers of unknown age is reduced towards other worker Bees of unknown age that are undamaged. The two-sided amputation of antennal sections of donor worker Bees of both categories does not change their behavior towards undamaged worker Bees [fr

  15. Human variation and body mass index: a review of the universality of BMI cut-offs, gender and urban-rural differences, and secular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie

    2007-03-01

    Use of BMI as a surrogate for body fat percentage is debatable and universal BMI cut-off points do not seem appropriate; lower cut-off points than currently recommended by WHO should be used in some populations, especially in Asia. The adult WHO BMI database indicates that, on average, women are more obese than men, while men are more likely to be pre-obese than women. Urban rates of overweight and obesity are generally higher than rural rates in both sexes. The trend in pre-obesity and obesity over time is generally upward, with very marked increases in the USA and UK in both sexes over the last 10 years.

  16. Waist circumference cut-off values to predict the incidence of hypertension: an estimation from a Brazilian population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus, M; Cichelero, F Tremea; Moreira, C Medaglia; Escobar, G Fortes; Moreira, L Beltrami; Wiehe, M; Fuchs, S Costa; Fuchs, F Danni

    2009-01-01

    Central obesity is a key component in the definition of the metabolic syndrome, but the cut-off values proposed to define abnormal values vary among different guidelines and are mostly based on cross-sectional studies. In this study, we identify the best cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) associated with the incidence of hypertension. Participants for this prospectively planned cohort study were 589 individuals who were free of hypertension and selected at random from the community of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Hypertension was defined by a blood pressure measurement >or= 140/90 mmHg or the use of blood pressure lowering drugs. A logistic regression model established the association between WC and the incidence of hypertension. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to select the best WC cut-off point to predict the incidence of hypertension. During a mean follow-up of 5.5+/-0.9 years, 127 subjects developed hypertension. The hazard ratios for the development of hypertension, adjusted for age, baseline systolic blood pressure, alcohol consumption, gender and scholarship were 1.02 (95% CI; 1.00-1.04; P=0.02) for WC. The best cut-off WC values to predict hypertension were 87 cm in men and 80 cm in women, with an area under the curve of 0.56 (95% CI; 0.47-0.64; P=0.17) and 0.70 (95% CI; 0.63-0.77; Phypertension in individuals living in communities in Brazil, and this risk begins at lower values of WC that those recommended by some guidelines.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin analysis in neuropediatric patients: establishment of a new cut off-value for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

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    Marta Molero-Luis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A high level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neopterin is a marker of central nervous system inflammatory-immune mediated processes. We aimed to assess data from 606 neuropediatric patients, describing the clinical and biochemical features of those neurological disorders presenting CSF neopterin values above a new cut-off value that was defined in our laboratory. METHODS: To establish the new CSF neopterin cut-off value, we studied two groups of patients: Group 1 comprised 68 patients with meningoencephalitis, and Group 2 comprised 52 children with a confirmed peripheral infection and no central nervous system involvement. We studied 606 CSF samples from neuropediatric patients who were classified into 3 groups: genetic diagnosis (A, acquired/unknown etiologic neurologic diseases (B and inflammatory-immune mediated processes (C. RESULTS: The CSF neopterin cut-off value was 61 nmol/L. Out of 606 cases, 56 presented a CSF neopterin level above this value. Group C had significantly higher CSF neopterin, protein and leukocyte values than the other groups. Sixteen of twenty-three patients in this group had a CSF neopterin level above the cut-off, whereas three and seven patients presented increased leukocyte and protein values, respectively. A significant association was found among CSF neopterin, proteins and leukocytes in the 606 patients. White matter disturbances were associated with high CSF neopterin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with inflammatory-immune mediated processes presented higher CSF neopterin values, patients with other neurological disorders also showed increased CSF neopterin concentrations. These results stress the importance of CSF neopterin analysis for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

  18. The Optimal Cut-Off Value of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio for Predicting Prognosis in Adult Patients with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hyuk; Han, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Eun, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Sohn, Joo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be a concern in the management of Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP). We aimed to evaluate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with the prognosis of adult patients with HSP. Methods Clinical data including the NLR of adult patients with HSP were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into three groups as follows: (a) simple recovery, (b) wax & wane without GI bleeding, and (c) development of GI bleeding. The optimal cut-off value was determined using a receiver operating characteristics curve and the Youden index. Results A total of 66 adult patients were enrolled. The NLR was higher in the GI bleeding group than in the simple recovery or wax & wane group (simple recovery vs. wax & wane vs. GI bleeding; median [IQR], 2.32 [1.61–3.11] vs. 3.18 [2.16–3.71] vs. 7.52 [4.91–10.23], P<0.001). For the purpose of predicting simple recovery, the optimal cut-off value of NLR was 3.18, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.1% and 75.0%, respectively. For predicting development of GI bleeding, the optimal cut-off value was 3.90 and the sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 88.6%, respectively. Conclusions The NLR is useful for predicting development of GI bleeding as well as simple recovery without symptom relapse. Two different cut-off values of NLR, 3.18 for predicting an easy recovery without symptom relapse and 3.90 for predicting GI bleeding can be used in adult patients with HSP. PMID:27073884

  19. A new method for detection of the electron temperature in laser-plasma short wave cut off of stimulated Raman scattering spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiatai

    1994-01-01

    From the theory of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) three wave interaction, a new method of detecting the electron temperature in laser-plasma is obtained. SRS spectrum obtained from Shenguang No. 12 Nd-laser experiments are analysed. Using the wave length of short wave cut off of SRS, the electron temperature in corona plasma region is calculated consistently. These results agree reasonable with X-ray spectrum experiments

  20. Determining the cut-off point of osteoporosis based on the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, body mass index and weight in Taiwanese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Fang; Yang, Rong Sen

    2014-09-01

    To examine the cut-off point of the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, age, weight and body mass index for osteoporosis among young adult Taiwanese women, using a large-scale health examination database containing bone mineral density tests. The cut-off points of osteoporosis risk factors identified earlier focus on menopausal or senior Caucasian and Asian women. However, young adult Asian women have seldom been identified. A retrospective historical cohort study. Using the 2009-2011 health examination database of a large-scale medical centre in northern Taiwan, this study investigated young adult Asian women (i.e. range in age from 30-49 years) in Taiwan who had received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test. This study also explored the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics of osteoporosis among young adult females in Taiwan. This study collected 2454 young adult Asian women in Taiwan. Cochran-Armitage analysis results indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with decreasing weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment method quartiles. According to the results of receiver operating characteristics, weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment tool approaches can generally be used as indicators to predict osteoporosis among young adult Asian women. Results of this study demonstrate that Taiwanese women contracting osteoporosis tend to be young and underweight, as well as having a low body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment scores. Those results further suggest that the assessment indicators for cut-off points are appropriately suitable for young adult women in Taiwan. Early detection is the only available means of preventing osteoporosis. Professional nurses should apply convenient and accurate assessment procedures to help young adult women to adopt preventive strategies against osteoporosis early, thus eliminating the probability of osteoporotic

  1. Development and validation of optimal cut-off value in inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference for prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Akira; Kusunose, Kenya; Kageyama, Norihito; Sumitomo, Masayuki; Abe, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Hiroyuki; Sata, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    An inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the optimal cut-off value of IAD as a predictor of major adverse cardiac events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. From 2009 to 2014, 1076 patients who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor were included in the analysis. We defined 700 randomly selected patients as a development cohort to confirm that IAD was the predictor of cardiovascular events and to determine optimal cut-off value of IAD. Next, we validated outcomes in the remaining 376 patients as a validation cohort. The blood pressure (BP) of both arms measurements were done simultaneously using the ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) form of automatic device. The primary endpoint was the cardiovascular event and secondary endpoint was the all-cause mortality. During a median period of 2.8 years, 143 patients reached the primary endpoint in the development cohort. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, IAD was the strong predictor of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.05, p=0.005). The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that 5mmHg was the optimal cut-off point of IAD to predict cardiovascular events (p<0.001). In the validation cohort, the presence of a large IAD (IAD ≥5mmHg) was significantly associated with the primary endpoint (p=0.021). IAD is significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. The optimal cut-off value of IAD is 5mmHg. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of individual patient response to chemotherapy by the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) using drug specific cut-off limits and a Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1993-01-01

    The semiautomated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein in microtiter plates, has been used for determination of cytotoxic drug resistance of tumor cells from patients with hematological and solid tumors. In the present study we describe a calibration procedure based on statistically derived cut-off limits and assay-predicted response probabilities using Bayes' theorem. Test results at a specified drug concentration were divided into three categories: low, intermediate or extreme drug resistance (LDR, IDR and EDR, respectively) using the median and median +1 standard deviation as the cut-off limits. When correlated with clinical outcome, LDR samples showed a higher response rate than expected, IDR a lower and EDR samples no response at all. The sensitivity and specificity of the test, using the median as cut-off limit, were 0.92 and 0.69 respectively. By fitting these test characteristics to a statistical model based on Bayes' theorem it is possible to calculate response probabilities for each individual patient taking into consideration not only the test characteristics and the particular assay result, but also the clinical and patient specific characteristics influencing the pre-test probability of response. EDR predicts clinical drug resistance with high specificity and is also observed in tumor types with high response rate.

  3. Evidence for a maximum mass cut-off in the neutron star mass distribution and constraints on the equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, Justin; Silva, Hector O.; Berti, Emanuele

    2018-04-01

    We infer the mass distribution of neutron stars in binary systems using a flexible Gaussian mixture model and use Bayesian model selection to explore evidence for multi-modality and a sharp cut-off in the mass distribution. We find overwhelming evidence for a bimodal distribution, in agreement with previous literature, and report for the first time positive evidence for a sharp cut-off at a maximum neutron star mass. We measure the maximum mass to be 2.0M⊙ sharp cut-off is interpreted as the maximum stable neutron star mass allowed by the equation of state of dense matter, our measurement puts constraints on the equation of state. For a set of realistic equations of state that support >2M⊙ neutron stars, our inference of mmax is able to distinguish between models at odds ratios of up to 12: 1, whilst under a flexible piecewise polytropic equation of state model our maximum mass measurement improves constraints on the pressure at 3 - 7 × the nuclear saturation density by ˜30 - 50% compared to simply requiring mmax > 2M⊙. We obtain a lower bound on the maximum sound speed attained inside the neutron star of c_s^max > 0.63c (99.8%), ruling out c_s^max c/√{3} at high significance. Our constraints on the maximum neutron star mass strengthen the case for neutron star-neutron star mergers as the primary source of short gamma-ray bursts.

  4. The cut-off values of dietary energy intake for determining metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients: A clinical cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuyen Van; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Peng, Sheng-Jeng; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Wang, Chi-Sin; Tseng, I-Hsin; Feng, Yi-Wei; Chang, Tai-Yue; Su, Chien-Tien

    2018-01-01

    Dietary energy intake strongly linked to dialysis outcomes. We aimed to explore the optimal cut-off point of energy intake (EI) for identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in hemodialysis patients. The cross-sectional data of 243 hemodialysis patients from multi-dialysis centers in Taiwan was used. The dietary intake was assessed by using the three-day dietary questionnaire, and a 24-hour dietary recall, clinical and biochemical data were also evaluated. The MetS was diagnosed by the Harmonized Metabolic Syndrome criteria. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was to depict the optimal cut-off value of EI for the diagnosis of MetS. The logistic regression was also used to explore the association between inadequate EI and MetS. The optimal cut-off points of EI for identifying the MetS were 26.7 kcal/kg/day for patients aged less than 60 years, or with non-diabetes, and 26.2 kcal/kg/day for patients aged 60 years and above, or with diabetes, respectively. The likelihood of the MetS increased with lower percentiles of energy intake in hemodialysis patients. In the multivariate analysis, the inadequate dietary energy intake strongly determined 3.24 folds of the MetS. The assessment of dietary EI can help healthcare providers detecting patients who are at risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:29538427

  5. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Marco; Massimiani, Maria Pia; Paravati, Stefano; Agosti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  6. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Franceschini

    Full Text Available Return to work (RTW for people with acquired brain injury (ABI represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS, which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM x 100. The cut-off value (criterion deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%. Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  7. Methods for identifying the cost effective case definition cut-off for sequential monitoring tests: an extension of Phelps and Mushlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberta; Baxter, Paul; Hall, Peter; Hewison, Jenny; Afshar, Mehran; Hall, Geoff; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of personalized medicine in the clinic means that treatment decisions will increasingly rely on test results. The challenge of limited health care resources means that the dissemination of these technologies will be dependent on their value in relation to their cost; i.e. their cost effectiveness. Phelps and Mushlin have described how to optimize tests to meet cost effectiveness target. However, when tests are applied repeatedly the case mix of the patients tested changes with each administration, and this impacts upon the value of each subsequent test administration. In this paper we present a modification of Phelps and Mushlin’s framework for diagnostic tests; to identify the cost effective cut-off for monitoring tests. Using the Ca125 test monitoring for relapse in Ovarian Cancer, we show how the repeated use of the initial cut-off can lead to a substantially increased false negative rate compared to the monitoring cut-off – over 20% higher than in this example – with the associated harms for individual and population health. PMID:24488576

  8. Prognostic impact of proliferation for resected early stage 'pure' invasive lobular breast cancer: Cut-off analysis of Ki67 according to histology and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Fabi, Alessandra; Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Kadrija, Dzenete; Griguolo, Gaia; Pilotto, Sara; Guarneri, Valentina; Zampiva, Ilaria; Brunelli, Matteo; Orvieto, Enrico; Nortilli, Rolando; Fiorio, Elena; Parolin, Veronica; Manfrin, Erminia; Caliò, Anna; Nisticò, Cecilia; Pellini, Francesca; Scarpa, Aldo; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Conte, Pierfranco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    The intent of this analysis was to investigate and validate the prognostic potential of Ki67 in a multi-center series of patients affected by early stage 'pure' invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Clinical-pathological data of patients affected by ILC were correlated with overall survival and disease-free survival (OS/DFS); data from a parallel invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients' cohort were gathered as well. The maximally selected Log-Rank statistics analysis was applied to Ki67 continuous variable to estimate the appropriate cut-off. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was performed as well. Data from overall 1097 (457/222 ILC: training/validation set; 418 IDC) patients were gathered. The identified optimal Ki67 cut-offs were 4% and 14% for DFS in ILC and IDC cohort, respectively. In ILC patients, the Ki67 cut-off was an independent OS predictor. Ten-years OS and DFS were 89.9% and 77.2% (p = 0.007) and 79.4% and 69.2% (p = 0.03) for patients with Ki67 ≤ 4% and >4%, respectively. In IDC patients, 10-years OS was 93.8% and 71.7%, p = 0.02, DFS was 84.0% and 52.6%, p = 0.0003, for patients with Ki67 ≤ 14% and >14%, respectively. In the validation set, the optimal Ki67 OS cut-off was 5%. The STEPP analysis showed that in the presence of low Ki67 values, IDC patients have a better DFS than ILC patients, while with the increase of values the prognosis tends to overlap. Despite the retrospective design of the study, the prognostic relevance of Ki67 (as well as its optimal cut-off) seems to significantly differ according to breast cancer histology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and Their Epidemiological Cut-Off Values Using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D; Smith, Peter; Rojas, Rodrigo; Contreras-Lynch, Sergio; Vega, J M Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (CO WT ) values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The CO WT values calculated by Normalized Resistance Interpretation (NRI) analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT) or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT). When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a CO WT of ≤0.125, ≤2, and ≤0.5 μg mL -1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol, and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the CO WT were ≤1, ≤0.5, and ≤0.125 μg mL -1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin, respectively. The disk diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disk data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39, and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41, and 44%, when disk data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disk data, respectively, were 24 and 10% for amoxicillin, 8 and 2% for florfenicol, and 70 and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disk diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies derived from the MIC data sets should be

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and their Epidemiological Cut-off Values using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (COWT values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The COWT values calculated by Normalised Resistance Interpretation (NRI analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT. When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a COWT of ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1, ≤ 2 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the COWT were ≤1 μg mL-1, ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin respectively. The disc diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disc data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39 and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41 and 44%, when disc data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disc data respectively, were 24% and 10% for amoxicillin, 8% and 2% for florfenicol and 70% and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disc diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies

  11. Therapeutic significance of a D-dimer cut-off level of >3 μg/ml in colorectal cancer patients treated with standard chemotherapy plus bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Satoshi; Yoshino, Takayuki; Kojima, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism has been reported to increase when receiving bevacizumab. Many cancer patients are reported to have elevated D-dimer levels. It is not clear what D-dimer level might indicate an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in the colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. The D-dimer levels and any event concurrent with an elevated D-dimer level were evaluated in patients receiving bevacizumab. The D-dimer cut-off level was determined using the receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The selection criteria were as follows: histologically proven metastatic and unresectable colorectal adenocarcinoma; no prior chemotherapy containing bevacizumab; D-dimer test performed repetitively on the baseline and during bevacizumab administration; no venous thromboembolism identified at the baseline; and enhanced computed tomographic scan performed every 2 months. Sixty-nine patients were included. The chemotherapy regimens with bevacizumab included the regimen of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), the regimen of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan (FOLFIRI), and leucovorin-modulated 5-fluorouracil. The median baseline D-dimer level was 1.2 μg/ml. The appropriate D-dimer cut-off level was 3 μg/ml with the negative predictive value of 98% and relative risk of 6.9. Twenty-one of 69 patients showed elevated D-dimer levels of >3 μg/ml, with 11 patients for unknown reasons, 6 with tumor progression, 3 with venous thromboembolism and 1 with sepsis. In the remaining 48 patients whose D-dimer levels were ≤3 μg/ml, only one patient developed a venous thromboembolism. A D-dimer cut-off level of 3 μg/ml might be a useful indicator level to exclude venous thromboembolism or show an increased risk for venous thromboembolism in colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. (author)

  12. Evaluation of serum galactomannan enzyme immunoassay at two different cut-offs for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritin Mohindra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive aspergillosis (IA is an increasingly common and fatal opportunistic fungal infection in patients with haematological diseases. Early diagnosis is difficult as mycological culture techniques have low sensitivity and the radiological tools have low specificity. Galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GEI detects galactomannan in the human serum with a reported sensitivity and specificity between 30% and 100%. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of GEI in diagnosis of IA in patients with febrile neutropenia and to evaluate the role of GEI in the diagnosis of IA as per the revised (2008 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer–Mycoses Study Group (EORTC–MSG criteria at two different optical density (OD cut-offs of 0.5 and 1.0. Setting: This prospective study was conducted in Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. Methods: GEI testing was performed in adult patients of febrile neutropenia with evidence of IA. Results at two different OD indices (ODIs of 0.5 and 1.0 were analysed. The evaluation of the diagnostic parameter, that is, GEI was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value and was validated with the revised (2008 EORTC–MSG diagnostic criteria of IA. Results: One hundred and eleven patients had evidence of IA, of which 79 patients were GEI positive when cut-off ODI was 0.5, whereas with cut-off ODI 1.0, 55 patients were GEI positive. Conclusion: ODI of 1.0 should be considered as positive while in patients with OD between 0.5 and 1.0, repeat sampling from the patient is recommended.

  13. Night-time heart rate cut-off point definition by resting office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients: data of the Spanish ABPM registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyoles, Ernest; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Roso, Albert; de la Cruz, Juan J; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ruilope, Luís M

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated resting heart rate (HR) is a risk factor for both total and cardiovascular mortality. Our aim was to estimate the night-time HR cut-off point that best predicts cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in hypertensive patients. Untreated hypertensive patients without concomitant cardiovascular diseases were included. Office and ambulatory HRs were measured. Cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was defined by office HR at least 85 beats per minute (bpm). Different night-time HR cut-offs were estimated by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to predict cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The best cut-off was selected on the basis of its combined sensitivity and specificity. A total of 32 569 hypertensive patients were included: 46.5% women, mean age (SD) 52 (14) years, office blood pressure 146 (16)/89 (11) mmHg, diabetes 10.3%, smoking 19.2%, BMI 29 (6.8) kg/m, office HR 77 (11.2) bpm, and night-time HR 64.9 (9.3) bpm. A total of 7070 (21.7%) patients were found to have cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The night-time HR value that better predicted cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was more than 66 bpm. In comparison with patients with night HR below this value, those with night-time tachycardia were predominantly women, younger, with higher ambulatory blood pressure, greater BMI, and higher prevalence of diabetes and smoking. All comparisons were statistically significant (P less than 0.001). A mean night-time HR more than 66 bpm is a good predictor of cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients and could be considered a variable associated with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  14. Power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify pulmonary hypertension patients according to European society of cardiology exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Michaela B; Garcia, Rodrigue; Christiaens, Luc; Larrieu-Ardilouze, Elisa; Howard, Luke S; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2018-04-15

    Right ventricular function is the major determinant of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The ESC risk assessment strategy for PAH is based on clinical status, exercise testing, NTproBNP, imaging and haemodynamics but does not include right ventricular function. Our aims were to test the power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify PAH patients according to ESC exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs and to determine if the classification power of echocardiographic parameters varied in chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We prospectively and consecutively recruited 46 PAH patients and 42 CTEPH patients referred for cardio-pulmonary exercise testing and comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography. Exercise testing parameters analyzed were peak oxygen consumption, percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and the slope of ventilation against carbon dioxide production. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal diagnostic cut-off values of echocardiographic parameters for classifying the patients in intermediate or high risk category according to exercise testing. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function were the best for classifying in PAH (area under the curve 0.815 to 0.935). Measurements of right ventricular pressure overload (0.810 to 0.909) were optimal for classifying according to exercise testing in CTEPH. Measurements of left ventricular function were of no use in either group. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function can classify according to exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs in PAH. However, this is not the case in CTEPH where pressure overload, rather than right ventricular function seems to be linked to exercise performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  16. Proposed cut-off value of CA19-9 for detecting pancreatic cancer in patients with diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Mariko; Nagai, Yoshio; Tenjin, Ayumi; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2018-04-11

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. CA19-9 is a well-known marker for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but the serum CA19-9 level is reported to be elevated in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. This study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off value of serum CA19-9 for detection of pancreatic cancer in patients with diabetes. A case-control study of 236 patients was performed. The case group was selected from diabetic patients with pancreatic cancer, while one control was selected for each case from among diabetic patients without pancreatic cancer during the same period. The case group (n = 118) and the control group (n = 118) were matched for age, sex, and pancreatic cancer risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to determine the serum CA19-9 level that predicted pancreatic cancer. Then the sensitivity and specificity of CA19-9 were calculated for the threshold value. There were no significant differences of age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, and HbA1c between the case and control groups. According to ROC analysis, a serum CA19-9 level of 75 U/mL had the maximum sensitivity and specificity for separating diabetic patients with or without pancreatic cancer. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity of CA19-9 for pancreatic cancer was 69.5% and 98.2%, respectively, while the area under the ROC curve was 0.875 [95%CI: 0.826-0.924]. We propose that a serum CA19-9 level of 75 U/mL should be used as the cut-off value when screening patients with diabetes for pancreatic cancer.

  17. Dental fear and caries in 6-12 year old children in Greece. Determination of dental fear cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, V; Arapostathis, K; Karagiannis, V; Kotsanos, N; van Loveren, C; Veerkamp, J

    2017-03-01

    To present: the normative data on dental fear and caries status; the dental fear cut-off points of young children in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study with two independent study groups. A first representative sample consisted of 1484 children from 15 primary public schools of Thessaloniki. A second sample consisted of 195 randomly selected age-matched children, all patients of the Postgraduate Paediatric Dental Clinic of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. First sample: In order to select data on dental fear and caries, dental examination took place in the classroom with disposable mirrors and a penlight. All the children completed the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS). Second sample: In order to define the cut-off points of the CFSS-DS, dental treatment of the 195 children was performed at the University Clinic. Children⁁s dental fear was assessed using the CFSS-DS and their behaviour during dental treatment was observed by one calibrated examiner using the Venham scale. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 20 at a statistical significance level of fear. Mean differences between boys and girls were not significant. Caries was not correlated with dental fear. Second sample: CFSS-DSfear', scores 33-37 as 'borderline' and scores > 37 as 'dental fear'. In the first sample, 84.6% of the children did not suffer from dental fear (CFSS-DSfear was correlated to age and not to caries and gender. The dental fear cut-off point for the CFSS-DS was estimated at 37 for 6-12 year old children (33-37 borderlines).

  18. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-González, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel; Quintela, Arturo González

    2013-10-16

    Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. It included 2459 adults (range 20-92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women.

  19. Understanding capacity fade in silicon based electrodes for lithium ion batteries using three electrode cells and upper cut-off voltage studies

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, Shane D.; Loveridge, Melanie; Lain, Michael J.; Ferraria, Stefania; Polzin, Bryant; Bhagat, Rohit; Dashwood, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Li-ion batteries are typically cycled between 3.0 and 4.2 V. These voltages limits are chosen based on the characteristics of the cathode (e.g. lithium cobalt oxide) and anode (e.g. graphite). When alternative anode/cathode chemistries are studied the same cut-off voltages are often, mistakenly, used. Silicon (Si) based anodes are widely studied as a high capacity alternative to graphite for Lithium-ion batteries. When silicon-based anodes are paired with high capacity cathodes (e....

  20. Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Delarocque, Julien; Schumacher, Svenja; Huber, Korinna; Feige, Karsten

    2018-01-19

    Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data visualization revealed no clear separation in the serum insulin concentration of insulin sensitive and insulin dysregulated horses during OGT. Therefore, a model based clustering method was used to circumvent the use of an arbitrary limit for categorization. This method considered all data-points for the classification, taking into account the individual insulin trajectory during the OGT. With this method two clusters were differentiated, one with low and one with high insulin responses during OGT. The cluster of individuals with low insulin response was consistently detected, independently of the initialization parameters of the algorithm. In this cluster the 97.5% quantile of insulin is 110 µLU/mL at 120 min. We suggest using this insulin concentration of 110 µLU/mL as a cut-off value for samples obtained at 120 min in OGT. OGT performed with 1 g/kg BW glucose and administration via naso-gastric tubing can easily be performed under clinical settings. Application of the cut-off value of 110 µLU/mL at 120 min allows assessment of ID in horses.

  1. Cut-off values for classifying active children and adolescents using the Physical Activity Questionnaire: PAQ-C and PAQ-A

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Sardinha, Luis B.; López-Fernández, Iván; Carnero, Elvis A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and adolescents (PAQ-C & PAQ-A) has been widely used in research and field settings. However, there is a lack of information about its final score meaning. Objective: To determine PAQ-C and PAQ-A score cut-off values using physical activity (PA) thresholds objectively measured as reference criteria. Methods: 146 children (n = 83 boys, n = 63 girls) and 234 adolescents (n = 115 boys, n = 119 girls) participated in this study. Accel...

  2. Determination of sensitivity, specificity and cut off point of visual- Motor Bender Gestalt Test in the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tayebeh Rezaie nasab

    2013-02-01

    Results: In this study, cut-off point was calculated as 6.5%, sensitivity as 55.8%, characteristic as 81.2%, and the area under the Roc curve as 0.69. Moreover, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency were 95.08%, 22.03%, and 59.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that Bender Gestalt Test is relatively weak in diagnosis of mild TBI. Hence, its characteristic is high and it was successful in diagnosing healthy individuals.

  3. Muscle function-dependent sarcopenia and cut-off values of possible predictors in community-dwelling Turkish elderly: calf circumference, midarm muscle circumference and walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, S; Mucuk, S; Öztürk, A; Mazıcıoğlu, M; Göçer, Ş; Arguvanlı, S; Şafak, E D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of muscle strength-based sarcopenia and to determine possible predictors. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in the community-dwelling Turkish elderly. Anthropometric measurements, namely body height, weight, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference (WC) and calf circumference (CC), were noted. The midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) was calculated by using MUAC and TSF measurement. Sarcopenia was assessed, adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and gender, according to muscle strength. Physical performance was determined by 4 m walking speed (WS; m/s). The receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine cut-offs of CC, MAMC and 4 m WS. A total of 879 elderly subjects, 50.1% of whom were female, were recruited. The mean handgrip strength (HGS) and s.d. was 24.2 (8.8) kg [17.9 (4.8) female, 30.6 (7.1) male]. The muscle function-dependent sarcopenia was 63.4% (female 73.5%, male 53.2%). The muscle mass-dependent sarcopenia for CC (sarcopenia. An adequate muscle mass may not mean a reliable muscle function. Muscle function may describe sarcopenia better compared with muscle mass. The CC, MAMC and 4 m WS cut-offs may be used to assess sarcopenia in certain age groups.

  4. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (psmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  5. Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment cut-off score to clarify improvement of mild cognitive impairment after exercise training in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Marina; Sugie, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Koyama, Teruyuki; Sengoku, Renpei; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Harada, Kazumasa; Kyo, Shunei; Ito, Hideki

    2018-02-02

    Physical exercise improves cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, information about whether the degree of MCI before exercise training affects improvement in cognitive function is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cut-off value in a MCI screening tool that predicts reversal to normal cognitive function after exercise training in older adults with MCI. Participants included 112 Japanese community-dwelling older adult outpatients (37 men, 75 women; mean age 76.3 years). We administered the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) before and after exercise training. MCI was defined as a MoCA-J score cognitive function. The MoCA-J cut-off score to predict cognitive function potentially reversible to normal was 23, with receiver operating characteristic analysis showing an area under the curve of 0.80, sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 69.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis to predict non-MCI after exercise training showed that MoCA-J score ≥23 (OR 6.9, P cognitive function that is potentially reversible to normal among community-dwelling Japanese older adults with MCI. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with respect to optimal cut-off value and tumor markers in advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi-Mouri, Yukako; Kousaka, Junko; Ando, Takahito; Tetsuka, Rie; Nakano, Shogo; Yoshida, Miwa; Fujii, Kimihito; Akizuki, Miwa; Imai, Tsuneo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Katsumasa

    2016-01-01

    Although carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) are useful tumor markers (TMs) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also detected in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed CTCs in MBC patients in order to establish the optimal cut-off value, to evaluate the prognostic utility of CTC count, and to clarify whether CTC count could provide information in addition to CEA and CA15-3. We studied 98 MBC patients enrolled between June 2007 and March 2013. To quantify CTCs, 7.5 ml of blood was collected and CEA and CA15-3 were measured simultaneously. CTCs were counted using the CellSearch™ System. The CTC count was dichotomized as 0 (CTC-negative) or ≥1 (CTC-positive). The clinical significance of CTCs was evaluated in terms of its relationship with levels of CEA and CA15-3. Associations between qualitative variables were evaluated using the chi-square test. In order to evaluate the predictive value of CTCs for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios. With a CTC cut-off value of 1, there were 53 (54.1 %) CTC-negative patients and 45 (45.9 %) CTC-positive patients. Patients in the CTC-positive group had worse survival than those in the CTC-negative group (p CEA and CA15-3.

  7. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal Cut-Off Points for the Short-Negative Act Questionnaire and Their Association with Depressive Symptoms and Diagnosis of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Høgh (Hogh), Annie; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    to depressive symptoms and diagnosis of depression. Methods The study was based on a sample of 4882 participants from the Danish MODENA cohort study (year 2011), which included both the S-NAQ (score range 9–45) and a one-item measure applying the self-labelling method with a definition to assess occasional...... its criterion validity in relation to depressive symptoms (N = 4071) and diagnosis of depression (N = 4844). Results The S-NAQ cut-off points obtained were ≥12 and ≥16 when using occasional and frequent bullying as reference standards, respectively. Both cut-off points showed high classification.......44–1.86) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, both the first (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.98–6.38) and the second threshold of exposure (OR = 5.90, 95% CI = 2.93–11.88) were significantly associated with diagnosis of depression. Conclusions...

  9. Understanding capacity fade in silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries using three electrode cells and upper cut-off voltage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Shane D.; Loveridge, M. J.; Lain, Michael J.; Ferrari, Stefania; Polzin, Bryant J.; Bhagat, Rohit; Dashwood, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Li-ion batteries are typically cycled between 3.0 and 4.2 V. These voltages limits are chosen based on the characteristics of the cathode (e.g. lithium cobalt oxide) and anode (e.g. graphite). When alternative anode/cathode chemistries are studied the same cut-off voltages are often, mistakenly, used. Silicon (Si) based anodes are widely studied as a high capacity alternative to graphite for Lithium-ion batteries. When silicon-based anodes are paired with high capacity cathodes (e.g. Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide; NCA) the cell typically suffers from rapid capacity fade. The purpose of this communication is to understand how the choice of upper cut-off voltage affects cell performance in Si/NCA cells. A careful study of three-electrode cell data will show that capacity fade in Si/NCA cells is due to an ever-evolving silicon voltage profile that pushes the upper voltage at the cathode to >4.4 V (vs. Li/Li+). This behaviour initially improves cycle efficiency, due to liberation of new lithium, but ultimately reduces cycling efficiency, resulting in rapid capacity fade.

  10. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Anne O.; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of rituximab and generally improved health among elderly patients have increased the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The International Prognostic Index (IPI) from 1992 is based on pre-rituximab data from clinical trials including several lymphoma ...... dehydrogenase (LDH), stage and albumin level, and (2) a separate age-adjusted DLBCL-PI for patients 1 extranodal lesion, however excluding stage....... subtypes. We applied IPI factors to a population-based rituximab-treated cohort of 1990 patients diagnosed 2000-2010 and explored new factors and the optimal prognostic age cut-off for DLBCL. Multivariate-analyses (MVA) confirmed the prognostic value of all IPI factors except the presence of > 1 extranodal...... lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate...

  11. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  12. Rocking at 81 and Rolling at 34: ROC Cut-Off Scores for the Negative Acts Questionnaire–Revised in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Ivana B.; Vukelić, Milica; Čizmić, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are still searching for the ways to identify different categories of employees according to their exposure to negative acts and psychological experience of workplace bullying. We followed Notelaers and Einarsen’s application of the ROC analysis to determine the NAQ-R cut-off scores applying a “lower” and “higher” threshold. The main goal of this research was to develop and test different gold standards of personal and organizational relevance in determining the NAQ-R cut-off scores in a specific cultural and economic context of Serbia. Apart from combining self-labeling as a victim with self-perceived health, the objectives were to test the gold standards developed as a combination of self-labeling with life satisfaction, self-labeling with intention to leave and a complex gold standard based on self-labeling, self-perceived health, life satisfaction and intention to leave taken together. The ROC analysis on Serbian workforce data supports applying of different gold standards. For identifying employees in a preliminary stage of bullying, the most applicable was the gold standard based on self-labeling and intention to leave (score 34 and higher). The most accurate identification of victims could be based on the most complex gold standard (score 81 and higher). This research encourages further investigation of gold standards in different cultures. PMID:28119652

  13. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation, M (median, and S (coefficient of variation tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years. Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001. The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  14. Serum cortisol concentration with exploratory cut-off values do not predict the effects of hydrocortisone administration in children with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, E J; Hogenbirk, Karin; Roest, Arno A W; van Brempt, Ronald; Hazekamp, Mark G; de Jonge, Evert

    2012-10-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome is common after paediatric cardiac surgery. Previous studies suggested that hydrocortisone administration may improve haemodynamic stability in case of resistant low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill children. This study was set up to test the hypothesis that the effects of hydrocortisone on haemodynamics in children with low cardiac output syndrome depend on the presence of (relative) adrenal insufficiency. A retrospective study was done on paediatric patients who received hydrocortisone when diagnosed with resistant low cardiac output syndrome after paediatric cardiac surgery in the period from 1 November 2005 to 31 December 2008. We studied the difference in effects of treatment with hydrocortisone administration between patients with adrenal insufficiency defined as an exploratory cut-off value of total cortisol of cortisol of ≥ 100 nmol/l. A total of 62 of patients were enrolled, meeting the inclusion criteria for low cardiac output syndrome. Thirty-two patients were assigned to Group 1 (cortisol concentration and those with normal baseline cortisol levels. A cortisol value using an exploratory cut-off value of 100 nmol/l for adrenal insufficiency should not be used as a criterion to treat these patients with hydrocortisone.

  15. Real-Time Monitoring of Results During First Year of Dutch Colorectal Cancer Screening Program and Optimization by Altering Fecal Immunochemical Test Cut-Off Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toes-Zoutendijk, Esther; van Leerdam, Monique E; Dekker, Evelien; van Hees, Frank; Penning, Corine; Nagtegaal, Iris; van der Meulen, Miriam P; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bonfrer, Johannes M G; Biermann, Katharina; Thomeer, Maarten G J; van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Kroep, Sonja; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Meijer, Gerrit A; de Koning, Harry J; Spaander, Manon C W; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-03-01

    After careful pilot studies and planning, the national screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC), with biennial fecal immunochemical tests (FITs), was initiated in The Netherlands in 2014. A national information system for real-time monitoring was developed to allow for timely evaluation. Data were collected from the first year of this screening program to determine the importance of planning and monitoring for optimal screening program performance. The national information system of the CRC screening program kept track of the number of invitations sent in 2014, FIT kits returned, and colonoscopies performed. Age-adjusted rates of participation, the number of positive test results, and positive predictive values (PPVs) for advanced neoplasia were determined weekly, quarterly, and yearly. In 2014, there were 741,914 persons invited for FIT; of these, 529,056 (71.3%; 95% CI, 71.2%-71.4%) participated. A few months into the program, real-time monitoring showed that rates of participation and positive test results (10.6%; 95% CI, 10.5%-10.8%) were higher than predicted and the PPV was lower (42.1%; 95% CI, 41.3%-42.9%) than predicted based on pilot studies. To reduce the burden of unnecessary colonoscopies and alleviate colonoscopy capacity, the cut-off level for a positive FIT result was increased from 15 to 47 μg Hb/g feces halfway through 2014. This adjustment decreased the percentage of positive test results to 6.7% (95% CI, 6.6%-6.8%) and increased the PPV to 49.1% (95% CI, 48.3%-49.9%). In total, the first year of the Dutch screening program resulted in the detection of 2483 cancers and 12,030 advanced adenomas. Close monitoring of the implementation of the Dutch national CRC screening program allowed for instant adjustment of the FIT cut-off levels to optimize program performance. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Best Cut-Off Value for HbA1c as a Screening Tool in Iranian Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Neda Mousavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a prevalent disorder which increases maternal and fetal complications. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT is a traditional, time -consuming and intensive test which is poorly tolerated by pregnant women. To date, increasing evidence considered HbA1c as a screening tool and reported various cut-off values in different populations. In alignment with existing literature, we determined for the first time, the optimal cut-off value for HbA1c in Iranian women with GDM.Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted in Valie-Asr hospital between June 2015 and March 2016. A total of 200 pregnant women who were diagnosed with GDM were selected as study cases. For the control group, 200 healthy women were randomly selected. Fasting blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis, and OGTT was done in all participants. Demographic and anthropometric indexes were measured. Performance of the HbA1c test was analyzed by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, and the sensitivity and specificity for different HbA1c cut-off points were calculated subsequently.Results: Analysis showed that the mean age (p < 0.001 and BMI (p < 0.001 were significantly higher in the GDM group compared to those in non-GDM pregnant women. GDM participants reported positive family- and previous history of GDM more than healthy pregnant women (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001, respectively. All the markers for Lipid profile were significantly different between the two groups (p = <0.001 except for total cholesterol. The rate of Caesarean section and neonate’s Apgar score were not significantly different between the two groups. The best equilibrium between sensitivity (80% and specificity (76% for HbA1c was 5.05%.Conclusion: Our results suggest that pregnant women with HbA1c of ≥ 5.05% should proceed with an OGTT. Further investigations with larger sample size are needed to provide more robust evidence for the

  17. Highly scalable 3-D NAND-NOR hybrid-type dual bit per cell flash memory devices with an additional cut-off gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongjae; Shim, Wonbo; Park, Ilhan; Kim, Yoon; Park, Byunggook

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a nonvolatile memory (NVM) device of novel structure in 3 dimensions is introduced, and its operation physics is validated. It is based on a pillar structure in which two identical storage nodes are located for dual-bit operation. The two storage nodes on neighboring pillars are controlled by using one common control gate so that the space between silicon pillars can be further reduced. For compatibility with conventional memory operations, an additional cut-off gate is constructed under the common control gate. This is considered as the ultimate form for a 3-D nonvolatile memory device based on a double-gate structure. The underlying physics is explained, and the operational schemes are validated in various aspects by using a numerical device simulation. Also, critical issues in device design for higher reliability are discussed.

  18. BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus a native Swedish population - the MEDIM population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Stenkula, Karin; Cushman, Samuel W; Brismar, Kerstin

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to identify corresponding body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference cut-offs for equivalent levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant population compared with native Swedes. Citizens of Malmö, Sweden aged 30 to 75 years, who were born in Iraq or Sweden, were in 2010-2012 invited to participate in a health examination including anthropometrics, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting samples and interviews concerning sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviours. In total, 1176 individuals born in Iraq and 688 born in Sweden, without previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes, participated in the study. In normal weight participants (BMI Middle Eastern populations.

  19. The optimum cut-off value to differentiate Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from other species of E. granulosus sensu lato using larval rostellar hook morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L A; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Debiaggi, M F; Bergagna, H F J; Basualdo, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 μm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.

  20. EARLY APPLICATION OF HIGH CUT-OFF HAEMODYALISIS FOR DE-NOVO MYELOMA NEPHROPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM DIALYSIS-INDEPENDENCY AND RENAL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a haematological malignancy associated with kidney injury resulting from cast nephropathy, which can be caused by monoclonal free light chains (FLC. It has been demonstrated that reduction of FLC can lead to a higher proportion of patients recovering renal function with a better outcome, especially if extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD combined with chemotherapy is used. Patients and Methods In this study, four cases of MM nephropathy were treated with HCO-HD and chemotherapy at a single institution during the period from August 2009 to August 2011. All of the patients presented with acute renal failure and high serum FLC. All patients underwent a bone marrow biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of MM, according to the WHO criteria. Three patients had de-novo MM and one patient had relapsed light chain myeloma disease. All patients underwent HCO-HD concomitantly with specific myeloma therapy once the diagnosis or relapse of MM was established. Results After a median follow up of 26 months, (range, 13-36 our data showed that all patients had a significant decrease in serum FLC through HCO-HD, proving the effectiveness of HCO-HD in managing MM. De-novo MM patients restored their renal function and achieved low-level FLC early on the treatment and become dialysis-independent. One patient with relapsed myeloma remained dialysis dependant. Conclusion Our study suggests that if myeloma nephropathy associated with light-chain disease, HCO-HD should be initiated as early as possible. At the same time a specific MM treatment should be initiated to gain control of the disease and salvage the kidneys in order to achieve dialysis-independency. Further trials to confirm our results are warranted. Key Words: Multiple myeloma, renal failure, High cut-off haemodialysis, chemotherapy, outcome.

  1. Determination of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain on the numeric rating scale: a cut-off point analysis applying four different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbershagen, H J; Rothaug, J; Kalkman, C J; Meissner, W

    2011-10-01

    Cut-off points (CPs) of the numeric rating scale (NRS 0-10) are regularly used in postoperative pain treatment. However, there is insufficient evidence to identify the optimal CP between mild and moderate pain. A total of 435 patients undergoing general, trauma, or oral and maxillofacial surgery were studied. To determine the optimal CP for pain treatment, four approaches were used: first, patients estimated their tolerable postoperative pain intensity before operation; secondly, 24 h after surgery, they indicated if they would have preferred to receive more analgesics; thirdly, satisfaction with pain treatment was analysed, and fourthly, multivariate analysis was used to calculate the optimal CP for pain intensities in relation to pain-related interference with movement, breathing, sleep, and mood. The estimated tolerable postoperative pain before operation was median (range) NRS 4.0 (0-10). Patients who would have liked more analgesics reported significantly higher average pain since surgery [median NRS 5.0 (0-9)] compared with those without this request [NRS 3.0 (0-8)]. Patients satisfied with pain treatment reported an average pain intensity of median NRS 3.0 (0-8) compared with less satisfied patients with NRS 5.0 (2-9). Analysis of average postoperative pain in relation to pain-related interference with mood and activity indicated pain categories of NRS 0-2, mild; 3-4, moderate; and 5-10, severe pain. Three of the four methods identified a treatment threshold of average pain of NRS≥4. This was considered to identify patients with pain of moderate-to-severe intensity. This cut-off was indentified as the tolerable pain threshold.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure decreased sperm mitochondrial DNA copy number: A cross-sectional study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Zhang, Guowei; Sun, Lei; Wang, Zhi; Zou, Peng; Gao, Jianfang; Peng, Kaige; Chen, Qing; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Ziyuan; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia; Ao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that have adverse effects on the male reproductive function. Many studies have confirmed that PAHs preferentially accumulate in mitochondria DNA relative to nuclear DNA and disrupt mitochondrial functions. However, it is rare whether exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in sperm. To evaluate the effects of PAHs on sperm mitochondria, we measured mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and mtDNA integrity in 666 individuals from the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College Students (MARHCS) study. PAHs exposure was estimated by measuring eight urinary PAH metabolites (1-OHNap, 2-OHNap, 1-OHPhe, 2-OHPhe, 3-OHPhe, 4-OHPhe, 2-OHFlu and 1-OHPyr). The subjects were divided into low, median and high exposure groups using the tertile levels of urinary PAH metabolites. In univariate analyses, the results showed that increased levels of 2-OHPhe, 3-OHPhe, ∑Phe metabolites and 2-OHFlu were found to be associated with decreased sperm mtDNAcn. After adjusting for potential confounders, significantly negative associations of these metabolites remained (p = 0.039, 0.012, 0.01, 0.035, respectively). Each 1 μg/g creatinine increase in 2-OHPhe, 3-OHPhe, ∑Phe metabolites and 2-OHFlu was associated with a decrease in sperm mtDNAcn of 9.427%, 11.488%, 9.635% and 11.692%, respectively. There were no significant associations between urinary PAH metabolites and sperm MMP or mtDNA integrity. The results indicated that the low exposure levels of PAHs can cause abnormities in sperm mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M; Stewart, Roy E; Köke, Albère J A; Oosterwijk, René F A; Swaan, Jeannette L; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the variability of the optimal cut-off points, and to determine the influence of patients' catastrophizing and their sex on these cut-off points. Methods: 2854 patients were included. Pain was assessed by the NRS, functioning by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and catastrophizing by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Cut-off point schemes were tested using ANOVAs with and without using the PSC scores or sex as co-variates and with the interaction between CP scheme and PCS score and sex, respectively. The variability of the optimal cut-off point schemes was quantified using bootstrapping procedure. Results and conclusion: The study showed that NRS scores ≤ 5 correspond to mild, scores of 6-7 to moderate and scores ≥8 to severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning. Bootstrapping analysis identified this optimal NRS cut-off point scheme in 90% of the bootstrapping samples. The interpretation of the NRS is independent of sex, but seems to depend on catastrophizing. In patients with high catastrophizing tendency, the optimal cut-off point scheme equals that for the total study sample, but in patients with a low catastrophizing tendency, NRS scores ≤ 3 correspond to mild, scores of 4-6 to moderate and scores ≥7 to severe pain in terms of interference with functioning. In these optimal cut-off schemes, NRS scores of 4 and 5 correspond to moderate interference with functioning for patients with low catastrophizing tendency and to mild interference for patients with high catastrophizing tendency. Theoretically one would therefore expect that among the patients with NRS scores 4 and 5 there would be a higher average PDI score for those with low

  4. CutL: an alternative to Kulldorff's scan statistics for cluster detection with a specified cut-off level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więckowska, Barbara; Marcinkowska, Justyna

    2017-11-06

    When searching for epidemiological clusters, an important tool can be to carry out one's own research with the incidence rate from the literature as the reference level. Values exceeding this level may indicate the presence of a cluster in that location. This paper presents a method of searching for clusters that have significantly higher incidence rates than those specified by the investigator. The proposed method uses the classic binomial exact test for one proportion and an algorithm that joins areas with potential clusters while reducing the number of multiple comparisons needed. The sensitivity and specificity are preserved by this new method, while avoiding the Monte Carlo approach and still delivering results comparable to the commonly used Kulldorff's scan statistics and other similar methods of localising clusters. A strong contributing factor afforded by the statistical software that makes this possible is that it allows analysis and presentation of the results cartographically.

  5. Total motile sperm count has a superior predictive value over the WHO 2010 cut-off values for the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, E; Setti, A S; Braga, D P A F; Figueira, R C S; Iaconelli, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare (i) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes among groups with different total motile sperm count ranges, (ii) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes between groups with normal and abnormal total motile sperm count, and (iii) the predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and pre-wash total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes, in couples with male infertility. This study included data from 518 patients undergoing their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle as a result of male infertility. Couples were divided into five groups according to their total motile sperm count: Group I, total motile sperm count sperm count 1-5 × 10(6) ; group III, total motile sperm count 5-10 × 10(6) ; group IV, total motile sperm count 10-20 × 10(6) ; and group V, total motile sperm count >20 × 10(6) (which was considered a normal total motile sperm count value). Then, couples were grouped into an abnormal and normal total motile sperm count group. The groups were compared regarding intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes. The predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes were also investigated. The fertilization rate was lower in total motile sperm count group I compared to total motile sperm count group V (72.5 ± 17.6 vs. 84.9 ± 14.4, p = 0.011). The normal total motile sperm count group had a higher fertilization rate (84.9 ± 14.4 vs. 81.1 ± 15.8, p = 0.016) and lower miscarriage rate (17.9% vs. 29.5%, p = 0.041) compared to the abnormal total motile sperm count group. The total motile sperm count was the only parameter that demonstrated a predictive value for the formation of high-quality embryos on D2 (OR: 1.18, p = 0.013), formation of high-quality embryos on D3 (OR: 1.12, p = 0.037), formation of blastocysts on D5 (OR: 1.16, p = 0.011), blastocyst expansion grade on D5

  6. Predicting the environmental fate properties of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisigan, R.A. Jr.; Tucker, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental fate and transport of petroleum products for risk assessment can be evaluated based on the physico-chemical properties of an indicator chemical or a surrogate compound, or the whole mixture. A study was conducted to develop a simple representation of the hydrocarbon mixture as if it contained only few constituents, each of which represents a large number of compounds. The products considered are gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel (JP4). Each petroleum hydrocarbon was characterized as a mixture of six constituents: short chain alkanes, long chain alkanes, short chain cycloalkanes and alkenes, long chain cycloalkanes and alkenes, BTEX, and other aromatics. The carbon number used as a cut-off between short and long chain alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkanes varies with the type of product. Each mixture has different average molecular weight, water solubility, vapor pressure, organic carbon partition coefficient, and air diffusivity. The properties of each constituent of gasoline were derived from the weighted average of all compounds belonging to each constituent group. For diesel fuel and JP4, the properties of each constituent were generated from the properties of the component most representative of the group. Any property that is missing or not available from common literature sources was derived from regression equations developed from the data base for gasoline. These regression equations express the property as function of the number of carbon atoms. The R 2 values of the regression equations range from 0.82--0.92. Some case studies involving petroleum product contamination in which the estimated properties were applied are presented

  7. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.M.; Stewart, R.; Koke, A.J.A.; Oosterwijk, R.F.A.; Swaan, J.L.; Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis; Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the

  8. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain : Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Anne M; Stewart, Roy E; Köke, Albère J A; Oosterwijk, René F A; Swaan, Jeannette L; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the

  9. Removal of methadone by extended dialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer: implications for the treatment of overdose and for pain management in patients undergoing light chain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelin, Viktor; Schmidt, Julius J; Kayser, Nathalie; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Suhling, Hendrik; Eden, Gabriele; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31.5 mL/min) and reduction ratio (38%) were higher than previously reported for standard hemodialysis, the total amount of methadone in the spent dialysate after 1 extended dialysis session was quite low. Hence, even extended dialysis with a high cut-off membrane does not seem to offer a clinically relevant benefit in the setting of overdose for enhanced methadone removal. On the other hand, in patients undergoing high cut-off dialysis for the removal of light chains, methadone could still be used as an analgesic without an additional dose after high cut-off hemodialysis.

  10. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Ashraf, Haleh; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Zandieh, Ali; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Rashidi, Armin; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Asgari, Fereshteh

    2010-04-07

    We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve. The area under the curve (AUC) (95%CI) was 0.650 (0.631-0.670) for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703) with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF). The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6%) and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0%) for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively. We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.

  11. Suppressed oxygen extraction and degradation of LiNixMnyCozO2 cathodes at high charge cut-off voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiandong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Polzin, Bryant J.; Trask, Steve; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2017-09-01

    The capacity degradation mechanism in lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes (LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC333) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442)) during high-voltage (cut-off of 4.8 V) operation has been investigated. In contrast to NMC442, NMC333 exhibits rapid structural changes including severe micro-crack formation and phase transformation from a layered to a disordered rock-salt structure, as well as interfacial degradation during high-voltage cycling, leading to a rapid increase of the electrode resistance and fast capacity decline. The fundamental reason behind the poor structural and interfacial stability of NMC333 was found to be correlated to its high Co content and the significant overlap between the Co3+/4+ t(2g) and O2- 2p bands, resulting in oxygen removal and consequent structural changes at high voltages. In addition, oxidation of the electrolyte solvents by the extracted oxygen species generates acidic species, which then attack the electrode surface and form highly resistive LiF. These findings highlight that both the structural and interfacial stability should be taken into account when tailoring cathode materials for high voltage battery systems

  12. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  13. A cut-off in ocular chemesthesis from vapors of homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones as revealed by concentration-detection functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Abraham, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of homologous series of environmental vapors have shown that their chemesthetic (i.e., sensory irritation) potency increases with carbon chain length (that is, their detection thresholds decrease) until they reach a homolog that fails to be detected, even at vapor saturation. All ensuing homologs cannot be detected either. In this investigation, we measured concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric) functions for ocular chemesthesis from homologous alkylbenzenes (pentyl, hexyl, and heptyl benzene) and 2-ketones (undecanone, dodecanone, and tridecanone). Using a three-alternative forced-choice procedure against air blanks, we tested a total of 18 to 24 subjects, about half of them females, average age 31 years, ranging from 18 to 56 years. Stimuli were generated and presented by a computer-controlled, vapor delivery device whose output was quantified by gas chromatography. Exposure time was 6 s and delivery flow 2.5 L/min. Within the context of present and previous findings, the outcome indicated that the functions for heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone reached a plateau where further increases in concentration did not enhance detection. We conclude that: a) a cut-off point in ocular chemesthetic detection is reached along homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones at the level of heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone, respectively, and b) the observed effect rests on the homologs exceeding a critical molecular size (or dimension) rather than on them failing to achieve a high enough vapor concentration

  14. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin production. Limited control of the diseases is provided by seed pre-sowing with certain fungicides such as benlate. Soil fumigation with methyle bromide can provide a control measure against the disease but may be limited application value for large scale production systems in the open field. In addition, methyle bromide is considered an ozone-depleting compound and has potential risk on the living environment and human health. Considering the environmental limitations of chemical fungicides, it seems appropriate to search for a supplemental control strategy .It was demonstrated that peak of the diseases incidence is occurred at flowering stage and irrigation cut-off in this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation (complete irrigation and cut-off the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine (0, 1 and 2 Mm as subplot and cumin ecotypes (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plots size under the trial was 4 m×3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant.m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation

  15. The Einsteinian T(3)-gauge approach and the stress tensor of the screw dislocation in the second order: avoiding the cut-off at the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, C

    2007-01-01

    A translational gauge approach of the Einstein type is proposed for obtaining the stresses that are due to non-singular screw dislocation. The stress distribution of the second order around the screw dislocation is classically known for the hollow circular cylinder with traction-free external and internal boundaries. The inner boundary surrounds the dislocation's core, which is not captured by the conventional solution. The present gauge approach enables us to continue the classically known quadratic stresses inside the core. The gauge equation is chosen in the Hilbert-Einstein form, and it plays the role of non-conventional incompatibility law. The stress function method is used, and it leads to the modified stress potential given by two constituents: the conventional one, say, the 'background' and a short-ranged gauge contribution. The latter just causes additional stresses, which are localized. The asymptotic properties of the resulting stresses are studied. Since the gauge contributions are short-ranged, the background stress field dominates sufficiently far from the core. The outer cylinder's boundary is traction-free. At sufficiently moderate distances, the second-order stresses acquire regular continuation within the core region, and the cut-off at the core does not occur. Expressions for the asymptotically far stresses provide self-consistently new length scales dependent on the elastic parameters. These lengths could characterize an exteriority of the dislocation core region

  16. An algorithm developed in Matlab for the automatic selection of cut-off frequencies, in the correction of strong motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Georgios; Sakellariou, Nikolaos

    2018-05-01

    Strong motion recordings are the key in many earthquake engineering applications and are also fundamental for seismic design. The present study focuses on the automated correction of accelerograms, analog and digital. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is the automatic selection for the cut-off frequencies based on a minimum spectral value in a predefined frequency bandwidth, instead of the typical signal-to-noise approach. The algorithm follows the basic steps of the correction procedure (instrument correction, baseline correction and appropriate filtering). Besides the corrected time histories, Peak Ground Acceleration, Peak Ground Velocity, Peak Ground Displacement values and the corrected Fourier Spectra are also calculated as well as the response spectra. The algorithm is written in Matlab environment, is fast enough and can be used for batch processing or in real-time applications. In addition, the possibility to also perform a signal-to-noise ratio is added as well as to perform causal or acausal filtering. The algorithm has been tested in six significant earthquakes (Kozani-Grevena 1995, Aigio 1995, Athens 1999, Lefkada 2003 and Kefalonia 2014) of the Greek territory with analog and digital accelerograms.

  17. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) score and definition of cut-off points for disease activity states in a population-based European cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; Di Carlo, Marco; Vojinovic, Jelena; Tincani, Angela; Sulli, Alberto; Soldano, Stefano; Andreoli, Laura; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Simić Pašalić, Katarina; Balčune, Ineta; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Butrimienė, Irena; Punceviciene, Egle; Toroptsova, Natalia; Grazio, Simeon; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Masaryk, Pavol; Otsa, Kati; Bernardes, Miguel; Boyadzhieva, Vladimira; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-05-24

    To assess the validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) for measuring disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine cut-off values for defining the disease activity states. A total of 622 RA patients from an European database have been included. Cross-validation was based on assessment of convergent and discriminant validity. Optimal cut-offs were determined against external criteria by calculating the respective 25th and 75th percentiles mean values of RAID. External criteria included definitions for remission (REM), low disease activity (LDA), moderate disease activity (MDA) and high disease activity (HDA), cut-offs of the 28-joint disease activity score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) score. The RAID showed a moderate degree of correlation with respect to DAS28-CRP (rho=0.417; Pdisease was very good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.847 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.816 to 0.878; Pdisease activity groups, we propose the following cut-off values for REM: RAID ≤3; for LDA: RAID >3 and ≤4; for MDA: RAID >4 and ≤6; for HDA: RAID >6. Mean RAID differed significantly between patients classified as REM, LDA, MDA or HDA (P=0.001). The cut-offs revealed good measurement characteristics in cross-validation analysis, had great discriminatory performance in distinguishing patients with different levels of disease activity and are suited for widespread use in everyday practice application and research. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Rationalization and Prediction of the Equivalent Alkane Carbon Number (EACN) of Polar Hydrocarbon Oils with COSMO-RS σ-Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowicz, Thomas; Benazzouz, Adrien; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-20

    The equivalent alkane carbon numbers (EACNs) of 20 polar hydrocarbon oils are determined by the fishtail method. These values supplemented by 43 already reported EACNs of other hydrocarbons are rationalized by using the COSMO-RS σ-moments as descriptors for a QSPR analysis. A reliable model, with only two meaningful physicochemical parameters, namely the surface area (M0(X)) and the overall polarity (M2(X)) of the oil X, is able to predict the EACN values of a large variety of oils including (cyclo)alkanes, (cyclo)alkenes, terpenes, aromatics, alkynes, and chloroalkanes and to rationalize structural effects on EACNs. Furthermore, the dependence of the EACN of homologous oils on the chain length provides some molecular insight into how the different oils penetrate into the interfacial film of surfactants.

  20. Grid cut-off-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.

    1992-01-01

    Tilting of a grid during portable radiography leads to uneven exposures, and errors greater than 3 0 can lead to errors in interpretation. Differentiation from abnormal findings can be made by recognising exposure difference of extrathoracic comparable areas. The difficulties caused by tilting of the grid can be reduced by increasing the film focus distance and by using suitable grids. A new cassette holder with an integrated balance makes it possible to correct tilting of the grid rapidly and effectively. This results in improved image quality which can be applied not only to conventional exposure systems but is also of advantage when using digital methods. (orig.) [de

  1. Impact of High-Cut-Off Dialysis on Renal Recovery in Dialysis-Dependent Multiple Myeloma Patients: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans U Gerth

    Full Text Available High-cut-off hemodialysis (HCO-HD can effectively reduce high concentrations of circulating serum free light chains (sFLC in patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI due to multiple myeloma (MM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze renal recovery in a retrospective single-center cohort of dialysis-dependent MM patients treated with either conventional HD (conv. HD or HCO-HD.The final cohort consisted of 59 patients treated with HCO-HD (n = 42 or conv. HD (n = 17. A sustained sFLC response was detected in a significantly higher proportion of HCO-HD patients (83.3% compared with conv. HD patients (29.4%; p = 0.007. The median duration of sFLC required to reach values <1000 mg/l was 14.5 days in the HCO-HD group and 36 days in the conv. HD group. The corresponding rates of renal recovery were 64.3% and 29.4%, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.014. Multivariate regression and decision tree analysis (recursive partitioning revealed HCO-HD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.1 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-24.5], p = 0.011 and low initial uric acid values (adjusted OR 1.3 [95%CI 1.0-1.7], p = 0.045 as independent and paramount variables associated with a favorable renal outcome.In summary, the results from this retrospective case-control study suggest in addition to novel agent-based chemotherapy a benefit of HCO-HD in sFLC removal and renal outcome in dialysis-dependent AKI secondary to MM. This finding was especially pertinent in patients with low initial uric acid values, resulting in a promising renal recovery rate of 71.9%. Further prospective studies are warranted.

  2. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  3. Accuracy of the WHO’s body mass index cut-off points to measure gender- and age-specific obesity in middle-aged adults living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollner Materko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO as a disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat. Obesity is considered a public health problem, leading to serious social, psychological and physical problems. However, the appropriate cut-off point of body mass index (BMI based on body fat percentage (BF% for classifying an individual as obese in middle-aged adults living in Rio de Janeiro remains unclear. Materials and methods. This was a prospective cross-sectional study comprising of 856 adults (413 men and 443 women living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ranging from 30-59 years of age. The data were collected over a two year period (2010-2011, and all participants were underwent anthropometric evaluation. The gold standard was the percentage of body fat estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The optimal sensitivity and specificity were attained by adjusting BMI cut-off values to predict obesity based on the WHO criteria: BF% >25% in men and >35% in women, according to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis adjusted for age and for the whole group.Results. The BMI cut-offs for predicting BF% were 29.9 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 kg/m2 in women. Conclusions. The BMI that corresponded to a BF% previously defining obesity was similar to that of other Western populations for men but not for women. Furthermore, gender and age specific cut-off values are recommended in this population.

  4. Modified Cut-Off Value of the Urine Protein-To-Creatinine Ratio Is Helpful for Identifying Patients at High Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease: Validation of the Revised Japanese Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Shindoh, Chiyohiko; Takeda, Kyoko; Monden, Masami; Izumo, Hiroko; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yutaro; Niwa, Koichiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health issue, and strategies for its early detection and intervention are imperative. The latest Japanese CKD guideline recommends that patients without diabetes should be classified using the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) instead of the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR); however, no validation studies are available. This study aimed to validate the PCR-based CKD risk classification compared with the ACR-based classification and to explore more accurate classification methods. We analyzed two previously reported datasets that included diabetic and/or cardiovascular patients who were classified into early CKD stages. In total, 860 patients (131 diabetic patients and 729 cardiovascular patients, including 193 diabetic patients) were enrolled. We assessed the CKD risk classification of each patient according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate and the ACR-based or PCR-based classification. The use of the cut-off value recommended in the current guideline (PCR 0.15 g/g creatinine) resulted in risk misclassification rates of 26.0% and 16.6% for the two datasets. The misclassification was primarily caused by underestimation. Moderate to substantial agreement between each classification was achieved: Cohen's kappa, 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.69) and 0.72 (0.67-0.76) in each dataset, respectively. To improve the accuracy, we tested various candidate PCR cut-off values, showing that a PCR cut-off value of 0.08-0.10 g/g creatinine resulted in improvement in the misclassification rates and kappa values. Modification of the PCR cut-off value would improve its efficacy to identify high-risk populations who will benefit from early intervention.

  5. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Shih, A Z L; Woo, Y C; Fong, C H Y; Leung, O Y; Janus, E; Cheung, B M Y; Lam, K S L

    The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25-74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995-1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010-2012) after 15 years of follow-up. At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713-0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777-0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance.

  6. Direct numerical simulations of temporally developing hydrocarbon shear flames at elevated pressure: effects of the equation of state and the unity Lewis number assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, Ayse; Miller, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of temporally developing shear flames are used to investigate both equation of state (EOS) and unity-Lewis (Le) number assumption effects in hydrocarbon flames at elevated pressure. A reduced Kerosene / Air mechanism including a semi-global soot formation/oxidation model is used to study soot formation/oxidation processes in a temporarlly developing hydrocarbon shear flame operating at both atmospheric and elevated pressures for the cubic Peng-Robinson real fluid EOS. Results are compared to simulations using the ideal gas law (IGL). The results show that while the unity-Le number assumption with the IGL EOS under-predicts the flame temperature for all pressures, with the real fluid EOS it under-predicts the flame temperature for 1 and 35 atm and over-predicts the rest. The soot mass fraction, Ys, is only under-predicted for the 1 atm flame for both IGL and real gas fluid EOS models. While Ys is over-predicted for elevated pressures with IGL EOS, for the real gas EOS Ys's predictions are similar to results using a non-unity Le model derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and real diffusivities. Adopting the unity Le assumption is shown to cause misprediction of Ys, the flame temperature, and the mass fractions of CO, H and OH.

  7. The global environmental implication of new hydrocarbon developments : number 7 of a series of papers on energy and the offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1998-01-01

    The environmental cost of producing and using oil and gas, and the direct impacts of offshore hydrocarbon exploration and production are described. Forecasts for global energy demand and production, and some of the global problems associated with energy development including climate change, sulphur dioxide emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxides (N 2 O) are also reviewed. In 1995, 90 per cent of Canada's CO 2 emissions came from the energy sector, as did 35 per cent of total CH 4 . Efforts which have been made internationally to combat global climate change, such as the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro which endorsed the Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol where Canada committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted. The paper also addresses Nova Scotia's role in reducing greenhouse gases. Thus we learn of the province's current annual emissions of 18.8 million tonnes (slightly below 1990 levels), the traditional reliance on coal and imported coal to generate electricity, and the drastic reduction in the province's overall emission of greenhouse gases expected when natural gas becomes available from the offshore. 14 refs

  8. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS for DM in Japanese. Methods Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20–69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980, were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. Results During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3–4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7–9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Conclusion Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  9. Optimal body fat percentage cut-off values for identifying cardiovascular risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlong; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Li, Guoju; Pan, Li; Zhu, Guangjin; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-04-17

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat percentage (BF%) for the detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults. This cross-sectional study involving 3221 Chinese adults (2308 Han and 913 Mongolian) aged 20-80 years was conducted in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, in 2014. Data from a standardised questionnaire, physical examination and blood sample were obtained. The BF% was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Optimal BF% cut-offs were analysed by receiver operating characteristic curves to predict the risk of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the OR of each CVD risk factor according to obesity defined by BF%. Mean BF% levels were lower in men than in women (22.54±5.77 vs 32.95±6.18 in Han, 23.86±5.72 vs 33.98±6.40 in Mongolian population, respectively; ppopulation, the area under curve (AUC) values for BF% ranged from 0.589 to 0.699 for men and from 0.711 to 0.763 for women. Compared with men, AUCs for diabetes and clustering of ≥2 risk factors in women were significantly higher (ppopulation. In Han adults, the optimal BF% cut-off values to detect CVD risk factors varied from 18.7% to 24.2% in men and 32.7% to 35.4% in women. In Mongolian population, the optimal cut-off values of BF% for men and women ranged from 21.0% to 24.6% and from 35.7% to 40.0%, respectively. Subjects with high BF% (≥24% in men, ≥34% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors in Han (age-adjusted ORs from 1.479 to 3.680, 2.660 to 4.016, respectively). In Mongolia, adults with high BF% (≥25% in men, ≥35% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors (age-adjusted ORs from 2.587 to 3.772, 2.061 to 4.882, respectively). The optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity for the prediction of CVD risk factors in Chinese men and women were approximately 24% and 34% for Han adults and 25% and 35% for Mongolian

  10. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  11. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUV{sub max} cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Johannes [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Herrmann, Jochen; Adam, Gerhard; Derlin, Thorsten [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, Reinhard E. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5. Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard. Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (r{sub s} = 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3 % vs 79.8 %; P = 0.013). In patients with NF1, quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning. (orig.)

  12. [Selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy for treating spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs caused by cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Cao, Xu; Xu, Shi-gang; Li, De-kui; Xu, Lin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and the result for the surgical treatment of spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs in patients who underwent the selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy. From March 2004 to April 2008, 27 patients included 19 boys and 8 girls, aging 13-21 years with an average of 15 years underwent selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation with exercise therapy. The AXIS 8 holes titanium plate was inserted into the lateral mass of spinous process through guidance of the nerve stimulator, choosed fasciculus of low-threshold nerve dorsal root and cut off its 1.5 cm. After two weeks, training exercise therapy was done in patients. Training will include lying position, turning body, sitting position, crawling, kneeling and standing position, walking and so on. Spastic Bobath inhibiting abnormal pattern was done in the whole process of training. The muscular tension, motor function (GMFM), functional independence (WeeFIM) were observed after treatment. All patients were followed up from 4 to 16 months with an average of 6 months. Muscular tension score were respectively 3.30 +/- 0.47 and 1.25 +/- 0.44 before and after treatment;GMFM score were respectively 107.82 +/- 55.17 and 131.28 +/- 46.45; WeeFIM score were respectively 57.61 +/- 25.51 and 87.91 +/- 22.39. There was significant improvement before and after treatment (P cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs is safe and effective method, which can decrease muscular tension and improve motor function, which deserves more wide use.

  13. Which are the cut-off values of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) liver stiffness measurements predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Gradinaru-Taşcău, Oana, E-mail: bluonmyown@yahoo.com; Şirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Popescu, Alina, E-mail: alinamircea.popescu@gmail.com; Jurchiş, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com

    2014-03-15

    Introduction: To identify liver stiffness (LS) cut-off values assessed by means of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method. Methods: Our prospective study included 383 consecutive subjects, with or without hepatopathies, in which LS was evaluated by means of TE and 2D-SWE. To discriminate between various stages of fibrosis by TE we used the following LS cut-offs (kPa): F1-6, F2-7.2, F3-9.6 and F4-14.5. Results: The rate of reliable LS measurements was similar for TE and 2D-SWE: 73.9% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.06. Older age and higher BMI were associated for both TE and 2D-SWE with the impossibility to obtain reliable LS measurements. Reliable LS measurements by both elastographic methods were obtained in 65.2% of patients. A significant correlation was found between TE and 2D-SWE measurements (r = 0.68). The best LS cut-off values assessed by 2D-SWE for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis were: F ≥ 1: >7.1 kPa (AUROC = 0.825); F ≥ 2: >7.8 kPa (AUROC = 0.859); F ≥ 3: >8 kPa (AUROC = 0.897) and for F = 4: >11.5 kPa (AUROC = 0.914). Conclusions: 2D-SWE is a reliable method for the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis, considering TE as the reference method. The accuracy of 2D-SWE measurements increased with the severity of liver fibrosis.

  14. Alcohol and illicit drugs in drivers involved in road traffic crashes in the Milan area. A comparison with normal traffic reveals the possible inadequacy of current cut-off limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Davide; Manca, Monica; Banfi, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs in Italy is regulated by the articles 186 and 187 of the National Street Code. Epidemiological studies on drivers involved in road traffic crashes (RTC) provide useful information about the use/abuse of these substances in the general population. Comparison with case control studies may reveal important information like the cut-off limits adequacy. Data from 1587 blood tests for alcohol and 1258 blood tests for illicit drugs on drivers involved in RTC around Milan between 2012 and 2016, were analyzed and compared with a published random survey (DRUID) from the European Community. Our data from RTC-involved drivers show that alcohol abuse is not age-related whereas illicit drugs are more common in young people. Cannabinoids are frequent among younger drivers (median age 27) whereas cocaine is more often detected in adults (median age 34). The calculated odds ratio after comparison with the DRUID survey shows that a blood alcohol concentration below the legal limit does not represent a risk factor in having a car accident whereas concentrations of cocaine and cannabinoids within the legal limits are associated with being involved in a car accident. Despite authority efforts, the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs is still common in young drivers. We suspect that the cut-off limits for cannabinoids and cocaine and/or the pre-analytical procedures for these substances are inadequate. We suggest a better standardization of the procedure by shortening the time interval between the request for investigation and blood collection and propose the adoption of more stringent cut-off limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The prevalence rate of internet addiction among Japanese college students: two cross-sectional studies and reconsideration of cut-off points of Young's internet addiction test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Teo, Alan R; Shiraishi, Masaki; Tayama, Masaya; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-05-30

    Due to variation in estimates of the prevalence of internet addiction (IA) in prior research, we conducted two cross-sectional studies over two years and investigated the prevalence rate of IA in college students in Japan, and reconsidered appropriate cut-off points of self-rating scale to screen possible IA. This study is composed of two parts: survey I in 2014 and survey II in 2016, which were conducted in the same schools with an interval of two years. The study questionnaire included questions about demographics and internet use, and the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Additionally, the subjects in survey II were asked about self-reported IA. There were 1,005 respondents in total with a mean age of 18.9±1.3. The mean IAT scores remained stable between 2014 and 2016: 45.2±12.6 in survey I and 45.5±13.1 in survey II (overall mean IAT score of 45.4±13.0). With respect to self-reported IA in survey II, a total of 21.6% agreed (score of 5 or 6 on a 6-point Likert scale). We categorized these subjects as IA, and the remainder as non-IA. The mean IAT score showed significant difference between these two groups (57.8±14.3 vs 42.1±10.7, p<0.001). The severity of symptoms of IA among Japanese college students appears stable in recent years, with a mean IAT scores of over 40. Our results suggest that a screening score cut-off of 40 on the IAT could be reconsidered and that of 50 might be proposed for the cut-off. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal cut-off values for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pre-diabetes screening: Developments in research and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Xueqin; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) appears to be increasing rapidly, threatening to reduce life expectancy for humans around the globe. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has estimated that there will be 642 million people living with the disease by 2040 and half as many again who will be not diagnosed. This means that pre-DM screening is a critical issue. Insulin resistance (IR) has emerged as a major pathophysiological factor in the development and progression of DM since it is evident in susceptible individuals at the early stages of DM, and particularly type 2 DM (T2DM). Therefore, assessment of IR via the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) is a key index for the primary prevention of DM and is thus found in guidelines for screening of high-risk groups. However, the cut-off values of HOMA-IR differ for different races, ages, genders, diseases, complications, etc. due to the complexity of IR. This hampers the determination of specific cut-off values of HOMA-IR in different places and in different situations. China has not published an official index to gauge IR for primary prevention of T2DM in the diabetic and non-diabetic population except for children and adolescents ages 6-12 years. Hence, this article summarizes developments in research on IR, HOMA-IR, and pre-DM screening in order to provide a reference for optimal cut-off values of HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of DM in the Chinese population.

  17. Quantification of isomerically summed hydrocarbon contributions to crude oil by carbon number, double bond equivalent, and aromaticity using gas chromatography with tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jeremy A; Weber, Robert J; Goldstein, Allen H

    2018-03-12

    The ability to structurally characterize and isomerically quantify crude oil hydrocarbons relevant to refined fuels such as motor oil, diesel, and gasoline represents an extreme challenge for chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques. This work incorporates two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a tunable vacuum ultraviolet soft photoionization source, the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-VUV-TOF) to directly characterize and isomerically sum the contributions of aromatic and aliphatic species to hydrocarbon classes of four crude oils. When the VUV beam is tuned to 10.5 ± 0.2 eV, both aromatic and aliphatic crude oil hydrocarbons are ionized to reveal the complete chemical abundance of C 9 -C 30 hydrocarbons. When the VUV beam is tuned to 9.0 ± 0.2 eV only aromatic hydrocarbons are ionized, allowing separation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the crude oil hydrocarbon chemical classes in an efficient manner while maintaining isomeric quantification. This technique provides an effective tool to determine the isomerically summed aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions of crude oil, providing information that goes beyond typical GC × GC separations of the most dominant hydrocarbon isomers.

  18. Direct Extraction of InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBT Equivalent-Circuit Elements From S-Parameters Measured at Cut-Off and Normal Bias Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Leblanc, Rémy; Poulain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base-collector......A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base......-collector capacitance at zero collector current and the collector-to-emitter overlap capacitance $C_{ceo}$ present in InP DHBT devices. Low-frequency $S$-parameters measured at normal bias conditions then allows the extraction of the external access resistances $R_{bx}$, $R_{e}$, and $R_{cx}$ as well as the intrinsic...

  19. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  20. [Case-control study on needle-knife to cut off the medial branch of the lumbar posterior ramus under C-arm guiding for the treatment of low back pain caused by lumbar facet osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Di; Xu, Wei-xing; Ding, Wei-Guo; Guo, Qiao-Feng; Ma, Gou-ping; Zhu, Wei-min

    2013-03-01

    To study the clinical efficacy of needle-knife to cut off the medial branch of the lumbar posterior ramus under C-arm guiding to treat low back pain caused by lumbar facet osteoarthritis. From July 2009 to June 2011, 60 patients with low back pain caused by lumbar facet osteoarthritis were reviewed,including 34 males and 26 females, ranging in age from 39 to 73 years old,averaged 61.9 years old; the duration of the disease ranged from 6 to 120 months, with a mean of 18.9 months. All the patients were divided into two groups, 30 patients (18 males and 12 females, ranging in age from 39 to 71 years old, needle-knife group) were treated with needle-knife to cut off medial branch of the lumbar posterior ramus under C -arm guiding and the other 30 patients(16 males and 14 females, ranging in age from 41 to 73 years old, hormone injection group) were treated with hormone injection in lumbar facet joint under C-arm guiding. The preoperative JOA scores and the scores at the 1st, 12th and 26th weeks after treatment were analyzed. Before treatment,the JOA scores between the two groups had no significant difference (P= 0.479); after 1 week of treatment, the JOA scores between the two groups had significant difference (P= 0.040), the improvement rate of hormone injection group was superior than that of the needle-knife group,which were (58.73+/-18.20)% in needle-knife group and (71.10+/-22.19)% in hormone injection group; after 12 weeks of treatment, the JOA scores between the two groups had no significant difference(P=0.569), and the improvement rate between the two groups had no significant difference,which were (50.09+/-19.33)% in the needle-knife group and (48.70+/-18.36)%) in the hormone injection group; after 26 weeks of treatment,the JOA scores between the two groups had significant difference (P=0.000), the improvement rate of hormone injection group was superior than that of the needle-knife group,which were (48.56+/-28.24)% in needle-knife group and (15

  1. Determination of the stresses and displacements in the cut off curtain body executed by the << Wall-in-the ground >> method.; Opredelenie napryazhenij i peremeshchenij v tele protivofil`tratsionnoj zavesy, vypolnennoj metodom << stena v grunte >>.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snisarenko, V I; Mel` nikov, A I [Myinyisterstvo Budyivel` noyi Arkhyitekturi, Kyiv (Ukraine); [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Construction of the cut-off-curtain (COC) is analyzed as a possible variant to reduce the rate of radioactive horizontal migration. Such constructions can be executed by the << wall-in-the ground >> method. The theoretical analysis of the stress-strained state of the carried out using the methods of the theory of elasticity and of the limit equilibrium of the strewing medium. Theoretical dependences are obtained and formulas for practical calculations of the COC-body stress-strained state in the depth intervals which are of practical interest are suggested. The dependences obtained may be used to calculate the consolidation parameters and filtration coefficients, to choose materials for the COC body, geometrical size and film elements included.

  2. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Rico N; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is a cross-sectional study. Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery of a University Medical Center. Sixty patients, 6 months to 5 years after chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and SHI, both validated in Dutch and provided with cut-off scores. Associations were tested between the outcome measures and independent variables (age, gender, tumor stage and site, and radiotherapy technique, time since treatment, comorbidity and food intake). Fifty-two patients returned the SWAL-QOL and 47 the SHI (response rate 87 and 78 %, respectively). Swallowing and speech problems were present in 79 and 55 %, respectively. Normal food intake was noticed in 45, 35 % had a soft diet and 20 % tube feeding. Patients with soft diet and tube feeding reported more swallowing problems compared to patients with normal oral intake. Tumor subsite was significantly associated with swallowing outcome (less problems in larynx/hypopharynx compared to oral/oropharynx). Radiation technique was significantly associated with psychosocial speech problems (less problems in patients treated with IMRT). Swallowing and (to a lesser extent) speech problems in daily life are frequently present after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future prospective studies will give more insight into the course of speech and swallowing problems after chemoradiation and into efficacy of new radiation techniques and swallowing and speech rehabilitation programs.

  3. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor reduces the number of precursor and effector T cells, but preserves thymic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, V.J.; Smit, J.J.; Bol-Schoenmakers, M.; van Duursen, M.B.M.; van den Berg, M.; Pieters, R.H.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation suppresses immune responses, including allergic sensitization, by increasing the percentage of regulatory (Treg) cells. Furthermore, AhR activation is known to affect thymic precursor T cells. However, the effect of AhR activation on intrathymic

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  5. Babies in waiting: why increasing the IVF age cut-off might lead to fewer wanted pregnancies in the presence of procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    Despite the best of intentions, we often act at the last minute when we are faced with a deadline. A recent recommendation by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to make In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) available to women up to 42 years of age instead of 39 intends to offer more women the chance of pregnancy. Given what we know about behavioural responses to what is, in essence, a deadline, the policy could lead to procrastination and fewer wanted pregnancies. We examine how many women it would take to delay trying for a baby for this policy to result in fewer pregnancies. We take a cohort of 1000 women from age 34. If no women delay trying, the increased age on access to IVF results in 31 more pregnancies. Because of declining fertility with age, it would take only about a third of these women to delay trying for a baby until age 35 for there to be zero net benefits of increased IVF availability. If all women delayed by a year, the new policy will lead to 59 fewer pregnancies. We also estimate the implications for IVF treatment numbers as this has psychological and personal consequences. Our findings highlight how no policy sits in a behavioural vacuum and all policy decisions should consider the likely behavioural responses and incorporate them into their design and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health related quality of life and psychopathological distress in risk taking and self-harming adolescents with full-syndrome, subthreshold and without borderline personality disorder: rethinking the clinical cut-off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Koenig, Julian

    2017-01-01

    -syndrome BPD. Findings raise awareness on the importance of early detection and question the diagnostic validity and clinical utility of existing cut-offs. Findings support a lower diagnostic cut-off for adolescent BPD, to identify those at-risk at an early stage.

  7. Converting higher to lower boiling hydrocarbons. [Australian patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-06-16

    To transform or convert higher boiling hydrocarbons into lower boiling hydrocarbons for the production of motor fuel, the hydrocarbons are maintained in vapor phase until the desired conversion has been effected and the separation of the high from low boiling hydrocarbons is carried out by utilization of porous contact material with a preferential absorption for the former. The vapor is passed by supply line to a separator containing the porous material and heated to 750 to 950/sup 0/F for a few seconds, the higher boiling parts being retained by the porous material and the lower passing to a vent line. The latter is closed and the vapor supply cut off and an ejecting medium is passed through a line to carry the higher boiling parts to an outlet line from which it may be recycled through the apparatus. The porous mass may be regenerated by introducing medium from a line that carries off impurities to another line. A modified arrangement shows catalytic cracking apparatus through which the vaporized material is passed on the way to the separators.

  8. Cutting off Mediation. Agamben as Master Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Deuber-Mankowsky

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agamben’s Homo Sacer turns centrally upon “bare life”. However, the following subjects are not thematized: natality, gender, sexuality, the relation of the sexes, the heterosexual character of the symbolic order and political culture, the interest of women in the reproduction of life. The entire question of sexual difference —like that of the difference between victim and perpetrator, between witnesses and those born afterwards— is banned from Agamben’s horizon. Thus a deep unease remains, which this paper is intended to explore. It will first present the methodological and theoretical inspirations, which Homo Sacer owes to the thought of Carl Schmitt. Secondly it will show that Schmitt’s concepts of nomos and the state of exception cannot provide a suitable basis for rewriting Foucault’s concept of biopolitics.

  9. Percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful method in deciding to perform prostate biopsy with higher core numbers in patients with low PSA cut-off values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Ciftci, Seyfettin; Yavuz, Ufuk; Ustuner, Murat; Saribacak, Ali; Dillioglugil, Ozdal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive role of percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) cut-points in prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with total PSA (tPSA) levels between 2.5 ng/mL and 10.0 ng/mL. In total, 1321 consecutive initial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided 12-core biopsies performed between 2005 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Benign pathologies, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and atypical small acinary proliferations were categorized as noncancerous (benign), and prostate adenocarcinomas were categorized as cancerous (malignant). The patients were categorized according to: Catalona's published %fPSA categories ( 25%); digital rectal examination (DRE) results [benign (negative) or suspicious of malignancy (positive)]. There was a significant relationship between the %fPSA cut-points and detection of PCa in DRE-negative patients. The presence of a 10% cut-point increased the probability of PCa threefold. The %fPSA was significantly more related to PCa than the tPSA value in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses (p = 0.001). Based on our findings, a lower %fPSA, especially <10%, is an important parameter when deciding whether to perform a biopsy on patients with a tPSA between 2.5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  11. Suppressed oxygen extraction and degradation of LiNixMnyCozO2 cathodes at high charge cut-off voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiandong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Polzin, Bryant J.; Trask, Steve; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2017-09-01

    The capacity degradation mechanism in lithium nickel–manganese–cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes (LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC333) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442)) during high-voltage (cut-off of 4.8 V) operation has been investigated. In contrast to NMC442, NMC333 exhibits rapid structural changes including severe micro-crack formation and phase transformation from a layered to a disordered rock-salt structure, as well as interfacial degradation during high-voltage cycling, leading to a rapid increase of the electrode resistance and fast capacity decline. The fundamental reason behind the poor structural and interfacial stability of NMC333 was found to be correlated to its high Co content and the significant overlap between the Co3+/4+ t2g and O2- 2p bands, resulting in oxygen removal and consequent structural changes at high voltages. In addition, oxidation of the electrolyte solvents by the extracted oxygen species generates acidic species, which then attack the electrode surface and form highly resistive LiF. These findings highlight that both the structural and interfacial stability should be taken into account when tailoring cathode materials for high voltage battery systems.

  12. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelli Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. Methods We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1 Flow cytometry (FC to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG E1; 2 VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU or % of inhibition (% inhibition. Results Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4–33.1% and 3.5% (1.7–9.4%, respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5% had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, p 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. Conclusion In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  13. Establishing diagnostic cut-off criteria for the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative test through validation against the Amplicor DNA test v1.5 for infant diagnosis using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Jean; Preiser, Wolfgang; van Zyl, Gert U

    2012-02-01

    As antibody testing cannot confirm HIV-1 infection in children less than 18 months of age, diagnosis in these children depends on nucleic acid testing. The COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) (CAP/CTM, Roche(®) Molecular Systems, Inc., Branchburg, NJ) HIV-1 Qualitative test is a total nucleic acid real-time PCR assay utilising whole EDTA blood or dried blood spots (DBS), which recently replaced the Roche(®) AMPLICOR(®) DNA test v1.5 (Amplicor) as the diagnostic HIV PCR assay in many South African laboratories. For the Amplicor assay, stringent diagnostic criteria were previously formulated for the local population, and a comparison reported the CAP/CTM's sensitivity at 99.7% and specificity at 100% for both sample types compared to these Amplicor criteria. To validate the assay prior to introduction in our laboratory and to define stringent diagnostic cut-off criteria. Whole EDTA blood samples from patients younger than 18 months sent for routine HIV-1 diagnosis were tested by Amplicor, and positive results were confirmed from DBS. CAP/CTM assays were subsequently performed from DBS. The CAP/CTM had a sensitivity of 98.8% and a specificity of 97.1%, but a positive predictive value (PPV) of only 78.7% compared to the Amplicor assay. Samples positive by CAP/CTM but negative by Amplicor displayed poor amplification curves compared to concordant positive samples. Upon re-testing those with sufficient material available by CAP/CTM, all showed negative results. The decreased PPV may either be due to false positive CAP/CTM results, or increased sensitivity compared to the Amplicor assay. Criteria were formulated for defining presumed false-positive results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  15. Cut-off values for classifying active children and adolescentes using the Physical Activity Questionnaire: PAQ-C and PAQ-ACut-off values for classifying active children and adolescents using the Physical Activity Questionnaire: PAQ-C and PAQ-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Sardinha, Luis B; López-Fernández, Iván; Carnero, Elvis A

    2016-09-20

    The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and adolescents (PAQ-C & PAQ-A) has been widely used in research and field settings. However, there is a lack of information about its final score meaning. To determine PAQ-C and PAQ-A score cut-off values using physical activity (PA) thresholds objectively measured as reference criteria. 146 children (n = 83 boys, n = 63 girls) and 234 adolescents (n = 115 boys, n = 119 girls) participated in this study. Accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X) were used to assess objectively PA during one-week, afterwards PAQ was filled by the participants. As participants met or not the international PA recommendations for total, moderate-vigorous (MVPA) or light PA, three categorical variables of two levels were created. ROC curves procedure were carried out to obtain score cut-off points for identifying the positive category recommendation. ROC curves analysis estimated 2.75 and 2.73 score cut-off points to discriminate > 60 minutes of MVPA for PAQ-A and PAQ-C respectively (PAQ-A AUC = 0.68, p 0.05). Also 60 minutes of MVPA was achieved with a total volume of 10,664 steps/day in children and 9,701 steps/day in adolescents. Our results suggest that PAQ-A can be a useful tool to classify adolescents as active or inactive following international recommendations as criteria. However, we could not find a significant cut-off for PAQ-C score.

  16. Role of signal-to-cut-off ratios of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody by enzyme immunoassays along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of elevated signal-to-cut off ratios (S/CO as an alternate to further supplemental testing (i.e., RIBA has been included in the guidelines provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention for HCV diagnostic purposes since 2003. With availability of screening by NAT and non availability of RIBA, further confirmation of HCV infection has been possible at the molecular level (RNA. Aims: To study the role of S/CO ratios of anti hepatitis C virus antibody detection by enzyme immunoassays (EIA along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors. Methods: In this study we reviewed the donor screening status for anti HCV from January 2013 to May 2014. All the donations were screened for anti HCV with fourth generation ELISA (BioRad Monolisa Ag-Ab Ultra as well as with ID NAT (Procleix Ultrio. The S/CO ratio of all the anti-HCV reactive samples were analysed for their presence of HCV RNA. Results: On screening 21,115 donors for HCV, 83 donors (0.39% were found reactive on pilot tube and repeat plasma bag testing (S/Co ratio ≥1 by ELISA. 41 donors were HCV RNA reactive with ID-NAT. 4 samples out of 41 were NAT yields and 37 were concordant reactive with ELISA. The S/Co ratio of anti-HCV reactive samples ranged from 0.9-11.1 [mean = 5.1; SD ΁ 2.9] whereas S/Co ratio of anti HCV and NAT reactive samples (concordant positives ranged from 4.1-11.1 [mean 7.3]. In our analysis we found that S/CO ratio of 4 showed positive predictive value (PPV and sensitivity of 100%. Summary/Conclusions: Our study showed that S/CO of 4 for anti HCV on ELISA would have maximum positive predictive value of having donor with HCV RNA. S/CO ratio of 4 is very close to 3.8 which was the CDC guideline. The presence of anti-HCV does not distinguish between current or past infections but a confirmed anti-HCV-positive result indicates the need for counseling and medical evaluation for HCV infection.

  17. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  18. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  19. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  20. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  1. Profiling of Biomarkers for the Exposure of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Lamin-A/C Isoform 3, Poly[ADP-ribose] Polymerase 1, and Mitochondria Copy Number Are Identified as Universal Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the profiling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH- induced genotoxicity in cell lines and zebrafish. Each type of cells displayed different proportionality of apoptosis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number was dramatically elevated after 5-day treatment of fluoranthene and pyrene. The notable deregulated proteins for PAHs exposure were displayed as follows: lamin-A/C isoform 3 and annexin A1 for benzopyrene; lamin-A/C isoform 3 and DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha for pentacene; poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1 for fluoranthene; and talin-1 and DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha for pyrene. Among them, lamin-A/C isoform 3 and PARP-1 were further confirmed using mRNA and protein expression study. Obvious morphological abnormalities including curved backbone and cardiomegaly in zebrafish were observed in the 54 hpf with more than 400 nM of benzopyrene. In conclusion, the change of mitochondrial genome (increased mtDNA copy number was closely associated with PAH exposure in cell lines and mesenchymal stem cells. Lamin-A/C isoform 3, talin-1, and annexin A1 were identified as universal biomarkers for PAHs exposure. Zebrafish, specifically at embryo stage, showed suitable in vivo model for monitoring PAHs exposure to hematopoietic tissue and other organs.

  2. The Brazilian hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticide registration: a critical appraisal / Critérios de exclusão baseados em perigo adotados no Brasil para registro de pesticidas: Uma avalição crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, the world’s top consumer of agricultural pesticides, adopts a unique hazard-based cut-off approach to pesticide registration. Cut-off criteria for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, hormonal disturbances and damage to reproductive organs were introduced by the Pesticide Law enacted in 1989. As far as health is concerned, law enforcement is additionally regulated by rules issued by the federal health authority (National Agency for Health Surveillance – ANVISA. Contrasting to the European Union’s hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticides, Brazilian rules do not make an exception for “negligible” exposures. Moreover, Brazilian regulations have shortcomings (e.g. no reference to relevance of Mode of Action to humans that make cut-off criteria difficult to be put into effect. The deficiencies of regulations and difficulties to consistently apply the hazard-based cut-off criteria are appraised in this article. Adoption of a risk assessment approach or cut-off criteria based on classification into the Globally Harmonized System’s hazard categories 1A and 1B is suggested. Resumo O Brasil, líder mundial do consumo de agro-químicos, adota uma singular abordagem para registro de agrotóxicos que é baseada em critérios de exclusão quanto à periculosidade. Critérios de exclusão para mutagenicidade, carcinogenicidade, teratogenicidade, distúrbios hormonais e dano a órgãos reprodutivos foram introduzidos pela Lei de Agrotóxicos promulgada em 1989. Em relação à saúde, a aplicação da lei é também regulada por portarias publicadas pela autoridade sanitária federal (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – ANVISA. Em contraste com os critérios de exclusão baseados na periculosidade que a União Européia usa para agrotóxicos, a regulamentação brasileira não faz exceção para exposições insignificantes. Além disso, a regulamentação brasileira apresenta deficiências (e.g., não faz men

  3. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  4. Reliability, validity and cut-off value of the childhood autism spectrum test%儿童孤独症谱系测验量表的信度、效度及临界值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关智勇; 龚建华; 陈艳琳; 周首俊; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of the childhood autism spectrum test (CAST) of children in Mainland China according to autism screening,in order to provide the effective reference for the identification and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders of children.Methods Two hundreds and fifty-two typical developing children,and 61 autistic children who were confirmed by psychological clinic of Child Healthcare Clinic,Shenzhen Luohu District Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital who were conformed with diagnosis standards of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition(DSM-5) by using CAST Chinese version were assessed,and the reliability and validity analysis were made on the CAST scale.The receiver operating characteristic curve was drew to determine the optimal threshold value,and the sensitivity,specificity and positive predictive value were calculated.Results CAST Chinese version had good reliability,Cronbach's α was 0.880.Split-half reliability coefficient r was 0.821,and the whole scale calibration reliability coefficient was 0.902.There was statistically significant difference between items and the total score(P<0.05).The consistency between the CAST ≥4 years old children and diagnosis standards of DSM-5 reached 0.884(P=0.000).The consistency 3-<4 years old children and diagnosis standards of DSM-5 reached 0.867 (P=0.000).Among the screening of the children who were ≥4 years old,the cut off was 15 scores that the sensitivity and specificity were best.With the children of 3-<4 years old,a designated cut-point should be 17 scores.Conclusions There are good reliability and validity of CAST,which can be used to mainland China,as well as to screen autistic children more than 3 years old.%目的 探讨儿童孤独症谱系测验(CAST)量表在中国大陆儿童孤独症筛查的适用性,为儿童孤独症谱系障碍的识别与诊断提供有效参考.方法 采用CAST量表对252例健康儿童及深圳市罗湖区妇幼

  5. Determining the Optimum Cut-Off Grades in Sulfide Copper Deposits / Określanie Optymalnej Wartości Odcięcia Zawartości Procentowej Pierwiastka Użytecznego W Złożach Siarczku Miedzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Esmaeil; Oraee, Kazem; Shafahi, Zia Aldin; Ghasemzadeh, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Optimum cut-off grades determination in mining life affects production planning and ultimate pit limit and it is also important from social, economical and environmental aspects. Calculation of optimum cut-off grades has been less considered for mines containing various mineral processing methods. In this paper, an optimization technique is applied to obtain optimum cut-off grades for both concentration and heap leaching processes. In this technique, production costs and different recoveries of heap leaching method directed into modeling different annual cash flows in copper mines. Considering the governing constraints, the Lagrange multiplier method is practiced to optimize the cut-off grades in which the objective function is supposed to maximize Net Present Value. The results indicate the effect of heap leaching process on the optimum cut-off grades of primary and secondary sulfide deposits. Określanie optymalnego poziomu odcięcia dla zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego ma poważny wpływ na planowanie produkcji, określanie ostatecznych limitów zasobów złoża; jest to także ważna kwestia z punktu widzenia kwestii społecznych, ekonomicznych i środowiskowych. Obliczanie optymalnego poziomu odcięcia dla zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego nie było zwykle szeroko rozważane w przypadku kopalni prowadzących ciągły system przeróbki. W pracy tej przedstawiono technikę optymalizacji określania poziomu zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego z uwzględnieniem zarówno procesów koncentracji jak i ługowania. W metodzie uwzględniono koszty produkcji i różne wskaźniki odzysku rudy, wielkości te wykorzystane zostały do modelowania rocznych przepływów gotówki w kopalniach miedzi. Uwzględniając narzucone ograniczenia, zastosowano metodę mnożników Lagrange'a w celu optymalizacji określania poziomu zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego, gdzie przyjętą funkcją celu jest maksymalizacja wartości bie

  6. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  8. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  9. Influence of different body mass index cut-off values in assessing the nutritional status of adolescents in a household survey Influência de distintos valores críticos do índice de massa corporal na avaliação do estado nutricional de adolescentes em inquérito domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric nutritional status of the adolescent population of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and the influence of changes in the adopted body mass index (BMI cut-offs in the nutritional status assessment of the adolescent population. A population-based survey conducted in 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households and 523 adolescents. The multiple proportions test and prevalence ratios were used to analyze differences between estimates obtained from different BMI cut-offs. Changes in cut-off values from the old to the new recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO resulted in a significant increase in overweight prevalence among total, male and female adolescent population (25%, 27% and 23%, respectively (p Este artigo tem por objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional antropométrico da população adolescente residente em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, bem como a influência das mudanças nos valores críticos de índice de massa corporal (IMC na avaliação do estado nutricional dessa população. Uma pesquisa amostral probabilística de base populacional conduzida em 2003 obteve dados de 1.734 domicílios e 523 adolescentes. Testes para múltiplas proporções e razões de prevalência foram utilizados para analisar as diferenças entre estimativas obtidas segundo distintos valores críticos de IMC. Mudanças nos pontos de corte da antiga para a atual recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS resultaram em aumentos significativos nas prevalências de sobrepeso entre o total de adolescentes, meninos e meninas (25%, 27% e 23%, respectivamente (p < 0,05. A proposta da International Obesity Task Force resultou em uma redução significativa de 29% e 39% na prevalência de baixo-IMC-para-idade entre o total de adolescentes e meninos, respectivamente, quando comparada à recomendação atual da OMS (p < 0,05. Foi evidenciado que uma simples

  10. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  11. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  12. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  14. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  15. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  16. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  17. Parâmetros diretos do duplex scan no diagnóstico da estenose da artéria renal: estudo de validação e otimização dos pontos de corte Direct duplex scanning parameters in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis: a study to validate and optimize cut-off points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Motta Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar o desempenho dos parâmetros diretos do duplex scan no diagnóstico da estenose da artéria renal (EAR e verificar se os pontos de corte recomendados pela literatura são os mais adequados para se discriminar a gravidade da lesão. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, incluindo 62 pacientes portadores de EAR, submetidos ao duplex scan, seguido da arteriografia seletiva. O pico de velocidade sistólico (PVS e a relação renal-aorta (RRA foram mensurados. A análise estatística incluiu a curva ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve, t test student não pareado a sensibilidade, especificidade, os valores preditivos positivo e negativo, e a acurácia. RESULTADOS: A arteriografia revelou EAR 0-59% em 31 artérias (24%; EAR 60-99% em 91 artérias (72% e 5 oclusões (4%. A análise de ROC mostrou que o PVS e a RRA apresentaram desempenho semelhante na detecção da lesão, cujas áreas sob as curvas foram 0,96 e 0,95, respectivamente. Considerando os pontos de corte recomendados pela literatura, o PVS de 180 cm/s apresentou sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 81%, enquanto que a RRA de 3,5 apresentou sensibilidade de somente 79%, com 93% de especificidade. Estes parâmetros foram analisados de forma conjugada (critério direto, revelando 79% de sensibilidade e 97% de especificidade. Os pontos de corte otimizados foram: PVS de 189 cm/s e RRA de 2,6, demonstrando 100%, 87%, 96% e 87% de sensibilidade e especificidade para o PVS e para a RRA, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O uso isolado do PVS otimizado apresentou o melhor desempenho na detecção e na graduação da EAR.OBJECTIVE: To test the efficiency of the direct duplex scanning parameters in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis (RAS, and verify whether or not the cut-off points recommended by medical literature are the most appropriate means to distinguish lesion severity. METHODS: Prospective study, including 62 patients with RAS, submitted to a duplex ultrasound scan and

  18. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  20. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  1. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  2. Application of fission track analysis to hydrocarbon exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Marshallsea, S.; Tingate, P.; Laslett, G.M.; Hegarty, K.A.; Lovering, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature range over which fission tracks in apatite show observable annealing effects coincides with that responsible for the maximum generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Work is currently in progress in a number of Australian and overseas sedimentary basins, applying Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA) to investigate the thermal evolution of these hydrocarbon prospective regions

  3. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  4. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  5. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  6. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  7. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  8. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  9. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  10. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  11. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  12. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a laboratory aquifer column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billowits, M.; Whyte, L.; Greer, C.; Ramsay, J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms for eliminating hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment is degradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous microorganisms. This report describes a study in which samples from a petroleum polluted shallow aquifer in the Yukon were used which contained a hundred times greater concentration of psychrotropic bacteria than mesophilic bacteria. Results showed a maximum degradation of 47 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon in columns which simulated the aquifer conditions and to which nutrients were added. It was concluded that although in this case bioaugmentation of the columns with a psychrotropic hydrocarbon-degrading consortium increased microbial numbers, total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was not much greater than could be achieved by remediation with nutrients alone

  13. Hydrocarbon toxicity: an analysis of AAPCC TESS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaugh, Daniel J; Seger, Donna L; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2007-01-01

    Human hydrocarbon exposures have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. To determine which hydrocarbons were associated with the most severe adverse outcomes, human exposure data reported to American poison information centers were analyzed. Outcome data for single-substance, hydrocarbon exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System from 1994 through 2003 were analyzed. Only cases with definitive medical outcomes were included. Analyses were stratified by five age groups: 59 years. Hazard factors were determined by calculating the sum of the major effects and fatalities for each hydrocarbon category and dividing this by the total number of exposures for that category. To normalize the data, the overall rate of major effects and deaths for each age group was assigned hazard factor value of 1. Hydrocarbon categories with a HF of > or = 1.5 were included in the final analyses. Estimated rates of major effect and fatal outcomes (outcomes/1000 people) were also calculated. 318,939 exposures were analyzed. Exposures to benzene, toluene/xylene, halogenated hydrocarbons, kerosene and lamp oil resulted in the highest hazard factor values. These data demonstrate that hydrocarbons that are absorbed systemically and those with low viscosities are associated with higher hazard factors. The risks associated with hydrocarbons often implicated in abuse by older children and adolescents are also confirmed.

  14. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  15. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  16. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  17. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  18. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  19. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  20. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  1. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  2. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  3. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  4. Study of Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Nanofuel Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    NUMBER (Include area code) 23 August 2017 Briefing Charts 01 August 2017 - 31 August 2017 Study of Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon...Douglas Talley N/A 1 Study of Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Nanofuel Droplets DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release...Angeles ϯAir Force Research Laboratory, Aerospace Systems Directorate, Combustion Devices Group, Edwards AFB, CA ONR/ARO/AFOSR Meeting, 23 Aug., 2017

  5. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  6. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  7. Biodegradation testing of hydrophobic chemicals in mixtures at low concentrations – covering the chemical space of petroleum hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Hammershøj, Rikke Høst; Mayer, Philipp

    Petroleum products are complex mixtures of varying composition containing thousands of hydrocarbons each with their own physicochemical properties and degradation kinetics. One approach for risk assessment of these products is therefore to group the hydrocarbons by carbon number and chemical class...... i.e. hydrocarbon blocks. However, the biodegradation kinetic data varies in quantity and quality for the different hydrocarbon blocks, hampering the characterization of their fate properties. In this study, biodegradation kinetics of a large number of hydrocarbons aiming to cover the chemical space...... of petroleum hydrocarbons, were therefore determined at ng/L to µg/L concentrations in surface water, seawater and activated sludge filtrate. Two hydrocarbon mixtures were prepared, comprising a total of 53 chemicals including paraffins, naphthenics and aromatic hydrocarbons from C8 to C20. Passive dosing from...

  8. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  9. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  10. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  11. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  12. Un caso de baja segregada en niveles altos en el sur de Sudamérica: descripción del ciclo de vida y su relación con la precipitación A case of high level cut-off cyclonic vortex over southern South America: description of the life cycle and its relation to precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Anibal Godoy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el ciclo de vida de una baja segregada que afectó el sur de Sudamérica entre el 26 de Marzo y el 2 de Abril del 2007 y se explora la relación existente entre las diferentes etapas de este sistema y la precipitación ocurrida sobre la franja central de Argentina. Además se evalúa si otros procesos coadyuvaron para la ocurrencia de la misma. Las características más relevantes de este sistema son su larga duración y el lento desplazamiento, ya que entre el inicio y el fin de su vida se desplaza sólo 780 km, manteniéndose estacionario, durante las etapas de segregación y madurez, por más de 56 hs frente a la costa central chilena. Esta última característica favorece la formación de un sistema de baja presión sobre el noroeste de Argentina y la persistencia de una corriente en chorro en capas bajas del norte que se extiende desde el centro de Bolivia hasta norte argentino. La masa de aire con características tropicales conducida por esta configuración y la convergencia en niveles bajos favorecieron el desarrollo convectivo. La precipitación acumulada durante estas etapas, en algunas regiones del sur del litoral argentino, superó los 300 mm, produciendo extensas inundaciones en la región. Durante la etapa de decaimiento (96 hs de duración, el sistema se debilita a medida que se desplaza hacia el este y las precipitaciones afectaron las provincias del centro-oeste de Argentina donde la lluvia en 48 horas duplicó el promedio mensual de marzo.This paper describes the life cycle of a high level cut-off cyclonic vortex that affected southern South America between 26 March and 2 April 2007, and explores the relationship between the evolution stages of the system and the rainfall over central Argentina. The possibility of other processes contributing to rainfall is also analyzed. The most relevant characteristics of this system were its length and slow displacement: from its development to decay it moved only

  13. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  14. Application of backflush and micro-flow techniques to the analysis of C5-C13 hydrocarbons in crude oils and its geochemical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An Agilent 6890N GC equipped with both FID and Agilent 5975 MSD analyzer has been employed to analyze C5-C13 hydrocarbon fractions of crude oils. A technical combination of program temperature volatilizer injection, backflush and micro-flow controller afforded a fine separation of C5-C13 compounds on a PONA column with the heavy part of crude oils being cut off before entering the analytical column. Both GC-FID chromatogram and GC-MS mass chromatograrns (MID and full scan) could be obtained at the same time. The retension time differences of nC6-nC13 alkanes between GC and TIC were in the range of 0.02-0. 58 minutes. Totally 286 peaks have been assigned group compositions. Results on 8 typical oil samples from CNPC Key Laboratory Crude Oil Library showed that the characteristics of C6-C13 hydrocarbon group composition could be used in oil-oil correlation studies.

  15. Determinação de escore e nota de corte do módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood para discriminação de adultos asmáticos em estudos epidemiológicos Determining the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults in epidemiological studies using the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne de Fátima Maçãira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar o questionário padronizado escrito do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, módulo sobre asma, para pesquisa de prevalência de asma, estabelecendo seu escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de adultos asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Entrevistamos pacientes ambulatoriais adultos, 40 asmáticos e 38 controles, pareados por sexo e idade, utilizando o módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, composto por oito aspectos dicotômicos de asma. Determinamos o escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de asmáticos, definindo sua sensibilidade, especificidade e índice de Youden. Validamos o método em contraposição ao diagnóstico clínico e funcional. A reprodutibilidade das questões individuais foi testada por meio de reentrevistas de metade dos pacientes após algumas semanas. RESULTADOS: O escore variou de 0 a 14 pontos. Um escore = 5 pontos permitiu discriminar pacientes asmáticos (sensibilidade = 93%, especificidade = 100% e índice de Youden = 0,93. A maioria das questões apresentou boa reprodutibilidade, observada em reentrevista após 48,2 ± 11,1 dias (Kappa e Kappa ponderado variando de 0,43 a 1,00 para as questões individuais. CONCLUSÃO: A validação de uma nota de corte permite uma interpretação alternativa às informações fornecidas pelo módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, levando em conta o conjunto das informações e não somente as respostas individuais de cada questão em estudos de prevalência de asma em adultos.OBJECTIVE: To validate, for use in asthma prevalence studies, the asthma module of the standardized written questionnaire developed for use in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, establishing the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults. METHODS: We interviewed 78 adult outpatients (40 adult asthmatics and 38 age-matched and gender-matched controls

  16. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  17. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  18. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  19. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  20. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  1. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  2. Selection of the open pit mining cut-off grade strategy under price uncertainty using a risk based multi-criteria ranking system / Wybór strategii określania warunku opłacalności wydobycia w kopalniach odkrywkowych w warunkach niepewności cen w oparciu o wielokryterialny system rankingowy z uwzględnieniem czynników ryzyka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Yousue; Osanloo, Montza; Esfahanipour, Akbar

    2012-12-01

    Cut-off Grade Strategy (COGS) is a concept that directly influences the financial, technical, economic, environmental, and legal issues in relation to exploitation of a mineral resource. A decision making system is proposed to select the best technically feasible COGS under price uncertainty. In the proposed system both the conventional discounted cash flow and modern simulation based real option valuations are used to evaluate the alternative strategies. Then the conventional expected value criterion and a multiple criteria ranking system were used to rank the strategies based on the two valuation methods. In the multiple criteria ranking system besides the expected value other stochastic orders expressing abilities of strategies in producing extra profits, minimizing losses and achieving the predefined goals of the exploitation strategy are considered. Finally, the best strategy is selected based on the overall average rank of strategies through all ranking systems. The proposed system was examined using the data of Sungun Copper Mine. To assess the merits of the alternatives better, ranking process was done at both high (prevailing economic condition) and low price conditions. Ranking results revealed that at different price conditions and valuation methods, different results would be obtained. It is concluded that these differences are due to the different behavior of the embedded option to close the mine early, which is more likely to be exercised under low price condition rather than high price condition. The proposed system would enhance the quality of decision making process by providing a more informative and certain platform for project evaluation.

  3. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  4. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  5. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  6. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  7. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  9. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  11. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  12. Scaling relationships for adsorption energies of C2 hydrocarbons on transition metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Glenn; Studt, Felix; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    for AHx-type adsorbates to unsaturated hydrocarbons and establishes a coherent simplified description of saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on transition metal surfaces. A number of potential applications are discussed. We apply the model to the dehydrogenation of ethane over pure...

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  14. Conversion of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Kammer Hansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a number of papers about direct oxidation of methane and hydrocarbon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at relatively low temperatures (about 700degreesC) have been published. Even though the conversion of almost dry CH4 at 1000degreesC on ceramic anodes was demonstrated more than 10 years...

  15. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  16. How to Find the Fries Structures for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał K. Cyrański

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An efficient algorithm leading to the Fries canonical structure is presented for benzenoid hydrocarbons. This is a purely topological approach, which is based on adjacency matrices and the Hadamard procedure of matrix multiplication. The idea is presented for naphthalene, as an example. The Fries canonical-structures are also derived for anthracene, coronene, triphenylene, phenanthrene, benz[a]pyrene, and one large benzenoid system. The Fries concept can be convenient for obtaining Clar structures with the maximum number of sextets, which in turn effectively represent π-electron (delocalization in benzenoid hydrocarbons.

  17. Regulatory approaches to hydrocarbon contamination from underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Action or lack of action by the appropriate regulatory agency is often the most important factor in determining remedial action or closure requirements for hydrocarbon contaminated sites. This paper reports that the diversity of regulatory criteria is well known statewide and well documented nationally. In California, the diversity of approaches is due to: that very lack of a clear understanding of the true impact of hydrocarbon contamination: lack of state or federal standards for soil cleanup, and state water quality objectives that are not always achievable; vagueness in the underground storage tank law; and the number and diversity of agencies enforcing the underground storage tank regulations

  18. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  19. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  20. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  1. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  2. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  3. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  4. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  5. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  6. Field desorption mass spectroscopy monitoring of changes in hydrocarbon type composition during petroleum biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesemann, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive petroleum hydrocarbon characterization procedure involving group type separation, boiling point distribution, and hydrocarbon typing by field desorption mass spectroscopy (FDMS) has been developed to quantify changes in hydrocarbon type composition during bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. FDMS is able to quantify the concentration of hundreds of specific hydrocarbon types based on their respective hydrogen deficiency (z-number) and molecular weight (carbon number). Analytical results from two bioremediation experiments involving soil contaminated with crude oil and motor oil indicate that alkanes and two-ring saturates (naphthenes) were readily biodegradable. In addition, low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons generally were biodegraded to a larger extent than those of high molecular weight. More importantly, it was found that the extent of biodegradation of specific hydrocarbon types was comparable between treatments and appeared to be unaffected by the petroleum contaminant source, soil type, or experimental conditions. It was therefore concluded that in these studies the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation is primarily affected by the molecular composition of the petroleum hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil

  7. Algerian hydrocarbon magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, K.

    1996-01-01

    Algeria is the world's seventh largest gas producer and currently boasts one of the biggest gas fields - Hassi R'Mel -discovered to date. Recording the highest number of oil and gas discoveries anywhere in the world in 1994, the country is proving to be a magnet for foreign oil companies despite its continued political instability and the security risks posed by Islamic fundamentalists. Some 40,000 lives have been lost since Islamic militants began fighting the government in 1992, including a number of foreign journalists and two foreign pipeline workers. (author)

  8. Linear C32H66 hydrocarbon in the mixed state with C10H22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    S R Research Laboratory for Studies in Crystallization Phenomena, 10-1-96, ... mixed state with certain shorter chain length homologues (SMOLLENCs), estimated ... Methods. Five hydrocarbons of even carbon numbers, C10, C12, C14, C16 ...

  9. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  10. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  11. The impact of wave number selection and spin up time when using spectral nudging for dynamical downscaling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Breogán; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2017-04-01

    Nudging techniques are commonly used to constrain the evolution of numerical models to a reference dataset that is typically of a lower resolution. The nudged model retains some of the features of the reference field while incorporating its own dynamics to the solution. These characteristics have made nudging very popular in dynamic downscaling applications that cover from shot range, single case studies, to multi-decadal regional climate simulations. Recently, a variation of this approach called Spectral Nudging, has gained popularity for its ability to maintain the higher temporal and spatial variability of the model results, while forcing the large scales in the solution with a coarser resolution field. In this work, we focus on a not much explored aspect of this technique: the impact of selecting different cut-off wave numbers and spin-up times. We perform four-day long simulations with the WRF model, daily for three different one-month periods that include a free run and several Spectral Nudging experiments with cut-off wave numbers ranging from the smallest to the largest possible (full Grid Nudging). Results show that Spectral Nudging is very effective at imposing the selected scales onto the solution, while allowing the limited area model to incorporate finer scale features. The model error diminishes rapidly as the nudging expands over broader parts of the spectrum, but this decreasing trend ceases sharply at cut-off wave numbers equivalent to a length scale of about 1000 km, and the error magnitude changes minimally thereafter. This scale corresponds to the Rossby Radius of deformation, separating synoptic from convective scales in the flow. When nudging above this value is applied, a shifting of the synoptic patterns can occur in the solution, yielding large model errors. However, when selecting smaller scales, the fine scale contribution of the model is damped, thus making 1000 km the appropriate scale threshold to nudge in order to balance both effects

  12. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  13. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  14. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  15. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the vicinity of Europe's largest impact structure (Siljan, Central Sweden) focused for years on abiogenic concepts and largely neglected state of the art knowledge on hydrocarbon generation via thermal decomposition of organic matter. In our study we use sedimentary rocks obtained from three drill sites (Mora001, Stumsnaes 1 and Solberga 1) within the ring structure around the central uplift to investigate the hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian strata of the region and also for comparison with the shale oil and gas potential of age equivalent rocks of the Baltic Sea. Elemental analyses provided information on concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon, total sulfur as well as on the composition of major and minor elements of the sediments. The data has been used to evaluate the depositional environment and possible diagenetic alterations of the organic matter. RockEval pyrolysis and solvent hydrocarbon extraction gave insight into the hydrocarbon generation potential and the type and thermal maturity of the sediments. From the geochemistry data of the studied wells it is obvious that changes of depositional environments (lacustrine - marine) have occurred during Ordovician and Silurian times. Although, the quality of the organic matter has been influenced in marine and brackish environments through sulfate reduction, we observe for a number of marine and lacustrine sediments a good to excellent preservation of the biological precursors which qualify the sediments as hydrocarbon source rocks (Type II kerogens). Lacustrine source rocks show a higher remaining hydrocarbon potential (up to {proportional_to}550 mg HC per g C{sub org}) than those of marine or brackish environments. Our investigations indicate that the thermal maturity of organic matter of the drill sites has reached the initial stage of oil generation. However, at Mora001 some of the sediments were stained with oil indicating that hydrocarbons have

  16. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  17. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  18. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  19. The criteria for the decision of transrectal US-guided prostate biopsy: Can we reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joon Hyung; Cho, Jae Ho; Ahn, Jay Hong; Chang, Jay Chun

    2001-01-01

    To establish the criteria which can safely reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies by comparing the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) findings, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) in the decision of criteria for the prostatic biopsy using TRUS. Two hundred and twenty patients underwent TRUS- guided prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA and/or focal nodule on TRUS were included. Sixty five (27.5%) patients were confirmed as prostate cancer, and remained 155 (70.5%) patients were reported as benign diseases including benign prostate hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TRUS, PSA and PSAD were evaluated and the single criterion or the combination of the criteria which can safely reduce the unnecessary biopsies without missing prostatic cancer were investigated. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TRUS, PSA (cut-off value, 4 ng/ml) and PSAD (cut-off level, 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 ) were 78.5%/95.4%/95.4%/27.8%/51.6%/64/5%, 42.7%/64.5%/73.6%, respectively. PSAD cut-off level 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 was the most excellent single criterion for the decision of prostatic biopsy and the number of unnecessary biopsies was 100 cases. But 3 cases of prostatic cancer which the PSAD level was below 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 were included and in all these 3 cases, a focal nodule was detected on TRUS. Therefore, we applied these two criteria at once and the biopsies of 30 cases (13.6%) are unnecessary. With the single criterion, we could not obtain the satisfactory results but by the combinations of criteria (TRUS and PSAD), 30 (13.6%) cases are unnecessary biopsies without missing cancer. We think that the short term follow-up may be a substitute for the immediate when nodular lesion is suspicious on TRUS and serum PSAD level is below 0.2 ng/ml/cm 3 .

  20. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  1. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  2. Hydrocarbon solvent exposure data: compilation and analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, D J; Armstrong, T W; Barone, N J; Suder, J A; Evans, M J

    2000-01-01

    An occupational exposure database for hydrocarbon solvent end-use applications was constructed from the published literature. The database provides exposure assessment information for such purposes as regulatory risk assessments, support of industry product stewardship initiatives, and identification of applications in which limited exposure data are available. It is quantitative, documented, and based on credible data. Approximately 350 articles containing quantitative hydrocarbon solvent exposure data were identified using a search of computer databases of published literature. Many articles did not report sufficient details of the exposure data for inclusion in the database (e.g., full-shift exposure or task-based exposure data). Others were excluded because only limited summary statistics were provided, which precluded statistical analysis of the data (e.g., arithmetic mean concentration presented, but no sample number). Following evaluation, 16,880 hydrocarbon solvent exposure measurements from 99 articles were entered into a database for analysis. Methods used to identify and evaluate published solvent exposure data are described along with more detailed analysis of worker exposure to hydrocarbon solvents in three major end-use applications: painting and coating, printing, and adhesives. Solvent exposures were evaluated against current ACGIH threshold limit values (TLVs) and trends were identified. Limited quantitative data are available prior to 1970. In general, reported hydrocarbon solvent exposures decreased fourfold from 1960 to 1998, were below the TLVs applicable to specific hydrocarbon solvents at the time, and on average have been below 40% of the TLV since 1980. The database already has proved valuable; however, the utility of published exposure data could be further improved if authors consistently reported essential data elements and supporting information.

  3. Monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons by using stable carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Hinchee, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Spilled or leaked nonhalogenated petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil can generally be metabolized by indigenous, aerobic bacteria. In situ biological degradation of hydrocarbons may be accelerated by supplying inorganic nutrients and/or oxygen. Approaches to monitoring and verifying enhanced in situ biodegradation have included measurements of changes over time in the (a) concentration of hydrocarbons, (b) temperature, (c) number of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, (d) ratio of fast-degrading hydrocarbons (e.g., pristanes or phytanes), and (e) metabolic intermediates. Measurements of oxygen consumption over time and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations in soil gas also have been used as indicators of hydrocarbon degradation. An alternative approach that may help substantiate biodegradation is to measure stable carbon isotope ratios in soil gas CO 2 . Stable carbon isotope ratio analysis is inexpensive and commercially available at many laboratories. Carbon dioxide produced by hydrocarbon degradation may be distinguished from that produced by other processes based on the carbon isotopic compositions characteristic of the source material and/or fractionation accompanying microbial metabolism. Here the authors demonstrate the applicability of the stable isotope technique for monitoring enhanced. aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons using data from three locations in the United States

  4. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  5. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  6. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  7. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  8. Biodegrader metabolic expansion during polyaromatic hydrocarbons rhizoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, C.L.; Susilawati, E.; Kravchenko, A.N. [Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Thomas, J.C. [Dept. of Natural Sciences, Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Root-microbe interactions are considered to be the primary process of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phytoremediation, since bacterial degradation has been shown to be the dominant pathway for environmental PAH dissipation. However, the precise mechanisms driving PAH rhizostimulation symbiosis remain largely unresolved. In this study, we assessed PAH degrading bacterial abundance in contaminated soils planted with 18 different native Michigan plant species. Phenanthrene metabolism assays suggested that each plant species differentially influenced the relative abundance of PAH biodegraders, though they generally were observed to increase heterotrophic and biodegradative cell numbers relative to unplanted soils. Further study of > 1800 phenanthrene degrading isolates indicated that most of the tested plant species stimulated biodegradation of a broader range of PAH compounds relative to the unplanted soil bacterial consortia. These observations suggest that a principal contribution of planted systems for PAH bioremediation may be via expanded metabolic range of the rhizosphere bacterial community. (orig.)

  9. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  10. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  11. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  12. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  13. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  14. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  15. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  16. The origins of the slurry trench cut-off and a review of cement-bentonite cut-off walls in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    On the occasion of the first International Containment Technology Conference it is appropriate to look back to the origins of containment walls as well as forward to the new technologies that we may need for the complex chemical and physical environments in which containment may be employed in the future. This paper looks at the development of slurry trench technology from the first concepts in 1938, the first field trials in 1945 and on to the cement-bentonite walls used in the UK today and the issues associated with defining appropriate materials performance

  17. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  18. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  19. Characterization of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons during a landfarming bioremediation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfarming bioremediation was performed over 2 years on soil heavily polluted with weathered oil and oil derivatives: 23200 mg kg-1 of mineral oil, 35300 mg kg-1 total hydrocarbons, and 8.65 mg kg-1 of total PAHs. During the experiment, mineral oil, total hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations decreased by approximately 53%, 27% and 72%, respectively. A GC/MS-Scan was used to identify the crude oil components that persist after bioremediation treatment of contaminated soil and the metabolites generated during this process. The data shows that in weathered-hydrocarbons contaminated soil, the number of initially detected compounds after the bioremediation process further decreased over a 2 year period, and at the same time several new compounds were observed at the end of experiment. Higher persistence was also shown for heavier n-alkanes and branched alkanes, which could be detected over a longer period of time. The analysis highlights the importance of n-alkanes, their substituted derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the most significant pollutants.

  20. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  1. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  2. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  3. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  4. Inhibition of hydrocarbon bioremediation by lead in a crude oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, E.S.; Obuekwe, C. [Kuwait University (Kuwait). Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Program

    2005-07-01

    Analyses of soil samples revealed that the level of lead (total or bioavailable) was three-fold greater in crude oil contaminated than in uncontaminated Kuwaiti soils. Investigation of the possible inhibitory effect of lead on hydrocarbon degradation by the soil microbiota showed that the number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria decreased with increased levels of lead nitrate added to soil samples, whether oil polluted or not. At 1.0 mg lead nitrate g{sup -1} dry soil, the number of degraders of hexadecane, naphthalene and crude oil declined by 14%, 23% and 53%, respectively. In a similar manner, the degradation and mineralization of different hydrocarbons decreased with increased lead content in cultures, although the decreases were not significantly different (P>0.05). The dehydrogenase activities of soil samples containing hydrocarbons as substrates also declined with an increase in the lead content of soil samples. (author)

  5. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  6. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  7. Problems of hydrocarbon resources development in new bedding zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.I.; Koszhanov, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exploring geological surveying works were carried out for revealing of fuel resources in South Kazakhstan. Number of complex gas deposits - Ajrakty, Amangel'dy, Kumyrly and others as well as Northern Usharly and Usharal-Kemirtobe deposits of nitrogen-helium gas are recovered. Introduction its into operation has significant importance in consequence of urgent fuel deficit in region. Basic way of guaranteed gas supply to industry and population of South Kazakhstan is connected with own hydrocarbon fields development

  8. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  9. Analysis of some aromatic hydrocarbons in a benzene-soluble bitumen from Green River shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrocarbon content of an aromatic fraction, isolated from the bitumen of Green River shale, was studied by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectrometry, gas chromatography and a dehydrogenation technique. The hydrocarbon types and their distribution in this aromatic fraction, as determined by mass spectrometry, are presented. The carbon-number range, empirical formulas and quantity of each compound in the major types are reported. Mass spectra of several compounds and homologous mixtures of compounds isolated from the aromatic fraction are also given.

  10. MODELING GALACTIC EXTINCTION WITH DUST AND 'REAL' POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Zonca, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the remarkable apparent variety of galactic extinction curves by modeling extinction profiles with core-mantle grains and a collection of single polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our aim is to translate a synthetic description of dust into physically well-grounded building blocks through the analysis of a statistically relevant sample of different extinction curves. All different flavors of observed extinction curves, ranging from the average galactic extinction curve to virtually 'bumpless' profiles, can be described by the present model. We prove that a mixture of a relatively small number (54 species in 4 charge states each) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can reproduce the features of the extinction curve in the ultraviolet, dismissing an old objection to the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the interstellar extinction curve. Despite the large number of free parameters (at most the 54 × 4 column densities of each species in each ionization state included in the molecular ensemble plus the 9 parameters defining the physical properties of classical particles), we can strongly constrain some physically relevant properties such as the total number of C atoms in all species and the mean charge of the mixture. Such properties are found to be largely independent of the adopted dust model whose variation provides effects that are orthogonal to those brought about by the molecular component. Finally, the fitting procedure, together with some physical sense, suggests (but does not require) the presence of an additional component of chemically different very small carbonaceous grains.

  11. Sparse representation and Bayesian detection of genome copy number alterations from microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique-Regi, Roger; Monso-Varona, Jordi; Ortega, Antonio; Seeger, Robert C; Triche, Timothy J; Asgharzadeh, Shahab

    2008-02-01

    Genomic instability in cancer leads to abnormal genome copy number alterations (CNA) that are associated with the development and behavior of tumors. Advances in microarray technology have allowed for greater resolution in detection of DNA copy number changes (amplifications or deletions) across the genome. However, the increase in number of measured signals and accompanying noise from the array probes present a challenge in accurate and fast identification of breakpoints that define CNA. This article proposes a novel detection technique that exploits the use of piece wise constant (PWC) vectors to represent genome copy number and sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) to detect CNA breakpoints. First, a compact linear algebra representation for the genome copy number is developed from normalized probe intensities. Second, SBL is applied and optimized to infer locations where copy number changes occur. Third, a backward elimination (BE) procedure is used to rank the inferred breakpoints; and a cut-off point can be efficiently adjusted in this procedure to control for the false discovery rate (FDR). The performance of our algorithm is evaluated using simulated and real genome datasets and compared to other existing techniques. Our approach achieves the highest accuracy and lowest FDR while improving computational speed by several orders of magnitude. The proposed algorithm has been developed into a free standing software application (GADA, Genome Alteration Detection Algorithm). http://biron.usc.edu/~piquereg/GADA

  12. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  13. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  14. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  15. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachon Q, Jorge; Garcia L, Hector; Bustos L, Martha; Bravo A, Humberto; Sosa E, Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were determined in particulate matter with a <10 mm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in three industrial municipalities of the metropolitan zone of Bogota City (MZBC). The 12 samples of greatest concentration of PM10 collected between 2001 and 2002 at the stations of atmospheric monitoring of Cundinamarca secretary of health (SSC), in the municipalities of Soacha, Sibate and Cajica, were analyzed. The results were correlated with emissions in the area, by means of emission factors and environmental agencies information. The particulate matter results for the analyzed period show concentrations that exceed the air quality standard of the US environmental protection agency EPA on several occasions at the Soacha municipality, whereas the air quality in the Sibate and Cajica municipalities did not show that to be the case. Despite the reduced number of samples and sampling sites, we believe that the reported profiles can be considered a valid estimation of the average air quality of the MZBC. The identified PAH species were: phenanthrene(Phe), anthracene(Ant), fluoranthene(Fla), pyrene(Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (Baa), chrysene(chr), benzo(ghi)perylene(BgP) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene(Ind). It was not possible to quantify naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthy-lene(Acy), acenaphthene(Ace), nor fluorene(Flu), being light and volatile hydrocarbons with greater presence in the gaseous phase of the air. The correlation of PAH with source emissions shows mobile sources to be the main origin. The intervals of concentration of both individual PAH and the total species were similar to the ones usually found in other industrial zones of the world. PAHs correlations allowed pinpointing common emission sources between Soacha and Sibate municipalities

  16. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  17. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  18. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  19. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  20. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  1. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  2. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  3. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  4. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  5. Interactive physically-based structural modeling of hydrocarbon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosson, Mael; Grudinin, Sergei; Bouju, Xavier; Redon, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbon systems have been intensively studied via numerical methods, including electronic structure computations, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Typically, these methods require an initial structural model (atomic positions and types, topology, etc.) that may be produced using scripts and/or modeling tools. For many systems, however, these building methods may be ineffective, as the user may have to specify the positions of numerous atoms while maintaining structural plausibility. In this paper, we present an interactive physically-based modeling tool to construct structural models of hydrocarbon systems. As the user edits the geometry of the system, atomic positions are also influenced by the Brenner potential, a well-known bond-order reactive potential. In order to be able to interactively edit systems containing numerous atoms, we introduce a new adaptive simulation algorithm, as well as a novel algorithm to incrementally update the forces and the total potential energy based on the list of updated relative atomic positions. The computational cost of the adaptive simulation algorithm depends on user-defined error thresholds, and our potential update algorithm depends linearly with the number of updated bonds. This allows us to enable efficient physically-based editing, since the computational cost is decoupled from the number of atoms in the system. We show that our approach may be used to effectively build realistic models of hydrocarbon structures that would be difficult or impossible to produce using other tools.

  6. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  7. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  8. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  9. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  10. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  11. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  12. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  13. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  14. Impact of rock salt creep law choice on subsidence calculations for hydrocarbon reservoirs overlain by evaporite caprocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marketos, G.; Spiers, C.J.; Govers, R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate forward modeling of surface subsidence above producing hydrocarbons reservoirs requires an understanding of the mechanisms determining how ground deformation and subsidence evolve. Here we focus entirely on rock salt, which overlies a large number of reservoirs worldwide, and specifically

  15. Hydrocarbon occurrence in NW Africa's MSGBC area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymond, A.; Negroni, P.

    1989-06-01

    The MSGBC (Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Conakry) coastal basin has evolved as a passive margin from Jurassic time up to the present following a period of poorly known rifting of Permian to Middle Jurassic age. Structural configuration of the Paleozoic series is documented by large outcrops and a good number of seismic sections. Based on previous exploration efforts that found significant hydrocarbon shows, a comprehensive study of this African basin's source rocks, maturation evolution and petroleum generation potential was undertaken. About 1,000 geochemical analyses of the Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series identified good source rocks in the Cenomano-Turonian, Silurian, Senonian and Paleocene ages. The parameters used to identify and characterize source rock are: Total organic carbon content (TOC) in percent and source potential (in kg HC/t), representing the amount of hydrocarbon generated per ton of rock and determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.

  16. Source allocation by least-squares hydrocarbon fingerprint matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Burns; Stephen M. Mudge; A. Edward Bence; Paul D. Boehm; John S. Brown; David S. Page; Keith R. Parker [W.A. Burns Consulting Services LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2006-11-01

    There has been much controversy regarding the origins of the natural polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chemical biomarker background in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, site of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Different authors have attributed the sources to various proportions of coal, natural seep oil, shales, and stream sediments. The different probable bioavailabilities of hydrocarbons from these various sources can affect environmental damage assessments from the spill. This study compares two different approaches to source apportionment with the same data (136 PAHs and biomarkers) and investigate whether increasing the number of coal source samples from one to six increases coal attributions. The constrained least-squares (CLS) source allocation method that fits concentrations meets geologic and chemical constraints better than partial least-squares (PLS) which predicts variance. The field data set was expanded to include coal samples reported by others, and CLS fits confirm earlier findings of low coal contributions to PWS. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  18. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Sharonville, OH (United States); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Taylor, J. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Murphy, M. J. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-22

    This report is an updated version of the 2014 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single-compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until December 2016 as well as a number of previously unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This version of the compendium contains cetane values for 496 pure compounds, including 204 hydrocarbons and 292 oxygenates. 176 individual measurements are new to this version of the compendium, all of them collected using ASTM Method D6890, which utilizes an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) a type of constant-volume combustion chamber. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. The text of this document is unchanged from the 2014 version, except for the numbers of compounds in Section 3.1, the Appendices, Table 1. Primary Cetane Number Data Sources and Table 2. Number of Measurements Included in Compendium. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines. It is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant-volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane number has been expanded, and the data have been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  19. Distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, K.; Dahlmann, G.; Gunkel, W.

    1993-01-01

    Data were collected in 1988 and 1989 on the distribution and activity of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Crude oil degrading bacteria and the number of bacteria which in particular degrade naphthalene were quantified using a modified dilution method (MPN). Crude oil degrading bacteria were present in all of about 100 water samples, with as many as 10 3 ml -1 in some samples. Numbers of naphthalene degrading bacteria were at least tenfold lower. There is obviously a greater connection between this bacteria group and petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination than between the more nonspecific group of crude oil degrading bacteria and PHC contamination. Data from the North Sea show an extremely high abundance of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, even in winter, while in the southern Baltic Sea low numbers of bacteria were found and slower crude oil degradation was observed. (orig.)

  20. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.