WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon cut-off number

  1. Using an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off value increases the number of older patients in whom deep vein thrombosis can be safely excluded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Renée A.; Tan, Melanie; Schutgens, Roger E.G.; Bates, Shannon M.; Perrier, Arnaud; Legnani, Cristina; Biesma, Douwe H.; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S.; Bounameaux, Henri; Palareti, Gualtiero; Carrier, Marc; Mol, Gerben C.; Le Gal, Grégoire; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Righini, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background D-dimer testing to rule out deep vein thrombosis is less useful in older patients because of a lower specificity. An age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value increased the proportion of older patients (>50 years) in whom pulmonary embolism could be excluded. We retrospectively validated the eff

  2. From Dimensional to Cut-Off Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Dillig, M

    2006-01-01

    We extent the standard approach of dimensional regularization of Feynman diagrams: we replace the transition to lower dimensions by a 'natural' cut-off regulator. Introducing an external regulator of mass Lambda^(2e), we regain in the limit e -> 0 and e > 0 the results of dimensional and cut-off regularization, respectively. We demonstrate the versatility and adequacy of the different regularization schemes for practical examples (such as non covariant regularization, the axial anomaly or regularization in effective field theories).

  3. A PROBLEM OF CUTTING OFF THE LAMINATED SEMIS TYPE PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Ciofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem often coped on many domains such as wood manufacturing, glass, plastics and metallic platework industry, is the shaping or cutting off a big plate in many pieces. With this purpose there are algorithms of optimizing for positioning the parts following to be cut off from a row plate. From mathematical point of view, in positioning the parts on a raw plate the number of solutions increase four times evrey time a new part is added, and in case of finding the best solution for about few hundreds of pieces or parts would require years of processing on the most performant computers nowadays – for an analogy remember the famous story with the rice beads which the King had to pay to the master teaching him the chess: twice more for each square of the chessboard; for the total quantity assessment, King ascertained that the crops in his whole life wouldn’t have been enough.

  4. Optimal cut-off values and population means of waist circumference in different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Si, Damin

    2010-12-01

    Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, and has become a major public health problem in the world. Waist circumference is generally used as a simple surrogate marker to define abdominal obesity for population screening. An increasing number of publications solely rely on the method that maximises sensitivity and specificity to define 'optimal' cut-off values. It is well documented that the optimal cut-off values of waist circumference vary across different ethnicities. However, it is not clear if the variation in cut-off values is a true biological phenomenon or an artifact of the method for identifying optimal cut-off points. The objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between optimal cut-offs and population waist circumference levels. Among sixty-one research papers, optimal cut-off values ranged from 65·5 to 101·2 cm for women and 72·5 to 103·0 cm for men. Reported optimal cut-off values were highly correlated with population means (correlation coefficient: 0·91 for men and 0·93 for women). Such a strong association was independent of waist circumference measurement techniques or the health outcomes (dyslipidaemia, hypertension or hyperglycaemia), and existed in some homogeneous populations such as the Chinese and Japanese. Our findings raised some concerns about applying the sensitivity and specificity approach to determine cut-off values. Further research is needed to understand whether the differences among populations in waist circumference were genetically or environmentally determined, and to understand whether using region-specific cut-off points can identify individuals with the same absolute risk levels of metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes among different populations.

  5. Spin Cut-off Parameter of Nuclear Level Density and Effective Moment of Inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.N. Behkami; M. Soltani

    2005-01-01

    The spin cut-off parameter of the nuclear level density and effective moment of inertia for a large number of nuclei have been determined from analysis of the experimental data on S-wave neutron resonances and spins of lowlying levels. Contrary to claims made before, it is shown the spin cut-off parameter differs considerably from their corresponding rigid body values, and the energy dependence of the effective moment of inertia confirms the interacting fermion model prediction.

  6. Mineralogical and chemical-physical effects of hydrocarbon permeation in composite liners and cut-off walls. Final report; Mineralogische und chemisch-physikalische Auswirkungen der Permeation von Kohlenwasserstoffen in Kombinationsdichtungen und -dichtwaenden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbe, U.; Berger, W.; Mueller, W.; Brune, M.; Eckardt, J.; Tatzky-Gerth, R.; Ache, W.; Goebbels, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Breu, J.; Kerzdoerfer, H. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2000-05-31

    Composite liner systems (HDPE geomembrane and compacted mineral liner) are used in Germany in landfills and for the lining of contaminated sites according to the technical regulations. It is expected that these lining systems provide a highly efficient and reliable technical barrier for the long-term groundwater protection. To support these expectations and assess the performance of the liner system even under extreme conditions, various composite liner systems were exposed to a mixture of 9 liquid hydrocarbons and their permeation behaviour was studied in permeation cells over 12 years. The cells were now dismantled and changes in the liner materials were carefully measured and controlled. The following issues were pursued in the research project: - effect of long-term hydrocarbon permeation and immersion on the properties of the geomembrane, - determination of the vertical distribution of organic contaminants in the mineral liner, - changes in the mineralogical, micromorphological and soil mechanical properties of the mineral liner brought about by the contaminant mixture, - investigation of the influence of microbial activity on the mineral layer, - modelling of the pollutant transport in the composite liner system. Neither geomembrane nor most of the tested mineral liners exhibited significant changes. Hydrocarbon permeation was proved to have been substantially suppressed by the composite liner. (orig.) [German] Zur Sicherung von Deponien und Altlasten mit dem Ziel eines langfristig wirksamen Grundwasserschutzes werden seit Mitte der 80er Jahre Kombinationsdichtungen (Verbund aus Kunststoffdichtungsbahn und mineralischer Dichtschichten) eingesetzt. Um deren Langzeitbestaendigkeit auch unter extremen Bedingungen bewerten zu koennen, wurden Permeationsmesszellen, welche die Verhaeltnisse in der Deponie nachstellen und ueber einen Zeitraum von 12 Jahren mit einem Mehrkomponentengemisch konzentrierter organischer Verbindungen beaufschlagt worden waren, zerlegt und

  7. Calculating broad neutron resonances in a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, Á; Salamon, P; Vertse, T

    2015-01-01

    In a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential with realistic depth $S$-matrix poles being far from the imaginary wave number axis form a sequence where the distances of the consecutive resonances are inversely proportional with the cut-off radius value. Other poles lying closer to the imaginary wave number axis might have trajectories with irregular shapes as the depth of the potential increases. Poles being close repel each other, and their repulsion is responsible for the changes of the directions of the corresponding trajectories. The interaction is extremely sensitive to the cut-off radius value. The repulsion might cause that certain resonances become antibound and later resonances again when they collide on the imaginary axis.

  8. Calculating broad neutron resonances in a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, A.; Noszaly, Cs. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Salamon, P. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary); Vertse, T. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-07-15

    In a cut-off Woods-Saxon (CWS) potential with realistic depth S -matrix poles being far from the imaginary wave number axis form a sequence where the distances of the consecutive resonances are inversely proportional with the cut-off radius value, which is an unphysical parameter. Other poles lying closer to the imaginary wave number axis might have trajectories with irregular shapes as the depth of the potential increases. Poles being close repel each other, and their repulsion is responsible for the changes of the directions of the corresponding trajectories. The repulsion might cause that certain resonances become antibound and later resonances again when they collide on the imaginary axis. The interaction is extremely sensitive to the cut-off radius value, which is an apparent handicap of the CWS potential. (orig.)

  9. Sensory cut-off point obtained from survival analysis statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Garitta, Lorena; Langohr, Klaus; Gómez Melis, Guadalupe; Hough, Guillermo; Beeren, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we applied interval-censored survival analysis techniques to estimate sensory cut-off points based on consumer’s decision to accept or reject food products taking into account the inherent variability in sensory measurements. We compared the values obtained using this survival analysis methodology with those obtained by applying a previous regression based method. Cut-off point (COP) estimations were made for acid flavor in yogurt, strawberry flavor in a strawberry flav...

  10. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  11. THE INTEGRAL HIGH-ENERGY CUT-OFF DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizia, A.; Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Stephen, J. B. [IASF-Bologna, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P. [IAPS-Roma, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bird, A. J., E-mail: malizia@iasfbo.inaf.it [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-20

    In this Letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Γ, and the high-energy cut-off E {sub c} of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We performed broadband (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by simultaneously fitting the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT, respectively, in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters, in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high-energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV for the whole sample. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in such a large number of AGNs. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region, i.e., the plasma temperature kT {sub e} from 20 to 100 keV and the optical depth τ < 4. Finally, with the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGNs, allowing the determination of more physical models and thus better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  12. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  13. Designing the sound of a cut-off drum

    CERN Document Server

    Martinetti, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The spectral action in noncommutative geometry naturally implements an ultraviolet cut-off, by counting the eigenvalues of a (generalized) Dirac operator lower than an energy of unification. Inverting the well known question "how to hear the shape of a drum ?", we ask what drum can be designed by hearing the truncated music of the spectral action ? This makes sense because the same Dirac operator also determines the metric, via Connes distance. The latter thus offers an original way to implement the high-momentum cut-off of the spectral action as a short distance cut-off on space. This is a non-technical presentation of the results of http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.2605

  14. Introduction of a distance cut-off into structural alignment by the double dynamic programming algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H

    1997-08-01

    Two approximations were introduced into the double dynamic programming algorithm, in order to reduce the computational time for structural alignment. One of them was the so-called distance cut-off, which approximately describes the structural environment of each residue by its local environment. In the approximation, a sphere with a given radius is placed at the center of the side chain of each residue. The local environment of a residue is constituted only by the residues with side chain centers that are present within the sphere, which is expressed by a set of center-to-center distances from the side chain of the residue to those of all the other constituent residues. The residues outside the sphere are neglected from the local environment. Another approximation is associated with the distance cut-off, which is referred to here as the delta N cut-off. If two local environments are similar to each other, the numbers of residues constituting the environments are expected to be similar. The delta N cut-off was introduced based on the idea. If the difference between the numbers of the constituent residues of two local environments is greater than a given threshold value, delta N, the evaluation of the similarity between the local environments is skipped. The introduction of the two approximations dramatically reduced the computational time for structural alignment by the double dynamic programming algorithm. However, the approximations also decreased the accuracy of the alignment. To improve the accuracy with the approximations, a program with a two-step alignment algorithm was constructed. At first, an alignment was roughly constructed with the approximations. Then, the epsilon-suboptimal region for the alignment was determined. Finally, the double dynamic programming algorithm with full structural environments was applied to the residue pairs within the epsilon-suboptimal region to produce an improved alignment.

  15. Defining Obesity Cut-Off Points for Migrant South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Laura J.; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J.; Brady, Emer; Webb, David R.; Sattar, Naveed; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2011-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population. Methods 4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40–75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans. Findings For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 20.7 kg/m2 to 24.5 kg/m2) for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m2 to 27.3 kg/m2) for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m2 to 30.4 kg/m2) for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm) for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm) for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm) for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC. Conclusions Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans) for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22039493

  16. The Cut-off Values of Triglycerides and Glucose Index for Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Park, Joon Sung; Ahn, Youhern

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ethnic- and gender-specific cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose index (TyG index) for clinical usefulness in a representative sample of Mexican American, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Korean adolescents. The data were collected from datasets of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2012, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2005 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to find valid cut-off values of the TyG index for metabolic syndrome. The total number of eligible participants was 3,164 in the US and 4,873 in Korea. The optimal cut-off value with the Cook et al. definition revealed 8.55 in Mexican American, 8.55 in Non-Hispanic White, 8.35 in Non-Hispanic Black, and 8.45 in Korean, respectively. The cut-off value with the de Ferranti et al. definition was 8.45, 8.45, 8.15, and 8.35, and the cut-off value with the International Diabetes Federation definition was 8.65, 8.65, 8.15, and 8.55, respectively. These findings may be clinically useful for evaluating insulin resistance for determining metabolic abnormalities in adolescents.

  17. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  18. Quantum fields and Poisson processes: interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.; Rideau, G.; Gaveau, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schroedinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

  19. Quantum fields and poisson processes: Interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jacqueline; Gaveau, Bernard; Rideau, Guy

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schrödinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

  20. Energetics of southeastern Pacific cut-off lows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Manoel Alonso; Piva, Everson Dal

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cut-off lows (COLs) over South Pacific and South America is often associated with adverse weather events such as intense precipitation over the central region of South America, frost episodes in southern Brazil and the development of Andes lee cyclones and intense cyclones over the southern coast of Brazil. Despite this importance, the formation and maintenance mechanisms of the COLs are not well understood. To detail the significant variability in terms of the eddy kinetic energy equation for fifty cases of COLs that formed over the southeastern Pacific Ocean is the aim of this study. Only the cases of COLs that formed over the ocean and remained there during most of their life were chosen. The main terms of the equation [ageostrophic flux convergence (AFC), baroclinic conversion (BRC) and barotropic conversion (BRT)] were calculated using the 6-hourly gridded data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Department of Energy reanalysis. The formation mechanism of the COLs was associated with BRC and AFC. During the midlife period, the BRC term converted eddy kinetic energy to eddy potential energy and the AFC had a positive contribution until 6 h after the midlife point. In the dissipation phase, the BRC term remained positive and AFC became negative. The BRT extracted kinetic energy from the COL during the entire life cycle. The AFC term was the most important in all phases of the cut-off lifetime, and it was the responsible for extending the cut-off lifetime while the others terms were negatives.

  1. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne O.; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    respondents’ attribute cut-off values and their validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit attribute cut-off values and are less likely to violate their cut-off values. Further investigation using......In order to lower the cognitive burden of decision making, consumers may apply attribute cut-off values to simplify decision strategies. Products with attributes that do not pass the cut-off values are either not being considered by the individual or are greatly discounted. This study provides new...

  2. Flexible Lab-Tailored Cut-Offs for Suitability of Formalin-Fixed Tumor Samples for Diagnostic Mutational Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Sara; Tondat, Fabrizio; Pacchioni, Donatella; Molinaro, Luca; Barreca, Antonella; Macrì, Luigia; Chiusa, Luigi; di Celle, Paola Francia; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The selection of proper tissues from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumors before diagnostic molecular testing is responsibility of the pathologist and represents a crucial step to produce reliable test results. The international guidelines suggest two cut-offs, one for the percentage and one for the number of tumor cells, in order to enrich the tumor content before DNA extraction. The aim of the present work was two-fold: to evaluate to what extent a low percentage or absolute number of tumor cells can be qualified for somatic mutation testing; and to determine how assay sensitivities can guide pathologists towards a better definition of morphology-based adequacy cut-offs. We tested 1797 tumor specimens from melanomas, colorectal and lung adenocarcinomas. Respectively, their BRAF, K-RAS and EGFR genes were analyzed at specific exons by mutation-enriched PCR, pyrosequencing, direct sequencing and real-time PCR methods. We demonstrate that poorly cellular specimens do not modify the frequency distribution of either mutated or wild-type DNA samples nor that of specific mutations. This observation suggests that currently recommended cut-offs for adequacy of specimens to be processed for molecular assays seem to be too much stringent in a laboratory context that performs highly sensitive routine analytical methods. In conclusion, new cut-offs are needed based on test sensitivities and documented tumor heterogeneity. PMID:25844806

  3. Permeability porosity relationships (K, Phi cut-off)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djettou, F.; Reda, H. [Sonatrach, Algiers (Algeria)

    1995-08-01

    Several reservoirs of Lower Devonian in Ghadames basin present porosities greater than 10 Pu, but during the test they are rather impermeable. It seems that this phenomena extends to BERKINE and Rhourd Messaoud areas. This seriously affect the estimation of recovery reserves. The best we can do is to study and try to understand reservoir problems. The method we choose is based on statistical analysis of test results and their comparison with core and log measurements. It concerns mainly cummulative curves of productive and non-productive tests (dry test). This involves about 20 wells where are can define: Siegenian with: Fine grained in BBK and ROM Coarse grained toward BRN - Emsian is rather homogeneous in the region. The sand cut-off porosity is greater than 11 Pu. However the reservoir can`t produce itself then we can not take account in reserve estimation. In conclusion, a sandy reservoir of Lower Devonian in Ghadames basin may be very porous (11-12%) and impermeable while in the other cases reservoirs can produce with porosity of 7 or 8 Po. However a HC definition based on cut-off porosity in Ghadames basin should be done before net pay an recovery reserves estimation.

  4. Elevated d-dimer cut-off values for computed tomography pulmonary angiography—d-dimer correlates with location of embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubak, Mateuzs Piotr; Borthne, Arne; Ruud, Espen Asak; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a potentially fatal condition, and making a timely diagnosis can be challenging. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the modality of choice, and this contributes to the increasing load on emergency room CT scanners. Our purpose was to investigate whether an elevated d-dimer cut-off could reduce the demand for CTPA while maintaining a high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV). Methods We retrospectively reviewed all patients referred for CTPA with suspicion of APE in 2012, and collected d-dimer values and CTPA results. We investigated the diagnostic performance of d-dimer using a 0.5 mg/L cut-off and an age adjusted cut-off. We also evaluated a new and elevated cut-off. Cases were categorized according to their CTPA result into: no embolism, peripheral embolism, lobar embolism and central embolism. Finally we investigated a possible correlation between d-dimer values and location of embolism. Results We included 1,051 CTPAs, from which 216 (21%) showed pulmonary embolism. There were concomitant d-dimer analyses in 822 CTPA examinations. The current 0.5 mg/L cut-off achieved a sensitivity and NPV of 99%. The age-adjusted cut-off achieved a sensitivity and NPV of 98%, and our suggested cut-off of 0.9 mg/L achieved a sensitivity and NPV of 97%. Conclusions We conclude that the elevated d-dimer cut-off of 0.9 mg/L achieved a high sensitivity and NPV, while reducing the number of CTPA by 27%. The correlation between d-dimer values and location of embolisms supports the suggestion of an elevated d-dimer value. PMID:27386486

  5. Screening for colorectal cancer: random comparison of guaiac and immunochemical faecal occult blood testing at different cut-off levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, L; Wilschut, J A; van Ballegooijen, M; van Vuuren, A J; van der Valk, H; Reijerink, J C I Y; van der Togt, A C M; Kuipers, E J; Habbema, J D F; van Leerdam, M E

    2009-01-01

    Immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (FIT) provides quantitative test results, which allows optimisation of the cut-off value for follow-up colonoscopy. We conducted a randomised population-based trial to determine test characteristics of FIT (OC-Sensor micro, Eiken, Japan) screening at different cut-off levels and compare these with guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening in an average risk population. A representative sample of the Dutch population (n=10 011), aged 50–74 years, was 1 : 1 randomised before invitation to gFOBT and FIT screening. Colonoscopy was offered to screenees with a positive gFOBT or FIT (cut-off 50 ng haemoglobin/ml). When varying the cut-off level between 50 and 200 ng ml−1, the positivity rate of FIT ranged between 8.1% (95% CI: 7.2–9.1%) and 3.5% (95% CI: 2.9–4.2%), the detection rate of advanced neoplasia ranged between 3.2% (95% CI: 2.6–3.9%) and 2.1% (95% CI: 1.6–2.6%), and the specificity ranged between 95.5% (95% CI: 94.5–96.3%) and 98.8% (95% CI: 98.4–99.0%). At a cut-off value of 75 ng ml−1, the detection rate was two times higher than with gFOBT screening (gFOBT: 1.2%; FIT: 2.5%; P<0.001), whereas the number needed to scope (NNscope) to find one screenee with advanced neoplasia was similar (2.2 vs 1.9; P=0.69). Immunochemical faecal occult blood testing is considerably more effective than gFOBT screening within the range of tested cut-off values. From our experience, a cut-off value of 75 ng ml−1 provided an adequate positivity rate and an acceptable trade-off between detection rate and NNscope. PMID:19337257

  6. Physical and cut-off effects of heavy sea quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco; Bruno, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Leder, Björn; Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a theory with two dynamical O($a$) improved Wilson quarks whose mass $M$ ranges from a factor eight up to a factor two below the charm quark mass and at three values of the lattice spacing ranging from 0.066 to 0.034 fm. This theory is a prototype to study the decoupling of heavy quarks. We measure the mass and cut-off dependence of ratios of gluonic observables defined from the Wilson flow or the static potential. The size of the 1/$M$ corrections can be determined and disentangled from the lattice artifacts. The difference with the pure gauge theory is at the percent level when two quarks with a mass of the charm quark are present.

  7. Transferring Cut-off Values between Assays for Cerebrospinal Fluid Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Vanderstichele, Hugo M. J.; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies quantifying cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers to identify subjects with Alzheimer's disease pathology report different concentrations in function of technology and suffer from between-laboratory variability. Hence, lab- and technology-specific cut-off values are required. It is common practice to establish cut-off values on small datasets and, in the absence of well-characterized samples, to transfer the cut-offs to another assay format using 'side-by-side' testing of sample...

  8. Emission Enhancement in a Plasmonic Waveguide at Cut-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alù

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of molecular emission is usually obtained by coupling small optical emitters with external resonant structures and systems, as first established by Purcell several decades ago, and verified in several recent investigations using molecules or quantum dots coupled with plasmonic nanoantennas. Here we theoretically investigate in detail a different mechanism for emission enhancement, based on our recent idea of a plasmonic nanolauncher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 103, 043902], i.e., a metamaterial-inspired ultranarrow waveguide channel operating near its cut-off frequency. Such system is not necessarily at resonance, but its peculiar operation may provide enhanced emission over a relatively broad physical area, which may allow enhancement of emission independent of the position of an individual or of a group of molecules along such plasmonic channel, and the possibility to bend and route the emitted energy with large flexibility. We present here extensive theoretical and numerical results that confirm this intuition and may envision a novel method for molecular emission enhancement at the nanoscale, with more flexibility than the conventional Purcell resonance techniques.

  9. Surface Tension of Methanol as a Function of cut-off Radius and Temperature Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Abdalla; Jaradat, Adnan; Hamdan, Bushra

    Molecular dynamics is used to calculate the surface tension of van Leeuwen methanol. The van Leeuwen model of methanol is chosen over other models of methanol, since this model is widely used to study nucleation at low temperature. Usually, scientists use the cut-off radius to be three order of magnitude of segment diameter. In this study, we varied the cut-off radius to estimate the best cut-off at which the surface tension reaches its plateau. After deciding the best cut-off radius for van der Waals and Coulomb interactions (CUT-OFF and PME were used for Coulomb interaction), we varied the temperature controller (van-Housen, Berendsen, and v-rescale) to decide the best temperature controller to be used to study methanol. In all simulations, Gromacs is used at T =200-300K with periodic boundary conditions in all dimensions. JUST.

  10. Body mass index cut-offs for screening for childhood overweight and obesity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, V V; Khadilkar, A V; Borade, A B; Chiplonkar, S A

    2012-01-01

    To develop age and sex specific cut offs for BMI to screen for overweight and obesity in Indian children linked to an adult BMI of 23 and 28 kg/m2 respectively, using contemporary Indian data. Cross-sectional. Multicentric, School based. 19834 children were measured from 11 affluent schools from five major geographical regions of India. Data were analyzed using the LMS method, which constructs growth reference percentiles adjusted for skewness. Compared to the cut-offs suggested for European populations and those by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2007 Guidelines, the age and sex specific cut off points for body mass index for overweight and obesity for Indian children suggested by this study are lower. Contemporary cross-sectional age and sex specific BMI cut-offs for Indian children linked to Asian cut-offs of 23 and 28 kg/m2 for the assessment of risk of overweight and obesity, respectively are presented.

  11. Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines improve diagnostic accuracy for detecting pheochromocytomas in two separate cohorts, compared to symptom-independent cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Young; Song, Kee-Ho; Kim, Young Nam; Ahn, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyeonmok; Park, Sooyoun; Suh, Sunghwan; Kim, Beom-Jun; Lee, Soo-Youn; Chun, Sail; Koh, Jung-Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    The development of advanced imaging techniques has increased the detection of subclinical pheochromocytomas. Because of the substantial proportions of subclinical pheochromocytomas, measurement of urine metanephrine concentrations is crucial due to detect or exclude pheochromocytoma. Although urine metanephrines are elevated in symptomatic subjects, diagnostic cut-offs according to the presence of adrenergic symptoms have not been studied. Pheochromocytomas patients who underwent adrenalectomy at Samsung Medical Center and a control group were compared to determine cut-off concentrations of urine metanephrines. An independent population was analyzed for urine metanephrines with different kits to validate the improvement in diagnostic accuracy using adjusted cut-offs. Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines were higher for symptomatic patients (307 μg/day in males, 235 μg/day in females for urine metanephrine, and 1,045 μg/day in males and 457 μg/day in females for urine normetanephrine) than for asymptomatic patients (206 μg/day in males, 199 μg/day in females for urine metanephrine, and 489 μg/day in males and 442 μg/day in females for urine normetanephrine). Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines improved a specificity from 92.7 % to 96.3 % and a high sensitivity of 97.8 % was maintained. Using the Symptom-dependent cut-offs raised diagnostic accuracy by 5.5 % (p <0.001). Similar trend was also observed in an independent population using different hormone kits. Using symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines in symptomatic patients for pheochromocytomas resulted in a significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy in two separate cohorts.

  12. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  13. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  14. The puzzle about the radial cut-off in galactic disks

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, C A; Narayan, Chaitra A.; Jog, Chanda J.

    2003-01-01

    The stellar disk in a spiral galaxy is believed to be truncated physically because the disk surface brightness is observed to fall faster than that for an exponential in the outer, faint regions. We review the literature associated with this phenomenon and find that a number of recent observations contradict the truncation picture. Hence we question the very existence of a physical outer cut-off in stellar disks. We show, in this paper, that the observed drop in the surface brightness profiles in fact corresponds to a negligible decrease in intensity, and that this minor change at the faint end appears to be exaggerated on a log-normal plot. Since minor deviations from a perfect exponential are common throughout the disk, we suggest that such a deviation at the faint end could easily give rise to the observed sharp drop.

  15. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory;

    2016-01-01

    evidence on consumers’ heterogeneous use of attribute cut-offs with a unique focus on the relationship with consumer involvement, a key component in consumer choice theory. Behavioral data from an online choice experiment on beef steak employing shelf simulations are combined with questions defining...... a latent class model identifies several key consumer segments (e.g., a price sensitive group) based on their choice behavior and reveals that the relationship between involvement, cut-off use and cut-off violations is not uniform across consumer segments....

  16. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  17. Quantum fields and poisson processes II: Interaction of boson-boson and boson-fermion fields with a cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, J.; Gaveau, B.; Rideau, G.

    1985-05-01

    Quantum field evolutions are written as expectation values with respect to Poisson processes in two simple models: interaction of two boson fields (with conservation of the number of particles in one field) and interaction of a boson with a fermion field. The introduction of a cut-off ensures that the expectation values are well-defined.

  18. 76 FR 33161 - Installation and Use of Engine Cut-off Switches on Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... installed engine cut-off switch to their person, clothing, or life jacket (if worn) when operating a... variety of negative impacts, including loss of life, injuries, and property damage. As described above and...

  19. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: This study assessed healthy young adults to determine the normal limits for electrocardiographic ... The normal limits for heart rate, P wave duration, amplitude and axis in lead II ... Gender difference exists in some cut-off values for.

  20. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    antibiotics, the data sets were of sufficient quality and quantity to allow the setting of valid epidemiological cut-off values. For these agents, the cut-off values, calculated by the application of the statistically based normalized resistance interpretation method, were ≤16 mg L-1 for erythromycin, ≤2 mg L......-1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values...... could not be calculated. For ormetoprim/sulphadimethoxine, the data were excessively diverse and a valid cut-off could not be determined. For flumequine, the putative wild-type data were extremely skewed, and for enrofloxacin, there was inadequate separation in the MIC values for putative wild-type...

  1. Important factors influencing molecular weight cut-off determination of membranes in organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Dutczak, S.M.; Boerrigter, M.E.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    In solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF), sensible selection of a membrane for a particular solvent/solute system is recognized as challenging. Prospective methods for suitability analysis of membranes include molecular weight cut off (MWCO) characterization. However, insufficient understanding of

  2. The acoustic cut-off frequency of the Sun and the solar magnetic activity cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, A; Palle, P L

    2011-01-01

    The acoustic cut-off frequency -the highest frequency for acoustic solar eigenmodes- is an important parameter of the solar atmosphere as it determines the upper boundary of the p-mode resonant cavities. At frequencies beyond this value, acoustic disturbances are no longer trapped but traveling waves. Interference amongst them give rise to higher-frequency peaks -the pseudomodes- in the solar acoustic spectrum. The pseudomodes are shifted slightly in frequency with respect to p modes making possible the use of pseudomodes to determine the acoustic cut-off frequency. Using data from GOLF and VIRGO instruments on board the SOHO spacecraft, we calculate the acoustic cut-off frequency using the coherence function between both the velocity and intensity sets of data. By using data gathered by these instruments during the entire lifetime of the mission (1996 till the present), a variation in the acoustic cut-off frequency with the solar magnetic activity cycle is found.

  3. The Mass Shell of the Nelson Model without Cut-Offs

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Pizzo, A

    2011-01-01

    The massless Nelson model describes non-relativistic, spinless quantum particles interacting with a relativistic, massless, scalar quantum field. The interaction is linear in the field. We analyze the one particle sector. First, we construct the renormalized mass shell of the non-relativistic particle for an arbitrarily small infrared cut-off that turns off the interaction with the low energy modes of the field. No ultraviolet cut-off is imposed. Second, we implement a suitable Bogolyubov transformation of the Hamiltonian in the infrared regime. This transformation depends on the total momentum of the system and is non-unitary as the infrared cut-off is removed. For the transformed Hamiltonian we construct the mass shell in the limit where both the ultraviolet and the infrared cut-off are removed. Our approach is constructive and leads to explicit expansion formulae which are amenable to rigorously control the S-matrix elements.

  4. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  5. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  6. Less pollution - less raw materials - less noise: Automatic cylinder cut-off technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    VW's automatic cylinder cut-off technology displays its advantages especially in city traffic - as road tests have proved. Though no fuel saving was measured on motorways it came up to 16% when driving on country roads and 30% in inner city traffic. One intends to use cylinder cut-off first for diesel cars as the restart reliability of diesel engines is much higher than that of petrol engines. (HW)

  7. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  8. Phase properties of the cut-off high-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Khokhlova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The cut-off regime of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in an intense laser field is studied numerically and analytically. We find that the cut-off regime is characterized by equal dephasing between the successive harmonics. The change of the harmonic phase-locking when HHG evolves from the cut-off to the plateau regime determines the optimal bandwidth of the spectral region which should be used for attosecond pulse generation via amplitude gating technique. The cut-off regime is also characterized by a linear dependence of the harmonic phase on the fundamental intensity. The proportionality coefficient grows as the cube of the fundamental wavelength, thus this dependence becomes very important for the HHG by mid-infrared fields. Moreover, for every high harmonic there is a {\\it range} of laser intensities providing the generation in the cut-off regime and the atomic response magnitude in this regime can be greater than that in the plateau regime. Thus the cut-off regime substantially contributes ...

  9. Effect of copper slag recovery on hydrometallurgical cut-off grades considering environmental aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AFSHIN AKBARI; ESMAEIL RAHIMI

    2016-01-01

    Determining the hydrometallurgical cut-off grades specifies the destination of low grade materials and this is subjected to more benefits in mining. Copper production rate is considered as one of the fundamental issues in hydrometallurgical cut-off grades determination. Slags are remarked as one of the main sources of copper. It is not only regarded as a waste but also identified as another resource extracting base metals. Slags are characterized by copper high grade. Thus, slag copper recovery can be led to different cut-off grades and net present value (NPV). The current research scrutinizes the effect of slag recovery by both flotation and hydrometallurgical methods on the hydrometallurgical cut-off grades. For this purpose, the optimum cut-off grade algorithms of hydrometallurgical methods are developed by considering associated environmental parameters, incomes and also the costs. Then, their optimum amounts are calculated with NPV maximization as an objective function. The results indicate that considering slag copper recovery in the hydrometallurgical cut-off grade algorithms reduces the environmental costs caused by slag dumping and leads to more NPV by 9%.

  10. Cut-off wavenumber of Alfven waves in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Zaqarashvili, T V; Ballester, J L; Khodachenko, M L

    2012-01-01

    Alfven wave dynamics in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere shows that there is indeed a cut-off wavenumber, i.e. the Alfven waves with wavenumbers higher than the cut-off value are evanescent. The cut-off wavenumber appears in single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation but it is absent in a multi-fluid approach. Up to now, an explanation for the existence of the cut-off wavenumber is still missing. The aim of this paper is to point out the reason for the appearance of a cut-off wavenumber in single-fluid MHD. Beginning with three-fluid equations (with electrons, protons and neutral hydrogen atoms), we performed consecutive approximations until we obtained the usual single-fluid description is obtained. We solved the dispersion relation of linear Alfven waves at each step and sought the approximation responsible of the cut-off wavenumber appearance. We have found that neglecting inertial terms significantly reduces the real part of the Alfven frequency although it never becomes zero. T...

  11. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  12. Enhanced Narrow-band, Coherent Emission from a Current Source Immersed in Cut-off of a Plasma-like Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Min Sup; Ersfeld, Bernhard; Noble, Adam; Suk, Hyyong; Jaroszynski, Dino

    2016-10-01

    In plasma-like media sharing a similar dispersion relation, there exists a cut-off frequency to make the wave number zero. This particular situation has been understood classically in a way that the radiation impedance becomes infinite, resulting in a total reflection of an incident wave. However, in this framework of understanding the cut-off, a pure current source immersed in the cut-off region leads to infinite radiation power from Ohm's law. This is obviously unphysical and requires a different approach to address the problem. In this presentation, we show that by solving the driven time-dependent Schrödinger equation, the radiation at the cut-off frequency can be selectively enhanced by several times the pure vacuum-emission. Important question here is whether such current sources are available in practical systems. We find that quasi-current sources are actually ubiquitous as long as the conversion efficiency from the current driver to the radiation emission is low. We demonstrate two such cases by PIC simulations; THz radiation from a plasma driven by colliding laser pulses, and THz from two-color lasers enclosed by a tapered waveguide. We also discuss the previous experimental results in terms of this enhanced emission concept.

  13. Atmospheric structure and acoustic cut-off frequency of roAp stars

    CERN Document Server

    Audard, N; Morel, P; Provost, J P; Weiss, W W

    1998-01-01

    Some of the rapidly oscillating (CP2) stars, have frequencies which are larger than the theoretical acoustic cut-off frequency. As the cut-off frequency depends on the T(tau) relation in the atmosphere, we have computed models and adiabatic frequencies for pulsating Ap stars with T(tau) laws based on Kurucz model atmospheres and on Hopf's purely radiative relation. The frequency-dependent treatment of radiative transfer as well as an improved calculation of the radiative pressure in Kurucz model atmospheres increase the theoretical acoustic cut-off frequency by about 200 microHz, which is closer to the observations. For alpha Cir we find models with Kurucz atmospheres which have indeed a cut-off frequency beyond the largest observed frequency and which are well within the Teff - L error box. For HD 24712 only models which are hotter by about 100 K and less luminous by nearly 10% than what is actually the most probable value would have an acoustic cut-off frequency large enough. One may thus speculate that the...

  14. Investigation of the negative-mass behaviors occurring below a cut-off frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Shanshan; Zhou Xiaoming; Hu Gengkai, E-mail: zhxming@bit.edu.c, E-mail: hugeng@bit.edu.c [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Negative-mass phenomena occurring below a cut-off frequency are examined using both theoretical and experimental methods. The paper begins with an investigation of a mass-spring structure, the effective mass of which is shown to be negative below a specific frequency. Due to the decaying nature of lattice waves in the negative-mass system, the transmission drop induced by negative effective mass is demonstrated experimentally. Further investigation is conducted for a rectangular solid waveguide with clamped boundary conditions. It is shown that the lowest bandgap mode of the clamped waveguide can be attributed to negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency. Based on this observation, elastic metamaterials made of a steel grid filled with styrene butadiene rubber are designed and fabricated. Both the simulation and experimental analyses demonstrate that the designed metamaterials have negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency.

  15. BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION MODEL WITH ZETAc OPTIMAL CUT-OFF SCORE TO CORRECT TYPE I ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Iwan

    2005-06-01

    This research has successfully attained the following results: (1 type I error is in fact 59,83 times more costly compared to type II error, (2 22 ratios distinguish between bankrupt and non-bankrupt groups, (3 2 financial ratios proved to be effective in predicting bankruptcy, (4 prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score predicts more companies filing for bankruptcy within one year compared to prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score, (5 Although prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score is more accurate, prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score proved to be able to minimize cost incurred from classification errors.

  16. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths.

  17. STS-114: Engine Cut-Off Sensors Are a No-Go: Teaching Notes for NASA Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    This case study format is intended to simulate the experience of facing the same difficult challenges and making the same critical decisions as managers, engineers, and scientists in the Space Shuttle Program. It has been designed for use in the classroom setting to help students develop skills related to decision-making. Students will read about the engine cut-off sensor anomaly which created challenges during the STS-114 mission and have the opportunity to make decisions as lead NASA engineers and Mission Management Team members. Included within this document are three case study presentation options - class discussion, group activity, and open-ended research. Please read the full case prior to in-class presentation to allow ample time for students' analysis and reflection, as well as to prepare additional questions. activities or exercises, material selection, etc. Depending upon the setting of your presentation and the number of participants, please choose at least one presentation format beforehand and plan accordingly. You may expect the following learning objectives by using the proposed formats. Learning Objectives: To enable students to experience the responsibilities of NASA management, engineers, and analysis; to discover possible procedures for investigating system anomalies; to become familiar with the liquid hydrogen low level engine cut-off sensor, including its function, connecting components, and location within the Space Shuttle; and to encourage critical analysis and stimulating discussion of Space Shuttle mission challenges.

  18. Suppressing the weakly bound states in the photoassociation dynamics by using a frequency cut-off laser pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Feng; Zhang Wei; Zhao Ze-Yu; Cong Shu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    The photoassociation dynamics of ultracold lithium atoms controlled by a cut-off pulse has been investigated theoretically by solving numerically the time-dependent Schr(o)dinger equation using the mapped Fourier grid method.The frequency components of the laser pulse close to the atomic resonance are partly cut off.Compared with the typical Gauss-type pulses,the cut-off pulse is helpful to suppress efficiently the weakly bound states and prepare the associated molecules in the lower vibrational states.Especially,the dependence of photoassociation probability on the cut-off position of the laser pulse is explored.

  19. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti......Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women...

  20. Characteristics Of Fused Couplers Below Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T. J.; Tekippe, V. J.

    1989-02-01

    A number of different architectures are being explored for the utilization of optical fiber in the subscriber loop. In addition to reliability and maintainability, cost is a prime consideration since full implementation of fiber in the local loop will not occur until it is economically viable. It is becoming increasingly clear that in order to accommodate a number of ISDN applications, including high definition television (HDTV), singlemode fiber with a singlemode laser at the terminal end will be required. The situation at the subscriber end is quite different, however. The data rates are expected to be low on the return path to allow for POTS ( plain old telephone service) and some data transfer. When this requirement is combined with cost and reliability considerations, the inexpensive lasers developed for the CD (compact disk) market become quite attractive. The biggest disadvantage of this source is that the fiber which is optimized for singlemode operation at 1300nm tends to be multimode in the 800nm band where these lasers operate. Previous papers have considered such effects as modal noise and pulse dispersion when using these lasers with fiber that is singlemode in the 1300nm band.[1] Another consideration is the passive components required to implement such an architecture. Figure 1 shows a typical bidirectional design with full duplex operation on a single fiber. The key component is the 800/1300 wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer (WDM). Because of the multimode nature of the fiber in the 800nm band, all fiber approaches to fabricating the WDM, such as the fused beconical taper (FBT) approach, raise new issues which are not encountered, for example, with 1300/1500nm WDM's.[2] In this paper we discuss the effects of the multimode behavior of the fiber on the performance of fused couplers and WDM's.

  1. Scale-invariant neuronal avalanche dynamics and the cut-off in size distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yu

    Full Text Available Identification of cortical dynamics strongly benefits from the simultaneous recording of as many neurons as possible. Yet current technologies provide only incomplete access to the mammalian cortex from which adequate conclusions about dynamics need to be derived. Here, we identify constraints introduced by sub-sampling with a limited number of electrodes, i.e. spatial 'windowing', for well-characterized critical dynamics-neuronal avalanches. The local field potential (LFP was recorded from premotor and prefrontal cortices in two awake macaque monkeys during rest using chronically implanted 96-microelectrode arrays. Negative deflections in the LFP (nLFP were identified on the full as well as compact sub-regions of the array quantified by the number of electrodes N (10-95, i.e., the window size. Spatiotemporal nLFP clusters organized as neuronal avalanches, i.e., the probability in cluster size, p(s, invariably followed a power law with exponent -1.5 up to N, beyond which p(s declined more steeply producing a 'cut-off' that varied with N and the LFP filter parameters. Clusters of size s≤N consisted mainly of nLFPs from unique, non-repeated cortical sites, emerged from local propagation between nearby sites, and carried spatial information about cluster organization. In contrast, clusters of size s>N were dominated by repeated site activations and carried little spatial information, reflecting greatly distorted sampling conditions. Our findings were confirmed in a neuron-electrode network model. Thus, avalanche analysis needs to be constrained to the size of the observation window to reveal the underlying scale-invariant organization produced by locally unfolding, predominantly feed-forward neuronal cascades.

  2. Establishing streptomycin epidemiological cut-off values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Microbial Drug Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Migura, L.; Sunde, M.; Karlsmose, S.; Veldman, K.T.; Schroeter, A.; Guerra, B.; Granier, S.A.; Perrin-Guyomard, A.; Gicquel-Bruneau, M.; Franco, A.; Englund, S.; Teale, C.; Heiska, H.; Clemente, L.; Boerlin, P.; Moreno, M.A.; Daignault, D.; Mevius, D.J.; Hendriksen, R.S.; Aarestrup, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32¿mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates we

  3. Effective spectral density functions from finite cut-off frequencies of baths

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Xian-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, we obtain the effective spectral density functions of baths for two basic open quantum systems by setting cut-off frequencies of the baths finite. By using the spectral density functions and the conventional ones from infinite cut-off frequency of the baths we investigate the dynamics of open qubits. When the cut-off frequencies of the baths are smaller than about 5 times of the Rabi frequency of the qubits, the two kinds of spectral density functions result in different qubits' dynamics. Secondly, we obtain the effective spectral density functions of the baths for another two complex models from finite cut-off frequencies of the baths and through which we investigate the dynamics of open qubits in these models. One of these models is a quantum system couple to an intermediate harmonic oscillator and both of them couple to their independent baths respectively, and the other is both of them couple to a common bath. The qubit in the later model has longer decoherence and relaxation times. In the invest...

  4. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Babaei, Javad; Londrillo, Pasquale; Mirzanejad, Saeed; Rovelli, Tiziano; Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations, so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitti...

  5. A New Regularization Mechanism for the Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Luis

    2016-11-01

    We apply recent results on regularity for general integro-differential equations to derive a priori estimates in Hölder spaces for the space homogeneous Boltzmann equation in the non cut-off case. We also show an a priori estimate in {L^∞} which applies in the space inhomogeneous case as well, provided that the macroscopic quantities remain bounded.

  6. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than

  7. Prevalensi Sarkopenia pada Lansia di Komunitas (Community Dwelling berdasarkan Dua Nilai Cut-off Parameter Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, aging muscle mass loss, and function syndromes can lead to decreased quality of life and increased elderly mortality. The availability of various screening methods and operational definitions in different studies has produced different findings of sarcopenia prevalence. The purpose of this study was to discover the prevalence of sarcopenia in Indonesian community-dwelling elderly based on muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using hand dynamometer, and physical performance based on six minutes walking test with two different cut-off point parameters of sarcopenia, i.e. the cut-off point recommended by Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS and the cut-off point based on the reference used in Taiwan elderly population reference due to the lack of references for Indonesian elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted to 229 participants (71 men and 158 women from the community-dwelling elderly population between August and December 2014 in Bandung and Jatinangor. The results of the study showed that the sarcopenia prevalence in this study based on AWGS was 9.1% (7.4% in men and 1.7% in women while the prevalence based on the Taiwan reference revealed a prevalence of 40.6% (20.1% in men and 20.5% in women. This highly different prevalences shows the importance of defining a specific cut-off point for elderly population in community-dwelling Indonesia to get a more accurate sarcopenia prevalence.

  8. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than rando

  9. Ethnic-specific body mass index cut-off points for overweight and obesity in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2010-03-19

    To develop ethnic-specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for overweight and obesity in girls from New Zealand's five major ethnic groups. A total of 1676 girls (41% European, 21% Pacific Island, 15% East Asian, 13% Māori, and 11% South Asian) aged 5-16 years participated in this study. BMI was determined from height and weight, and body fat percentage (%BF) was obtained from hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance measurements. Using stepwise multiple regression, a series of ethnic-specific BMI cut-off points were developed that corresponded to the equivalent %BF of European girls at the BMI reference values provided by the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF). The adjusted cut-off points for overweight and obesity ranged from an average of 3.3 and 3.8 kg.m(-2) (respectively) lower than the IOTF standards in South Asian girls to 1.5 and 1.9 kg.m(-2) higher in Pacific Island girls. We conclude that the ethnic-specific BMI cut-off points developed in this study are more appropriate than universal definitions of overweight and obesity for predicting excess adiposity in New Zealand girls.

  10. Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job): definition of the cut-off score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavolin, Silvia; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Leonardi, Matilde; Brenna, Greta; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Frangiamore, Rita; Mantegazza, Renato; Moscatelli, Marco; Clerici, Valentina Torri; Cortese, Francesca; Covelli, Venusia; Ponzio, Michela; Zaratin, Paola; Raggi, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) mainly affects people of working age. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job) was designed to measure difficulties in work-related tasks. Our aim is to define cut-off score of MSQ-Job to identify potential critical situations that might require specific attention. A sample of patients with MS completed the MSQ-Job, WHODAS 2.0 and MSQOL-54 respectively for work difficulties, disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluation. K-means Cluster Analysis was used to divide the sample in three groups on the basis of HRQoL and disability. ANOVA test was performed to compare the response pattern between these groups. The cut-off score was defined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses for MSQ-Job total and count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3: a score value corresponding to the maximum of the sensitivity-to-specificity ratio was chosen as the cut-off. Out of 180 patients enrolled, twenty were clustered in the higher severity group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.845 for the MSQ-Job total and 0.859 for the count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3 while the cut-off score was 15.8 for MSQ-Job total and 8 for count of items scored ≥3. We recommend the use of MSQ-Job with this calculation as cut-off for identifying critical situations, e.g. in vocational rehabilitation services, where work-related difficulties have a significant impact in terms of lower quality of life and higher disability.

  11. Comparison of different DIAGNOdent cut-off limits for in vivo detection of occlusal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Kühnisch, J; Oehme, T; Ziehe, A; Stösser, L; García-Godoy, F

    2003-01-01

    This study tested recently recommended cut-off limits for the laser fluorescence based device DIAGNOdent (KaVo) for detection of occlusal caries. Two hundred and forty-eight permanent molars from 94 patients (mean age 19.2 years) of a general dental practice were included. After professional tooth cleaning, the teeth were examined visually and by the laser fluorescence method. The extent of occlusal lesions (gold standard) was determined after minimal operative intervention. Upon fissure opening, 24 teeth had enamel caries and 224 teeth revealed dentin caries, of which 58 and 166, respectively, were up to or beyond half the dentin. The optimal cut-off limits based on the highest kappa-values (0.51 and 0.54) were > 18 for superficial dentinal caries (D3) and > 37 for deep dentinal caries (D4). The comparison with DIAGNOdent cut-offs given by the manufacturer (n = 4) and those based on clinical trials with in vivo validation (n = 4) and in vitro studies with histological validation (n = 3) revealed a considerable variation in performance. Recommended cut-offs between 17 and 21 for superficial dentin lesions were in the same order of magnitude (0.48-0.51). On the D4 level, only the manufacturer's cut-off of > 34 achieved the best performance (0.51). According to the highest kappa-values and the area under the ROC curves (D3: A(z) = 0.903; D4: A(z) = 0.830), the agreement between the extent of validated caries and laser fluorescence value is still unsatisfactory.

  12. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  13. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  14. Methodological issues in the design of a rheumatoid arthritis activity score and its cut-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collignon O

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Olivier Collignon Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé (CRP-Santé, Competences Centre for Methodology and Statistics (CCMS, Strassen, Luxembourg Abstract: Activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA can be evaluated using several scoring scales based on clinical features. The most widely used one is the Disease Activity Score involving 28 joint counts (DAS28 for which cut-offs were proposed to help physicians classify patients. However, inaccurate scoring can lead to inappropriate medical decisions. In this article some methodological issues in the design of such a score and its cut-offs are highlighted in order to further propose a strategy to overcome them. As long as the issues reviewed in this article are not addressed, results of studies based on standard disease activity scores such as DAS28 should be considered with caution. Keywords: DAS28, disease activity score, penalized logistic regression, clinical prediction, modeling

  15. Edge plasmons and cut-off behavior of graphene nano-ribbon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haowen; Teng, Jinghua; Palacios, Tomás; Chua, Soojin

    2016-07-01

    Graphene nano-ribbon waveguides with ultra-short plasmon wavelength are a promising candidate for nanoscale photonic applications. Graphene edge plasmons are the fundamental and lowest losses mode. Through finite element method, edge plasmons show large effective refractive index and strong field confinement on nanoscale ribbons. The edge plasmons follow a k1/2 dispersion relation. The wavelengths of the edge plasmons and center plasmons differ by a fixed factor. The width of edge plasmon is inversely proportional to wave vector of edge plasmon kedge. Edge defects associate with graphene nano-ribbon induce extra losses and reduce the propagation length. Cut-off width of edge plasmons reduces with increasing frequency. Cut-off width of center plasmon is enlarged by edge component but the enlargement effect diminishing with the increase of kedge. The results are important for the application of graphene plasmon towards ultra-compact photonic devices.

  16. Cut-off value for absolute lymphocytes as an alternative for the immunophenotypic analysis of CD3+ T cells in the monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy with thymoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Furlanetto

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Immunosuppression of T lymphocytes is required for preventing acute rejection after transplantation and for the treatment of chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The laboratory monitoring for this therapy is the measurement of T cells by immunophenotyping, aiming the target value of less than 20 cells per µL. Objective: To establish a cut-off point for the total number of lymphocytes in the automated blood cell count that reflects less than twenty T cells µL by immunophenotyping. Methods: We studied and evaluated 242 kidney transplant patients that had results of automated blood cell count and quantification of T cells by immunophenotyping technique. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the T lymphocyte immunophenotyping rates established by lower and higher than 20 cells per µL. After, we evaluated the cut-off point for lymphocytes in the blood cell count with a specificity of 100% to exclude patients with high levels of T lymphocytes. Results: We found that the cut-off point of 70 lymphocytes per µL obtained by automated blood cell count showed 100% of specificity to exclude patients with T-cell counts higher than 20 cells per µL by immunophenotyping. Conclusion: The results found in this study may be helpful to monitor the immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplant patients in places where a flow cytometer is not available, or when this equipment is not present in the full routine.

  17. Establishment of triglyceride cut-off values to detect chylous ascites and pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Markus A; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Schulz, Christoph; Luppa, Peter B

    2017-02-01

    Lipoprotein electrophoresis is the gold standard for the detection of chylous ascites and pleural effusions. It is, however, not suitable as a front-line test and not widely available. Most clinicians must rely solely on the quantitative determination of lipids. The aim of this work was to establish lipid cut-off values for the presence of chylomicrons in pleural and peritoneal fluid. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels from 113 peritoneal and 154 pleural fluid samples investigated for chylomicrons via lipoprotein electrophoresis were considered. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and cut-off levels determined. 54 peritoneal and 59 pleural fluid samples were positive for chylomicrons. In peritoneal fluid, triglycerides and triglycerides/cholesterol ratio exhibited areas under the curve (AUC) not significantly different from each other, but significantly larger than cholesterol alone. The AUC for triglycerides in pleural fluid was significantly larger than the AUCs for cholesterol and the triglycerides/cholesterol ratio. Triglyceride cut-offs with maximum Youden-Index, sensitivity >95%, and specificity >95% were calculated to be 187, 148, and 246mg/dl (2.13, 1.69, and 2.80mmol/l) for peritoneal fluid, and 240, 94, and 240mg/dl (2.74, 1.07, and 2.74mmol/l) for pleural fluid. Triglyceride levels are the best parameter to detect chylous body fluids when lipoprotein electrophoresis is not available. Single-point triglyceride cut-offs of 187 and 240mg/dl (2.13 and 2.74mmol/l) or alternatively equivocal ranges of 148-246 and 94-240mg/dl (1.69-2.80 and 1.07-2.74mmol/l) were established for peritoneal and pleural fluid, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A framework for cut-off sampling in business survey design

    OpenAIRE

    Bee, Marco; Benedetti, Roberto; Espa, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    In sampling theory the large concentration of the population with respect to most surveyed variables constitutes a problem which is difficult to tackle by means of classical tools. One possible solution is given by cut-off sampling, which explicitly prescribes to discard part of the population; in particular, if the population is composed by firms or establishments, the method results in the exclusion of the “smallest” firms. Whereas this sampling scheme is common among practitioners, its the...

  19. Method and systems for power control of internal combustion engines using individual cycle cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Y.; Korzhov, M.; Filippov, A.; Atamanenko, N.

    1996-09-01

    A new method of controlling power has been developed for improving efficiency and emissions performance of internal combustion engines at partial load. The method involves cutting-off some of the work cycles, as the load decreases, to obtain required power. Theoretical and experimental material is presented to illustrate the underlying principle, the implementation means and the results for the 4- and 8-cylinder piston engine and a twin rotor Wankel engine applications.

  20. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, J.; Gizzi, L. A.; Londrillo, P.; Mirzanejad, S.; Rovelli, T.; Sinigardi, S.; Turchetti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for the rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations, for a model target given by a uniform foil plus a contaminant layer that is hydrogen-rich. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitting 2D and 3D simulations for the same target and laser pulse configuration, are comparable. This suggests that parametric scans can be performed with 2D simulations since 3D ones are computationally very expensive, delegating their role only to a correspondence check. In this paper, the simulations are carried out with the PIC code ALaDyn by changing the target thickness L and the incidence angle α, with a fixed a0 = 3. A monotonic dependence, on L for normal incidence and on α for fixed L, is found, as in the experimental results for high temporal contrast pulses.

  1. Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy and IR Cut-Off Length

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, J; Moghaddam, Z Abbaspour

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider holographic dark energy model with corrected holographic energy density and show that this model may be equivalent to the modified Chaplygin gas model. Then we obtain relation between entropy corrected holographic dark energy model and scalar field models. We do these works by using choices of IR cut-off length proportional to the Hubble radius, the event horizon radius, the Ricci length, and the Granda-Oliveros length.

  2. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  3. Jet grouted cut-off is used at Pergau in Malaysia. [Dam construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-04-01

    One of the most important hydropower projects currently under way in South-East Asia is the 600 MW Pergau scheme in Kelantan, in the northeast corner of Malaysia. The project, which involves many complex construction difficulties, is being built on a design-and-construct basis. The 67 m-high main dam involves a cut-off which is being constructed by jet grouting. (author)

  4. Evaluation of novel large cut-off ultrafiltration membranes for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiuseppe Nestola

    Full Text Available The purification of virus particles and viral vectors for vaccine and gene therapy applications is gaining increasing importance in order to deliver a fast, efficient, and reliable production process. Ultrafiltration (UF is a widely employed unit operation in bioprocessing and its use is present in several steps of the downstream purification train of biopharmaceuticals. However, to date few studies have thoroughly investigated the performance of several membrane materials and cut-offs for virus concentration/diafiltration. The present study aimed at developing a novel class of UF cassettes for virus concentration/diafiltration. A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i membrane materials, namely polyethersulfone (PES, regenerated cellulose (RC, and highly cross-linked RC (xRC, (ii nominal cut-off, and (iii UF device geometry at different production scales. The results indicate that the xRC cassettes with a cut-off of approximately 500 kDa are able to achieve a 10-fold concentration factor with 100% recovery of particles with a process time twice as fast as that of a commercially available hollow fiber. DNA and host cell protein clearances, as well as hydraulic permeability and fouling behavior, were also assessed.

  5. Evaluation of novel large cut-off ultrafiltration membranes for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Piergiuseppe; Martins, Duarte L; Peixoto, Cristina; Roederstein, Susanne; Schleuss, Tobias; Alves, Paula M; Mota, José P B; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2014-01-01

    The purification of virus particles and viral vectors for vaccine and gene therapy applications is gaining increasing importance in order to deliver a fast, efficient, and reliable production process. Ultrafiltration (UF) is a widely employed unit operation in bioprocessing and its use is present in several steps of the downstream purification train of biopharmaceuticals. However, to date few studies have thoroughly investigated the performance of several membrane materials and cut-offs for virus concentration/diafiltration. The present study aimed at developing a novel class of UF cassettes for virus concentration/diafiltration. A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i) membrane materials, namely polyethersulfone (PES), regenerated cellulose (RC), and highly cross-linked RC (xRC), (ii) nominal cut-off, and (iii) UF device geometry at different production scales. The results indicate that the xRC cassettes with a cut-off of approximately 500 kDa are able to achieve a 10-fold concentration factor with 100% recovery of particles with a process time twice as fast as that of a commercially available hollow fiber. DNA and host cell protein clearances, as well as hydraulic permeability and fouling behavior, were also assessed.

  6. Cut-off proposal for the detection of ketamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, A; Gerace, E; Diana, P; Romeo, M; Malvaso, V; Di Corcia, D; Vincenti, M

    2015-03-01

    Ketamine is a powerful anesthetic drug used in both human and veterinary surgery, but it is also commonly misused because of its psychotropic properties. Since the abuse of this drug has been reported in many countries worldwide, its determination in hair samples is offered as a specialist test by hundreds of laboratories. However, unlike other common drugs of abuse, a cut-off level for ketamine in hair has not been fixed yet. Therefore, aim of this study is to propose a concentration value for ketamine in hair analysis, in order to discriminate between chronic and occasional use, and between active use and external contamination. After considering the chemical properties of this molecule, and the experimental data collected in our laboratory or reported in several other published studies, we propose a cut-off level of 0.5ng/mg, as indicative of repeated exposure to ketamine. Additionally, we suggest that the detection of the metabolite norketamine should be mandatory to prove active intake and exclude false positive result from external contamination. Thus, a reasonable cut-off value for norketamine could be fixed at 0.1ng/mg, while the minimal concentration ratio norketamine/ketamine may be positively established at 0.05.

  7. Clustered star formation as a natural explanation for the Halpha cut-off in disk galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2008-10-02

    The rate of star formation in a galaxy is often determined by the observation of emission in the Halpha line, which is related to the presence of short-lived massive stars. Disk galaxies show a strong cut-off in Halpha radiation at a certain galactocentric distance, which has led to the conclusion that star formation is suppressed in the outer regions of disk galaxies. This is seemingly in contradiction to recent observations in the ultraviolet which imply that disk galaxies have star formation beyond the Halpha cut-off, and that the star-formation-rate surface density is linearly related to the underlying gas surface density, which is a shallower relationship than that derived from Halpha luminosities. In a galaxy-wide formulation, the clustered nature of star formation has recently led to the insight that the total galactic Halpha luminosity is nonlinearly related to the galaxy-wide star formation rate. Here we show that a local formulation of the concept of clustered star formation naturally leads to a steeper radial decrease in the Halpha surface luminosity than in the star-formation-rate surface density, in quantitative agreement with the observations, and that the observed Halpha cut-off arises naturally.

  8. Re-Evaluation of Serum Ferritin Cut-Off Values for the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in Children Aged 12-36 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Kawsari; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Fehlings, Darcy; Hanley, Anthony J; Thorpe, Kevin E; Parkin, Patricia C

    2017-09-01

    An ongoing challenge has been determining clinically relevant serum ferritin cut-offs in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in children aged 1-3 years. We identified 2 potential clinically relevant serum ferritin cut-off values through their association with clinically important cut-off of hemoglobin as the indicator of anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. World Health Organization hemoglobin cut-off points for the detection of anemia are valid for an Indonesian population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khusun, H; Yip, R; Schultink, W; Dillon, D H

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to determine whether population-specific hemoglobin cut-off values for detection of iron deficiency are needed for Indonesia by comparing the hemoglobin distribution of healthy...

  10. 40 CFR 53.53 - Test for flow rate accuracy, regulation, measurement accuracy, and cut-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definitions. (1) Sample flow rate means the quantitative volumetric flow rate of the air stream caused by the... the flow rate cut-off test, download the archived data from the test sampler and verify that the...

  11. The Adjustment Disorder–New Module 20 as a Screening Instrument: Cluster Analysis and Cut-off Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Lorenz

    2016-10-01

    against the theory-based diagnostic algorithm, revealed an optimal cut-off score at 47.5 to distinguish between people at high risk for AjD and people at low risk. Conclusion: The ADNM-20 distinguishes between people with low, moderate, and high symptomatology. The recommendation for a cut-off score at 47.5 facilitates the use of the ADNM-20 in research and practice.

  12. Cut-off wavenumber of Alfvén waves in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Carbonell, M.; Ballester, J. L.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Alfvén wave dynamics in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere shows that there is indeed a cut-off wavenumber, i.e. the Alfvén waves with wavenumbers higher than the cut-off value are evanescent. The cut-off wavenumber appears in single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation but it is absent in a multi-fluid approach. Up to now, an explanation for the existence of the cut-off wavenumber is still missing. Aims: The aim of this paper is to point out the reason for the appearance of a cut-off wavenumber in single-fluid MHD. Methods: Beginning with three-fluid equations (with electrons, protons and neutral hydrogen atoms), we performed consecutive approximations until we obtained the usual single-fluid description. We solved the dispersion relation of linear Alfvén waves at each step and sought the approximation responsible of the cut-off wavenumber appearance. Results: We have found that neglecting inertial terms significantly reduces the real part of the Alfvén frequency although it never becomes zero. Therefore, the cut-off wavenumber does not exist at this stage. However, when the inertial terms together with the Hall term in the induction equation are neglected, the real part of the Alfvén frequency becomes zero. Conclusions: The appearance of a cut-off wavenumber, when Alfvén waves in partially ionized regions of the solar atmosphere are studied, is the result of neglecting inertial and Hall terms, therefore it has no physical origin.

  13. Dimensional versus cut-off renormalization and the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, A; Talukdar, B; Ghosh, Angsula; Adhikari, Sadhan K.

    1998-01-01

    The role of dimensional regularization is discussed and compared with that of cut-off regularization in some quantum mechanical problems with ultraviolet divergence in two and three dimensions with special emphasis on the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both types of renormalizations are performed for attractive divergent one- and two-term separable potentials, a divergent tensor potential, and the sum of a delta function and its derivatives. We allow energy-dependent couplings, and determine the form that these couplings should take if equivalence between the two regularization schemes is to be enforced. We also perform renormalization of an attractive separable potential superposed on an analytic divergent potential.

  14. Dimensional versus cut-off renormalization and the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Angsula; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Talukdar, B.

    1998-10-01

    The role of dimensional regularization is discussed and compared with that of cut-off regularization in some quantum mechanical problems with ultraviolet divergence in two and three dimensions with special emphasis on the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both types of renormalizations are performed for attractive divergent one- and two-term separable potentials, a divergent tensor potential, and the sum of a delta function and its derivatives. We allow energy-dependent couplings, and determine the form that these couplings should take if equivalence between the two regularization schemes is to be enforced. We also perform renormalization of an attractive separable potential superposed on an analytic divergent potential.

  15. On the discovery of the Greisen–Zatzepin–Kuzmin cut-off

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tadeusz Wibig

    2009-11-01

    The recent claim of the `5 sigma' observation of the Greisen–Zatzepin–Kuzmin cut-off by the HiRes group based on their nine years data is a significant step towards the eventual solution of one of the most intriguing questions in physics for more than 40 years. Recent results from Pierre Auger Observatory seem to confirm the statement. However, the word `significance' is used in the mentioned paper in a sense which is not quite obvious. In the present paper we argue that this claim is a little premature.

  16. Sensitivity studies of spin cut-off models on fission fragment observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulliez L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fission fragment de-excitation code, FIFRELIN, is being developed at CEA Cadarache. It allows probing the characteristics of the prompt emitted particles, neutrons and gammas, during the de-excitation process of fully accelerated fission fragments. The knowledge of the initial states of the fragments is important to accurately reproduce the fission fragment observables. In this paper a sensitivity study of various spin cut-off models, completely defining the initial fission fragment angular momentum distribution has been performed. This study shows that the choice of the model has a significant impact on gamma observables such as spectrum and multiplicity and almost none on the neutron observables.

  17. Renormalization and Computation II: Time Cut-off and the Halting Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Manin, Yuri I

    2009-01-01

    This is the second installment to the project initiated in [Ma3]. In the first Part, I argued that both philosophy and technique of the perturbative renormalization in quantum field theory could be meaningfully transplanted to the theory of computation, and sketched several contexts supporting this view. In this second part, I address some of the issues raised in [Ma3] and provide their development in three contexts: a categorification of the algorithmic computations; time cut--off and Anytime Algorithms; and finally, a Hopf algebra renormalization of the Halting Problem.

  18. Energy loss in unstable QGP - problem of the upper cut-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrington Margaret E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss of a highly energetic parton in a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma is studied as an initial value problem. An extremely prolate plasma, where the momentum distribution is infinitely elongated along one direction, is considered. The energy loss is strongly time and direction dependent and its magnitude can much exceed the equilibrium value. It is logarithmically ultraviolet divergent. We argue that a good approximation to the energy loss can be obtained if this divergence is cut off with the parton energy.

  19. Aligning DNA on Si surface and cutting off by tips of atomic force microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    DNA is a kind of promising molecule as nano-lead to build or connect nano-devices due to its stable linear structure and certain conductivity. Many methods have been applied to constructing nano-patterns by using DNA molecule. In this report it is presented that (-DNA was aligned on Si substrate by using the free-flowing method and then imaged by an atomic force microscope (AFM). After the second liquid flow, a catenary-like pattern and a crossed network of -DNA were formed. In addition, the aligned (-DNA was successfully cut off by tips of AFM.

  20. Optimal BMI cut-off values for predicting diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kee Chee; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Lim, Kuang H; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Khor, Geok L; Shahar, Suzana; Rahman, Jamalludin Abd; Zainuddin, Ahmad A; Mustafa, Amal N

    2013-03-01

    To determine the optimal cut-offs of BMI for Malaysian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of BMI with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of three cardiovascular risk factors: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between BMI and these cardiovascular risk factors. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults aged ≥18 years (n 32 703) who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006. The optimal BMI cut-off value for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one of these cardiovascular risk factors varied from 23.3 to 24.1 kg/m2 for men and from 24.0 to 25.4 kg/m2 for women. In men and women, the odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one cardiovascular risk factor increased significantly as BMI cut-off point increased. Our findings indicate that BMI cut-offs of 23.0 kg/m2 in men and 24.0 kg/m2 in women are appropriate for classification of overweight. We suggest that these cut-offs can be used by health professionals to identify individuals for cardiovascular risk screening and weight management programmes.

  1. Can semiquantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values differentiate colorectal malignant from benign lesions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and cut-off values for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions in colorectal cancer (CC) as multiple studies have questioned their validity. We also investigated more extended indices using common semi-quantification an......OBJECTIVE: We investigated maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and cut-off values for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions in colorectal cancer (CC) as multiple studies have questioned their validity. We also investigated more extended indices using common semi...... lesions, SUVmax was >5 and SUVmean≥2.7. Malignant SUVmax values (mean±SD: 16.5±6.2) were overall significantly higher than benign levels (9.8±3.6). There was a substantial overlap with values in polyps/adenomas (14.4±7.7). Both SUVpeak and SUVmean showed similar characteristics. Malignant MAV and TLG...... showed more distinct levels. Though different segmentation methods introduced variations, largest in MAV (-58.6%-141.5%), and PVC generally increased measures significantly by a factor of 1.2-2.7, neither changed relative levels much. SUVmax values were inadequate for aetiological differentiation of ICF...

  2. Comparison of helioseismic cut-off frequency formulations by the means of MHD simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdin, Philippe-A.; Thaler, Irina; Roth, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The discussion of helioseismic wave phenomena requires a self-consistent description of the plasma pressure. Magnetically active regions on the Sun are observed to have distinct wave phenomena as compared to quiet regions. With better helioseismologic diagnostics near active regions one may also better understand not only the chromospheric energy budget, but also halo formation and running penumbral waves. The line formation height (with respect to the beta=1 level) and the magnetic field inclination near the solar surface are in the same time difficult to measure and important to correctly interpret observations. With the help of a large-scale 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model, that features an active region as bottom boundary and has shown good agreement to various observations, we may compute values for theoretically derived formulations of cut-off frequencies from the model plasma parameters. Our results show strongly varying vertical atmospheric profiles and we give estimates of their influence on the expected cut-off frequencies.

  3. TDE fallback cut-off due to a pre-existing accretion disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    Numerous tidal disruption event (TDE) candidates originating from galactic centres have been detected (e.g. by Swift and ASASSN). Some of their host galaxies show typical characteristics of a weak active galactic nucleus (AGN), indicative of a pre-existing accretion disc around the supermassive black hole (SMBH). In this work, we develop an analytic model to study how a pre-existing accretion disc affects a TDE. We assume the density of the disc ρ ∝ R-λ, R being the radial distance from the SMBH and λ varying between 0.5 and 1.5. Interactions between the pre-existing accretion disc and the stream of the tidally disrupted star can stall the stream far from the SMBH, causing a sudden drop in the rate of fallback of gas into the SMBH. These interactions could explain the steep cut-off observed in the light curve of some TDE candidates (e.g. Swift J1644 and Swift J2058). With our model, it is possible to use the time of this cut-off to constrain some properties pertaining to the pre-existing accretion disc, such as λ and the disc viscosity parameter α. We demonstrate this by applying our theory to the TDE candidates Swift J1644, Swift J2058 and ASASSN-14li. Our analysis favours a disc profile with λ ˜ 1 for viscosity parameters α ˜ 0.01-0.1.

  4. Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r=0.325,, TG (r=0.277, AST (r=0.509, ALT (r=0.519, WC (r=0.390, and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r=0.790 for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47 cm for girls and 4.21 cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773.

  5. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takuji; Noda, Koji

    2002-08-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 μs from 700 μs by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  6. Projection systems with a cut-off line for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    2005-08-01

    The lighting systems of a car provide a variety of challenges from the point of view of illumination science and technology. Engineering work in this field has to deal both with reflector and lens design as well as with opto-mechanical design and sensor technology. It has direct implications on traffic safety and the efficiency in which energy is used. Therefore, these systems are continuously improved and optimized. In this context, adaptive systems that we investigate for automotive applications gain increasing importance. The properties of the light distribution in the vicinity of the cut-off line are of key importance for the safe and efficient operation of automotive headlamps. An alternative approach is proposed to refine the description of these properties in an attempt to make it more quantitative. This description is intended to facilitate intercomparison between different systems and/or to study environmental influences on the cut-off line of a system under investigation. Designing projection systems it is necessary to take a delicate trade-off between efficiency, light-distribution characteristics, mechanical boundary conditions, and legal requirements into account. Considerations and results on optical properties of three-axial reflectors in dependence of layout parameters will be given. They can serve as a guideline for the optical workshop and for free-form optimization.

  7. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC to Determine Cut-Off Points of Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Weiss

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively; while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  8. Determining a diagnostic cut-off on the Teate Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Michela Balsamo, Aristide SagginoDepartment of Psychological Sciences, Humanities and Territory, G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: A small but growing body of literature suggests that the Teate Depression ­Inventory (TDI may be an “objective” measure of depression compared with other commonly used scales. Furthermore, the TDI has strong psychometric properties in both clinical and nonclinical samples. The present study aimed to extend the use of TDI by identifying cut-off scores that could differentiate varying levels of depression severity in a group of clinically diagnosed depression disorder patients (N=125. Three receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated cut-off scores of 21 (sensitivity =0.86, specificity =0.94, and classification accuracy =0.90; 36 (sensitivity =0.84, specificity =0.96, and classification accuracy =0.92; and 50 (sensitivity =0.81, specificity =0.93, and classification accuracy =0.90, for minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression, respectively. Results suggest that the TDI measures depression severity across a broad range with high test accuracy and may be appropriately used to screen for depression.Keywords: major depression, ROC curve, self-report scales, Rasch analysis, depression screening

  9. Characterization of thermal cut-off mechanisms in prismatic lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Ganesh

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells that are subjected to electrical abuse, overcharge and external short-circuit in particular, exhibit a rapid increase in cell temperature that could potentially lead to catastrophic disassembly of the cell. For this reason these cells are integrated or combined with one or more safety components that are designed to restrict or even prevent current flow through the cell under abusive conditions. In this work, the characteristics of these components in several prismatic Li-ion cells are studied by monitoring the impedance ( Z) at 1 kHz and the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the discharged cells as a function of temperature. All the cells studied were found to use polyethylene-based shutdown (SD) separators that were irreversibly activated within a narrow temperature range between 130 and 135°C. In some cells irreversible cut-off was also provided by a current interrupt device (CID) or a thermal fuse. Both these devices had a circuit-breaker effect, causing the impedance of the cell to rise infinitely and the OCV to drop to zero. In addition to these irreversible cut-off mechanisms, some cells also contained internal or external positive-temperature-coefficient (PTC) devices that could provide current-limiting capability over a very wide temperature range. The interdependence of the thermal behavior of these components on each other and on other thermally dependant processes like cell venting, separator meltdown and weld joint failure are also discussed.

  10. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...... were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. Out of 236 Salmonella isolates, 32 (13.5%) yielded amplicons for aadA (n = 23), strA (n = 9), and strB (n = 11). None of the 60 Salmonella isolates exhibiting MIC 4 mg/L harbored resistance genes....... Of the Salmonella isolates exhibiting MICs 8 mg/L, 16 mg/L, and 32 mg/L, 1.6%, 15%, and 39%, respectively, tested positive for one or more genes. For most monitoring programs, the streptomycin ECOFF for Salmonella is wild type (WT) ≤32 or ≤16 mg/L. A cut-off value of WT ≤32 mg/L would have misclassified 13...

  11. Memristor-capacitor passive filters to tune both cut-off frequency and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shawkat; Hassan, Arshad; Hassan, Gul; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    In various optical sensor applications, programmable analog filters are desirable to reduce the hardware requirement. Memristor is two state programmable nonvolatile resistor, which has a small size and low power consumption. Using these resistance switching characteristics of a memristor, we propose a novel memristor-capacitor (MC) based printed low pass and high pass filters for analog circuits to achieve tunable cut-off frequencies and bandwidth. The cut-off frequencies of filters are controlled through a memristor state switching (HRS/LRS), whereas the capacitor has a fixed value. The proposed MC filters utilize graphene/poly 4-vinlyphenol (G/PVP) for dielectric layer of capacitors and Graphene Quatum Dots (GQDs)/PVP for an active layer of memristor, and these layers are fabricated on ITO coated flexible PET substrate through electrohydrodynamic (EHD) technique. Both MC filters are designed as parameters of two state memristance and a capacitance. From comparison between designed and fabricated filters, we show that they are matched quite well.

  12. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbman, G. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed.

  13. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism; Altersangepasste Anhebung des D-Dimer-Grenzwertes zur Vermeidung unnoetiger CT-Untersuchungen bei Verdacht auf Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.M.; Hoehne, M.; Herold, T. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Radiology; Wrede, C.E. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Emergency Department; Peetz, D. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Laboratory Medicine; Stroszczynski, C. [University Medical Center, Radiology, Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  14. Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Liepelt-Scarfone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparable to Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI is associated with an increased risk for dementia. However different definitions of PD-MCI may have varying predictive accuracy for dementia. In a cohort of 101 nondemented Parkinson patients who underwent neuropsychological testing, the frequency of PD-MCI subjects and PD-MCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic/nonamnestic was determined by use of varying healthy population-based cut-off values. We also investigated the association between defined PD-MCI groups and ADL scales. Varying cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI were found to affect frequency of PD-MCI subjects (9.9%–92.1% and, maybe more important, lead to a “shift” of proportion of detected PD-MCI subtypes especially within the amnestic single-domain subtype. Models using a strict cut-off value were significantly associated with lower ADL scores. Thus, the use of defined cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI is highly relevant for comparison purposes. Strict cut-off values may have a higher predictive value for dementia.

  15. oA novel nonparametric approach for estimating cut-offs in continuous risk indicators with application to diabetes epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferger Dietmar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and clinical studies, often including anthropometric measures, have established obesity as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Appropriate cut-off values for anthropometric parameters are necessary for prediction or decision purposes. The cut-off corresponding to the Youden-Index is often applied in epidemiology and biomedical literature for dichotomizing a continuous risk indicator. Methods Using data from a representative large multistage longitudinal epidemiological study in a primary care setting in Germany, this paper explores a novel approach for estimating optimal cut-offs of anthropomorphic parameters for predicting type 2 diabetes based on a discontinuity of a regression function in a nonparametric regression framework. Results The resulting cut-off corresponded to values obtained by the Youden Index (maximum of the sum of sensitivity and specificity, minus one, often considered the optimal cut-off in epidemiological and biomedical research. The nonparametric regression based estimator was compared to results obtained by the established methods of the Receiver Operating Characteristic plot in various simulation scenarios and based on bias and root mean square error, yielded excellent finite sample properties. Conclusion It is thus recommended that this nonparametric regression approach be considered as valuable alternative when a continuous indicator has to be dichotomized at the Youden Index for prediction or decision purposes.

  16. Cut-off characterisation of energy spectra of bright fermi sources: Current instrument limits and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, C.; Taylor, A. M.; Aharonian, F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper some of the brightest GeV sources observed by the Fermi-LAT were analysed, focusing on their spectral cut-off region. The sources chosen for this investigation were the brightest blazar flares of 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 and the Vela pulsar with a reanalysis with the latest Fermi-LAT software. For the study of the spectral cut-off we first explored the Vela pulsar spectrum, whose statistics in the time interval of the 3FGL catalog allowed strong constraints to be obtained on the parameters. We subsequently performed a new analysis of the flaring blazar SEDs. For these sources we obtained constraints on the cut-off parameters under the assumption that their underlying spectral distribution is described by a power-law with a stretched exponential cut-off. We then highlighted the significant potential improvements on such constraints by observations with next generation ground based Cherenkov telescopes, represented in our study by the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Adopting currently available simulations for this future observatory, we demonstrate the considerable improvement in cut-off constraints achievable by observations with this new instrument when compared with that achievable by satellite observations.

  17. Accuracy of a cut-off value based on the third molar index: Validation in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Karkhanis, Shalmira; Flavel, Ambika; Collini, Federica; DeLuca, Stefano; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    According to Recommendation N°196 of the Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC), the age at which a child reaches adulthood for the purposes of criminal law should be 18 years in all Australian jurisdictions. With specific reference to age at majority, the only tooth with development spanning adolescence (and thus the legally relevant 18 years of age) is the third molar, which limits the number of methods that can be applied from those available in the published literature. The aim of the present study is to test the accuracy of the third molar index (I3M=0.08), based on the correlation between chronological age and normalized measures of the open apices and height of the third mandibular molar, in order to assess the legal adult age of 18 years. Digital orthopantomographs of 143 living Australian subjects (72 boys and 71 girls) are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity is 0.90 in boys and 0.90 in girls; associated specificity values are 0.85 and 0.87 respectively. We conclude that the cut-off value of I3M=0.08 is statistically robust and thus valid for forensic application in an Australian population.

  18. Why did Van Gogh cut off his ear? The problem of alternative explanations in psychobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, W M

    1981-06-01

    One of the tasks of personality psychology is to explain the behavior of individual human beings. Vincent Van Gogh, for example, cut off the lower half of his left ear and gave it to a prostitute. More than a dozen different explanations of his actions have been proposed. Is one of these explanations true, are all of them true, or, perhaps, are none of them true? And how can we know? This incident is examined in order to explore some of the problems in applying personality theories to the life of a single individual. A sequential procedure for generating and critically evaluating alternative explanatory conjectures is presented a a partial, although not a complete, solution to the problem of multiple interpretations.

  19. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  20. Estimation of cut-off wavelength of rare earth doped single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagneet; Thyagarajan, K.; Pal, B. P.

    1999-11-01

    A new empirical relation is proposed describing spectral variation of mode-field radius (MFR) as inferred from measurements in the far-field of the fiber. It is shown that using this relation, it is possible to estimate the cut-off wavelength ( λc) of the fiber. The proposed technique is successfully tested through measurements made on two standard step index single-mode fibers, as well as on an erbium doped fiber (EDF) having λc falling within its strong absorption band around 980 nm. This empirical formula is more accurate than the widely used Marcuse's formula to describe spectral dependence of MFR determined through measurements made in the fiber's far-field. The proposed technique is especially suited for estimation of λc of doped fibers in which λc falls within an absorption band.

  1. Viscous holographic dark energy universe with Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we consider a toy model of large scale universe, when one of the dark components is a generalized holographic DE with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off. On the other hand, we made another assumption concerning to the companion of considered DE model due to impossibility of exact parameterization of dark side of the large scale universe. In particular, we assume an inhomogeneous viscous dark fluid discussed in literature very actively, to be possible candidate for the companion. In addition to cosmographic analysis we discuss the results from Om and two point Om analysis and estimated present day values of statefinder parameters (r,s) and (ω^' }_{de}, ω_{de}). Moreover, validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics is studied showing that theoretical results are well consistent with observational data. Constraints on cosmological parameters are due to Planck 2015 experiments.

  2. The Warm DM halo mass function below the cut-off scale

    CERN Document Server

    Angulo, Raul E; Abel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Warm Dark Matter (WDM) cosmologies are a viable alternative to the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) scenario. Unfortunately, an accurate scrutiny of the WDM predictions with N-body simulations has proven difficult due to numerical artifacts. Here, we report on cosmological simulations that, for the first time, are devoid of those problems, and thus, are able to accurately resolve the WDM halo mass function well below the cut-off. We discover a complex picture, with perturbations at different evolutionary stages populating different ranges in the halo mass function. On the smallest mass scales we can resolve, identified objects are typically centres of filaments that are starting to collapse. On intermediate mass scales, objects typically correspond to fluctuations that have collapsed and are in the process of relaxation, whereas the high mass end is dominated by objects similar to haloes identified in CDM simulations. When explicitly show how the formation of low-mass haloes is suppressed, which translates into a stron...

  3. Role of neutron and proton system in spin cut off parameter and entropy of 89,90Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-09-01

    The nuclear level densities, entropies and spin cut off parameters have been determined in 89,90Y nuclei using the BCS model with inclusion of pairing interaction. The results have a good agreement with the recent experimental data on the level densities measured by the Oslo group. In addition, the entropy excess of 90Y compared to 89Y as a function of temperature has been extracted. Also, the role of neutron and proton systems in the entropy excess as well as the spin cut off excess have been investigated using the entropy excess ratio and spin cut off excess ratio introduced in our previous publication. The role of the neutron system at low temperatures, the temperatures below critical temperature, in the semi-magic nucleus 89Y is similar compared to the closed shell proton system in the tin isotopes.

  4. Fatigue life analysis of cracked gas receiver of emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junzhi; Zhou, Jiyong; Li, Siyuan

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale air compressor and gas receiver are used as the driving gas of the emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station. Operation of block valve is ensured by starting and stopping compressor automatically. The frequent start-stop of compressor and the pressure fluctuation pose a threat to the service life of gas receiver, and then affect normal operation of the emergency cut-off system and security of gas gathering station. In this paper, the fatigue life of a pressure vessel with axial semi-elliptical surface crack in the inner wall is analyzed under the varying pressure by means of the theory of fracture mechanics. The influences of the amplitude of pressure fluctuation and the initial crack size on the residual life of gas receiver are discussed. It provides a basis for setting the working parameters of gas receiver of emergency cut-off system and determining the maintenance cycle.

  5. Role of neutron and proton system in spin cut off parameter and entropy of {sup 89,90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatinejad, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, R., E-mail: rrazavin@ihu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The nuclear level densities, entropies and spin cut off parameters have been determined in {sup 89,90}Y nuclei using the BCS model with inclusion of pairing interaction. The results have a good agreement with the recent experimental data on the level densities measured by the Oslo group. In addition, the entropy excess of {sup 90}Y compared to {sup 89}Y as a function of temperature has been extracted. Also, the role of neutron and proton systems in the entropy excess as well as the spin cut off excess have been investigated using the entropy excess ratio and spin cut off excess ratio introduced in our previous publication. The role of the neutron system at low temperatures, the temperatures below critical temperature, in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 89}Y is similar compared to the closed shell proton system in the tin isotopes.

  6. Cut-off point for WHOQOL-bref as a measure of quality of life of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria; Santos, Joseph Fabiano Guimarães; Silva, Líliam Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a cut-off for the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-bref) as a predictor of quality of life in older adults.METHODS Cross-sectional study with 391 older adults registered in the Northwest Health District in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, between October 8, 2010 and May 23, 2011. The older adults' quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL-bref. The analysis was rationalized by outlining two extreme and simultaneous groups according to perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health (quality of life good/satisfactory - good or very good self-reported quality of life and being satisfied or very satisfied with health - G5; and poor/very poor quality of life - poor or very poor self-reported quality of life and feeling dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with health - G6). A Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) was created to assess the diagnostic ability of different cut-off points of the WHOQOL-bref.RESULTS ROC curve analysis indicated a critical value 60 as the optimal cut-off point for assessing perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health. The area under the curve was 0.758, with a sensitivity of 76.8% and specificity of 63.8% for a cut-off of ≥ 60 for overall quality of life (G5) and sensitivity 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for a cut-off of < 60 for overall quality of life (G6).CONCLUSIONS Diagnostic interpretation of the ROC curve revealed that cut-off < 60 for overall quality of life obtained excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value for tracking older adults with probable worse quality of life and dissatisfied with health.

  7. Cut-off point for WHOQOL-bref as a measure of quality of life of older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria; Santos, Joseph Fabiano Guimarães; Silva, Líliam Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a cut-off for the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-bref) as a predictor of quality of life in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 391 older adults registered in the Northwest Health District in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, between October 8, 2010 and May 23, 2011. The older adults’ quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL-bref. The analysis was rationalized by outlining two extreme and simultaneous groups according to perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health (quality of life good/satisfactory – good or very good self-reported quality of life and being satisfied or very satisfied with health – G5; and poor/very poor quality of life – poor or very poor self-reported quality of life and feeling dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with health – G6). A Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) was created to assess the diagnostic ability of different cut-off points of the WHOQOL-bref. RESULTS ROC curve analysis indicated a critical value 60 as the optimal cut-off point for assessing perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health. The area under the curve was 0.758, with a sensitivity of 76.8% and specificity of 63.8% for a cut-off of ≥ 60 for overall quality of life (G5) and sensitivity 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for a cut-off of < 60 for overall quality of life (G6). CONCLUSIONS Diagnostic interpretation of the ROC curve revealed that cut-off < 60 for overall quality of life obtained excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value for tracking older adults with probable worse quality of life and dissatisfied with health. PMID:25119934

  8. N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours of twisted mass quarks. Cut-off effects at tree-level of perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschevskaya, Elena [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing; Cichy, Krzysztof [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics

    2010-12-15

    We present a calculation of cut-off effects at tree-level of perturbation theory for the K and D mesons using the twisted mass formulation of lattice QCD. The analytical calculations are performed in the time-momentum frame. The relative sizes of cut-off effects are compared for the pion, the kaon and the D meson masses. In addition, different realizations of maximal twist condition are considered and the corresponding cut-off effects are analyzed. (orig.)

  9. Approach to realize sharp cut-off characteristics multi-ring optical filters; Fukugo ringu kyoshin koha fuiruta no shadan tokusei no kyushunka ni taisuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Hirosuke; Tsuruta, Ken' ichi; Miyamoto, Tokuo

    1999-03-01

    Recently, optical filters for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems has been very intensively investigated. However, the report on improved cut-off characteristics is very few. For this reason, we tried to improve cut-off characteristics of filters adding feedback route to the ring resonators. Very sharp cut-off characteristics are obtained. But the attenuation loss become down. It may be very effective to improve the cut-off characteristics of filters to adding a new feedback route to the resonators but some new measurements must be necessary to keep the high stop band loss. (author)

  10. Cut-off levels and diagnostic accuracy of infliximab trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Bendtzen, Klaus; Brynskov, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for infliximab failure in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are debated. Serum levels of infliximab and anti-infliximab antibodies have been associated with loss of response. We aimed at determining cut-off levels for infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody concentrations associated...

  11. Anthropometric parameters’ cut-off points and predictive value for metabolic syndrome in women from Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Mora-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate anthropometric parameters’ (APs cut-off points and association for metabolic syndrome (MetS. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a total of 434 adult women from Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in 2012. APs measured were waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Cut-off points were estimated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC. Logistic regression was applied to estimate possible associations. Results. Cut-off points for WC, BMI, BAI, WHR and WHtR were 85 cm, 28 kg/m2, 39%, 0.80 and 56, respectively. Only WHtR was associated to MetS (OR=1.11, CI95% [1.07-1.15]. Conclusion. WC cut-off point was higher than those proposed for Latin-American women by the Joint Interim Statement (JIS. WHtR had a low predictive value for MetS.

  12. Screening for Internet Addiction: An Empirical Study on Cut-off Points for the Chen Internet Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Ko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the optimal cut-off points of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, to screen for and diagnose Internet addiction among adolescents in the community by using the well- established diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction. This survey of 454 adolescents used screening (57/58 and diagnostic (63/64 cut-off points of the CIAS, a self-reported instrument, based on the results of systematic diagnostic interviews by psychiatrists. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that CIAS has good diagnostic accuracy (89.6%. The screening cut-off point had high sensitivity (85.6% and the diagnostic cut-off point had the highest diagnostic accuracy, classifying 87.6% of participants correctly. Accordingly, the screening point of the CIAS could provide a screening function in two-stage diagnosis, and the diagnostic point could serve as a diagnostic criterion in one-stage massive epidemiologic research.

  13. Intense, Narrow-band THz Emission from a Current Source Immersed in Cut-off of Plasma-like Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Min Sup; Ersfeld, Bernhard; Noble, Adam; Suk, Hyyong; Jaroszynski, Dino

    2016-10-01

    Recently we found an interesting behavior of the electromagnetic radiation emerging from cut-off condition of a plasma-like medium, when it is driven by a current source. Differently from conventional total reflection of the incident wave at the cut-off, we found a spatially diffusing and temporally growing electromagnetic field from the current source. Direct result of such diffusion-growth is the selectively enhanced emission (SEE) at the cut-off frequency from a generally broadband current oscillation. We demonstrate examples demonstrating the SEE. One is the two-color-driven THz emission from field ionization of the gas slab located in a tapered waveguide. The emission propagating through the waveguide exhibits a significantly enhanced spectral density at the cut-off frequency. The other example is the THz emission from a magnetized plasma driven by two colliding ultra-short laser pulses. Since a very narrow-band emission can be selectively enhanced from a broadband radiation source, the SEE concept can be used for conversion of a general broadband THz source to a narrow-band one by locating it in a meta-structure such as the waveguide or a plasma-like medium. We discuss other possible systems to which SEE can be applied.

  14. Cut-off Characterisation of Energy Spectra of Bright Fermi Sources: Current instrument limits and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Romoli, C; Aharonian, F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper some of the brightest GeV sources observed by the Fermi-LAT were analysed, focusing on their spectral cut-off region. The sources chosen for this investigation were the brightest blazar flares of 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 and the Vela pulsar using catalogue data and reanalysis with the latest Fermi-LAT software. For the study the spectral cut-off we first explored the Vela pulsar spectrum, whose statistics in the 3FGL catalog allowed strong constraints to be obtained on the parameters. We subsequently performed a new analysis of the flaring blazar SEDs. For these sources we obtained constraints on the cut-off parameters under the assumption that their underlying spectral distribution is described by a power-law with a stretched exponential cut-off. We then highlighted the significant potential improvements on such constraints by observations with next generation ground based Cherenkov telescopes, represented in our study by the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Adopting currently available simulations ...

  15. Interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast of South Africa linked to cut-off low associated rainfall

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cut-off low (COL) associated rainfall on interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast region of South Africa for the period 1979-2011 is investigated. COLs are objectively identified and tracked on daily average 500 hPa...

  16. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI) than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5

  17. Spectrally selective solar absorber with sharp and temperature dependent cut-off based on semiconductor nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Qinghui; Lu, Hong; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Yu, Zongfu; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-01

    Spectrally selective absorbers (SSA) with high selectivity of absorption and sharp cut-off between high absorptivity and low emissivity are critical for efficient solar energy conversion. Here, we report the semiconductor nanowire enabled SSA with not only high absorption selectivity but also temperature dependent sharp absorption cut-off. By taking advantage of the temperature dependent bandgap of semiconductors, we systematically demonstrate that the absorption cut-off profile of the semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can be flexibly tuned, which is quite different from most of the other SSA reported so far. As an example, silicon nanowire based selective absorbers are fabricated, with the measured absorption efficiency above (below) bandgap ˜97% (15%) combined with an extremely sharp absorption cut-off (transition region ˜200 nm), the sharpest SSA demonstrated so far. The demonstrated semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can enable a high solar thermal efficiency of ≳86% under a wide range of operating conditions, which would be competitive candidates for the concentrated solar energy utilizations.

  18. Detection of the high-energy cut-off from the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; MᶜHardy, I. M.; Mallick, Labani; Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.

    2017-09-01

    We perform the NuSTAR and Swift/XRT joint energy spectral fitting of simultaneous observations from the broad-line Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273. When fitted with the combination of an exponential cut-off power law and a reflection model, a high-energy cut-off is detected at 143^{+96}_{-40} keV with 2σ significance. Existence of such cut-off is also consistent with the observed Comptonizing electron temperature when fitted with a Comptonization model independently. We observe a moderate hard X-ray variability of the source over the time-scale of ∼12 yr using INTEGRAL/ISGRI observations in the energy range of 20-100 keV. When the hard-band count rate (6-20 keV) is plotted against the soft-band count rate (3-6 keV), a hard offset is observed. Our results indicate that the cut-off energy may not correlate with the coronal X-ray luminosity in a simple manner. Similarities in parameters that describe coronal properties indicate that the coronal structure of NGC 5273 may be similar to that of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 and another galaxy MCG-5-23-16, where the coronal plasma is dominated by electrons, rather than electron-positron pairs. Therefore, the coronal cooling is equally efficient to the heating mechanism keeping the cut-off energy at low even at the low accretion rate.

  19. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  20. The Portuguese version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Normative data, reliability, and clinical significance cut-offs scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering

  1. Extended characterization of a new class of membranes for blood purification: the high cut-off membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti-de-Fierro, Adriana; Voigt, Manuel; Storr, Markus; Krause, Bernd

    2013-07-01

    High cut-off membranes are a new class of blood purification membranes whose particular characteristics present challenges for commonly-used characterization methods. Dextran sieving curves for representative blood purification membranes of the high-flux and high cut-off types were measured and compared to curves for the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The performance was also determined after blood exposure for the most permeable synthetic membranes. High cut-off membranes were observed to be more open than the GFB before blood exposure, but become tighter and more selective after the exposure, keeping the permeation for low and middle molecules while restraining the filtration of large species. Based on dextran sieving experiments for a variety of commercially available blood purification membranes, we present a novel method for classifying blood purification membranes. By using a well-established technique and introducing a new characteristic parameter for the sieving curve--the molecular weight retention onset (MWRO)--a graph of molecular weight cut-off versus molecular weight retention onset provides the landscape of dialysis membrane types. This meaningful representation is based on only one in vitro method, and allows the membrane classification by indirectly considering two structural parameters: pore size and pore size distribution. In this way, the families of low-flux, high-flux, protein leaking, and high cut-off membranes are clearly differentiated. The differentiation allows for the definition of MWCO/MWRO regions for the different types, so that further classification of newly developed membranes can be easily achieved.

  2. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3Mage or older was 95.6%.

  3. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  4. Holographic Dark Energy Model with Hubble Horizon as an IR Cut-off

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    The main task of this paper is to realize a cosmic observational compatible present accelerated expansion and past decelerated expansion universe in the framework of holographic dark energy model when the Hubble horizon $H$ as an IR cut-off. When the model parameter $c$ of time variable cosmological constant (CC) $\\Lambda(t)=3c^{2}H^{2}(t)$ becomes time or scale dependent, another extra term is gained in the effective equation of sate (EoS) of the vacuum energy $w^{eff}_{\\Lambda}=-c^2-d\\ln c^{2}/3d\\ln a$. This extra term can make the effective EoS of time variable CC cross the cosmological boundary and phantom-like at present. For the lack of a first principle and fundamental physics theory to obtain the form $c^2$, we give a simple parameterized $c^2$ as an example which is confronted by the cosmic observations including SN Ia, BAO and CMB shift parameter $R$. The result shows that the model is consistent with cosmic observations.

  5. Susceptibility profile and epidemiological cut-off values of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Susana; Isla, Maria G; Szusz, Wanda; Vivot, Walter; Altamirano, Rodrigo; Davel, Graciela

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs) based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution have been recently proposed for some antifungal drug/Cryptococcus neoformans combinations. However, these ECVs vary according to the species studied, being serotypes and the geographical origin of strains, variables to be considered. The aims were to define the wild-type (WT) population of the C. neoformans species complex (C. neoformans) isolated from patients living in Argentina, and to propose ECVs for six antifungal drugs. A total of 707 unique C. neoformans isolates obtained from HIV patients suffering cryptococcal meningitis were studied. The MIC of amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole was determined according to the EDef 7.2 (EUCAST) reference document. The MIC distribution, MIC50 , MIC90 and ECV for each of these drugs were calculated. The highest ECV, which included ≥95% of the WT population modelled, was observed for flucytosine and fluconazole (32 μg ml(-1) each). For amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, the ECVs were: 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.06 μg ml(-1) respectively. The ECVs determined in this study may aid in identifying the C. neoformans strains circulating in Argentina with decreased susceptibility to the antifungal drugs tested.

  6. Fast Modeling of Large Wave Energy Farms Using Interaction Distance Cut-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Göteman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many wave energy concepts, power output in the MW range requires the simultaneous operation of many wave energy converters. In particular, this is true for small point-absorbers, where a wave energy farm may contain several hundred devices. The total performance of the farm is affected by the hydrodynamic interactions between the individual devices, and reliable tools that can model full farms are needed to study power output and find optimal design parameters. This paper presents a novel method to model the hydrodynamic interactions and power output of very large wave energy farms. The method is based on analytical multiple scattering theory and uses time series of irregular wave amplitudes to compute the instantaneous power of each device. An interaction distance cut-off is introduced to improve the computational cost with acceptable accuracy. As an application of the method, wave energy farms with over 100 devices are studied in the MW range using one month of wave data measured at an off-shore site.

  7. Mechanically robust 39 GHz cut-off frequency graphene field effect transistors on flexible substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Pallecchi, Emiliano; Haque, Samiul; Borini, Stefano; Avramovic, Vanessa; Centeno, Alba; Amaia, Zurutuza; Happy, Henri

    2016-08-07

    Graphene has been regarded as a promising candidate channel material for flexible devices operating at radio-frequency (RF). In this work we fabricated and fully characterized double bottom-gate graphene field effect transistors on flexible polymer substrates for high frequency applications. We report a record high as-measured current gain cut-off frequency (ft) of 39 GHz. The corresponding maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) is 13.5 GHz. These state of the art high frequency performances are stable against bending, with a typical variation of around 10%, for a bending radius of up to 12 mm. To demonstrate the reliability of our devices, we performed a fatigue stress test for RF-GFETs which were dynamically bend tested 1000 times at 1 Hz. The devices are mechanically robust, and performances are stable with typical variations of 15%. Finally we investigate thermal dissipation, which is a critical parameter for flexible electronics. We show that at the optimum polarization the normalized power dissipated by the GFETs is about 0.35 mW μm(-2) and that the substrate temperature is around 200 degree centigrade. At a higher power, irreversible degradations of the performances are observed. Our study on state of the art flexible GFETs demonstrates mechanical robustness and stability upon heating, two important elements to assess the potential of GFETs for flexible electronics.

  8. Medium Cut-Off (MCO) Membranes Reduce Inflammation in Chronic Dialysis Patients-A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, Daniel; Schindler, Ralf; Willy, Kevin; Martus, Peter; Pawlak, Michael; Storr, Markus; Hulko, Michael; Boehler, Torsten; Glomb, Marcus A; Liehr, Kristin; Henning, Christian; Templin, Markus; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Ulrich, Christof; Werner, Kristin; Fiedler, Roman; Girndt, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    To increase the removal of middle-sized uremic toxins a new membrane with enhanced permeability and selectivity, called Medium Cut-Off membrane (MCO-Ci) has been developed that at the same time ensures the retention of albumin. Because many middle-sized substances may contribute to micro-inflammation we hypothesized that the use of MCO-Ci influences the inflammatory state in hemodialysis patients. The randomized crossover trial in 48 patients compared MCO-Ci dialysis to High-flux dialysis of 4 weeks duration each plus 8 weeks extension phase. Primary endpoint was the gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), secondary endpoints were plasma levels of specified inflammatory mediators and cytokines. After four weeks of MCO-Ci the expression of TNF-α mRNA (Relative quantification (RQ) from 0.92 ± 0.34 to 0.75 ± 0.31, -18.5%, pdialysis but increased after additional 8 weeks of MCO dialysis. Twelve weeks treatment with MCO-Ci was well tolerated regarding the number of (S)AEs. In the extension period levels of CRP, TNF-α-mRNA and IL-6 mRNA remained stable in High-flux as well as in MCO-Ci. MCO-Ci dialyzers modulate inflammation in chronic HD patients to a greater extent compared to High-flux dialyzers. Transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral leukocytes is markedly reduced and removal of soluble mediators is enhanced with MCO dialysis. Serum albumin concentrations stabilize after an initial drop. These results encourage further trials with longer treatment periods and clinical endpoints.

  9. Medium Cut-Off (MCO) Membranes Reduce Inflammation in Chronic Dialysis Patients—A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, Daniel; Schindler, Ralf; Willy, Kevin; Martus, Peter; Pawlak, Michael; Storr, Markus; Hulko, Michael; Boehler, Torsten; Glomb, Marcus A.; Liehr, Kristin; Henning, Christian; Templin, Markus; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Ulrich, Christof; Werner, Kristin; Fiedler, Roman; Girndt, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background To increase the removal of middle-sized uremic toxins a new membrane with enhanced permeability and selectivity, called Medium Cut-Off membrane (MCO-Ci) has been developed that at the same time ensures the retention of albumin. Because many middle-sized substances may contribute to micro-inflammation we hypothesized that the use of MCO-Ci influences the inflammatory state in hemodialysis patients. Methods The randomized crossover trial in 48 patients compared MCO-Ci dialysis to High-flux dialysis of 4 weeks duration each plus 8 weeks extension phase. Primary endpoint was the gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), secondary endpoints were plasma levels of specified inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Results After four weeks of MCO-Ci the expression of TNF-α mRNA (Relative quantification (RQ) from 0.92 ± 0.34 to 0.75 ± 0.31, -18.5%, pkappa and lambda free light chains, urea and an increase for Lp-PLA2 (PLA2G7) compared to High-flux. Albumin levels dropped significantly after 4 weeks of MCO dialysis but increased after additional 8 weeks of MCO dialysis. Twelve weeks treatment with MCO-Ci was well tolerated regarding the number of (S)AEs. In the extension period levels of CRP, TNF-α-mRNA and IL-6 mRNA remained stable in High-flux as well as in MCO-Ci. Conclusions MCO-Ci dialyzers modulate inflammation in chronic HD patients to a greater extent compared to High-flux dialyzers. Transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral leukocytes is markedly reduced and removal of soluble mediators is enhanced with MCO dialysis. Serum albumin concentrations stabilize after an initial drop. These results encourage further trials with longer treatment periods and clinical endpoints. PMID:28085888

  10. Potential interface slip analysis of Peribonka Dam plastic concrete cut-off wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morency, J.Y.; Chahde, J.; Bigras, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Garand, P.; Rattue, A. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Peribonka hydroelectric development is currently under construction near the confluence of the Manouane River with the Peribonka River in Quebec. It includes an 80 m high dam and two dykes of zoned earth fills with a till core, an underground power house with an installed capacity of 385 MW, a diversion tunnel and a spillway. The Peribonka dam will be built on a highly permeable alluvial foundation. The design includes a 10 m high working platform in the river between the cofferdams and a plastic concrete cut-off wall (COW) down to bedrock. The maximum depth of the COW in a narrow canyon will be 115 m. A bi-dimensional finite element stress and deformation analysis software (SDAS) was used to model the stress-strain behaviour of the foundation soils and the COW under the dam. The SDAS software made it possible to determine the vertical deformations as well as the horizontal stress distribution in the foundation soils. It was shown that due to the oedometric nature of the loading of the soil, no significant shear stress was generated due to the soil deformations in the foundation below the axis of the dam. However, the finite element program did not allow hyperbolic model slip elements. As such, it was not possible to evaluate if negative skin friction occurred at the soilplastic concrete interface. For that reason, a one-dimensional model allowing the simulation of negative or positive friction between the soil and the COW was developed. This model considered the elastic-plastic behaviour of the COW using a hyperbolic model. It showed that nowhere, except in the upper 2 to 3 m of the COW embedment in the core, was negative friction able to mobilize the full value of the internal friction angle of the soil. 4 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  11. Metacognitive impairments in schizophrenia are arrested at extreme levels of psychopathy: The cut-off effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Heinke, Dietmar; Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Bo, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Psychopathy and metacognitive difficulties have been associated with the occurrence of violence in schizophrenia. However, evidence suggests that nonschizophrenic psychopaths match or even outperform healthy controls on tests of metacognition. We hypothesize that the metacognitive difficulties associated with schizophrenia may be ameliorated by comorbid psychopathy. To this end, metacognition (using the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated [MAS-A]) and psychopathy (using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [PCL-R]) are assessed in 79 patients with schizophrenia with a history of criminal offending. Piecewise regression reveals that the association between metacognition and psychopathy changes from a negative to a positive association at a breakpoint corresponding to a score of 24 on the PCL-R. This score is within the range of the cut-off point used for the diagnosis of psychopathy in Europe, which corresponds to a score of 26 on the PCL-R. The patients scoring above 24 on the PCL-R demonstrated better overall metacognitive abilities, suggesting that these patients constitute a specific group in which schizophrenia has an attenuated impairing effect on metacognition. However, this effect was absent for the Mastery subscale of the MAS-A, which refers to the ability to use one's own mental states to solve social and psychological dilemmas. Our results suggest that the relative preservation of metacognitive abilities in schizophrenic patients with extreme levels of psychopathy may contribute to their offending behavior as it may enable them to understand how to manipulate and extort their victims. However, enhancing the Mastery domain of metacognition in these patients may attenuate this offending behavior.

  12. [Cut-off point of epicardial adipose tissue thickness for predicting metabolic syndrome in Venezuelan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Donis, José H; Odreman, Rodolfo; Torres, Christopher; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2013-12-01

    To define an echocardiographically-assessed cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness associated to metabolic syndrome (MS) components in Venezuelan subjects. Fifty-two subjects aged 20-65 years diagnosed with MS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria and 45 sex- and age-matched controls were selected. Blood glucose and plasma lipids were tested; EAT thickness and left ventricular mass were measured by echocardiography. No significant age and sex differences were found between the two groups. Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher (P=.0001) in the MS group. This group showed significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose (P=.0001), total cholesterol (P=.002), LDL-C (P=.007), non-HDL-C (P=.0001), triglycerides (P=.0001), Tg-HDL-C ratio (P=.0001), and lower HDL-C levels (P=.0001) as compared to the control group. EAT thickness (P=.0001) and left ventricular mass (P=.017) were significantly higher in the MS group. The ROC curve showed an AUC of 0.852 (P=.0001) with a power of the test of 0.99. A 5-mm EAT thickness showed a sensitivity of 84.62% (95%CI: 71.9-93.1) and a specificity of 71.11% (95%CI: 55.7-83.6) for predicting MS. The odds ratio of this population for experiencing MS due to an EAT ≥ 5 mm was 8.25 (95%CI: 3.15-21.56; P=.0001). An EAT value ≥ 5 mm has good sensitivity and specificity for predicting MS in the Venezuelan population. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Thirteen treated of acute renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma with high cut off filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Wennekers, Ana; Martín Azara, María Pilar; Dourdil Sahun, Victoria; Bergasa Liberal, Beatriz; Ruiz Laiglesia, José Esteban; Vernet Perna, Patricia; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological tumour that is characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells and a significant volume of serum free light chains (sFLCs), which can cause acute renal failure due to intratubular precipitation, resulting in cast nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a complication that can arise in more than 20% of patients with multiple myeloma, half of which will require dialysis. We report our experience with 13 patients who were treated with dialysis using high cut off filters (HCO) between July 2011 and February 2015. A total of 6 consecutive 6-hour sessions were performed using a 2.1 m(2) HCO filter (Theralite® by Gambro®). Afterwards, further 6-hour sessions were continued on alternate days. A total of 151 sessions were conducted, with an average of 11.6 sessions per patient (range 6-27). The treatment proved to be effective in removing both kappa and lambda sFLCs, resulting in a 93.7% fall in sFLCs by the end of treatment. The average reduction was 57.7% per dialysis session. 10 out of the 13 cases recovered sufficient renal function to become independent of dialysis. There were no major changes in albumin levels using an infusion protocol of 2 50-mL vials of 20% albumin at the end of the dialysis session. Combination treatment with chemotherapy and long dialysis with HCO filters was effective in reducing the sFLC levels and recovering sufficient renal function in 77% of cases. With HCO filters, significant cost savings are achieved, contrary to what was previously believed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling and analysis on spark discharge of capacitive circuit with cut-off type protection%截止型保护方式下容性电路短路火花放电模型及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于月森; 张望; 孟庆海; 伍小杰

    2013-01-01

    提出截止型输出短路保护方式下本质安全型开关变换器火花放电的容性等效电路模型.通过在IEC火花试验装置上进行试验,研究截止型保护方式下容性电路火花放电的规律,建立截止型保护方式下容性电路火花放电数学模型.分析与实验表明,建立的数学模型与实际基本相符;截止放电模式与自然放电模式在火花放电规律方面有显著的差异;截止放电模式下减小截止时间和减小电容值均能提高本质安全性能,但在不同取值范围效果不同.%It was proposed that the equivalent circuit model of intrinsically safe switching converter with cut-off type output short circuit protection was capacitive circuit with cut-off type protection. The discharge characteristic of the capacitive circuit with cut-off type protection was found out through a large number of spark discharge experiment in IEC spark test apparatus. The spark discharge mathematical model was established. Analysis and experimental results show that mathematical model is consistent with the reality. The spark discharge laws are significant differences between natural discharge mode and cut-off discharge mode. Under natural discharge mode, both shortening the discharge time and reducing the capacitance value could improve the performance of intrinsical safety, but there are different effects in different value range.

  15. [Receiver operating characteristic analysis and the cost--benefit analysis in determination of the optimal cut-off point].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vránová, J; Horák, J; Krátká, K; Hendrichová, M; Kovaírková, K

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the use of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis within medicine is provided. A survey of the theory behind the analysis is offered together with a presentation on how to create a ROC curve and how to use Cost--Benefit analysis to determine the optimal cut-off point or threshold. The use of ROC analysis is exemplified in the "Cost--Benefit analysis" section of the paper. In these examples, it can be seen that the determination of the optimal cut-off point is mainly influenced by the prevalence and the severity of the disease, by the risks and adverse events of treatment or the diagnostic testing, by the overall costs of treating true and false positives (TP and FP), and by the risk of deficient or non-treatment of false negative (FN) cases.

  16. Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, F; Coscelli, E; Alkeskjold, T T; Passaro, D; Cucinotta, A; Leick, L; Broeng, J; Selleri, S

    2011-05-09

    Yb-doped double-cladding large mode area rod-type photonic crystal fibers are a key component for power scaling in fiber laser systems. Recently, designs with 19-cell core defect, that is with 19 missing air-holes in the center of the photonic crystal cladding, have been proposed, with reported core diameter up to 100 μm. In this paper an analysis of the cut-off wavelength of the first high-order mode in such low-NA fibers is reported, accounting for different approaches for the definition of the cladding effective index. Results have shown that taking into account the finite fiber cross-section and considering the first cladding mode of the actual fiber is mandatory to obtain a correct estimate of the cut-off wavelength.

  17. General cutting-off die for trapezoidal sheet%梯形料片通用切断模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柏鸿

    2013-01-01

      介绍了一种可快速调整刀口间隙、切口位置、角度的梯形料通用切断模,配套自动矫平送料机,实现了切断模的自动化生产,提高了生产效率,降低了生产成本,取得了较好的经济效益。%A general cutting-off die being able to quickly adjust the trapezoidal sheet was presented which was used in the automatic leveling feeder. Through implementing the auto⁃matic production using cutting-off die, the production efficiency was improved and its cost was reduced.

  18. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique du Solide; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author). 18 refs.

  19. Sinus cut-off sign: A helpful sign in the CT diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture associated with pleural effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail: skaya@pamukkale.edu.tr; Karabulut, Nevzat [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Denizli (Turkey); Yuncu, Gokhan [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey); Sevinc, Serpil [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey); Kiroglu, Yilmaz [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Denizli (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    The objective of our study was to describe the 'sinus cut-off' sign at CT in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in patients with blunt abdominal trauma complicated with pleural effusion, and evaluate its utility in an experimental model. Between January 2004 and March 2005, we observed an unusual interruption of costophrenic sinus at CT in three patients with blunt abdominal trauma accompanied with pleural effusion. This observation prompted us to evaluate the utility of this sign in an experimental model. Laparotomically, we created 2 cm diapragmatic lacerations at each hemidiaphragm in two rabbits and pushed up the abdominal viscera with omentum through the defect. To simulate hemothorax, we also injected 5-10 mL of diluted contrast material into the pleural space. Using a dual-slice helical CT scanner, limited thoracoabdominal CT examination was performed before and after injection of intrapleural contrast material. The images were analyzed for the presence of CT signs for diaphragmatic injury. The left posterior costophrenic sulcus was interrupted in all of the three patients with left pleural effusion. While it was associated with other findings of diaphragmatic injury, the 'sinus cut-off sign' was the sole finding in one patient. The sinus cut-off sign was observed on the CT scans of 100% of the rabbits with a left and right sided diaphragmatic rupture. The 'sinus cut-off sign' is useful and can increase the CT detection of acute diaphragmatic injury associated with pleural effusion.

  20. Appraisal and standardization of curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values for CASA analysis of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, U; Malecki, I A; Mahmood, M; Martin, G B

    2017-06-01

    One of the basic steps in objective analysis of sperm motility is the subdivision of a motile sperm population into slow, medium and rapid categories based on their velocity. However, for CASA analysis of quail sperm, the velocity values for categorization of slow, medium and rapid sperm have not yet been standardized. To identify the cut-off values of "velocity curvilinear" (VCL) for quail sperm categorization, we captured and analysed 22,300 tracks of quail sperm using SCA(®) -CASA. The median and mean VCL values were 85 and 97 μm/s. To define the VCL cut-off values, we used two methods. In the first, we identified the upper (rapid sperm) and lower (slow sperm) cut-off values using: (i) median VCL ± 25% or ± 50% or ± 75% of median VCL value; (ii) first and third quartile values of VCL data (i.e. 25% cut-off setting); and (iii) 33% and 66% of VCL data. Among these settings, sperm categories and their corresponding motility characteristics recorded using the "25%" setting (i.e. slow ≤36 ≤ medium ≤154 ≤ rapid) were found the most realistic and coherent with male ranking by fertility. In the second method, we calculated heteroscedasticity in the total VCL data using PCA and the two-step clustering method. With this approach, the mean of the high and low clusters was 165 and 51 μm/s, respectively. Together, the mean from two methods suggested that, for SCA(®) -CASA categorization of quail sperm, sperm should be classed as "rapid" at VCL ≥160 μm/s and "slow" at VCL ≤45 μm/s. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Evaluation of Waist Circumference Cut-off Values as a Marker for Fatty Liver among Japanese Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Abe

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Abdominal ultrasound is the most efficient means of diagnosing fatty liver, but this examination seldom occurs because the test is not routinely performed at workers’ health checkups. In people found to have a high risk of fatty liver, recommendations can be made for abdominal ultrasound based on the waist circumference cut-off values obtained in this study. That is, waist circumference can be used in high risk individuals as an effective marker for early detection of fatty liver.

  2. Successful use of combined high cut-off haemodialysis and bortezomib for acute kidney injury associated with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, F

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.

  3. Improved nonparametric estimation of the optimal diagnostic cut-off point associated with the Youden index under different sampling schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jingjing; Samawi, Hani; Linder, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    A diagnostic cut-off point of a biomarker measurement is needed for classifying a random subject to be either diseased or healthy. However, the cut-off point is usually unknown and needs to be estimated by some optimization criteria. One important criterion is the Youden index, which has been widely adopted in practice. The Youden index, which is defined as the maximum of (sensitivity + specificity -1), directly measures the largest total diagnostic accuracy a biomarker can achieve. Therefore, it is desirable to estimate the optimal cut-off point associated with the Youden index. Sometimes, taking the actual measurements of a biomarker is very difficult and expensive, while ranking them without the actual measurement can be relatively easy. In such cases, ranked set sampling can give more precise estimation than simple random sampling, as ranked set samples are more likely to span the full range of the population. In this study, kernel density estimation is utilized to numerically solve for an estimate of the optimal cut-off point. The asymptotic distributions of the kernel estimators based on two sampling schemes are derived analytically and we prove that the estimators based on ranked set sampling are relatively more efficient than that of simple random sampling and both estimators are asymptotically unbiased. Furthermore, the asymptotic confidence intervals are derived. Intensive simulations are carried out to compare the proposed method using ranked set sampling with simple random sampling, with the proposed method outperforming simple random sampling in all cases. A real data set is analyzed for illustrating the proposed method.

  4. Assessment of undergorund mining of Nussir copper deposit: With special emphasize on cut-off and mining method

    OpenAIRE

    Sletten, Audun Mortveit

    2012-01-01

    The narrow steeply dipping strata bound sediment hosted copper deposit, Nussir, located in Kvalsund community, Finmark, Norway, have been subject to an assessment of underground mining. Resources classified as Indicated, within a 0,9%Cu cut-off limit have been identified as suitable for sublevel open stoping mining method, accessed by 590m long tunnel from fjord, a 2000m haulage tunnel in footwall progressing westward along strike and two individual ramps separated by 1280m along strike. Stop...

  5. Insulin sensitivity indices: a proposal of cut-off points for simple identification of insulin-resistant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radikova, Z; Koska, J; Huckova, M; Ksinantova, L; Imrich, R; Vigas, M; Trnovec, T; Langer, P; Sebokova, E; Klimes, I

    2006-05-01

    Demanding measurement of insulin sensitivity using clamp methods does not simplify the identification of insulin resistant subjects in the general population. Other approaches such as fasting- or oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity indices were proposed and validated with the euglycemic clamp. Nevertheless, a lack of reference values for these indices prevents their wider use in epidemiological studies and clinical practice. The aim of our study was therefore to define the cut-off points of insulin resistance indices as well as the ranges of the most frequently obtained values for selected indices. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in 1156 subjects from a Caucasian rural population with no previous evidence of diabetes or other dysglycemias. Insulin resistance/sensitivity indices (HOMA-IR, HOMA-IR2, ISI Cederholm, and ISI Matsuda) were calculated. The 75th percentile value as the cut-off point to define IR corresponded with a HOMA-IR of 2.29, a HOMA-IR2 of 1.21, a 25th percentile for ISI Cederholm, and ISI Matsuda of 57 and 5.0, respectively. For the first time, the cut-off points for selected indices and their most frequently obtained values were established for groups of subjects as defined by glucose homeostasis and BMI. Thus, insulin-resistant subjects can be identified using this simple approach.

  6. Interstellar flow longitude from pickup ion cut-off observations at 1 AU with STEREO and ACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Gloeckler, G.; Drews, C.; Keilbach, D.

    2016-11-01

    A precision determination of the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction is important in several ways. As a cardinal axis of the heliosphere it has strong leverage on the plane subtended by the ISN velocity and interstellar magnetic field vector, which controls the shape of the heliosphere and its interaction with the interstellar medium. Continuing observations of the ISN flow through the heliosphere for several decades allow the search for potential temporal variations of the ISN flow and comparison with astronomical observations. Recent efforts to obtain a consistent ISN vector and temperature with Ulysses and IBEX neutral gas observations point to remaining uncertainties and potential systematic effects. In particular, IBEX measurements provide a very precise relation between ISN flow longitude and speed via the hyperbolic trajectory equation, but they contain larger uncertainties along the parameter tube defined by this relation. The pickup ion (PUI) cut-off variation with ecliptic longitude at 1 AU can provide a complementary determination of the ISN flow longitude with high precision. We compare STEREO PLASTIC and ACE SWICS observations with a simple analytical model of the cut-off. We perform a Pearson correlation analysis of the cut-off as a function of ecliptic longitude with its mirrored function and obtain the symmetry axis with a statistical uncertainty <0.1°. Here we test variations of this value due to Poisson fluctuations in the original data with simulations and due to systematic effects with multi year and location ACE SWICS and STEREO PLASTIC samples.

  7. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index and waist circumference in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suhyun; Park, Soo-Jung; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Blood mercury (methyl-mercury) from environmental exposure may be related to inflammation in our body. We investigated the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. On the basis of data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012), 11,159 subjects (5543 males and 5616 females) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Partial correlation, linear regression, and analysis of covariance (according to the mercury quartile) tests were performed to evaluate the relationship between blood mercury and BMI or waist circumference. In addition, we determined the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased BMI and waist circumference in both genders. Mean values of blood mercury concentration were 5.07 ± 0.07 μg/L in males and 3.59 ± 0.04 μg/L in females. After log transformation of blood mercury, significant (p waist circumference. BMI and waist circumference showed a significant and gradual increase as mercury quartile increased in both genders. Blood mercury concentration was weakly but significantly (p waist circumference. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration correlated with increased BMI and waist circumference were around 3.95 μg/L in males and 3.40 μg/L in females.

  8. Further performance evaluation of 5.3 μm cut-off Hawaii-2RG detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Derek; Beckmann, Udo; Alvarez, Domingo; Finger, Gert; Geimer, Christoph; Heininger, Matthias; Mehrgan, Leander; Tulloch, Simon

    2016-07-01

    ESO has now delivered or tested in-house, four new 5.3 μm cut-off H2RG detectors, for various projects, such as MATISSE for the VLTI and the upgrade project for CRIRES, the cryogenic high-resolution infrared echelle spectrograph for the VLT. The specified instruments have required the implementation of some of the more unusual read out options for these detectors, which may have already been used by other groups, for example, the line-reset-read and line-read-reset modes rather than the standard global reset mode. The detectors are also offered with both output speed options, that is, the standard slow, low noise readout and the faster, higher noise readout, where > 10 frames/s are possible. In the process of building these detector systems and implementing these new options we have delved deeper into some of the lesser known features of these detectors and tried to characterize them more fully. It is important that these characteristics are well understood before delivery of the next generation of detectors for the ELTs where high speed and windowing options are required. We obtain very good performance at 2 Mpixel/s pixel speeds with less than 40 e- rms read noise, in all other aspects such as linearity, noise versus number of non-destructive reads and cross talk then the performance of the outputs is the same as slow speed operation. However, the high speed output stages are quite complex to operate, they need to be very well tuned and are prone to oscillation, if not set correctly. We will report on the best bias options to optimize their performance. Some stability issues are also seen with the slow outputs and this is also reported. Likewise we have observed differences between global reset and line reset for the detectors, manifested in a significant increase in detector full well for the line reset option, this also will be reported on. We have also determined that there may be signal induced by the detector readout clocking process for certain detector

  9. A rare East Indian Ocean autumn season tropical cut-off low: impacts and a high-resolution modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, B. W.; Leslie, L. M.; Sullivan, W.; Leplastrier, M.; Qi, L.

    2007-04-01

    There are two aims of this study. The first is to provide a synoptic description of the lifecycle and impacts of a seasonally rare but intense cut-off low of tropical origin that developed off the northwest coast of Australia, during the Southern Hemisphere autumn months of late April/early May, 2005. The second, and more important, part of this study is an assessment of the capacity of a state-of-the-science numerical model, assimilating all available satellite-derived observational data, to predict the track, intensity, duration, and severe weather that occurred during the life cycle of the cut-off low. The system was unusual in that its initial development occurred over tropical waters and was associated with a strong and highly involuted subtropical jetstream, generating a cloud band that produced record 24 h rainfall totals in northwest Western Australia for this time of the year. The cut-off low then underwent further deepening which produced more unseasonable heavy rainfall. Confirmed tornado reports occurred over the populous southwest corner of Western Australia. The synoptic discussion focuses initially on the intensification phase of the system, next on the period of heavy rainfall and gale to storm force winds that were generated by the cut-off during its most intense phase, and finally on the severe thunderstorm outbreak over southwest Western Australia. The study reveals a possible additional reason for the intensification of the tropical low, namely, the presence of positive SST anomalies of up to 3 °C over which the storm track passed early in its life. The modelling study used a high-resolution version (10 km horizontal grid spacing) of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model developed at the University of Oklahoma. The 96 hour forecast covered the period 00 UTC April 28 to 00 UTC May 2, 2005. The initial and boundary conditions were obtained from the archived analyses and forecasts from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The numerical forecasts

  10. The first cut-off wall in the Indian Himalayas for the dam of the Dhauliganga hydroelectric project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, W.G. [Bauer Maschinen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details a Bauer cutter used to build a cut-off wall for the Dhaulinganga power plant project in the Himalayan mountains. The dam for the project was built as a 56 m high concrete-faced rockfill dam with a length of 270 m at the crown. A cut-off wall was constructed on the upstream side of the dam extending down from the dam's plinth to the bedrock level. A Bauer cutter was used to key the cut-off wall straight into the bedrock, which omitted the need for a grout curtain. The cut-off wall is 1 m thick and 70 m deep, with a total area of 8000 m{sup 2}. The wall was constructed as a series of primary and secondary panels. Excavation of the panels was carried out in single bites by the Bauer DHG hydraulic diaphragm wall grabs, supported a box chisel, cross chisel and a Bauer BC 40 rock cutter. Trench stability was provided by bentonite slurry. The closing forces were activated by a cylinder which was installed vertically inside the base body. The Bauer cutter continuously removed soil and rock from the bottom of the trench for mixing with the bentonite slurry. The slurry was then pumped through a ring main of hose pipes to a desanding plant where it was cleaned and returned to the trench. Advantages offered by using the cutter included a consistently high output, an extremely high degree of verticality, watertight joints, and the ability to cut through hard boulders. Use of the cutter at the Dhaulinganga site showed that the project could not be carried out successfully without the use of the cutter, which was used whenever grab and chisel methods were unable to achieve satisfactory rates of penetration. Deployment of the cutter was essential to key the cut-off wall into the underlying bedrock. It was concluded that the Dhualinganga project will provide a model for future power generation projects in the Indian Himalayas. 11 figs.

  11. High frequency cut-off in 1/f conductivity noise of hole-doped La1-x Ca x MnO3 manganite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybytek, Jacek; Fink-Finowicki, Jan; Puźniak, Roman; Jung, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    High frequency bias and temperature-dependent Lorentzian cut-off has been observed in the 1/f spectra of the conductivity fluctuations in low hole-doped ferromagnetic insulating La1-x Ca x MnO3 manganite at low temperatures. The cut-off frequency depends on dc current bias and temperature. The high frequency cut-off has been tentatively associated with intrinsic limits of the appearance of 1/f noise in the hopping regime of the Coulomb glass state. The assumption is validated by the fact that the Efros-Shklovskii temperature {{T}\\text{ES}} , estimated from the fit of the model to the experimentally measured temperature dependence of the cut-off frequency, has the same value as the temperature {{T}\\text{ES}} evaluated independently from the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the corresponding temperature range.

  12. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Ying; Du Lin; Li Yanping; Hu Xiaoqi; Hills Andrew P; Liu Ailing; Byrne Nuala M; Ma Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors clustering in this population. Met...

  13. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto; ,

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Methods Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for ...

  14. Different diagnostic cut-off values of urinary fractionated metanephrines according to sex for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Seo Young; Park, Hyung Doo; Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Jung Han; Jung, Byong Chang; Kim, Hye Jeong; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Moon Kyu; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on the documentation of catecholamine overproduction. The use of urinary fractionated metanephrines has recently become common for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. In order to avoid false positive and false negative results, optimal cut-off levels are necessary; however, there have been few published reports on whether different cut-off levels are needed to diagnose pheochromocytoma according to sex. We reviewed the medical records of 815 subjects (including 103 pheochromocytoma patients) whose of 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrine was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography methods and adrenal imaging at Samsung Medical Center. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine cut-off values according to sex. The upper limit values of fractionated metanephrine in healthy volunteers and the control group were significantly higher in male subjects compared with females. When we applied cut-off values according to sex, the diagnostic efficacies (defining a positive test as either metanephrine or normetanephrine levels above the cut-off value) were a sensitivity of 96% in male subjects and 98.1% in female subjects and a specificity of 88.6% in male subjects and 94.1% in female subjects. However, when we applied cut-off values without considering sex, the specificity decreased from 88.6% to 77.8% in male subjects. In this study, urinary fractionated metanephrines had a high level of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. However, diagnostic cut-off values were higher in male subjects than in female subjects. Therefore, different cut-off values may be needed according to sex to diagnose pheochromocytoma in Koreans.

  15. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-09-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, Phypothyroidism.

  16. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas; de Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. Results: We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. PMID:27812631

  17. Accuracy and cut-off point selection in three-class classification problems using a generalization of the Youden index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakas, Christos T; Alonzo, Todd A; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T

    2010-12-10

    We study properties of the index J(3), defined as the accuracy, or the maximum correct classification, for a given three-class classification problem. Specifically, using J(3) one can assess the discrimination between the three distributions and obtain an optimal pair of cut-off points c(1)sum of the correct classification proportions will be maximized. It also serves as the generalization of the Youden index in three-class problems. Parametric and non-parametric approaches for estimation and testing are considered and methods are applied to data from an MRS study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients.

  18. Determination of the optimal cut-off point for ELISA test for diagnosis of brucellosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Finding a reliable diagnostic method for brucellosis is the most challengeable problem. In this study we determined the optimal diagnostic cut-off point for ELISA test."n"nMethods: We gathered 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis. Furthermore blood samples from 126 controls including 73 healthy controls and 53 without brucellosis febrile patients were collected. In all of the cases and controls ELISA Ig G and ELISA Ig M levels were measured and compared with each other by Box plot graph and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA Ig G and Ig M were fixed in different cut-off values and Ig G and Ig M levels yielding maximal sensitivity plus specificity were selected for determination of optimal cut-off point."n"nResults: The nineteen patients had positive blood cultures for Brucella melitensis. The standard agglutination test results were 1/160 or more in 54 patients. The Box plot graph indicated a high degree of dispersion for Ig G and Ig M data in patients with brucellosis compared with febrile patients without brucellosis and healthy controls. We observed partial overlap for Ig M data (not for Ig G between cases and controls. The area under ROC curve for

  19. Exploration of the optimal diameter cut-off value in patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor suitable for surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan LIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the pathology of the patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor (NFA, and explore the optimal diameter cut-off value. Methods  The clinical data of 243 patients with NFA, evaluated in the Department of Endocrinology and operated in the Department of Urology of General Hospital of Chinese PLA from Feb. 1996 to Jan. 2016, were collected. The patients were divided into two groups according to pathology: those in real demand of surgery were classified to the surgery-need group (n=57, while the others were categorized as the surgery-unwanted group (n=186. The general situation, pathological type and tumor diameter of the two groups and the factors affecting the surgery were analyzed, and the ROC curve was used to explore the optimal surgery cut-off value, which represents the maximum value of the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Results  Of the 57 patients in surgery-need group (27 males and 30 females, the lesions were on the right in 31 cases, on the left in 25 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 4.5cm, and the average age was 41.5±12.1 years old. Of the 186 patients in surgery-unwanted group (87 males and 99 females, the lesions were on the right in 99 cases, on the left in 86 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 3.0cm, and the average age was 50.6±10.9 years old. Logistic regression revealed that lesion diameter might be a risk factor (OR=1.340, 95%CI 1.266-1.418, P=0.000 and age be a protective factor (OR=0.942, 95%CI 0.929-0.955, P=0.000 for real demand of surgery. The area under the ROC curve (AUC of lesion diameter was 0.757(95%CI 0.681-0.833. The optimal cut-off value was 4.1cm (sensitivity 60.7% and specificity 83.0%. Conclusions  Younger patients with bigger lesion diameter may have greater possibility for surgery. The optimal surgery cut-off value of the lesion diameter is 4.1cm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.11

  20. Effects of inductive waves on multi-band below-cut-off transmission in waveguides loaded with dielectric metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unusual backward and forward wave propagation in below cut-off waveguides loaded with dielectric metamaterials comprised of linear arrays of dielectric resonators (DRs has been investigated by using theoretical, numerical, and experimental methods. Transmission bands were shown to correspond to three lowest resonances in arrays and were analyzed by using the concepts of magneto- and electro-inductive (MI and EI waves describing the transfer of resonance excitation along the chains of coupled resonators. Equivalent circuit models (ECMs have been constructed to describe MI and EI wave propagation and to obtain the dispersion diagrams. Good agreement between the obtained data and the results of full-wave simulations, theoretical calculations, and experiments provided an opportunity to determine coupling coefficients characterizing interaction between DRs in arrays at various resonances. It was shown that ripples observed in below cut-off transmission bands are transmission resonances caused by Fabry-Perot oscillations of inductive waves at impedance mismatch at the array ends. Fitting the transmission spectra for MI/EI waves in arrays, calculated by using the Transfer Matrix Method to the spectra obtained by using full-wave simulations/measurements, allowed for determining the ECM parameters to fully characterize the DR array properties.

  1. CFT dual of the AdS Dirichlet problem : Fluid/Gravity on cut-off surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Brattan, Daniel K; Loganayagam, R; Rangamani, Mukund

    2011-01-01

    We study the gravitational Dirichlet problem in AdS spacetimes with a view to understanding the boundary CFT interpretation. We define the problem as bulk Einstein's equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions on fixed timelike cut-off hypersurface. Using the fluid/gravity correspondence, we argue that one can determine non-linear solutions to this problem in the long wavelength regime. On the boundary we find a conformal fluid with Dirichlet constitutive relations, viz., the fluid propagates on a `dynamical' background metric which depends on the local fluid velocities and temperature. This boundary fluid can be re-expressed as an emergent hypersurface fluid which is non-conformal but has the same value of the shear viscosity as the boundary fluid. The hypersurface dynamics arises as a collective effect, wherein effects of the background are transmuted into the fluid degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this collective fluid is forced to be non-relativistic below a critical cut-off radius in...

  2. Preoperative diagnosis of breast diseases by dynamic MR mammography. Cut off point establishment for signal intensity ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Juji; Nagata, Takayasu; Kawagoe, Hajime; Tachibana, Susumu; Kajima, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Mutsuo [Ibi General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Uno, Takashi; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu

    1997-12-01

    We have revealed that a dynamic study of the breast using MR imaging technique can estimate objectively benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis. Subjects were 41 cases of breast lesion, including 13 cases of breast cancer, 21 cases of mastopathy, six cases of fibroadenoma and one case of intraductal papillomatosis and the results of them were investigated in comparison with histopathological diagnosis. As so the method, we drew up time-signal intensity ratio curve plotting signal intensity ratio at each 30 second of dynamic MR mammography after Gd-DTPA administration. We found a especially high significant difference between cancer and mastopathy, within 90 second after Gd-DTPA administration (p=0.0000). Still more, we established cut off point concerning with establishment of 95% confidence interval, that is, at 30 second after Gd-DTPA administration of point equivalent 1.53 at 60 second equivalent 2.00, at 90 second equivalent 2.47, and about this estimating maneuver using the cut off point we named Dynamic ratio method. We can estimate preoperatively not only benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis with breast tumor, but also neighboring infiltration and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer using this Dynamic ratio method. Over again, Dynamic ratio method provides fine information to preoperative decision of resecting region for breast conserving surgery. The efficiency of this method is sensitivity=92.3%, specificity=89.3% and positive predictive value=80.0%. (author)

  3. Determination of the accuracy and optimal cut-off point for ELISA test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibi, Mehrdad; Jafari, Sirus; Mortazavi, Habibollah; Asadollahi, Marjan; Esmaeeli Djavid, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    In endemic area the most challenging problem for brucellosis is to find a reliable diagnostic method. In this case-control study, we investigated the accuracy of ELISA test for diagnosis of human brucellosis and determined the optimal cut-off value for ELISA results in Iran. The laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis was performed by blood isolation of Brucella organism with a BACTEC 9240 system and/or detection of Brucella antibodies by standard agglutination test (titer ≥ 1:160). Serum level of ELISA IgG and ELISA IgM from 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 126 controls were compared with each other by Box plot graph and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Box plot graphs showed the high degree of dispersion for IgG and IgM data in patients compared with all controls. We observed partially overlapping for IgM data (not for IgG) between cases and controls in graphs. The area under ROC curve for distinguishing between cases and controls was larger for IgG compared to IgM. Based on results of this study, ELISA IgG test was more reliable than ELISA IgM test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran. Using a cut-off of 10 IU/ml and 50 IU/ml had most sensitivity (92.9%) and most specificity (100%) for ELISA IgG test, respectively.

  4. Dynamic Changes, Cut-Off Points, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Laboratory Data to Differentiate Macrophage Activation Syndrome from Active Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Assari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the laboratory data and changes in these data between patients with MAS and patients with flare-up of the autoimmune diseases. Methods. In a prospective study, the static laboratory data and dynamic changes in the selected data in 17 consecutive patients with MAS and 53 patients with active disease of SJIA, PJIA, Kawasaki disease, and SLE were compared. The ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity of the static and dynamic laboratory data to differentiate between MAS and active disease. Results. In the MAS group, the mean CRP3, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, ferritin, LDH, PT, PTT, and INR were significantly higher and the mean WBC2, PMN2, Lymph2, Hgb1, 2, 3, ESR2, serum albumin, and sodium were significantly lower than in control group. Some of the important cut-off points were PLT2 38.5, ALT > 38, WBC 5277 ng/mL. Conclusion. The dynamic changes in some laboratory data, especially PLT, can differentiate between MAS and active disease. The changes in WBC, PMN, and ESR and the levels of the liver enzymes may also be helpful in the early differentiation. Very high levels of ferritin may also help the diagnosis along with other clinical and laboratory signs.

  5. Cut-off scaling of high-harmonic generation driven by a femtosecond visible optical parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirmi, Giovanni; Lai, Chien-Jen; Granados, Eduardo; Huang, Shu-Wei; Sell, Alexander; Hong, Kyung-Han; Moses, Jeffrey; Keathley, Phillip; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2012-10-01

    We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 µJ energy at the 1 kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping other parameters (energy, duration and beam size) constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in helium. Our measurements show a λ1.7 + 0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source, the high-order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ˜25 and ˜100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.

  6. Accuracy of cut-off value by measurement of third molar index: Study of a Colombian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Stefano; Aguilar, Lina; Rivera, Marcela; Palacio, Luz Andrea Velandia; Riccomi, Giulia; Bestetti, Fiorella; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the accuracy of cut-off value of 0.08 by measurement of third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in a sample of Colombian children and young adults. Digital orthopantomographs of 288 Colombian children and young adults (163 girls and 125 boys), aged between 13 and 22 years, were analysed. Concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and κ statistics (Cohen's Kappa coefficient) showed that repeatability and reproducibility are high for both intra- and inter-observer error. κ statistics for intra- and inter-observer agreement in decision on adult or minor was 0.913 and 0.877, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both girls and boys. For girls, the sensitivity test was 95.1% (95% CI 87.1%-95%) and specificity was 93.8% (95% CI 87.1%-98.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 95.1%. For boys, the sensitivity test was 91.7% (95% CI 85.1%-96.8%) and specificity was 90.6% (95% CI 82.1%-97.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 89.7%. The cut-off value of 0.08 is highly useful to determine if a subject is 18 years of age or older or not.

  7. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio cut-off points for categorisation of obesity among Omani Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A; Jousilahti, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    There are no data on optimal cut-off points to classify obesity among Omani Arabs. The existing cut-off points were obtained from studies of European populations. To determine gender-specific optimal cut-off points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) associated with elevated prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Omani Arabs. A community-based cross-sectional study. The survey was conducted in the city of Nizwa in Oman in 2001. The study contained a probabilistic random sample of 1421 adults aged > or =20 years. Prevalent CVD risk was defined as the presence of at least two of the following three risk factors: hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to determine optimal cut-off points for BMI, WC and WHR in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. Over 87% of Omanis had at least one CVD risk factor (38% had hyperglycaemia, 19% hypertension and 34.5% had high total cholesterol). All three indices including BMI (AUC = 0.766), WC (AUC = 0.772) and WHR (AUC = 0.767) predicted prevalent CVD risk factors equally well. The optimal cut-off points for men and women respectively were 23.2 and 26.8 kg m-2 for BMI, 80.0 and 84.5 cm for WC, and 0.91 and 0.91 for WHR. To identify Omani subjects of Arab ethnicity at high risk of CVD, cut-off points lower than currently recommended for BMI, WC and WHR are needed for men while higher cut-off points are suggested for women.

  8. One millimetre is the safe cut-off for magnetic resonance imaging prediction of surgical margin status in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F G M; Quirke, P; Heald, R J; Moran, B; Blomqvist, L; Swift, I; St Rose, S; Sebag-Montefiore, D J; Tekkis, P; Brown, G

    2011-06-01

    A pathologically involved margin in rectal cancer is defined as tumour within 1 mm of the surgical resection margin. There is no standard definition of a predicted safe margin on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to assess which cut-off (1, 2 or 5 mm) was the best predictor of local recurrence based on preoperative MRI assessment of the circumferential resection margin (CRM). Data were collected prospectively on the distance between the tumour and mesorectal fascia for patients with documented radiological margin status in the MERCURY study. Positive margin and local recurrence rates were compared for MRI distances from the tumour to the mesorectal fascia of 1 mm or less, more than 1 mm up to 2 mm, more than 2 mm up to 5 mm, and more than 5 mm. The Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to determine the effect of level of margin involvement on time to local recurrence. Univariable analysis showed that, relative to a distance measured by MRI of more than 5 mm, the hazard ratio (HR) for local recurrence was 3·90 (95 per cent confidence interval 1·99 to 7·63; P < 0·001) for a margin of 1 mm or less, 0·81 (0·36 to 1·85; P = 0·620) for a margin of more than 1 mm up to 2 mm, and 0·33 (0·10 to 1·08; P = 0·067) for a margin greater than 2 mm up to 5 mm. Multivariable analysis of the effect of MRI distance to the mesorectal fascia and preoperative treatment on local recurrence showed that a margin of 1 mm or less remained significant regardless of preoperative treatment (HR 3·72, 1·43 to 9·71; P = 0·007). For preoperative staging of rectal cancer, the best cut-off distance for predicting CRM involvement using MRI is 1 mm. Using a cut-off greater than this does not appear to identify patients at higher risk of local recurrence. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Trend, projection, and appropriate body mass index cut-off point for diabetes and hypertension in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Akter, Shamima; Jung, Jenny; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Sultana, Papia

    2017-04-01

    Rapid increasing of high body mass index (BMI) is a global health concern. Population with high BMI predicts an increased risk of diabetes and hypertension. The objective of the present study is to estimate the trend and prediction of diabetes and hypertension in Bangladesh, to examine the association of BMI with risk of diabetes and hypertension, and to ascertain an appropriate BMI cut-off point for screening diabetes. We searched PubMed from inception to August 2016 and identified studies reporting diabetes and hypertension prevalence in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011 data was also included in this study. Bayesian model was used to estimate trend and projection in diabetes and hypertension prevalence by sex and residence. Receiver operating characteristic curves was used to determine the optimal BMI cut-off point for screening diabetes. Of 535 articles reviewed, 35 studies reported prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. Prevalence of diabetes (95% credible interval) increased between 1992 and 2015 from 3.2% (2.2-4.3) to 12.1% (9.1-15.4) in men, and from 2.5% (1.8-3.5) to 13.4% (9.7-17.6) in women. Diabetes prevalence in 2030 is expected to reach 23.6% (13.6-36.3) for men and 33.5% (19.9-50.9) for women. Hypertension prevalence increased between 1992 and 2015 from 11.0% (8.6-13.7) to 20.4% (18.4-22.4%) in 2015 in men, and from 14.0% (10.3-19.0) to 21.3% (19.0-23.6) in women. Annual average rate of change for diabetes prevalence was higher among women and in rural areas, while for hypertension prevalence it was higher in men and urban areas. Adults with BMI of 22.5kg/m(2) or above had a higher risk of diabetes and hypertension in this study. The optimal BMI cut-off point for screening diabetes was 23kg/m(2) for overall population, 22kg/m(2) for men, and 23kg/m(2) for women. Diabetes is more prevalent among women and rural population groups, while hypertension is more prevalent among men and urban population groups in Bangladesh. A BMI

  10. The impact of an underground cut-off wall on nutrient dynamics in groundwater in the lower Wang River watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Pingping; Xu, Shiguo

    2017-03-01

    Underground cut-off walls in coastal regions are mainly used to prevent saltwater intrusion, but their impact on nutrient dynamics in groundwater is not clear. In this study, a combined analysis of multiple isotopes ([Formula: see text]) and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations is used in order to assess the impact of the underground cut-off walls on the nutrient dynamics in groundwater in the lower Wang River watershed, China. Compared with the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in groundwater downstream of the underground cut-off walls, high [Formula: see text] and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations and similar concentration levels of [Formula: see text] and total dissolved phosphorus are found in groundwater upstream of the underground cut-off walls. The isotopic data indicated the probable occurrence of denitrification and nitrification processes in groundwater upstream, whereas the fingerprint of these processes was not shown in groundwater downstream. The management of fertilizer application is critical to control nitrogen concentrations in groundwater restricted by the underground cut-off walls.

  11. Suggested cut-off values for vitamin D as a risk marker for total and cardiac death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Naesgaard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut off levels are still under debate. Objectives: To assess two cut-off levels, 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of data. 2-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in the total patient population were analyzed, applying univariate and multivariable analysis. Results: 255 patients with known vitamin D concentrations died. In the multivariable analysis, there was a decrease in total mortality above a cut-off level of 40 nmol/L and a decrease in cardiac death above a cut-off level of 70 nmol/L, [HRs of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50 – 0.88, p = 0.004 and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22 – 0.94, p = 0.034, respectively].Conclusion: Vitamin D cut-off levels of 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, were related to total mortality and cardiac death, respectively.

  12. How does a low-mass cut-off in the stellar IMF affect the evolution of young star clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; de Grijs, R; Rose, M; Kim, Sungsoo S

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how different stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) can affect the mass loss and survival of star clusters. We find that IMFs with radically different low-mass cut-offs (between 0.1 and 2 Msun) do not change cluster destruction time-scales as much as might be expected. Unsurprisingly, we find that clusters with more high-mass stars lose relatively more mass through stellar evolution, but the response to this mass loss is to expand and hence significantly slow their dynamical evolution. We also argue that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to have clusters with different IMFs that are initially "the same", since the mass, radius and relaxation times depend on each other and on the IMF in a complex way. We conclude that changing the IMF to be biased towards more massive stars does speed up mass loss and dissolution, but that it is not as dramatic as might be thought.

  13. On a holographic dark energy model with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Khurshudyan, M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the models of the accelerated expanding large scale universe~(according to general relativity) containing a generalized holographic dark energy with a Nojiri - Odintsov cut - off. The second component of the darkness is assumed to be the pressureless cold dark matter according to observed symmetries of the large scale universe. Moreover, we assume specific forms of the interaction between these two components and besides the cosmographic analysis, we discuss appropriate results from $Om$ and $Om3$ analysis and organize a closer look to the models via the statefinder hierarchy analysis, too. In this way we study mainly impact of the interaction on the dynamics of the background of our universe~(within specific forms of interaction). To complete the cosmographic analysis, the present day values of the statefinder parameters $(r,s)$ and $(\\omega^{\\prime}_{de}, \\omega_{de})$ has been estimated for all cases and the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is demonstrated....

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 3-D TURBULENT FLOWS IN A CUT-OFF VALVE AND ANALYSIS OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhi-guo; Mao Gen-hai; Yuan Xing-ming

    2003-01-01

    The 3-D turbulent flows in a valve pipe were described by the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with an RNG k-ε turbulence model. With the finite volume method and a body-fitted coordinate system, the discretised equations were solved by the SIMPLEST algorithm. The numerical result of a cut-off valve with curved inlet shows the flow characteristics and the main cause of energy loss when fluid flows through a valve. And then, the boundaries of valve were modified in order to reduce the energy loss. The computational results of modified valve show that the numerical value of turbulent kinetic energy is lower, and that the modified design of the 3-D valve boundaries is much better. The analysis of the result also shows that RNG k-ε turbulence model can successfully be used to predict the 3-D turbulent separated flows and the secondary flow inside valve pipes.

  15. The Development of Appropriate Waist-to-Hip Ratio Cut- off Points: Survey in Large Iranian Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Jahanlou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Proportion of Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR is an indicator of abdominal obesity, which is supported by some studies but rejected by others. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of the WHR and obtain suitable cut- off points for detecting obesity among adult Iranians. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional-descriptive study the sample consisted of 19366 adults. The data collection took place from 2009 to 2014, using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA. The following data were obtained: WHR, Percentile of Body Fat (PBF, To-tal Fat (TF, and Soft Lean Mass (SLM. Sensitivity and specificity, based on World Health Organization’s Gold Standards were calculated for both sexes at three age groups. The data analysis included t-test, chi-square, ROC curve, and linear regression. Results: All study variables were correlated with each other. Age was only correlated with the WHR. Percentages of sensitivity and Negative Predictive Value (NPV were 84.2% and 85.6% in women; 21% and 50.7% in men. Increase in age was associated with increase in sensitivity in men and women, and NPV in men. The suitable cut-off points for men and women were found to be 87.5% and 83.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Waist-to-Hip ration is a suitable indictor of obesity for Iranian women but not men, especially among those who are under 59 years old. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 144-151

  16. Absolute depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer is superior to the currently used cut-off value of 50%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Y P; Pijnenborg, J M A; van den Berg-van Erp, S H M; Snijders, M P M L; Bulten, J; Massuger, L F A G

    2013-05-01

    In endometrial carcinoma, myometrial invasion is a well known predictor of recurrence, and important in the decision making for adjuvant treatment. According to the FIGO staging system, myometrial invasion is expressed as invasion of of the myometrium (50%MI). It has been suggested to use the absolute depth of invasion (DOI), or the tumor free distance to the serosa (TFD). The aim of this study was to compare DOI, 50%MI, and TFD. All patients diagnosed with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma at the RUNMC, and the CWH from 1999 to 2009 were included. Histologic slides were reviewed for histologic type and grade, DOI, 50%MI, and TFD. After review, 335 patients were identified. DOI, 50%MI, and TFD were evaluated for their prediction of clinicopathologic characteristics. The prediction of recurrence was best performed by DOI when compared to TFD, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.726, and 0.638 respectively. The optimal cut-off value for DOI was 4mm. DOI independently correlated with recurrence of disease, and death of disease. TFD was associated with advanced age and large tumor diameter. DOI was the best predictor of progression-free and disease-specific survival next to 50%MI and TFD (HR 3.15, 95%CI 1.16-8.56) and (HR 10.35, 95%CI 1.23-86.93). DOI showed better predictive performance than TFD, and was more strongly correlated with clinicopathologic parameters than TFD and 50%MI. Possibly, DOI should substitute 50%MI as measure to express myometrial invasion in daily clinical practice. External validation is mandatory to confirm the proposed cut-off value of 4mm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new perspective of the climatological features of upper-level cut-off lows in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Henri Rossi; Hodges, Kevin Ivan; Gan, Manoel Alonso; Ferreira, Nelson Jesuz

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a detailed view of the seasonal variability of upper-level cut-off lows (COLs) in the Southern Hemisphere. The COLs are identified and tracked using data from a 36-year period of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast reanalysis (ERA-Interim). The objective identification of the COLs uses a new approach, which is based on 300 hPa relative vorticity minima, and three restrictive criteria of the presence of a cold-core, stratospheric potential vorticity intrusion, and cut-off cyclonic circulation. The highest COL activity is in agreement with previous studies, located near three main continental areas (Australia, South America, and Africa), with maximum frequencies usually observed in the austral autumn. The COL mean intensity values show a marked seasonal and spatial variation, with maximum (minimum) values during the austral winter (summer), a unique feature that has not been observed previously in studies based on the geopotential. The link between intensity and lysis is examined, and finds that weaker systems are more susceptible to lysis in the vicinity of the Andes Cordillera, associated with the topographic Rossby wave. Lysis and genesis regions are close to each other, confirming that COLs are quasi-stationary systems. Also, COLs tend to move eastward and are faster over the higher latitudes. The mean growth/decay rates coincide with the major genesis and lysis density regions, such as the significant decay values across the Andes all year. As a consequence of using vorticity for the tracking method a longer lifetime of COLs is detected than in other studies, but this does not affect the total frequency of occurrence. Comparisons with other studies suggest that the differences in seasonality are due to uncertainties in the reanalyses and the methods used to identify COLs.

  18. The optimal cut-off value of the preoperative prognostic nutritional index for the survival differs according to the TNM stage in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yukiyasu; Sugiura, Teiichi; Ito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ashida, Ryo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    To establish the optimal cut-off value of the preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) for prognosis according to the Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. This retrospective study reviewed the records of 375 patients. The optimal cut-off value of the PNI was established according to the TNM stage, and overall survival was compared between the low and high PNI groups. The optimal cut-off value of the PNI decreased with increasing TNM stage, with 52, 47, and 43 patients having stage I, II, and III HCC, respectively. A low preoperative PNI predicted a poorer overall survival than did a high PNI for stage I (P TNM stages and that the preoperative PNI is a favorable prognostic factor for stage I HCC.

  19. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M.; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Methods Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. Results The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI’s AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28’s AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. Conclusions The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis. PMID:27603313

  20. Evaluation of an Optimal Cut-Off Point for the Ki-67 Index as a Prognostic Factor in Primary Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Rumiko; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Fujisue, Mamiko; Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Ki-67 index is an important biomarker for indicating the proliferation of cancer cells and is considered to be an effective prognostic factor for breast cancer. However, a standard cut-off point for the Ki-67 index has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was to determine an optimal cut-off point in order to establish it as a more accurate prognostic factor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Ki-67 index was performed on 4329 patients with primary breast cancer from August 1987 to March 2012. Out of this sample, there were 3186 consecutive cases from September 1997 with simultaneous evaluations of ER, PgR and HER2 status. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the factors related to OS. The hazard ratios (HR) and the p values were then compared to determine the optimal cut-off point for the Ki-67 index. The median Ki-67 index value was 20.5% (mean value 26.2%). The univariate analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant negative correlation with DFS and OS and the multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index value was a significant factor for DFS and OS. The top seven cut-off points were then carefully chosen based on the results of the univariate analysis using the lowest p-values and the highest HR as the main selection criteria. The multivariate analysis of the factors for OS showed that the cut-off point of 20% had the highest HR in all of the cases. However, the cutoff point of 20% was only a significant factor for OS in the Luminal/HER2- subtype. There was no correlation between the Ki-67 index value and OS in any of the other subtypes. These data indicate that the optimal cut-off point of 20% is the most effective prognostic factor for Luminal/HER2- breast cancer. PMID:26177501

  1. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  2. Cross section of reaction 181Ta(p,nγ)181W and the influence of the spin cut-off parameter on the cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-Jie; HU Bi-Tao

    2011-01-01

    In this work,the program Cindy was modified to calculate the formation cross section of each energy level of residual nucleus 181W resulting from the reaction 181Ta(p,nγ)181 W.The concerned cross sections calculated at proton energy Ep=4.5-8.5 MeV agreed well with experimental results.The influence of the spin cut-off parameter in the energy level density model on the cross section was studied.The obtained results show that the influence of spin cut-off is obvious for lower energy levels.

  3. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-01-01

    An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  4. Model parameter estimation bias induced by earthquake magnitude cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    We evaluate the bias in parameter estimates of the ETAS model. We show that when a simulated catalogue is magnitude-truncated there is considerable bias, whereas when it is not truncated there is no discernible bias. We also discuss two further implied assumptions in the ETAS and other self-exciting models. First, that the triggering boundary magnitude is equivalent to the catalogue completeness magnitude. Secondly, the assumption in the Gutenberg-Richter relationship that numbers of events increase exponentially as magnitude decreases. These two assumptions are confounded with the magnitude truncation effect. We discuss the effect of these problems on analyses of real earthquake catalogues.

  5. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; Andrade, Armèle Dornelas de; Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. Determinar os pontos de corte de resposta ao broncodilatador do VEF1, VEF0,75, VEF0,5 e FEF25-75% em crianças pré-escolares saudáveis e gerar valores de referência para o VEF0,75. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base comunitária em crianças de 3-5 anos de idade. Pré-escolares saudáveis foram selecionados por um questionário padronizado. Foi realizada espirometria antes e depois do uso de broncodilatador. Foram definidos os pontos de corte dessa resposta como o percentil 95 de variação em cada parâmetro. Foram recrutadas 266 crianças, e 160 (60,0%) foram capazes de gerar manobras expiratórias aceitáveis e reprodut

  6. Dicarboxylic acids with limited numbers of hydrocarbons stabilize cell membrane and increase osmotic resistance in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amita, Nozomi; Kawawake, Megumi; Higuchi, Ayaka

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of dicarboxylic acids having 0 to 6 hydrocarbons and their corresponding monocarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids in changing the osmotic fragility (OF) in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acids, which are dicarboxylic acids with 1, 2, 3 and 4 straight hydrocarbons located between two carboxylic groups, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Other long-chain dicarboxylic acids did not change the OF in rat RBCs. The benzoic acid derivatives, isophthalic and terephthalic acids, but not phthalic acid, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, but not benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, also decreased the OF in rat RBCs. On the other hand, monocarboxylic acids possessing 2 to 7 straight hydrocarbons and benzoic acid increased the OF in rat RBCs. In short-chain dicarboxylic acids, a limited number of hydrocarbons between the two carboxylic groups are thought to form a V- or U-shaped structure and interact with phospholipids in the RBC membrane. In benzene dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, a part of benzene nucleus between the two carboxylic groups is thought to enter the plasma membrane and act on acyl-chain in phospholipids in the RBC membrane. For dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, limited numbers of hydrocarbons in molecules are speculated to enter the RBC membrane with the hydrophilic carboxylic groups remaining outside, stabilizing the structure of the cell membrane and resulting in an increase in osmotic resistance in rat RBCs.

  7. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Anne O; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate...

  8. Waist circumference cut-off in relation to body mass index and percentage of body fat in adult women from Merida, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Dickinson, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) as an index of central obesity is related to body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (PBF). Waist circumference data were analyzed to identify a WC cut-off for adult women with respect to BMI-based obesity (≥ 30 kg/m²) and PBF. The sample was 138 women aged 22 to 41 years with Maya ancestry (based on surnames) in Merida, Yucatan, measured during 2011 - 2013. Anthropometric parameters included height, body weight (BW), and BMI. The PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance. Estimated cut-offs per centimeter WC (80 - 99 cm) were predicted by BMI for obesity (≥ 30 kg m⁻²; binomial: Yes = 1, No = 0) and PBF (continuous variable) using binary logistic regression analyses. Mean age was 32 years, mean BMI was 29 kg m(-2) and mean WC was 89 cm. The sample exhibited high PBF (44 %), and high rates of overweight (44%) and obesity (40%). The threshold WC (≥ 93 cm) had high sensitivity (80%), specificity (82%), Youden Index value (0.62), and correct classification rate (82%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 88 %. The WC ≥ 93 cm cut-off had corresponding values for mean BMI (34 kg m⁻²) and PBF (47%). The optimal WC cut-off at 93 cm significantly identified central obesity for BMI ≥ 30 kg m⁻² and PBF for this sample.

  9. Cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain on the visual analogue scale for pain in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R. Schiphorst; Balk, Gerlof A.; Stewart, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the cut-off points on the visual analogue scale (VAS) to distinguish among mild, moderate, and severe pain, in relation to the following: pain-related interference with functioning; verbal description of the VAS scores; and latent class analysis for patients with ch

  10. Lattice cut-off effects and their reduction in studies of QCD thermodynamics at non-zero temperature and chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Hegde, P; Laermann, E; Shcheredin, S

    2008-01-01

    We clarify the relation between the improvement of dispersion relations in the fermion sector of lattice regularized QCD and the improvement of bulk thermodynamic observables. We show that in the infinite temperature limit the cut-off dependence in dispersion relations can be eliminated up to O(a^n) corrections, if the quark propagator is chosen to be rotationally invariant up to this order. In bulk thermodynamic observables this eliminates cut-off effects up to the same order at vanishing as well as non-vanishing chemical potential. We furthermore show, that in the infinite temperature, ideal gas limit the dependence of finite cut-off corrections on the chemical potential is given by Bernoulli polynomials which are universal as they do not depend on a particular discretization scheme. We explicitly calculate leading and next-to-leading order cut-off corrections for some staggered and Wilson fermion type actions and compare these with exact evaluations of the free fermion partition functions. This also includ...

  11. Using Logistic Regression for Validating or Invalidating Initial Statewide Cut-Off Scores on Basic Skills Placement Tests at the Community College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secolsky, Charles; Krishnan, Sathasivam; Judd, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The community colleges in the state of New Jersey went through a process of establishing statewide cut-off scores for English and mathematics placement tests. The colleges wanted to communicate to secondary schools a consistent preparation that would be necessary for enrolling in Freshman Composition and College Algebra at the community college…

  12. Cosmological properties and reconstruction of scalar field models of the Holographic Dark Energy model with Granda-Oliveros cut-off in Kaluza-Klein cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Assaf, Khudhair A.; Salako, Ines G.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the properties of the Holographic Dark Energy (HDE) model in the context of Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology with infrared cut-off given by the recently proposed by Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains a term proportional to the time derivative of the Hubble parameter and one proportional to the Hubble parameter squared. Moreover, this cut-off is characterized by two free parameters which are the proportional constants of the two terms of the cut-off. We derive the expression of the Equation of State (EoS) parameter ωD and of the deceleration parameter q for both non-interacting and interacting Dark Sectors and in the limiting case of a flat Dark Dominated Universe. Moreover, we study the squared speed of the sound vs2 and the statefinder diagnostic \\{r,s\\} in order to understand the cosmological properties of the model considered. We also develop a correspondence between the model considered and three scalar field models: the tachyon, the k-essence and the quintessence ones.

  13. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-off values for Identifying Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged and Elderly Subjects in Shandong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xin Guo; ZHANG Xiu Ping; JIANG Mei; WANG Wei Qing; NING Guang; ZHENG Hui Zhen; MA Ai Xia; SUN Yu; SONG Jun; LIN Peng; LIANG Kai; WANG Chuan; LIU Fu Qiang; LI Wen Juan; XIAO Juan; GONG Lei; WANG Mei Jian; LIU Ji Dong; YAN Fei; YANG Jun Peng; WANG Ling Shu; TIAN Meng; MA Ze Qiang; ZHAO Ru Xing; JIANG Ling; CHEN Li; YANG Wei Fang; WANG Ji Xiang; LI Cheng Qiao; WANG Yu Lian; LIU Shu Min; Hu Xiu Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off values for identifying metabolic risk factors in middle-aged and elderly subjects in Shandong Province of China. Methods A total of 2 873 men and 5 559 women were included in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society in 2004. The relation between WC and MetS was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The optimal WC cut-off values were identified using the area under the ROC curve and the different diagnostic criteria for central obesity were compared. Results The WC was the risk factor for MetS independent of BMI, blood glucose, blood lipid, and blood pressure. The optimal WC cut-off value was 83.8 cm and 91.1 cm for identifying MetS in women and men, respectively. Compared with 80 cm and 85 cm for women and men, 85 cm and 90 cm had a higher Youden index for identifying all metabolic risk factors and MetS in women and men. Conclusion The appropriate WC cut-off value is 85 cm and 90 cm for identifying central obesity and MetS in women and men in Shandong Province of China.

  14. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy-Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-12-08

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required.

  15. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy—Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required. PMID:27941658

  16. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Wiedemann, Baerbel [University Hospital Dresden, Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometrics, Dresden (Germany); Wehrmann, Ursula [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin [University Hospital Dresden, Oncoray, Dresden (Germany); Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Aust, Daniela [University Hospital Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas {>=}10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV{sub max} was {>=}5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV{sub max}. FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV{sub max}{>=} 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  17. A new three-component signal model to objectively select power Doppler wall filter cut-off velocity for quantitative microvascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfarnawany, Mai; Lacefield, James C.

    2013-03-01

    The wall-filter selection curve (WFSC) method was developed to automatically select cut-off velocities for high-frequency power Doppler imaging. Selection curves are constructed by plotting color pixel density (CPD) as a function of wall filter cut-off velocity. A new three-component mathematical model is developed to guide the design of an online implementation of the method for in vivo imaging. The model treats Doppler imaging as a signal detection task in which the scanner must distinguish intravascular pixels from perivascular and extravascular pixels and includes a cost function to identify the optimum cut-off velocity that provides accurate vascular quantification and minimizes the effect of color pixel artifacts on visualization of vascular structures. The goodness of fit of the three-component model to flow-phantom data is significantly improved compared to a previous two-component model (F test, p new model indicate that selection curves should be sampled using at least 100 cut-off velocities to ensure robust performance of the automated WFSC method and determine an upper bound on CPD variability that ensures reliable vascular quantification accuracy, defined as CPD within 5% of the reference vascular volume fraction. Results of the simulations also provide evidence that limiting the selection of the cut-off velocity to a binary choice between the middle and right end of the characteristic interval is sufficient to meet the quantification accuracy goal. The model provides an intuitive, empirical description of the relationship between system settings and blood-flow detection performance in power Doppler imaging.

  18. Atmospheric secondary charged cosmic radiation at a place of 11.5 GV geomagnetic cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, I. N.

    2002-04-01

    An experiment performed with a balloon-borne plastic scintillator is described. The detector system was transported by a stratospheric balloon, that was launched from Reconquista, province of Santa Fe, Argentina, on 24 February 1992. The geomagnetic cut-off of the site was 11.5 GV. The energy-loss spectra of both the atmospheric gamma radiation ( for E^γ>= 4.15 MeV) and the charged component of the secondary cosmic radiation were alternatively measured at different altitudes, during the ascent of the balloon, and at ceiling altitude. The author analyzed the atmospheric gamma-ray spectrum in a previous paper ( Azcárate, 2000). It was necessary to perform the computation of the response of the detector to the charged radiation in order to explain , at least qualitatively, the energy-loss spectrum in the detector produced by this type of radiation. It is argued that at ceiling altitude the observed feature in the spectrum is produced mainly by relativistic muons falling horizontally upon the detector. The growth curve for the counting rate below this feature and the intensity of relativistic μ-mesons were also obtained. References : Azcárate, I.N., Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, 36, 81, 2000.

  19. Endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens and further recommendation for interpretative cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Jensen, P; Kietzerow, J; Schrot, M; Wilke, N; Vettorazzi, E; Mueller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

    2015-01-01

    When interpreting gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens, a possible increase in GHB concentrations because of post-mortem generation must be considered. In this study, endogenous GHB concentrations in post-mortem biological fluids were investigated. Additionally, we review post-mortem GHB concentrations already published in the literature. Heart and peripheral blood samples, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and vitreous humor were collected from 64 autopsies in subjects where the cause of death excluded GHB exposure. Sample analysis was carried out either on the day of autopsy or later after immediate freezing and storage at -20 °C. GHB concentrations in venous blood samples (n = 61) were GHB concentrations in cases where there were signs of beginning putrefaction at the time of autopsy (n = 9) and cases without obvious signs of putrefaction. In one case with advanced putrefaction, the GHB concentration in venous blood was 32.7 mg/L. In conclusion, for post-mortem venous blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, an interpretative cut-off of 30 mg/L for GHB concentrations is suggested in cases where GHB analysis is conducted on the day of sample collection at autopsy or if samples have been stored at -20 °C immediately after collection.

  20. On the newtonian limit and cut--off scales of isothermal dark matter halos with cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, R A; Sussman, Roberto A.; Hernandez, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    We examine isothermal dark matter halos in hydrostatic equilibrium with a cosmological constant Lambda =Omega_\\Lambda rho_{crit}c^2, where Omega_\\Lambda=0.7, and rho_{crit} is the present value of the critical density with h=0.65. The Newtonian limit of General Relativity yields equilibrium equations that are different from those arising by merely coupling an ``isothermal sphere'' to the Lambda-field within a Newtonian framework. The conditions for the existence and stability of circular geodesic orbits show the existence of (I) an ``isothermal region'' (0r_1) dominated by the Lambda-field, where the Newtonian potential oscillates and circular orbits exist in disconnected patches of the domain of r; (III) a ``transition region'' (r_20.008 M_\\odot {pc}^3, in agreement with rotation curve studies of dwarf galaxies. Since r_2 marks the largest radius of a stable circular orbit, it provides a ``cut off'' radius. For current estimates of rho_c and velocity dispersion of galactic structures, this is around five tim...

  1. Urinary hepcidin identifies a serum ferritin cut-off for iron supplementation in young athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, P; Spaccamiglio, A; Rizzo, M; Termine, A; Chierto, E; Campostrini, N; Quaranta, F; Di Gianfrancesco, A; Pigozzi, F

    2011-01-01

    The use of iron supplements should be a judicious choice, primarily when considering the possible risks deriving from an unjustified treatment. In trained athletes, levels of ferritin between 15 and 30 microg/L are frequently observed. Within this ferritin range, the usefulness of iron supplementation is still controversial. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of hepcidin assessment in the analysis of the iron status of young non-anemic athletes. Fifty young athletes were enrolled. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their ferritin levels. No statistically significant difference was found regarding hepcidin levels between athletes with ferritin lower than 15 microg/L and those in the 15-30 microg/L range. Similarly, no difference was found between athletes with ferritin higher than 50 microg/L and those in the 30-50 microg/L range. On the contrary, statistically significant differences were found between athletes with ferritin levels ranging from 15 to 30 microg/L and those in the 30-50 microg/L range. The present study suggests that serum ferritin levels below 30 microg/L indicate an asymptomatic iron deficiency status inhibiting hepcidin expression and that 30 microg/L should be considered the ferritin cut-off when considering an iron supplementation in young athletes.

  2. Kinetic Isotope Effects from QM/MM Subset Hessians: "Cut-Off" Analysis for SN2 Methyl Transfer in Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ian H

    2012-02-14

    Isotopic partition-function ratios and kinetic isotope effects for reaction of S-adenosylmethionine with catecholate in water are evaluated using a subset of 324 atoms within its surrounding aqueous environment at the AM1/TIP3P level. Two alternative methods for treating motion in the six librational degrees of freedom of the subset atoms relative to their environment are compared. A series of successively smaller subset Hessians are generated by cumulative deletion of rows and columns from the initial 972 × 972 Hessian. We find that it is better to treat these librations as vibrations than as translations and rotations and that there is no need to invoke the Teller-Redlich product rule. The validity of "cut-off" procedures for computation of isotope effects with truncated atomic subsets is assessed: to ensure errors in ln(KIE) < 1% (or 2% for the quantum-corrected KIE) for all isotopic substitutions considered, it is necessary to use a less-restrictive procedure than is suggested by the familiar two-bond cutoff rule.

  3. Adherence to a standardized protocol for measuring grip strength and appropriate cut-off values in adults over 65 years with sarcopenia: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Benjamin; Henwood, Tim; Schaap, Laura; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Roberts, Helen; Cooper, Cyrus; Cherubini, Antonio; dellʼAquilla, Giuseppina; Maggio, Marcello; Volpato, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to examine the use of grip strength analysis in well and unwell populations in adults 65 years and over as a tool to establish muscle strength in sarcopenia.More specifically, the main review question is:1. What protocol, if any, is most commonly used among older adults with sarcopenia and does this match the standardized protocol suggested in 2011 by Roberts et al.1?Secondary review questions are:2. What are the reported cut-off values being used to determine sarcopenia in older adults, with consideration for ethnic and gender variability?3. Is grip strength, as a tool to measure muscle strength, suitable for people with common comorbidities and geriatric syndromes, such as osteoarthritis, often associated with sarcopenia? Sarcopenia, a commonly used concept in geriatrics and gerontology, is characterized by a loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and/or physical functioning. Prevalence rates vary between 1-39% in community dwelling older populations and 14-33% in long-term care populations. Several epidemiological studies have shown the association of sarcopenia with adverse health outcomes such as falls, disability, hospitalization and mortality. Originally, sarcopenia refers to the loss of muscle mass with aging, which was later complemented with loss of muscle strength and physical functioning.In 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) reported a consensus definition of sarcopenia, which included measurement of low muscle mass and low muscle function (strength or physical performance). This consensus definition can be used to identify sarcopenia patients in clinical practice and to select individuals for clinical trials. Well-designed clinical trials could ultimately lead to effective treatment and prevention strategies for sarcopenia. Since the publication of the consensus report, many studies have adopted this definition, which could potentially lead to better comparison of results between

  4. Anti-mullerian hormone cut-off values for predicting poor ovarian response to exogenous ovarian stimulation in in-vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Satwik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (a To establish the cut-off levels for anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH in a population of Indian women that would determine poor response. (b To determine which among the three ie.,: age, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, or AMH, is the better determinant of ovarian reserve. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: In vitro fertilization (IVF unit of a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: The inclusion criterion was all women who presented to the center for in-vitro fertilization/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The exclusion criteria were age >45 years, major medical illnesses precluding IVF or pregnancy, FSH more than 20 IU/L, and failure to obtain consent. The interventions including baseline pelvic scan, day 2/3 FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol estimations, and AMH measurement on any random day of cycle were done. Subjects underwent IVF according to long agonist or antagonist protocol regimen. Oocyte recovery was correlated with studied variables. The primary outcome measure was the number of oocytes aspirated (OCR. Three categories of ovarian response were defined: poor response, OCR ≤ 3; average response, OCR between 4 and 15; hyperresponse, OCR > 15. Results: Of the 198 patients enrolled, poor, average, and hyperresponse were observed in 23%, 63%, and 14% respectively. Correlation coefficient for AMH with ovarian response was r = 0.591. Area under the curve (AUCs for poor response for AMH, subject′s age, and FSH were 0.768, 0.624, and 0.635, respectively. The discriminatory level of AMH for prediction of absolute poor response was 2 pmoL/l, with 98% specificity and 20% sensitivity. Conclusions: AMH fares better than age and FSH in predicting the overall ovarian response and poor response, though it cannot be the absolute predictor of non-responder status. A level of 2 pmol/l is discriminatory for poor response.

  5. Evaluation of an Optimal Cut-Off Point for the Ki-67 Index as a Prognostic Factor in Primary Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Tashima

    Full Text Available The Ki-67 index is an important biomarker for indicating the proliferation of cancer cells and is considered to be an effective prognostic factor for breast cancer. However, a standard cut-off point for the Ki-67 index has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was to determine an optimal cut-off point in order to establish it as a more accurate prognostic factor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Ki-67 index was performed on 4329 patients with primary breast cancer from August 1987 to March 2012. Out of this sample, there were 3186 consecutive cases from September 1997 with simultaneous evaluations of ER, PgR and HER2 status. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the factors related to OS. The hazard ratios (HR and the p values were then compared to determine the optimal cut-off point for the Ki-67 index. The median Ki-67 index value was 20.5% (mean value 26.2%. The univariate analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant negative correlation with DFS and OS and the multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index value was a significant factor for DFS and OS. The top seven cut-off points were then carefully chosen based on the results of the univariate analysis using the lowest p-values and the highest HR as the main selection criteria. The multivariate analysis of the factors for OS showed that the cut-off point of 20% had the highest HR in all of the cases. However, the cutoff point of 20% was only a significant factor for OS in the Luminal/HER2- subtype. There was no correlation between the Ki-67 index value and OS in any of the other subtypes. These data indicate that the optimal cut-off point of 20% is the most effective prognostic factor for Luminal/HER2- breast cancer.

  6. Body composition-derived BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Indians and Creoles of Mauritius: comparison with Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunma, S; Ramuth, H; Miles-Chan, J L; Schutz, Y; Montani, J-P; Joonas, N; Dulloo, A G

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Global estimates of overweight and obesity prevalence are based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) body mass index (BMI) cut-off values of 25 and 30 kg m−2, respectively. To validate these BMI cut-offs for adiposity in the island population of Mauritius, we assessed the relationship between BMI and measured body fat mass in this population according to gender and ethnicity. Methods: In 175 young adult Mauritians (age 20-42 years) belonging to the two main ethnic groups—Indians (South Asian descent) and Creoles (African/Malagasy descent), body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured, total body fat assessed by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution and trunk (abdominal) fat by segmental bioimpedance analysis. Results: Compared to body fat% predicted from BMI using Caucasian-based equations, body fat% assessed by D2O dilution in Mauritians was higher by 3–5 units in Indian men and women as well as in Creole women, but not in Creole men. This gender-specific ethnic difference in body composition between Indians and Creoles is reflected in their BMI–Fat% relationships, as well as in their WC–Trunk Fat% relationships. Overall, WHO BMI cut-offs of 25 and 30 kg m−2 for overweight and obesity, respectively, seem valid only for Creole men (~24 and 29.5, respectively), but not for Creole women whose BMI cut-offs are 2–4 units lower (21–22 for overweight; 27–28 for obese) nor for Indian men and women whose BMI cut-offs are 3–4 units lower (21–22 for overweight; 26–27 for obese). Conclusions: The use of BMI cut-off points for classifying overweight and obesity need to take into account both ethnicity and gender to avoid gross adiposity status misclassification in this population known to be at high risk for type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This is particularly of importance in obesity prevention strategies both in clinical medicine and public health. PMID:27698347

  7. Practical cut-offs for visual rating scales of medial temporal, frontal and posterior atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D; Cavallin, L; Larsson, E-M; Muehlboeck, J-S; Mecocci, P; Vellas, B; Tsolaki, M; Kłoszewska, I; Soininen, H; Lovestone, S; Simmons, A; Wahlund, L-O; Westman, E

    2015-09-01

    Atrophy in the medial temporal lobe, frontal lobe and posterior cortex can be measured with visual rating scales such as the medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy - frontal subscale (GCA-F) and posterior atrophy (PA) scales, respectively. However, practical cut-offs are urgently needed, especially now that different presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are included in the revised diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was to generate a list of practical cut-offs for the MTA, GCA-F and PA scales, for both diagnosis of AD and determining prognosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to evaluate the influence of key demographic and clinical factors on these cut-offs. AddNeuroMed and ADNI cohorts were combined giving a total of 1147 participants (322 patients with AD, 480 patients with MCI and 345 control subjects). The MTA, GCA-F and PA scales were applied and a broad range of cut-offs was evaluated. The MTA scale showed better diagnostic and predictive performances than the GCA-F and PA scales. Age, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status and age at disease onset influenced all three scales. For the age ranges 45-64, 65-74, 75-84 and 85-94 years, the following cut-offs should be used. MTA: ≥1.5, ≥1.5, ≥2 and ≥2.5; GCA-F, ≥1, ≥1, ≥1 and ≥1; and PA, ≥1, ≥1, ≥1 and ≥1, respectively, with an adjustment for early-onset ApoE ε4 noncarrier AD patients (MTA: ≥2, ≥2, ≥3 and ≥3; and GCA-F: ≥1, ≥1, ≥2 and ≥2, respectively). If successfully validated in clinical settings, the list of practical cut-offs proposed here might be useful in clinical practice. Their use might also (i) promote research on atrophy subtypes, (ii) increase the understanding of different presentations of AD, (iii) improve diagnosis and prognosis and (iv) aid population selection and enrichment for clinical trials. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  8. High-speed video of competing and cut-off leaders prior to "upward illumination-type" lightning ground strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Marshall, Thomas; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Karunarathna, Nadeeka; Warner, Tom; Orville, Richard

    2013-04-01

    This study presents evidence to test a hypothesis regarding the physical mechanism resulting in very weak "upward illumination" (UI) type ground strokes occurring within a few milliseconds after a normal return stroke (RS) of a negative lightning flash. As described in previous work [Stolzenburg et al., JGR D15203, 2012], these short duration (strokes form a new ground connection, without apparent connection to the main RS, over their relatively short (return path. From a dataset of 170 video flashes acquired in 2011 (captured at 50000 frames per second), we find 20 good UI examples in 18 flashes at 2.5-32.3 km distance from the camera. Average separation values are 1.26 ms and 1.9 km between the ground connections of the UI and main RS. Based on electric field change data for the flashes, the estimated peak current of the UI strokes averages -5.0 kA, about one-third the average value for the preceding RS. In 15 cases the video data show a distinct stepped leader to the UI which develops concurrently with the stepped leader to the main RS. Estimated altitude of the UI leader tip just before the main RS occurs ranges from 0 to 610 m, and in 7 cases steps are visible in the UI leader after the main RS. In most of the examples the RS and UI appear as separate channels for their entire visible portion, but in 5 cases there is a junction indicating the UI leader is a cut-off branch from the main leader. A generalized schematic of the seven main luminosity stages in a typical UI, along with video examples showing each of these stages and electric field change data, will be presented.

  9. Establishing New Cut-Off Limits for Galactose 1-Phosphate-Uridyltransferase Deficiency for the Dutch Newborn Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, E A; Boelen, A; Bosch, A M; van Veen-Sijne, M; van Rijswijk, C N; Bouva, M J; Fingerhut, R; Schielen, P C J I

    2016-05-21

    Newborn screening for classical galactosemia in the Netherlands is performed by five laboratories and is based on the measurement of galactose 1-phosphate-uridyltransferase (GALT) activity and total galactose (TGAL) in heel prick blood spots. Unexpected problems with the GALT assay posed a challenge to switch to a new assay. The aim of this study was to make an analytical and clinical evaluation of GALT assays to replace the current assay and to establish new cut-off values (COVs).First, the manual assay from PerkinElmer (NG-1100) and the GSP assay were compared by analyzing 626 anonymous heel prick samples in parallel. Secondly, a manual GSP method was evaluated and 2,052 samples were compared with the automated GSP assay. Finally, a clinical evaluation was performed by collecting data from 93 referred newborns.No satisfactory correlation was observed between GALT activity measured with the manual NG-1100 assay and the automated GSP assay. An acceptable correlation was found between the manual and automated GSP assay. Intra- and inter-assay variation of the automated GSP were 1.8-10.0% and 3.1-13.9%, respectively. Evaluation of clinical data demonstrated that adjusting the COVs for GALT to 2.0 U/dl and TGAL to 1,100 μmol/l improved specificity of screening for classical galactosemia.An assay designed for automated processing to measure GALT activity in heel prick samples works equally well when processed manually. We therefore adopted both methods in the Dutch screening laboratories. As a result of this evaluation new COVs for GALT and TGAL have been introduced and are valid from July 2015.

  10. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  11. Criteria to interpret cancer biomarker increments crossing the recommended cut-off compared in a simulation model focusing on false positive signals and tumour detection time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Pedersen, Merete Frejstrup;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several criteria have been proposed to interpret increments in serological cancer biomarker concentrations starting from low baseline concentrations crossing the cut-off. None of the criteria have been compared for their ability to signal tumour growth when ≤2% false positive results...... are accepted. METHODS: The cancer biomarker Tissue Polypeptide Antigen was used as an example. Seven criteria to interpret increments in concentrations were investigated by computer simulations. Firstly, for each criterion, we identified a baseline concentration stratified for three levels of biological...... that different types of criteria should be used within different intervals of below cut-off level concentrations if the rate of false positive signals of marker increments should be kept ≤2%....

  12. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung KS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Soo Chung,1,2 Ji Ye Jung,1,2 Moo Suk Park,1,2 Young Sam Kim,1,2 Se Kyu Kim,1,2 Joon Chang,1,2 Joo Han Song1,2 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6 has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction.Materials and methods: We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal.Results: Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women, 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990. This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut-off

  13. A cautionary note about the cross-national and clinical validity of cut-off points for the Maslach Burnout Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufeli, W B; Van Dierendonck, D

    1995-06-01

    In the present study, burnout scores of three samples, as measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, were compared: (1) the normative American sample from the test-manual (N = 10,067), (2) the normative Dutch sample (N = 3,892), and (3) a Dutch outpatient sample (N = 142). Generally, the highest burnout scores were found for the outpatient sample, followed by the American and Dutch normative samples, respectively. Slightly different patterns were noted for each of the three components. Probably sampling bias, i.e., the healthy worker effect, or cultural value patterns, i.e., femininity versus masculinity, might be responsible for the results. It is concluded that extreme caution is required when cut-off points are used to classify individuals by burnout scores; only nation-specific and clinically derived cut-off points should be employed.

  14. Optimal Body Mass Index Cut-offs for Identification of Patients with Coronary Artery Disease at High Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Po-Fun; Tai, Bee-Choo; Loo, Germaine; Koo, Chieh-Yang; Ong, Thun-How; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2016-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in Chinese patients hospitalised with coronary artery disease, and to determine the optimal BMI cut-off for prediction of OSA. Consecutive Chinese patients who were hospitalised with symptomatic coronary artery disease were recruited to undergo an in-hospital sleep study. A total of 587 patients were recruited. Using cut-off for Asians, 81.2% of the cohort was overweight (BMI ≥23kg/m(2)) and 31.6% was obese (≥27kg/m(2)). A total of 59.5% was diagnosed with OSA, defined as apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥15. Body mass index, hypertension and smoking were predictors of OSA. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BMI remains an independent predictor of OSA (odds ratio: 1.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.17], poptimal BMI cut-offs to screen for OSA were 27.3kg/m(2), 23.0-23.9kg/m(2), and 20kg/m(2) for patients with neither, either, or both predictors (smoking and hypertension) respectively. The area under the curve for the adjusted and unadjusted models were similar (0.6013 vs 0.6262, p=0.118). Body mass index represents a convenient and readily available tool for bedside identification of patients at high risk of OSA. Body mass index cut-offs to predict risks of OSA in Chinese patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease are defined in this study. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin analysis in neuropediatric patients: establishment of a new cut off-value for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molero-Luis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A high level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neopterin is a marker of central nervous system inflammatory-immune mediated processes. We aimed to assess data from 606 neuropediatric patients, describing the clinical and biochemical features of those neurological disorders presenting CSF neopterin values above a new cut-off value that was defined in our laboratory. METHODS: To establish the new CSF neopterin cut-off value, we studied two groups of patients: Group 1 comprised 68 patients with meningoencephalitis, and Group 2 comprised 52 children with a confirmed peripheral infection and no central nervous system involvement. We studied 606 CSF samples from neuropediatric patients who were classified into 3 groups: genetic diagnosis (A, acquired/unknown etiologic neurologic diseases (B and inflammatory-immune mediated processes (C. RESULTS: The CSF neopterin cut-off value was 61 nmol/L. Out of 606 cases, 56 presented a CSF neopterin level above this value. Group C had significantly higher CSF neopterin, protein and leukocyte values than the other groups. Sixteen of twenty-three patients in this group had a CSF neopterin level above the cut-off, whereas three and seven patients presented increased leukocyte and protein values, respectively. A significant association was found among CSF neopterin, proteins and leukocytes in the 606 patients. White matter disturbances were associated with high CSF neopterin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with inflammatory-immune mediated processes presented higher CSF neopterin values, patients with other neurological disorders also showed increased CSF neopterin concentrations. These results stress the importance of CSF neopterin analysis for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

  16. Development and validation of optimal cut-off value in inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference for prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Akira; Kusunose, Kenya; Kageyama, Norihito; Sumitomo, Masayuki; Abe, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Hiroyuki; Sata, Masataka

    2017-08-19

    An inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the optimal cut-off value of IAD as a predictor of major adverse cardiac events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. From 2009 to 2014, 1076 patients who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor were included in the analysis. We defined 700 randomly selected patients as a development cohort to confirm that IAD was the predictor of cardiovascular events and to determine optimal cut-off value of IAD. Next, we validated outcomes in the remaining 376 patients as a validation cohort. The blood pressure (BP) of both arms measurements were done simultaneously using the ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) form of automatic device. The primary endpoint was the cardiovascular event and secondary endpoint was the all-cause mortality. During a median period of 2.8 years, 143 patients reached the primary endpoint in the development cohort. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, IAD was the strong predictor of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.05, p=0.005). The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that 5mmHg was the optimal cut-off point of IAD to predict cardiovascular events (p<0.001). In the validation cohort, the presence of a large IAD (IAD ≥5mmHg) was significantly associated with the primary endpoint (p=0.021). IAD is significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. The optimal cut-off value of IAD is 5mmHg. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain on the visual analogue scale for pain in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Balk, Gerlof A; Stewart, Roy E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to find the cut-off points on the visual analogue scale (VAS) to distinguish among mild, moderate, and severe pain, in relation to the following: pain-related interference with functioning; verbal description of the VAS scores; and latent class analysis for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. A total of 456 patients were included. Pain was assessed using the VAS and verbal rating scale; functioning was assessed using the domains of the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Eight cut-off point schemes were tested using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), ordinal logistic regression, and latent class analysis. The study results showed that VAS scores ⩽ 3.4 corresponded to mild interference with functioning, whereas 3.5 to 6.4 implied moderate interference, and ⩾ 6.5 implied severe interference. VAS scores ⩽ 3.4 were best described for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain as mild pain, 3.5 to 7.4 as moderate pain, and ⩾ 7.5 as severe pain. Latent class analysis found that a 3-class solution fitted best, resulting in the classes 0.1 to 3.8, 3.9 to 5.7, and 5.8 to 10 cm. Findings from our study agree with those of some other studies, although many other studies found different optimal cut-off point schemes. As there appear to be no universally accepted cut-off points, and in view of the low-to-moderate associations between VAS scores and functioning and between VAS and verbal rating scale scores, the correct classification of VAS scores as mild, moderate. or severe in clinical practice seems doubtful.

  18. Determining cut-off values for neck circumference as a measure of the metabolic syndrome amongst a South African cohort: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoebel, Svelka; Malan, Leone; Van Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to determine receiver operating characteristic (ROC) neck circumference (NC) cut offs best associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a South African cohort. We included 409 urban Africans and Caucasians and stratified them into gender and age groups (25–45 years; 45–65 years). Measurements included anthropometric, fasting overnight urine and biological markers for the MetS (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein). ROC ana...

  19. Prediction of subacute infarct lesion volumes by processing apparent diffusion coefficient maps based on apparent diffusion coefficient cut-off values in patients with acute stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭翔

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of prediction of subacute infarct lesion volumes by processing ADC maps based on ADC cut-off values in patients with acute stroke.Methods MRI was performed in 20 patients with clinically diagnosed acute infarct less than 6 h after stroke onset.The MRI included a DWI and conventional MRI.The follow-up MR examinations of all the patients

  20. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Mario Ferney López-Cifuentes; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Emilio González-Jiménez; Diana Paola Córdoba-Rodríguez; Andrés Vivas; Hector Reynaldo Triana-Reina; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional stud...

  1. Triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses percentiles and cut-offs for overweight and obesity in a population-based sample of schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Cifuentes, Mario Ferney

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to establish a Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for tríceps, subscapular and sum tríceps+subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic analysis based in a populationbased sample of schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia and to compare them with international studies. METHODS: A total of 9 618 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girl...

  2. Improving Screening Cut-Off Scores for DSM-5 Adolescent Anxiety Disorder Symptom Dimensions with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Hale III

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently most adolescent anxiety disorder screening instruments make their determination of running a high risk for an anxiety disorder on the basis of a cut-off score measured by a single screening which can lead to false positives. Therefore, the goal of this study is to examine whether a repeated administration of the SCARED screening instrument for DSM-5 anxiety disorder symptoms could help in the detection of true positives while also avoiding false positives. Participants were 923 early adolescents from the general community. The adolescents’ ages at the first annual screening ranged from 10 to 15 with an average of 12.5 years. In a prospective five-year longitudinal design, the adolescents completed the SCARED screening instrument for anxiety disorder symptoms on a yearly basis. To detect true positives and avoid false positives, the data were analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC cut-off score analyses. ROC cut-off score analyses revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of high risk were greatly improved for repeated screenings above those of a single screening. The findings of this study demonstrate that a screening instrument (such as the SCARED should be administered not just once but several times in order to better determine true positives and avoid false positives.

  3. Advances in the clinical application of high cut-off hemodialysis%高截留量血液透析临床应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬步云

    2012-01-01

    高截留量膜最初用于清除严重脓毒症的炎症介质,近年来被用于治疗骨髓瘤管型肾病、横纹肌溶解等疾病,并有望用于终末期肾病患者大分子毒素的清除.本文就高截留量膜的定义、理论基础、高截留量血液透析相关技术及临床应用进展作一简述.%Initially designed to remove the inflamamatory mediators in the patients with severe sepsis,high cut-off membranes have being applicated in the treatment of myeloma kidney and rhabdomyolysis. Furthermore, high cut-off membranes have a potential for the removal of uremic toxins with large molecules in the patients with .end-stage renal disease. This review is to summarize the definition, rational, techniques and advancement in the clinical application of high cut-off membranes.

  4. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Marco; Massimiani, Maria Pia; Paravati, Stefano; Agosti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  5. Prevalence of body mass index and body weight cut-off points for in vitro fertilization treatment at U.S. clinics and current clinic weight loss strategy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Grant, Breănna L

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how many clinics providing in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the United States require a body mass index (BMI) or body weight cut-off point to determine treatment eligibility. US clinics listed as members on the Society of Assisted Reproduction website in late 2013 were contacted by phone between January and March 2014. Clinic personnel were asked if a BMI or body weight cut-off points was used to determine IVF treatment eligibility and what strategies they recommended for their patients to achieve a healthy body weight. Of the 379 clinics contacted, 347 responded (92% response rate) and 35% (n = 120) reported using a BMI or body weight cut-off points to determine eligibility for IVF treatment. Mean BMI (± SD) cut-off points was 38.4 ± 5.2 kg/m(2) and mean body weight (± SD) cut-off points was 130.2 ± 14.8 kg. Of the clinics using a set cut-off points, half (46%) provided no weight loss recommendations for patients. A sizable portion of US IVF clinics report a required or preferred BMI or body weight cut-off points for treatment. Despite this, most clinics did not provide a recommended program or approach for weight loss with very few clinics reporting an in-house program.

  6. Phase- and size-adjusted CT cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, W. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Clinic of Angiology, Essen (Germany); Kroll, M.; Wetter, A.; Vogl, T.J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Toussaint, T.L. [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Hoepffner, N. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Internal Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Holzer, K. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Kluge, A. [Kerckhoff Heart Center, Department of Radiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    A computed tomography (CT) cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions (polyps/carcinoma) from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC) relating to the contrast phase and lesion size is determined. CT values of 64 colonic lesions (27 polyps <10 mm, 13 polyps {>=}10 mm, 24 carcinomas) were determined by region-of-interest (ROI) measurements in 38 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CTC. In addition, the height (H) of the colonic lesions was measured in CT. CT values were also measured in the aorta (A), superior mesenteric vein (V) and colonic wall. The contrast phase was defined by xA + (1 - x)V using x as a weighting factor for describing the different contrast phases ranging from the pure arterial phase (x=1) over the intermediate phases (x=0.9-0.1) to the pure venous phase (x=0). The CT values of the lesions were correlated with their height (H), the different phases (xA + (1 - x)V) and the ratio [xA + (1 - x)V]/H. The CT cut-off was linearly adjusted to the imaged contrast phase and height of the lesion by the line y = m[xA + (1 - x)V]/H + y{sub 0}. The slope m was determined by linear regression in the correlation (lesion {proportional_to}[xA + (1 - x)V]//H) and the Y-intercept y{sub 0} by the minimal shift of the line needed to maximize the accuracy of separating the colonic wall from the lesions. The CT value of the lesions correlated best with the intermediate phase: 0.4A+ 0.6V(r=0.8 for polyps {>=}10 mm, r=0.6 for carcinomas, r=0.4 for polyps <10 mm). The accuracy in the differentiation between lesions and normal colonic wall increased with the height implemented as divisor, reached 91% and was obtained by the dynamic cut-off described by the formula: cut-off(A,V,H) = 1.1[0.4A + 0.6V]/H + 69.8. The CT value of colonic polyps or carcinomas can be increased extrinsically by scanning in the phase in which 0.4A + 0.6V reaches its maximum. Differentiating lesions from normal colon based on CT values is possible in contrast-enhanced CTC and

  7. Determining a Cut-Off Point for Scores of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: Secondary Data Analysis of an Intervention Study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nanishi

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding self-efficacy can be measured with the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF. Mothers with low BSES-SF scores stop exclusive breastfeeding prematurely, but specific interventions can prevent that undesirable outcome. Because those interventions can be expensive, often one must decide which mothers will receive them. For that purpose, a cut-off BSES-SF score would be useful, but none is available. Therefore, we aimed to assess the overall accuracy of BSES-SF scores as predictors of not practicing post-discharge exclusive breastfeeding, and to choose an appropriate cut-off score for making that prediction.This is a secondary data analysis of an intervention study. Data from 378 women in two non-Baby-Friendly Hospitals were analyzed. Participants were women in their third trimester who were 16 years of age or older, were able to read and write Japanese, were expected to have a singleton birth, and had completed the BSES-SF before discharge. BSES-SF scores were measured before discharge. Breastfeeding status was assessed 4 weeks and 12 weeks postpartum. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were used to assess the predictive ability of the BSES-SF and to inform the choice of a cut-off point.For both of the ROC curves (4 and 12 weeks postpartum the area under the curve was 0.74. To obtain a high sensitivity, a cut-off score of 50 was chosen. With that cut-off score the sensitivity was 79% and the specificity was 52% 4 weeks postpartum, and they were 77% and 52%, respectively, 12 weeks postpartum.In conclusion, the BSES-SF has moderate overall accuracy to distinguish women who will not practice exclusive breastfeeding after discharge from those who will. At non-Baby-Friendly hospitals in Japan, interventions to support exclusive breastfeeding might be considered for new mothers who have BSES-SF scores that are less than or equal to 50.

  8. Prognostic impact of proliferation for resected early stage 'pure' invasive lobular breast cancer: Cut-off analysis of Ki67 according to histology and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Fabi, Alessandra; Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Kadrija, Dzenete; Griguolo, Gaia; Pilotto, Sara; Guarneri, Valentina; Zampiva, Ilaria; Brunelli, Matteo; Orvieto, Enrico; Nortilli, Rolando; Fiorio, Elena; Parolin, Veronica; Manfrin, Erminia; Caliò, Anna; Nisticò, Cecilia; Pellini, Francesca; Scarpa, Aldo; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Conte, Pierfranco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    The intent of this analysis was to investigate and validate the prognostic potential of Ki67 in a multi-center series of patients affected by early stage 'pure' invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Clinical-pathological data of patients affected by ILC were correlated with overall survival and disease-free survival (OS/DFS); data from a parallel invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients' cohort were gathered as well. The maximally selected Log-Rank statistics analysis was applied to Ki67 continuous variable to estimate the appropriate cut-off. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was performed as well. Data from overall 1097 (457/222 ILC: training/validation set; 418 IDC) patients were gathered. The identified optimal Ki67 cut-offs were 4% and 14% for DFS in ILC and IDC cohort, respectively. In ILC patients, the Ki67 cut-off was an independent OS predictor. Ten-years OS and DFS were 89.9% and 77.2% (p = 0.007) and 79.4% and 69.2% (p = 0.03) for patients with Ki67 ≤ 4% and >4%, respectively. In IDC patients, 10-years OS was 93.8% and 71.7%, p = 0.02, DFS was 84.0% and 52.6%, p = 0.0003, for patients with Ki67 ≤ 14% and >14%, respectively. In the validation set, the optimal Ki67 OS cut-off was 5%. The STEPP analysis showed that in the presence of low Ki67 values, IDC patients have a better DFS than ILC patients, while with the increase of values the prognosis tends to overlap. Despite the retrospective design of the study, the prognostic relevance of Ki67 (as well as its optimal cut-off) seems to significantly differ according to breast cancer histology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal cut-off of obesity indices to predict cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome among adults in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxing; Tao, Yuchun; Tao, Yuhui; Yang, Sen; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Jin, Lina

    2016-10-13

    CVD risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) and MetS are closely related to obesity. The selection of an optimal cut-off for various obesity indices is particularly important to predict CVD risk factors and MetS. Sixteen thousand seven hundred sixty-six participants aged 18-79 were recruited in Jilin Province in 2012. Five obesity indices, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and BAI were investigated. ROC analyses were used to evaluate the predictive ability and determine the optimal cut-off values of the obesity indices for CVD risk factors and MetS. BMI had the highest adjusted ORs, and the adjusted ORs for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and MetS were 1.19 (95 % CI, 1.17 to 1.20), 1.20 (95 % CI, 1.19 to 1.22), 1.12 (95 % CI, 1.10 to 1.13), and 1.40 (95 % CI, 1.38 to 1.41), respectively. However, BMI did not always have the largest adjusted AUROC. In general, the young age group (18 ~ 44) had higher ORs and AUROCs for CVD risk factors and MetS than those of the other age groups. In addition, the optimal cut-off values for WC and WHR in males were relatively higher than those in females, whereas the BAI in males was comparatively lower than that in females. The appropriate obesity index, with the corresponding optimal cut-off values, should be selected in different research studies and populations. Generally, the obesity indices and their optimal cut-off values are: BMI (24 kg/m(2)), WC (male: 85 cm; female: 80 cm), WHR (male: 0.88; female: 0.85), WHtR (0.50), and BAI (male: 25 cm; female: 30 cm). Moreover, WC is superior to other obesity indices in predicting CVD risk factors and MetS in males, whereas, WHtR is superior to other obesity indices in predicting CVD risk factors and MetS in females.

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and their Epidemiological Cut-off Values using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (COWT values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The COWT values calculated by Normalised Resistance Interpretation (NRI analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT. When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a COWT of ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1, ≤ 2 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the COWT were ≤1 μg mL-1, ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin respectively. The disc diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disc data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39 and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41 and 44%, when disc data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disc data respectively, were 24% and 10% for amoxicillin, 8% and 2% for florfenicol and 70% and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disc diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies

  11. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  12. Using a 3% Proton Density Fat Fraction as a Cut-off Value Increases Sensitivity of Detection of Hepatic Steatosis, Based on Results from Histopathology Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Patrik; Forsgren, Mikael F; Ignatova, Simone; Dahlström, Nils; Cedersund, Gunnar; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Norén, Bengt; Ekstedt, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter; Kechagias, Stergios

    2017-03-09

    It is possible to estimate hepatic triglyceride content by calculating the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), instead of collecting and analyzing liver biopsies to detect steatosis. However, the current PDFF cut-off value (5%) used to define steatosis by magnetic resonance was derived from studies that did not use histopathology as the reference standard. We performed a prospective study to determine the accuracy of (1)H-MRS PDFF in measurement of steatosis using histopathology analysis as the standard. We collected clinical, serologic, (1)H-MRS PDFF, and liver biopsy data from 94 adult patients with increased levels of liver enzymes (6 months or more) referred to the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Linköping University Hospital in Sweden from 2007 through 2014. Steatosis was graded using the conventional histopathology method and fat content was quantified in biopsy samples using stereological point counts (SPCs). We correlated (1)H-MRS PDFF findings with SPCs (r = 0.92; P <.001). (1)H-MRS PDFF results correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.87; P <.001), and SPCs correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.88; P <.001). All 25 subjects with PDFF values of 5.0% or more had steatosis based on histopathology findings (100% specificity for PDFF). However, of 69 subjects with PDFF values below 5.0% (negative result), 22 were determined to have steatosis based on histopathology findings (53% sensitivity for PDFF). Reducing the PDFF cut-off value to 3.0% identified patients with steatosis with 100% specificity and 79% sensitivity; a PDFF cut-off value of 2.0% identified patients with steatosis with 94% specificity and 87% sensitivity. These findings might be used to improve non-invasive detection of steatosis.

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Transient Elastography for Detecting Liver Fibrosis After Liver Trannsplantation: A Specific Cut-Off Value Is Really Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Guardia, B; Evangelista, A S; Felga, G E; Marins, L V; Salvalaggio, P R; Almeida, M D

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplant recipients often perform liver biopsy (LB), specially in the context of potentially recurring diseases, such as hepatitis C infection. However, the LB has risks of complications, despite being the gold standard. Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive method comparable to the LB to evaluate liver fibrosis in various settings, but its accuracy among transplant recipients is not fully understood. To determine the accuracy of TE in liver transplant recipients compared with LB to successfully predict liver fibrosis. Patients who underwent liver transplantation at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from 2010 to 2012 and presented with LB indication were also subjected to TE at the time of LB. The medium value of ten successful measurements was kept as a representative of the liver stiffness. The definition of cut-off points was made to ensure specificity of ≥90 % for all fibrosis stages (F0-F4). LB was performed in 267 patients. TE was not analyzed in only 8 (3 %) due to an elevated body mass index. The optimal liver stiffness cut-off value and diagnostic performance were 8.1 kPa for F ≥ 1, 12.3 kPa for F ≥ 2, 15.1 for F ≥ 3, and 16.7 for F = 4 for all patients and were 8.1 kPa for F ≥ 1, 12.3 kPa for F ≥ 2, 16.5 for F ≥ 3, and 17.6 for F = 4 for patients with hepatitis C. TE demonstrated good performance in defining cut-off points for fibrosis on liver histology observed in transplant recipients. The TE can be considered an alternative to LB in post-liver transplantation.

  14. Raising cut-off value of prostate specific antigen (PSA for biopsy in symptomatic men in India to reduce unnecessary biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Agnihotri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA for trans-rectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS are not well defined. This study was carried out to analyse the threshold of PSA for biopsy in symptomatic men in India. Methods: From January 2000 to June 2011, consecutive patients who had digital rectal examination (DRE and PSA testing done for LUTS were included in this study. PSA was done with ELISA technique. Patients with acute or chronic prostatitis, prostatic abscess, history of surgery on prostate within the previous three months and patients on 5α-reductase inhibitors or on urethral catheter were excluded. Results: Of the 4702 patients evaluated, 70.9 per cent had PSA of less than 4 ng/ml and 29.1 per cent had PSA of more than 4 ng/ml. Of these, 875 men with a mean age of 65.72±7.4 (range 50-75 yr had trans rectal ultrasonography (TRUS guided biopsy. Twenty five men had biopsy at PSA level of 20 ng/ml. Positive predictive value of PSA in ranges of 4.1-10, 10.1-20, >20 ng/ml was 15.2, 24 and 62.6 per cent, respectively with negative DRE. PSA cut-off to do biopsy was derived by ROC curve as 5.82 ng/ml for all the men. When the subjects were further stratified on the basis of DRE findings, a cut-off of 5.4 ng/ml was derived in men with normal DRE. Interpretation & conclusions: A cut-off for biopsy in symptomatic men with negative DRE could safely be raised to 5.4 ng/ml, which could avoid subjecting 10 per cent of men to undergo unnecessary biopsy.

  15. Effectiveness of Different Waist Circumference Cut-off Values in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Risk Factors in Adults in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai Cheng; TIAN Hao Ming; JI Qiu He; ZHU Da Long; CHEN Li; GUO Xiao Hui; ZHAO Zhi Gang; Li Qiang; ZHOU Zhi Guang; GE Jia Pu; SHAN Guang Liang; LAI Ya Xin; SHAN Zhong Yan; JIA Wei Ping; YANG Wen Ying; LU Ju Ming; WENG Jian Ping; JI Li Nong; LIU Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness of waist circumference cut-off values in predicting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and risk factors in adults in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was condcuted in 14 provinces (autonomous region, municipality) in China. A total of 47 325 adults aged ≥20 years were selected by multistage stratified sampling, and questionnaire survey and physical and clinical examination were conducted among them. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and modified IDF criteria. Results The age-standardized prevalence of MetS was 24.2%(22.1%in men and 25.8%in women) and 19.5% (22.1% in men and 18.0% in women) according to the IDF criteria and modified IDF criteria respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of pre-MetS was 8.1%(8.6%in men and 7.8%in women) according to the modified IDF criteria. The prevalence of MetS was higher in urban residents than rural residents and in northern China residents than in southern China residents. The prevalence of central obesity was about 30% in both men and women according to the ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference for central obesity (90 cm for men and 85 cm for women). Multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant difference in risk factors between the two MetS definitions. Conclusion Using both the modified IDF criteria and ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference can provide more useful information about the prevalence of MetS in China.

  16. Determination of sensitivity, specificity and cut off point of visual- Motor Bender Gestalt Test in the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tayebeh Rezaie nasab

    2013-02-01

    Results: In this study, cut-off point was calculated as 6.5%, sensitivity as 55.8%, characteristic as 81.2%, and the area under the Roc curve as 0.69. Moreover, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency were 95.08%, 22.03%, and 59.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that Bender Gestalt Test is relatively weak in diagnosis of mild TBI. Hence, its characteristic is high and it was successful in diagnosing healthy individuals.

  17. Optimal cut-off criteria for duplex ultrasound for the diagnosis of restenosis in stented carotid arteries: Review and protocol for a diagnostic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Martin M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid angioplasty with stenting is a relatively new, increasingly used, less-invasive treatment for the treatment of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. It is being evaluated in ongoing and nearly finished randomized trials. An important factor in the evaluation of stents is the occurrence of in-stent restenosis. An un-stented carotid artery is likely to have a more elastic vessel wall than a stented one, even if stenosis is present. Therefore, duplex ultrasound cut-off criteria for the degrees of an in-stent stenosis, based on blood velocity parameters, are probably different from the established cut-offs used for un-stented arteries. Routine criteria can not be applied to stented arteries but new criteria need to be established for this particular purpose. Methods/Design Current literature was systematically reviewed. From the selected studies, the following data were extracted: publication year, population size, whether the study was prospective, duplex ultrasound cut-off criteria reported, which reference test was used, and if there was an indication for selection bias and for verification bias in particular. Previous studies often were retrospective, or the reference test (DSA or CTA was carried out only when a patient was suspected of having restenosis at DUS, which may result in verification bias. Results In general, the velocity cut-off values for stenosis measurements in stented arteries were higher than those reported for unstented arteries. Previous studies often were retrospective, or the reference test (DSA or CTA was carried out only when a patient was suspected of having restenosis at DUS, which may result in verification bias. Discussion To address the deficiencies of the existing studies, we propose a prospective cohort study nested within the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS, an international multi-centre trial in which over 1,700 patients have been randomised between stenting and CEA. In this

  18. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  19. Cut-off effect in antimicrobial activity and in membrane perturbation efficiency of the homologous series of N,N-dimethylalkylamine oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devínsky, F; Kopecka-Leitmanová, A; Sersen, F; Balgavý, P

    1990-11-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the homologous series of N,N-dimethylalkylamine oxides (DMAO) was found to be quasi parabolically dependent on alkyl chain length with a maximum at n approximately 15 and n approximately 12 for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The physiochemical properties of DMAOs as characterized by critical micelle concentrations, retention times of 1-alkenes generated from DMAOs by gas-liquid chromatography, Rm values in reversed phase chromatography, and bacterial lipid/aqueous phase partition coefficients were found to correlate with the alkyl chain length. The effect of DMAOs on the structure of the model membrane prepared from isolated lipids from Escherichia coli as detected by a spin probe method was maximal for the alkyl chain length n approximately 10-12 coinciding with the maximum in the antimicrobial activity observed with Escherichia coli. It is suggested that the cut-off in the DMAO antimicrobial activity is caused by the cut-off in the DMAO perturbing effect on the membrane structure.

  20. Power-law and Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy Models in Brans-Dicke Cosmology with Granda-Oliveros Cut-Off

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqua, Antonio; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the cosmological implications of the Power Law Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (PLECHDE) and the Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (LECHDE) models in the context of Brans-Dicke (BD) cosmology for both non-interacting and interacting DE and Dark Matter (DM) are studied. As the system infrared cut-off, we choose the recently proposed Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains a term proportional to the first time derivative of the Hubble parameter and one term proportional to $H^2$, i.e. the Hubble parameter squared. We obtain the expressions of three quantities, i.e. the Equation of State (EoS) parameter $\\omega_D$, the deceleration parameter $q$ and the evolutionary form of the energy density parameter $\\Omega'_D$ of the PLECHDE and LECHDE models in a non-flat Universe for non-interacting and interacting DE and DM as well. Moreover, we investigate the limiting cases corresponding to: a) absence of entropy corrections; b) Einstein's gravity; and c) concomitantly absenc...

  1. Italians do it worse. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) optimal cut-off scores for people with probable Alzheimer's disease and with probable cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Andrea; Spano, Giuseppina; Caffò, Alessandro O; Lopez, Antonella; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Saracino, Giuseppe; Pinto, Katia; Hoogeveen, Frans; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2017-02-02

    Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is a test providing a brief screening for people with cognitive impairment due to aging or neurodegenerative syndromes. In Italy, as in the rest of the world, several validation studies of MoCA have been carried out. This study compared, for the first time in Italy, a sample of people with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with healthy counterparts. The study also compared two community-dwelling groups of aged participants with and without probable cognitive impairment, as discriminated by two cut-off points of adjusted MMSE score. All the comparisons were carried out according to ROC statistics. Optimal cutoff for a diagnosis of probable AD was a MoCA score ≤14. Optimal cutoff for the discrimination of probable cognitive impairment was a MoCA score ≤17 (associated to MMSE cutoff of 23.8). Results confirm the substantial discrepancy in cut-off points existing between Italian and other international validation studies, showing that Italian performance on MoCA seems to be globally lower than that in other Countries. Characteristics of population might explain these results.

  2. Determination of the cut-off score of an endoscopic scoring method to predict whether elderly patients with dysphagia can eat pureed diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Torao Sakamoto; Akira Horiuchi; Toshiyuki Makino; Masashi Kajiyama; Naoki Tanaka; Masamitsu Hyodo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify the cut-off value for predicting the ability of elderly patients with dysphagia to swallow pureed diets using a new endoscopy scoring method. METHODS: Endoscopic swallowing evaluation of pureed diets were done in patients ≥ 65 years with dysphagia. The Hyodo-Komagane score for endoscopic swallowing evaluation is expressed as the sum(0-12) of four degrees(0-3) with four parameters:(1) salivary pooling in the vallecula and piriform sinuses;(2) the response of glottal closure reflex induced by touching the epiglottis with the endoscope;(3) the location of the bolus at the time of swallow onset assessed by "white-out" following swallowing of test jelly; and(4) pharyngeal clearance after swallowing of test jelly. We used receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve analysis to retrospectively analyze the association between the total score and successful oral intake of pureed diets. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-eight patients were enrolled including 113 men(63%), mean age 83 years(range, 66-98). One hundred and twenty-six patients(71%) were able to eat pureed diets during the observation period(mean ± SD, 19 ± 14 d). In ROC analysis, the cut-off value of the score for eating the pureed diets was 7(sensitivity = 0.98; specificity = 0.91).CONCLUSION: The Hyodo-Komagane endoscopic score is useful to predict the ability to eat pureed diets in elderly patients with dysphagia.

  3. Rocking at 81 and Rolling at 34: ROC Cut-Off Scores for the Negative Acts Questionnaire–Revised in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Ivana B.; Vukelić, Milica; Čizmić, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are still searching for the ways to identify different categories of employees according to their exposure to negative acts and psychological experience of workplace bullying. We followed Notelaers and Einarsen’s application of the ROC analysis to determine the NAQ-R cut-off scores applying a “lower” and “higher” threshold. The main goal of this research was to develop and test different gold standards of personal and organizational relevance in determining the NAQ-R cut-off scores in a specific cultural and economic context of Serbia. Apart from combining self-labeling as a victim with self-perceived health, the objectives were to test the gold standards developed as a combination of self-labeling with life satisfaction, self-labeling with intention to leave and a complex gold standard based on self-labeling, self-perceived health, life satisfaction and intention to leave taken together. The ROC analysis on Serbian workforce data supports applying of different gold standards. For identifying employees in a preliminary stage of bullying, the most applicable was the gold standard based on self-labeling and intention to leave (score 34 and higher). The most accurate identification of victims could be based on the most complex gold standard (score 81 and higher). This research encourages further investigation of gold standards in different cultures. PMID:28119652

  4. Serum cortisol concentration with exploratory cut-off values do not predict the effects of hydrocortisone administration in children with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, E J; Hogenbirk, Karin; Roest, Arno A W; van Brempt, Ronald; Hazekamp, Mark G; de Jonge, Evert

    2012-10-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome is common after paediatric cardiac surgery. Previous studies suggested that hydrocortisone administration may improve haemodynamic stability in case of resistant low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill children. This study was set up to test the hypothesis that the effects of hydrocortisone on haemodynamics in children with low cardiac output syndrome depend on the presence of (relative) adrenal insufficiency. A retrospective study was done on paediatric patients who received hydrocortisone when diagnosed with resistant low cardiac output syndrome after paediatric cardiac surgery in the period from 1 November 2005 to 31 December 2008. We studied the difference in effects of treatment with hydrocortisone administration between patients with adrenal insufficiency defined as an exploratory cut-off value of total cortisol of cortisol of ≥ 100 nmol/l. A total of 62 of patients were enrolled, meeting the inclusion criteria for low cardiac output syndrome. Thirty-two patients were assigned to Group 1 (cortisol concentration and those with normal baseline cortisol levels. A cortisol value using an exploratory cut-off value of 100 nmol/l for adrenal insufficiency should not be used as a criterion to treat these patients with hydrocortisone.

  5. One strategy to enhance electrochemical properties of Ni-based cathode materials under high cut-off voltage for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Longwei; Jiang, Feng; Cao, Yanbing; Hu, Guorong; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong

    2016-10-01

    Well-distributed, nano-sized and amorphous or crystalized NaTi2(PO4)3 (NTP) coating layer with high ionic conductivity is successfully introduced onto the surface of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (LNCM) particles by a simple and effective mechanical activation method followed by adjusting the reheating temperature appropriately. The promoting influence of NTP coating on the structure stability, cycle life and high rate capability under elevated cut-off voltage has been investigated in-depth. Particularly for the crystalized NTP-coated LNCM, the main reason for the enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the NTP layer with rhombohedral structure providing convenient and low activation barrier diffusion pathways for Li+ ions to insert/extract the interface of electrode/electrolyte. Besides, the NTP-coated layer with stable structure can effectively inhibit the surface side reaction during the long charge/discharge process under high cut-off voltage, which will reduce the harmful insulative by-products. It's worth mentioning that the cyclic stability of crystalized NTP-coated LNCM between 3.0 and 4.6 V is also improved significantly even under the rigorous test environment.

  6. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-09-24

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box-Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9-17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  8. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation, M (median, and S (coefficient of variation tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years. Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001. The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  9. [Logistic regression analysis of the risk factors for difficult airway and the cut-off value of height-to-thyromental distance ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Chen, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To analyze the risk factors for difficult airway in laryngoscopy and mask ventilation. A total of 300 patients receiving general anesthesia with tracheal intubation were examined preoperatively for height, thyromental and sternomental distance (TMD), range of neck movement, inter-incisor distance, and modified Mallampati class. Intubation Difficult Score was used to identify a difficult laryngoscopy. Difficult airway was defined as either difficult laryngoscopy or difficult mask ventilation. The association between the airway characteristics and difficult airway was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, and the cut-off values for the height-to-TMD ratio was determined by the ROC curve. Eight airway characteristics were identified to contribute to a difficult airway, including (OR [95%CI]) the height-to-TMD ratio (3.58[1.95-8.46]), modified Mallampati class (3.34 [1.82-7.14]), BMI (3.07 [1.64-6.69]), history of a previous difficult airway (2.79 [1.28-5.25]), a thick neck (2.15 [1.04-4.37]), range of neck movement (1.98 [0.96-3.89]), sternomental and angulus mandibulae distance (1.46 [0.67-3.04]), and inter-incisor distance (1.01 [0.49-2.54]). The optimal cut-off value for the height-to-TMD ratio was 22.8 for predicting a difficult airway.

  10. Yield and Water Productivity Responses to Irrigation Cut-off Strategies after Fruit Set Using Stem Water Potential Thresholds in a Super-High Density Olive Orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Orellana, Luis E; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Searles, Peter S; Retamales, Jorge B

    2017-01-01

    An increase in the land area dedicated to super-high density olive orchards has occurred in Chile in recent years. Such modern orchards have high irrigation requirements, and optimizing water use is a priority. Moreover, this region presents low water availability, which makes necessary to establish irrigation strategies to improve water productivity. An experiment was conducted during four consecutive growing seasons (2010-2011 to 2013-2014) to evaluate the responses of yield and water productivity to irrigation cut-off strategies. These strategies were applied after fruit set using midday stem water potential (Ψstem) thresholds in a super-high density olive orchard (cv. Arbequina), located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The experimental design was completely randomized with four irrigation cut-off treatments based on the Ψstem thresholds and four replicate plots per treatment (five trees per plot). Similar to commercial growing conditions in our region, the Ψstem in the T1 treatment was maintained between -1.4 and -2.2 MPa (100% of actual evapotranspiration), while T2, T3 and T4 treatments did not receive irrigation from fruit set until they reached a Ψstem threshold of approximately -3.5, -5.0, and -6.0 MPa, respectively. Once the specific thresholds were reached, irrigation was restored and maintained as T1 in all treatments until fruits were harvested. Yield and its components were not significantly different between T1 and T2, but fruit yield and total oil yield, fruit weight, and fruit diameter were decreased by the T3 and T4 treatments. Moreover, yield showed a linear response with water stress integral (SΨ), which was strongly influenced by fruit load. Total oil content (%) and pulp/stone ratio were not affected by the different irrigation strategies. Also, fruit and oil water productivities were significantly greater in T1 and T2 than in the T3 and T4. Moreover, the T2, T3, and T4 treatments averaged 37, 51, and 72 days without

  11. Cut-off value of initial serum β-hCG level predicting a successful MTX therapy in tubal ectopic pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, S; Bader, Y; Pablik, E; Tiringer, D; Pils, S; Laml, T; Kölbl, H; Koch, M

    2014-08-01

    To determine the optimal serum β-hCG cut-off level to predict MTX treatment success in tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP). Data of 240 women, who presented between 2003 and 2011 at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical University of Vienna, with tubal EP and who received MTX as primary treatment, were retrieved from the hospital information system (KIS). 198 patients could be included for final evaluation. Statistical analysis included area under the ROC curve, maximal Euclidean and Youden index, chi-squared and a five-fold cross validation. The serum β-hCG level cut-off value was calculated at 2121mlU/ml with a specificity of 76.54% and sensitivity of 80.56% (AUC 0.789; phCG level below 2121mlU/ml (n=131) experienced MTX treatment failure in 5.3% (n=7), compared to 43.3% (n=29) of patients with an initial serum β-hCG level equal to or above 2121mlU/ml (n=67). There was no statistically significant correlation between clinical symptoms and the MTX therapy outcome (p=0.580; likelihood quotient p=0.716). The correct decision of therapy in patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy still represents a challenge. In this study we can conclude that, according to our results there is no endpoint of initial serum β-hCG levels, which can be clearly used as cut-off value for the optimal management of tubal EP. However, an initial serum β-hCG level of less than 2121mlU/ml seems to be a good value to expect a successful MTX treatment. Limitations are the retrospective study design and the inability of classifying clinical symptoms like pain as an objective parameter. Wider implications of the findings may include more detailed patient information and more accurate selection of suitable patients for MTX therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breslow thickness and (18)F-FDG PET-CT result in initial staging of cutaneous melanoma: Can a cut-off point be established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Candil, A; Rodríguez-Rey, C; Cano-Carrizal, R; Cala-Zuluaga, E; González Larriba, J L; Jiménez-Ballvé, A; Fuentes-Ferrer, M E; Cabrera-Martín, M N; Pérez-Castejón, M J; García García-Esquinas, M; Lapeña-Gutierrez, L; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    2016-01-01

    To establish a Breslow Thickness (BT) cut-off point for indication of PET-CT of cutaneous melanoma in early stages and evaluate its prognostic value. Retrospective analysis of 347 PET-CT studies with diagnosis of melanoma, of which 108 were performed for initial staging. Thirty-one patients were excluded, and a final sample of 77 patients remained. A ROC curve analysis was performed to establish an optimal cut-off point. A survival analysis was performed, considering death assignable to melanoma as the main event, for the evaluation of its prognostic value. Forty-seven (61.04%) of all 77 patients selected were men, and 11 (14.29%) had a positive PET-CT result. Mean age was 65.17±15.00 years. The median BT in patients with a negative PET-CT result was 2.75 mm (IQR 1.83-4.50) and in the positive group 6.25 mm (IQR 5.40-7.50) (P=.0013). In the ROC curve analysis (AUC 0.804, SE 0.054), an optimal value of 5 mm BT with the following values was obtained: sensitivity 90.91%, specificity 78.79%, negative predictive value (NPV) 98.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) 41.7%, diagnostic OR 37.1, and accuracy 80.52%. Mean follow-up was 18.66±14,35 months, detecting 2/53 (3.77%) deaths in the BT<5 mm group, and 7/24 (29.17%) in the BT≥5 mm group. Survival curves between both groups were significantly different (P=.0013). A 5 mm cut-off point correctly distinguishes those patients with positive PET-CT from those with negative results in the early stages of cutaneous melanoma; therefore it could be included in initial staging of this subgroup of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. InGaAs Photodetectors Cut-off at 1.9μm Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Gang; HAO Guo-Qiang; GU Yi; ZHU Cheng; LI Ai-Zhen; LIU Tian-Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Using a linear graded Inx Ga1- x As as the buffer layer, positive-intrinsic-negative wavelength-extended In0.6Ga0.4As photodetectors with 50% cut-off wavelength of 1.9μm at room temperature were grown by using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy, and their performance over a wide temperature range has been extensively investigated. The detectors show typical dark current at bias voltage 50mV and the resistance-area product RO A of 7nA/765Ωcm2 and 31pA/404kΩcm2 at 290K and 210K, respectively. The thermal activation energy of the dark current in the temperature range 250-350 K is 0.488 eV.

  14. Residual magnetic field profiles and their current density profiles of coated conductors for fast and slow cut-off current operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.; Taillouli, M.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Shyshkin, O. [V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-03-15

    Coated conductor is an important candidate for power cable applications due to its high current density. Even for DC power cable transmission, we must study the transport properties of HTS tapes after slow and fast discharge. In order to evaluate relation of the magnetic field with applied current we developed a scanning magnetic field measurements system by employing a Hall probe. This work presents the measurements of the magnetic fields above a coated conductor by varying applied current pattern. In the work, a transport current of 100 A, less than the critical current, is applied to YBCO coated conductor. We measured the residual magnetic field distributions after cut off the transport current with slow and fast operations. The results show differences of the magnetic field profiles and the corresponding current profiles by an inverse solution from the magnetic field measurement between these two operations because of the hysteresis of coated conductor excited by the transport current.

  15. Establishment of cut off values for vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid in 24-hr urine accumulation during mass screening for neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, M; Miyake, H; Takeda, T; Takasugi, N; Sato, Y; Hanai, J

    1987-09-01

    The establishment of cut off values in vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 24-hr urine specimens for the purpose of separating true positive cases from normal infants has been discussed. The specimens were collected at the time when thorough examinations under a mass screening programme for neuroblastoma were taking place, and data from 17 infants with neuroblastoma (patients) and 50 healthy infants (controls) have been employed. The function square root VMA2 + HVA2 = 34 (micrograms/mg of creatinine) separated the two groups with no overlapping cases. This function represents the distance from the origin of the VMA-HVA co-ordinates, and is thought to be one of the most reasonable discriminant methods when considering the distribution pattern of the data for normal cases and patients.

  16. The optimum cut-off value to differentiate Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from other species of E. granulosus sensu lato using larval rostellar hook morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L A; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Debiaggi, M F; Bergagna, H F J; Basualdo, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 μm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.

  17. Profiles of body mass index and the nutritional status among children and adolescents categorized by waist-to-height ratio cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Chu, Zun-Hua; Zhao, Jin-Shan

    2016-11-15

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is proposed as a simple, valid and convenient measure of abdominal obesity and health risks in practice. The present study examined the distribution of nutritional status among children and adolescents categorized by WHtR cut-offs. A total of 30,459 students (15,249 boys and 15,210 girls) aged 7-18years participated in the study. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) of all subjects were measured, body mass index (BMI) and WHtR were calculated. The grades of nutritional status (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) was defined by the international BMI cut-offs. All subjects were divided into three groups (low, moderate and high) according to their WHtR, BMI level and the distribution of nutritional status among the three groups were compared. In both boys and girls, significant differences in BMI level and the nutritional status were observed among the three groups. Children and adolescents aged 7-18years in the 'high WHtR group' (≥0.5) had higher BMI than those in the 'low WHtR group' (nutritional status is found in the 'moderate WHtR group' (between 0.4 and 0.5) with the highest proportion of normal weight and low prevalence of thinness and obesity. WHtR is associated with nutritional status, which could be an indicator of nutritional status and early health risk. It is necessary to develop optimal boundary values in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EARLY APPLICATION OF HIGH CUT-OFF HAEMODYALISIS FOR DE-NOVO MYELOMA NEPHROPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM DIALYSIS-INDEPENDENCY AND RENAL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a haematological malignancy associated with kidney injury resulting from cast nephropathy, which can be caused by monoclonal free light chains (FLC. It has been demonstrated that reduction of FLC can lead to a higher proportion of patients recovering renal function with a better outcome, especially if extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD combined with chemotherapy is used. Patients and Methods In this study, four cases of MM nephropathy were treated with HCO-HD and chemotherapy at a single institution during the period from August 2009 to August 2011. All of the patients presented with acute renal failure and high serum FLC. All patients underwent a bone marrow biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of MM, according to the WHO criteria. Three patients had de-novo MM and one patient had relapsed light chain myeloma disease. All patients underwent HCO-HD concomitantly with specific myeloma therapy once the diagnosis or relapse of MM was established. Results After a median follow up of 26 months, (range, 13-36 our data showed that all patients had a significant decrease in serum FLC through HCO-HD, proving the effectiveness of HCO-HD in managing MM. De-novo MM patients restored their renal function and achieved low-level FLC early on the treatment and become dialysis-independent. One patient with relapsed myeloma remained dialysis dependant. Conclusion Our study suggests that if myeloma nephropathy associated with light-chain disease, HCO-HD should be initiated as early as possible. At the same time a specific MM treatment should be initiated to gain control of the disease and salvage the kidneys in order to achieve dialysis-independency. Further trials to confirm our results are warranted. Key Words: Multiple myeloma, renal failure, High cut-off haemodialysis, chemotherapy, outcome.

  19. Evaluating the Possibility of Defining Cut-Off Points for ΔFA% in Order to Differentiate Four Major Types of Peri-Tumoral White Matter Tract Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deilami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and its different scalar values such as fractional anisotropy (FA have recently been used for evaluation of peri-tumoral white matter (WM involvement to help define safer surgical excision margins. Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of defining diagnostic cut-off points for differentiating four major types of peri-tumoral WM involvement using FA. Patients and Methods DTI was performed in 12 patients with high presumption of having brain tumors, on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. DTI data was processed by MedINRIA software. Two-hundred region of interests (ROI were evaluated: 100 in the lesion zone and the rest in the normal WM in the contralateral hemisphere. FA value related to each ROI was measured, and the percentage of FA decrement (ΔFAs% was calculated. Results Of the 100 ROIs on the lesion side, 74 were related to high-grade lesions, 23 to low-grade ones, and three to “gliosis”. There were 54 “infiltrated”, 22 “displaced”, 15 “disrupted”, and 9 “edematous” tracts. The major type of fiber involvement, both in low-grade and high-grade tumors was “infiltrated, whereas “edematous” fibers comprised the minority. ΔFA% was more than -35 for “displaced” and “edematous” fibers, and less than -35 for the majority of “disrupted” ones, but “infiltrated” fibers had scattered distribution. Mean ΔFA% was the least for “disrupted”, followed by “infiltrated”, “edematous” and “displaced” parts. Conclusion Introducing definite diagnostic cut-points was not possible, due to overlap. Based on the fact that “disruption” is the most aggressive process, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for “disrupted” fibers for several presumptive cut-off points.

  20. Predicting fuel research octane number using Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectra of neat hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Daly, Shane R; Cannella, William J; Hagen, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Liquid transportation fuels require costly and time-consuming tests to characterize metrics, such as Research Octane Number (RON) for gasoline. If fuel sale restrictions requiring use of standard Cooperative Fuel Research testing procedures do not apply, these tests may be avoided by using multivariate statistical models to predict RON and other quantities. Here we show that an accurate statistical model for the RON of gasoline and gasoline-like fuels can be constructed by ensuring the representation of key functional groups in the spectroscopic data set are used to train the model. We found that a principal component regression model for RON based on IR absorbance and informed using neat and 134 mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol, methylcyclohexane, and 1-hexene could predict RON for the 10 Coordinating Research Council Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) gasolines and 12 FACE gasoline blends with ethanol within 34.8+/-36.1 on average and 51.2 in the worst case. We next studied the ef...

  1. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Stewart, Roy E.; Köke, Albère J. A.; Oosterwijk, René F. A.; Swaan, Jeannette L.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the variability of the optimal cut-off points, and to determine the influence of patients’ catastrophizing and their sex on these cut-off points. Methods: 2854 patients were included. Pain was assessed by the NRS, functioning by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and catastrophizing by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Cut-off point schemes were tested using ANOVAs with and without using the PSC scores or sex as co-variates and with the interaction between CP scheme and PCS score and sex, respectively. The variability of the optimal cut-off point schemes was quantified using bootstrapping procedure. Results and conclusion: The study showed that NRS scores ≤ 5 correspond to mild, scores of 6–7 to moderate and scores ≥8 to severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning. Bootstrapping analysis identified this optimal NRS cut-off point scheme in 90% of the bootstrapping samples. The interpretation of the NRS is independent of sex, but seems to depend on catastrophizing. In patients with high catastrophizing tendency, the optimal cut-off point scheme equals that for the total study sample, but in patients with a low catastrophizing tendency, NRS scores ≤ 3 correspond to mild, scores of 4–6 to moderate and scores ≥7 to severe pain in terms of interference with functioning. In these optimal cut-off schemes, NRS scores of 4 and 5 correspond to moderate interference with functioning for patients with low catastrophizing tendency and to mild interference for patients with high catastrophizing tendency. Theoretically one would therefore expect that among the patients with NRS scores 4 and 5 there would be a higher average PDI score for those with low

  2. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Ma, Rulin; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Zhang, Jingyu; Wei, Bin; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Jiaolong; Pang, Hongrui; Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-02-08

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into local preventive

  3. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into

  4. Vocoder Excitation Model Based on Voicing Cut-Off Frequency%基于语音截止频率的声码器激励模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静云; 赵晓群; 李荣芸; 王峤

    2015-01-01

    在低速率声码器中,对激励信号的描述直接影响重建语音的质量。为了改善音质,提出一种基于语音截止频率的声码器激励模型。该模型编码时通过语音截止频率将激励谱分成谐波和噪声2个子带,谐波子带的激励谱幅度引入离散余弦变换变维模型进行描述,语音截止频率进行4 bit 非线性量化。解码时将恢复出的谐波子带激励谱幅度进行傅里叶反变换,噪声子带则由白噪声进行以语音截止频率为阻带截止频率的高通滤波,最后由谐波子带和噪声子带叠加出激励。实验结果表明,该模型提高了全带激励谱幅度和谐波噪声成分的描述精度,可使重建语音的音质得以明显改善,主客观指标更优,对男声更为突出。%A vocoder excitation model based on voicing cut-off frequency(VCO) was presented. In enco-ding part, the excitation spectrum was divided into two distinct spectral bands by VCO: harmonic sub-band and noise sub-band, the model of variable dimension through discrete cosine transform was used to express the excitation spectral parameter of harmonic sub-band, and VCO was quantized through 4bits nonlinear scalar quantization. In decoding part, the recovered excitation spectral parameter of harmonic sub-band was inversely Fourier transformed, the noise sub-band was obtained by the white noise pass through a high pass filter which used the VCO as the stop-band cut-off frequency, harmonic sub-band and noise sub-band were superimposed to get the excitation. The model greatly improves the description preci-sion of the entire spectral envelope and harmonic plus noise components. With better subjective and ob-jective indicators, especially for male’s speech, the reconstructed speech shows more natural.

  5. Alzheimer's disease dementia as the diagnosis best supported by the cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers: difference in cut-off levels from thai experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanarong, V; Siwasariyanon, N; Washirutmangkur, L; Poungvarin, N; Ratanabunakit, C; Aoonkaew, N; Udomphanthurak, S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine how beta-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ 1-42), total tau (tTau), and phosphorylated tau (pTau) levels in CSF behave in a cohort of Thai patients from the Memory Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods. During 2009-2011, twenty eight subjects from the memory clinic at Siriraj Hospital had CSF analysis for AD biomarkers. Aβ 1-42, tTau, and pTau (at amino acid 181) were measured in CSF by ELISA technique. Results. Mean of Thai mental state examination (TMSE) of 28 Thai cohort was 16.48 (6.63). Fourteen had AD, ten had non-AD dementia, and four non-cases were those with subjective memory complaint (SMC) without dementia. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, ptau (181), and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the AD group were 241.36 (60.14) pg/mL, 222.79 (212.24) pg/mL, 40.79 (27.84) pg/mL, and 0.18 (0.12) accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181), and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-AD dementia group were 430.40 (125.18) pg/mL, 349.30 (692.16) pg/mL, 36.80 (14.90) pg/mL, and 0.09 (0.04) accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181), and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-cases with SMC without dementia were 499.75 (93.44) pg/mL, 137.25 (62.74) pg/mL, 31.75 (17.48) pg/mL, and 0.06 (0.02). There is significant difference (P < 0.05) among the 3 groups in CSF Aβ 1-42 and pTau/Aβ 1-42. We propose mean + 1.5 SD of CSF Aβ 1-42 in AD group (331.57 pg/mL) to be the cut-off point in Thai subjects. Conclusion. There are significant different in CSF Aβ 1-42 and CSF p-tau/Aβ 1-42 among those with AD, non-AD dementia and non cases with SMC without dementia in Thai cohort. Cut-off point of CSF Aβ 1-42 of 331.57 pg/mL is suggested in Thai study.

  6. BLADE sequences in transverse T2-weighted MR imaging of the cervical spine. Cut-off for artefacts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkenzeller, T. [Hospital Nuremberg Sued (Germany). Inst. of Radiology and Neuroradiology; Wendl, C.M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Lenhart, S. [Klinikum Weiden (Germany). Radiology and Neuroradiology; Schuierer, G. [Center of Neuroradiology, Regensburg (Germany). Inst. of Neuroradiology

    2015-02-15

    The BLADE (PROPELLER) technique reduces artefacts in imaging of the cervical spine in sagittal orientation, but till now failed to do so in axial orientation, because here it increased through plane CSF-flow artefacts, which spoiled the benefit of BLADE artefact reduction 'in plane'. The aim of this study was to compare a BLADE sequence with optimised measurement parameters in axial orientation to T2-TSE. Both sequences were compared in 58 patients with 31 discal, 16 bony and 11 spinal cord lesions. Image sharpness, reliability of spinal cord depiction, CSF flow artefacts and lesion detection were evaluated by 3 independent observers. Additionally the observers were asked which sequence they would prefer for diagnostic workup. Statistical evaluations were performed using sign and {sub X}2 test. BLADE was significantly superior concerning image sharpness, spinal cord depiction and overall lesion detection. BLADE was rated better for most pathologies, for bony lesions the differences compared with TSE were statistically significant. Regarding CSF-flow artefacts both sequences showed no difference. All readers preferred BLADE in side by side reading. An optimised axial T2 BLADE sequence decreases the problems of increased through plane CSF-flow artefacts in this orientation. By reducing various other artefacts it yields better image quality and has the potential to reduce the number of non-diagnostic examinations especially in uncooperative patients.

  7. Removal of methadone by extended dialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer: implications for the treatment of overdose and for pain management in patients undergoing light chain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelin, Viktor; Schmidt, Julius J; Kayser, Nathalie; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Suhling, Hendrik; Eden, Gabriele; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31.5 mL/min) and reduction ratio (38%) were higher than previously reported for standard hemodialysis, the total amount of methadone in the spent dialysate after 1 extended dialysis session was quite low. Hence, even extended dialysis with a high cut-off membrane does not seem to offer a clinically relevant benefit in the setting of overdose for enhanced methadone removal. On the other hand, in patients undergoing high cut-off dialysis for the removal of light chains, methadone could still be used as an analgesic without an additional dose after high cut-off hemodialysis.

  8. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, Rico N.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Leemans, C. Rene

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is

  9. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, R.N.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Doornaert, P.; Buter, J.; de Bree, R.; Langendijk, J.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Leemans, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is

  10. Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gong, Chun-dan; Wu, Qiao-ling; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Zheng-yan; Peng, Yong-mei

    2013-01-01

    ...) and metabolic indices, determine the best cut-off value of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia. Fifteen schools in Shanghai's two districts were chosen by cluster sampling and primary screening was done in children aged 9-15 years old...

  11. Establishment the cut-off value of congenital hypothyroidism on newborn in Guangzhou city%广州市新生儿先天性促甲状腺素筛查切值的建立和探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋翔; 江剑辉; 李蓓; 吴伽; 陈倩瑜; 曹伟锋; 贾雪芳; 李慧

    2013-01-01

    【Objective】 To get the distribution of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and cut-off value in Guangzhou city. 【Method】 The results of 209 534 newborns were analysed from September 2011 to August 2012,which was described by percentiles and ROC curve,and determined the reasonable cut-off value combined with the actual screening results. 【Results】 The distribution of newborn screen was deflection,P99 was 9. 63 mU/L,the optimal cut-off value was 14 mU/L by ROC curve,the low cut-off value of our lab was 9 mU/L and the high cut-off value was 25 mU/L. 【Conclusion】 It is necessary to establish the reasonable cut-off value before earring out the neonatal screening. The determination of low and high cut-off value and establishment of recall-back methods are effective mode for neonatal screening.%[目的]探讨广州地区新生儿先天性促甲状腺素的水平分布并建立本地区的筛查实验切值. [方法]对广州市2011年9月-2012年8月间209 534例新生儿先天性甲状腺功能低下筛查的结果进行统计,使用百分位数法及ROC曲线计算促甲状腺素(thyroid stimulating hormone,TSH)参考切值,并结合实际筛查工作确定合理的切值. [结果]新生儿疾病筛查TSH水平呈偏态分布,TSH水平P99为9.63 mU/L,ROC曲线计算的最佳TSH值为14 mU/L,最终确定的TSH低切值为9 mU/L,高切值为25 mU/L. [结论]在开展筛查工作之前必须根据本地区的实际情况确立适宜的切值,确立高低两个切值并建立不同的召回方式对甲低筛查工作是合理有效的模式.

  12. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Armin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome (MetS in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Methods Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve. Results The area under the curve (AUC (95%CI was 0.650 (0.631-0.670 for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703 with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF. The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6% and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0% for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively. Conclusion We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.

  13. Analysis on Cutting-off of Non-fire-fighting Power Supply of Metro Stations%地铁车站非消防电源的切除分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉

    2014-01-01

    现行国家相关设计规范对火灾时非消防电源的切除提出了明确的规定,但对火灾时切除非消防电源的目的、方式(手动方式或自动方式)及位置并未形成一致的要求。针对这些问题,进行较为深入的分析。明晰了火灾时切除非消防电源的主要原则和目标,即:避免造成人员恐慌和二次事故;避免火灾的进一步扩大;保证火灾扑救人员的安全,避免造成触电事故;在保证消防救灾的前提下,尽量减小断电范围。最后,结合地铁车站用电负荷及运营管理的特点,提出车站设备区、公共区发生火灾时切除非消防电源的原则、方式及位置。%In the current national design codes and standards,there are definite provisions for the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply,however,there are no specific provisions on the purposes,manners (manual cutting-off manner or automatic cutting-off manner)and positions of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply.In this article,analysis is made on the purposes,manners (manual cutting-off manner or automatic cutting-off manner)and positions of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply.The main principles and purposes of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply in case of fire are defined,i.e.,trying to avoid passenger chaos and secondary incident,trying to avoid further spread of the fire,trying to ensure the safety of the firefighters and trying to minimize the power cutting-off scope.Finally,the principles,manners and positions of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply in case of fire occurring in the equipment area and public area of Metro stations are proposed on basis of the features of the power load and operation management of Metro stations.

  14. Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun-dan; Wu, Qiao-ling; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Zheng-yan; Peng, Yong-mei

    2013-08-28

    The prevalence of adolescents' obesity and overweight has dramatically elevated in China. Obese children were likely to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. However there was no cut-off point of anthropometric values to predict the risk factors in Chinese adolescents. The present study was to investigate glycolipid metabolism status of adolescents in Shanghai and to explore the correlations between body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and metabolic indices, determine the best cut-off value of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia. Fifteen schools in Shanghai's two districts were chosen by cluster sampling and primary screening was done in children aged 9-15 years old. After screening of bodyweight and height, overweight and obese adolescents and age-matched children with normal body weight were randomly recruited in the study. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical measurements of glycolipid profiles were done. SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were made and the best cut-off values of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia were determined while the Youden indices were maximum. Five hundred and thirty-eight adolescents were enrolled in this research, among which 283 have normal bodyweight, 115 were overweight and 140 were obese. No significant differences of the ages among 3 groups were found. There were significant differences of WC-SDS (pBMI elevated in girls. The best cut-off value of BMI-SDS was 1.22 to predict dyslipidemia in boys. The BMI cut-off was 21.67 in boys. Overweight and obese youths had reduced insulin sensitivity and high prevalence of dyslipidemia.When BMI-SDS elevated up to 1.22 and BMI was higher than 21.67 in boys, dyslipidemia may happen.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure decreased sperm mitochondrial DNA copy number: A cross-sectional study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Zhang, Guowei; Sun, Lei; Wang, Zhi; Zou, Peng; Gao, Jianfang; Peng, Kaige; Chen, Qing; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Ziyuan; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia; Ao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that have adverse effects on the male reproductive function. Many studies have confirmed that PAHs preferentially accumulate in mitochondria DNA relative to nuclear DNA and disrupt mitochondrial functions. However, it is rare whether exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in sperm. To evaluate the effects of PAHs on sperm mitochondria, we measured mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and mtDNA integrity in 666 individuals from the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College Students (MARHCS) study. PAHs exposure was estimated by measuring eight urinary PAH metabolites (1-OHNap, 2-OHNap, 1-OHPhe, 2-OHPhe, 3-OHPhe, 4-OHPhe, 2-OHFlu and 1-OHPyr). The subjects were divided into low, median and high exposure groups using the tertile levels of urinary PAH metabolites. In univariate analyses, the results showed that increased levels of 2-OHPhe, 3-OHPhe, ∑Phe metabolites and 2-OHFlu were found to be associated with decreased sperm mtDNAcn. After adjusting for potential confounders, significantly negative associations of these metabolites remained (p = 0.039, 0.012, 0.01, 0.035, respectively). Each 1 μg/g creatinine increase in 2-OHPhe, 3-OHPhe, ∑Phe metabolites and 2-OHFlu was associated with a decrease in sperm mtDNAcn of 9.427%, 11.488%, 9.635% and 11.692%, respectively. There were no significant associations between urinary PAH metabolites and sperm MMP or mtDNA integrity. The results indicated that the low exposure levels of PAHs can cause abnormities in sperm mitochondria.

  16. Patient Acceptable Symptom State in Self-Report Questionnaires and Composite Clinical Disease Index for Assessing Rheumatoid Arthritis Activity: Identification of Cut-Off Points for Routine Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Salaffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide information on the value of Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS in rheumatoid arthritis (RA by the identification of PASS thresholds for patient-reported outcomes (PROs composite scores. Methods. The characteristics of RA patients with affirmative and negative assignment to PASS were compared. Contributors to physician response were estimated by logistic regression models and PASS thresholds by the 75th percentile and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve methods. Results. 303 RA patients completed the study. All PROs were different between the PASS (+ and PASS (− groups (p<0.0001. The thresholds with the 75th percentile approach were 2.0 for the RA Impact of Disease (RAID score, 2.5 for the PRO-CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA index, and 1.0 for the Recent-Onset Arthritis Disability (ROAD questionnaire. The cut-off values for Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI were in the moderate range of disease activity. Assessing the size of the logistic regression coefficients, the strongest predictors of PASS were the disease activity (p=0.0007 and functional state level (0.006. Conclusion. PASS thresholds were relatively high and many patients in PASS had moderate disease activity states according to CDAI. Factors such as disease activity and physical function may influence a negative PASS.

  17. Cut-off of Non-fire Power Supply in Civil Buiding%民用建筑非消防电源的切除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海东

    2011-01-01

    Fire fighting system is related to personal property and is importance in design and examination.The rules about cutting off non-fine power supply under firing had be early set.But following the improvement of people's life,the classification of non-fire%消防系统关系到人身及财产安全,一直是设计及审查的重点。关于火灾状态下非消防电源的切除要求各规范中早有规定,但随着生活水平的提高,非消防电源的分类日趋复杂。就火灾状态下如何合理切断非消防电源进行了论述,希望电气设计师在设计过程中加深对众多规范的理解,使设计成果更加合理。

  18. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  19. UV Filtering of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effects of Varying the UV Cut-Off upon Cell Performance and Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With current technology, UV filters are essential to ensure long-term dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC stability. Blocking photons, however, will have an obvious effect on device performance and upon its incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE. Filters have been applied to DSC devices with a range of cut-off wavelengths in order to assess how different levels of filtering affect the performance and IPCE of devices made with three different dyes, namely N719, Z907, and N749. It is shown that dyes that extend their IPCE further into the NIR region suffer lesser relative efficiency losses due to UV filtering than dyes with narrower action spectra. Furthermore, the results are encouraging to those working towards the industrialisation of DSC technology. From the results presented it can be estimated that filtering at a level intended to prevent direct band gap excitation of the TiO2 semiconductor should cause a relative drop in cell efficiency of no more than 10% in forward illuminated devices and no more than 2% in reverse illuminated devices.

  20. Determining cut-off values for neck circumference as a measure of the metabolic syndrome amongst a South African cohort: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, S; Malan, L; de Ridder, J H

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine receiver operating characteristic (ROC) neck circumference (NC) cut offs best associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a South African cohort. We included 409 urban Africans and Caucasians and stratified them into gender and age groups (25-45 years; 45-65 years). Measurements included anthropometric, fasting overnight urine and biological markers for the MetS (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein). ROC analysis determined pathological (NC) cut-points of 39 and 35 cm for young and older African men; 32 and 35 cm for young and old African women; 40 and 41 cm for Caucasian men; 34 and 33 cm for Caucasian women. Pathological NC cut-points significantly predicted MetS in all ethnic-gender-age groups except in African women (ORs 2.3-5.4; 95% CI 1.36-16.5). Multiple regression analyses revealed that MetS prevalence and ROC cut-points were not associated with renal impairment in any groups. ROC NC cut-points demonstrated that NC may be used as an additional anthropometric marker to predict the MetS in a South African cohort but not in African women.

  1. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin production. Limited control of the diseases is provided by seed pre-sowing with certain fungicides such as benlate. Soil fumigation with methyle bromide can provide a control measure against the disease but may be limited application value for large scale production systems in the open field. In addition, methyle bromide is considered an ozone-depleting compound and has potential risk on the living environment and human health. Considering the environmental limitations of chemical fungicides, it seems appropriate to search for a supplemental control strategy .It was demonstrated that peak of the diseases incidence is occurred at flowering stage and irrigation cut-off in this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation (complete irrigation and cut-off the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine (0, 1 and 2 Mm as subplot and cumin ecotypes (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plots size under the trial was 4 m×3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant.m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation

  2. PREVALENCE OF WASTED, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE CHILDREN BASED ON WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION CUT-OFFS FOR BODY MASS INDEX, IN A URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Badami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: BMI is a good indicator of levels of body fat, and it is known that having a BMI that is either too low or too high is associated with an increased risk of ill health during childhood as well as later in life. BMI is relatively quick and easy to calculate and as a result, is used for population surveys and by health professionals when assessing individual patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of wasted, overweight and obese children in an urban slum using WHO child growth standards BMI cut offs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study included 150 urban slum children of whom 77 were boys and 73 were girls. Anthropometric data in the form of height in cms and weight in kgs were collected by standard methods as reported by D. B. Jelliffe. BMI was calculated. Analysis of data was done according to WHO child growth standards. RESULTS: The prevalence of wasting was 25.97% in boys and 24.65% in girls. Among boys 1.29% were at risk of overweight, 2.59% were overweight, 2.59% were obese. Among girls 5.47% were at risk of overweight and 2.73% were obese. CONCLUSION: It can concluded from the study that undernutrition remains the main problem than overnutrition. However, the rapid changes in the dietary patterns and life styles occurring in many developing countries warrant close monitoring of overweight prevalence in children so that preventive measures can be taken in timely manner.

  3. Comparing the Cervista HPV HR test and Hybrid Capture 2 assay in a Dutch screening population: improved specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test by changing the cut-off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniek Boers

    Full Text Available The diagnostic performance of the widely-used Cervista HPV HR test was compared to the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test in a Dutch population-based cervical cancer screening program. In 900 scrapings of women with normal cytomorphology, specificity was 90% (95%CI: 87.84-91.87 for the Cervista HPV HR test and 96% (95%CI: 94.76-97.37 for the HC2 test with 93% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.5, p<0.001. The sensitivity for CIN2+ using 65 scrapings of women with histological-confirmed CIN2+ was 91% (95%CI: 80.97-96.51 for the Cervista HPV HR test and 92% (95%CI: 82.94-97.43 for the HC2 test with 95% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.7, p<0.001. Fifty-seven of 60 HC2 negative/Cervista positive cases tested HPV-negative with PCR-based HPV assays; of these cases 56% were defined as Cervista triple-positive with FOZ values in all 3 mixes higher than the second cut-off of 1.93 (as set by manufacturer. By setting this cut-off at 5.0, specificity improved significantly without affecting sensitivity. External validation of this new cut-off at 5.0 in triple-positive scrapings of women selected from the SHENCCASTII database revealed that 22/24 histological normal cases now tested HPV-negative in the Cervista HPV HR test, while CIN2+ lesions remained HPV-positive. The intra-laboratory reproducibility of the Cervista HPV HR test (n = 510 showed a concordance of 92% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.83 and κ = 0.84, p<0.001 and inter-laboratory agreement of the Cervista HPV HR test was 90% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.80 and κ = 0.85, p<0.001. In conclusion, the specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test could be improved significantly by increasing the second cut-off from 1.93 to 5.0, without affecting the sensitivity of the test in a population-based screening setting.

  4. Cut off from supplies - sulfate exhaustion and implications for methane emissions in a brackish rewetted peatland after separation from the coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Franziska; Liu, Bo; Schmiedinger, Iris; Spitzy, Alejandro; Köhler, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Gehre, Matthias; Sachs, Torsten; Böttcher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Coastal ecosystems are at the interface between marine and freshwater and exhibit a special geochemistry. We investigate the S and C geochemistry of a coastal, degraded fen peatland. The site has been cut off from the Baltic Sea since 1995 and was rewetted with freshwater from the surrounding catchment in 2010. Despite of locally high pore water sulfate (SO42-) concentrations, the fen turned into a strong source for methane (CH4) with annual budgets up to 0.26±0.06 kg m-2 (Hahn et al. 2015). To reconcile this apparent contradiction we use concentration patterns and stable isotope signatures of water, SO42-, pyrite, dissolved carbon, and CH4 (δ2H, δ13C, δ18O, δ34S) along a transect with increasing distance to the Baltic coastline (300-1500 m). The current peatland geochemistry is characterized by a combination of relict signals reflecting former brackish water intrusion events and indicators of recent human activities such as internal eutrophication and increasing freshwater contribution. The shallow peat layer (depth mostly ≤ 55 cm) exhibited a pronounced vertical gradient with a freshwater-front lying on top of the brackish water layer. S geochemistry was decoupled from present brackish water distribution as marine SO42- was almost completely biotically reduced and converted to pyrite. The remaining pore water SO42- pool was remarkably 34S-enriched in relation to Baltic Sea SO42- (up to +86.4 and +21‰, respectively) and also δ34S-values of pyrite were comparatively high (+4.8‰), thereby demonstrating a distinct reservoir effect under closed-system conditions. However, one of the profiles situated 1150 m from the Baltic Sea coast line exhibited a contrasting S pattern with pronounced excess of isotopically lighter SO42- at depth (up to 32.8 mM and +22.7‰). We hypothesize, that local groundwater seeps might provide electron acceptors such as NO3- for the contemporary oxidation of pyrite. δ13C in DIC exhibited a pronounced vertical shift from -23.9

  5. Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia as the Diagnosis Best Supported by the Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers: Difference in Cut-Off Levels from Thai Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Senanarong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine how beta-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ 1-42, total tau (tTau, and phosphorylated tau (pTau levels in CSF behave in a cohort of Thai patients from the Memory Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods. During 2009–2011, twenty eight subjects from the memory clinic at Siriraj Hospital had CSF analysis for AD biomarkers. Aβ 1-42, tTau, and pTau (at amino acid 181 were measured in CSF by ELISA technique. Results. Mean of Thai mental state examination (TMSE of 28 Thai cohort was 16.48 (6.63. Fourteen had AD, ten had non-AD dementia, and four non-cases were those with subjective memory complaint (SMC without dementia. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, ptau (181, and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the AD group were 241.36 (60.14 pg/mL, 222.79 (212.24 pg/mL, 40.79 (27.84 pg/mL, and 0.18 (0.12 accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181, and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-AD dementia group were 430.40 (125.18 pg/mL, 349.30 (692.16 pg/mL, 36.80 (14.90 pg/mL, and 0.09 (0.04 accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181, and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-cases with SMC without dementia were 499.75 (93.44 pg/mL, 137.25 (62.74 pg/mL, 31.75 (17.48 pg/mL, and 0.06 (0.02. There is significant difference (P<0.05 among the 3 groups in CSF Aβ 1-42 and pTau/Aβ 1-42. We propose mean + 1.5 SD of CSF Aβ 1-42 in AD group (331.57 pg/mL to be the cut-off point in Thai subjects. Conclusion. There are significant different in CSF Aβ 1-42 and CSF p-tau/Aβ 1-42 among those with AD, non-AD dementia and non cases with SMC without dementia in Thai cohort. Cut-off point of CSF Aβ 1-42 of 331.57 pg/mL is suggested in Thai study.

  6. Cut off values of laser fluorescence for different storage methods at different time intervals in comparison to frozen condition: A 1 year in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Rudra; Kaul, Vibhuti; Farooq, Riyaz; Wazir, Nikhil Dev; Khateeb, Shafayat Ullah; Malik, Altaf H; Masoodi, Ajaz Amin

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the change in laser fluorescence (LF) values for extracted teeth stored in different solutions over 1 year period, to give cut-off values for different storage media at different time intervals to get them at par with the in vivo conditions and to see which medium gives best results with the least change in LF values and while enhancing the validity of DIAGNOdent in research. Materials and Methods: Ninety extracted teeth selected, from a pool of frozen teeth, were divided into nine groups of 10 each. Specimens in Groups 1-8 were stored in 1% chloramine, 10% formalin, 10% buffered formalin, 0.02% thymol, 0.12% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite, a commercially available saliva substitute-Wet Mouth (ICPA Pharmaceuticals) and normal saline respectively at 4°C. The last group was stored under frozen condition at −20°C without contact with any storage solution. DIAGNOdent was used to measure the change the LF values at day 30, 45, 60, 160 and 365. Statistical Analysis Used: The mean change in LF values in different storage mediums at different time intervals were compared using two-way ANOVA. Results: At the end of 1 year, significant decrease in fluorescence (P < 0.05) was observed in Groups 1-8. Maximum drop in LF values occurred between day 1 and 30. Group 9 (frozen specimens) did not significantly change their fluorescence response. Conclusions: An inevitable change in LF takes place due to various storage media commonly used in dental research at different time intervals. The values obtained from our study can remove the bias caused by the storage media and the values of LF thus obtained can hence be conveniently extrapolated to the in vivo condition. PMID:24778506

  7. Impact of High-Cut-Off Dialysis on Renal Recovery in Dialysis-Dependent Multiple Myeloma Patients: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans U Gerth

    Full Text Available High-cut-off hemodialysis (HCO-HD can effectively reduce high concentrations of circulating serum free light chains (sFLC in patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI due to multiple myeloma (MM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze renal recovery in a retrospective single-center cohort of dialysis-dependent MM patients treated with either conventional HD (conv. HD or HCO-HD.The final cohort consisted of 59 patients treated with HCO-HD (n = 42 or conv. HD (n = 17. A sustained sFLC response was detected in a significantly higher proportion of HCO-HD patients (83.3% compared with conv. HD patients (29.4%; p = 0.007. The median duration of sFLC required to reach values <1000 mg/l was 14.5 days in the HCO-HD group and 36 days in the conv. HD group. The corresponding rates of renal recovery were 64.3% and 29.4%, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.014. Multivariate regression and decision tree analysis (recursive partitioning revealed HCO-HD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.1 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-24.5], p = 0.011 and low initial uric acid values (adjusted OR 1.3 [95%CI 1.0-1.7], p = 0.045 as independent and paramount variables associated with a favorable renal outcome.In summary, the results from this retrospective case-control study suggest in addition to novel agent-based chemotherapy a benefit of HCO-HD in sFLC removal and renal outcome in dialysis-dependent AKI secondary to MM. This finding was especially pertinent in patients with low initial uric acid values, resulting in a promising renal recovery rate of 71.9%. Further prospective studies are warranted.

  8. Burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS in pedicel mediated fruit abscission after carbohydrate supply was cut off in longan (Dimocarpus longan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqin eYang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutting off carbohydrate supply to longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. fruit by girdling and defoliation or by detachment induced 100% abscission within a few days. We used these treatments to study the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in fruit abscission. Girdling plus defoliation decreased sugar concentrations in the fruit and pedicel and depleted starch grains in the chloroplasts in the cells of abscission zone. Prior to the occurrence of intensive fruit abscission, there was a burst in ROS in the pedicel, which peaked at 1 day after treatment (DAT, when H2O2 in the abscission zone was found to be chiefly located along the plasma membrane (PM. H2O2 was found exclusively in the cell walls 2 DAT, almost disappeared 3 DAT, and reappeared in the mitochondria and cell walls 4 DAT. Signs of cell death such as cytoplasm breakdown were apparent from 3 DAT. The burst of ROS coincided with a sharp increase in the activity of PM-bound NADPH oxidase in the pedicel. At the same time, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase (POD were all increased by the treatment and maintained higher than those in the control. Accompanying the reduction in H2O2 abundance, there was a sharp decrease in PM-bound NADPH oxidase activity after 1 DAT in the treated fruit. H2O2 scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU, 1 g L-1 significantly inhibited fruit abscission in detached fruit clusters and suppressed the increase in cellulase activity in the abscission zone. These results suggest that fruit abscission induced by carbohydrate stress is mediated by ROS. Roles of ROS in regulating fruit abscission were discussed in relation to its subcellular distribution.

  9. Cut off values of laser fluorescence for different storage methods at different time intervals in comparison to frozen condition: A 1 year in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Kaul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the change in laser fluorescence (LF values for extracted teeth stored in different solutions over 1 year period, to give cut-off values for different storage media at different time intervals to get them at par with the in vivo conditions and to see which medium gives best results with the least change in LF values and while enhancing the validity of DIAGNOdent in research. Materials and Methods: Ninety extracted teeth selected, from a pool of frozen teeth, were divided into nine groups of 10 each. Specimens in Groups 1-8 were stored in 1% chloramine, 10% formalin, 10% buffered formalin, 0.02% thymol, 0.12% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite, a commercially available saliva substitute-Wet Mouth (ICPA Pharmaceuticals and normal saline respectively at 4°C. The last group was stored under frozen condition at −20°C without contact with any storage solution. DIAGNOdent was used to measure the change the LF values at day 30, 45, 60, 160 and 365. Statistical Analysis Used: The mean change in LF values in different storage mediums at different time intervals were compared using two-way ANOVA. Results: At the end of 1 year, significant decrease in fluorescence (P < 0.05 was observed in Groups 1-8. Maximum drop in LF values occurred between day 1 and 30. Group 9 (frozen specimens did not significantly change their fluorescence response. Conclusions: An inevitable change in LF takes place due to various storage media commonly used in dental research at different time intervals. The values obtained from our study can remove the bias caused by the storage media and the values of LF thus obtained can hence be conveniently extrapolated to the in vivo condition.

  10. Impact analysis of different cut-off plans on river floods%不同裁弯取直方案对河道行洪影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志学; 钟友胜; 吕伟

    2014-01-01

    T wo-dimensional numerical models were used to analyze the impacts of tw o cut-off plans on river floods in the up-stream of Fu River in Chengdu City. T he first cut-off plan assigned the elevation difference of the curve reach to the whole riv-er, and the second cut-off plan assigned t he elevation difference to one step-fall. The results show ed that ( 1) both cut-off plans can decrease the wat er level and increase the velocity in the upstream of orthodontic curved river channel and w eaken the flow dynamics in the old river channel; ( 2) the first cut-off plan has higher w eakening impacts on the flow discharge and hydrody-namic parameters in the old river channel than the second cut- off plan; ( 3) the second cut-off plan can cause high velocity in the local area, w hich is disadvantageous to the river channel erosion and has apparent noise pollution; and ( 4) the first plan is similar to the natural cut-off river progress by assigning the elevation difference to the w hole river channel therefore it is more reasona-ble.%采用二维数学模型,对成都市府河上游段河道裁弯取直工程进行了对比分析,探讨了弯颈落差全河段分摊和设置集中跌落两种不同裁弯取直方案对河道行洪的影响。结果表明,不同裁弯取直方案均会造成畸弯河道上游主槽水位降低和流速的增加,并引起老河湾水流动力的减弱;落差分摊方案对老河湾分流量及水流动力参数的消弱作用更大,上游河道水位降低更为明显;从流速沿程分布规律来看,设置集中跌落的裁弯取直方案将引起局部河段流速过高,对河道冲刷安全不利,且存在明显的噪声污染。但是,落差分摊方案将弯颈落差通过工程措施直接分摊到整治河段范围,更接近自然裁弯取直的河道演变过程,因此该工程方案更为合理。

  11. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in patients in an emergency department setting, suspected of acute coronary syndrome: optimal cut-off point, diagnostic value and future opportunities in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Robert T A; van Severen, Evie; Vandervoort, Pieter M; Grieten, Lars; Buntinx, Frank; Glatz, Jan F C; Dinant, Geert Jan

    2015-01-01

    Most patients presenting chest complaints in primary care are referred to secondary care facilities, whereas only a few are diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim is to determine the optimal cut-off value for a point-of-care heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) test in patients presenting to the emergency department and to evaluate a possible future role of H-FABP in safely ruling out ACS in primary care. Serial plasma H-FABP (index test) and high sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) (reference test) were determined in patients with any new-onset chest complaint. In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cut-off value of H-FABP for ACS was determined. Predictive values of H-FABP for ACS were calculated. For 202 consecutive patients (prevalence ACS 59%), the ROC curve based on the results of the first H-FABP was equal to the ROC curve of hs-cTnT (AUC 0.79 versus 0.80). Using a cut-off value of 4.0 ng/ml for H-FABP, sensitivity for ACS of the H-FABP (hs-cTnT) tests was 73.9% (70.6%). Negative predictive value (NPV) of H-FABP for ACS in a population representative for primary care (incidence of ACS 22%) thus could reach 90.8%. In patients presenting chest pain, plasma H-FABP reaches the highest diagnostic value when a cut-off value of 4 ng/ml is used. Diagnostic values of an algorithm combining point-of-care H-FABP measurement and a score of signs and symptoms should be studied in primary care, to learn if such an algorithm could safely reduce referral rate by GPs.

  12. Reference centile curves for triceps skinfold thickness for Indian children aged 5 to 17 years and cut offs for predicting risk of childhood hypertension: a multi-centric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha; Mandlik, Rubina; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Vaman; Ekbote, Veena; Patwardhan, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    To create age and gender specific Triceps Skinfold Thickness percentile curves for Indian children; and to determine cut-offs for predicting the risk of childhood hypertension. Cross-sectional. Multicentric, school-based, 5 major Indian cities. 13375 children (7590 boys) aged 5-17 years. Data on height, weight, blood pressure, triceps skinfold thickness (using Harpenden Skinfold caliper) were collected. Reference triceps skinfold thickness percentile curves were derived for boys and girls by LMS (lambda-mu-sigma) method. Receiver operating curve analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off of triceps skinfold thickness centile for predicting the risk of hypertension. Percentile curves for boys plateau around 13 years whereas for girls the curves increase steadily till the age of 17 years. Median triceps skinfold thickness increased by 7% to 9% till the age of 9 years in boys and girls. After 12 years, median triceps skinfold thickness decreased by 1% to 2% in boys but increased by 3% to 4% in girls. The optimal cut-off percentile yielding maximal sensitivity (68%) and specificity (74-78%) for predicting high blood pressure was the 70th triceps skinfold thickness percentile in both genders. Percentile curves for triceps skinfold thickness developed in the present study would be useful in the assessment of adiposity and the risk of hypertension in Indian children.

  13. 中国哈萨克族成人代谢综合征腰围适宜切点研究%The optimum cut-off points of waist circumference for identifying metabolic syndrome in Kazak adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高静; 王宁; 王建疆; 娜孜姑丽; 谢自敬; 毛新民; 李琳琳

    2010-01-01

    探讨哈萨克族成人代谢综合征(MS)诊断的腰围适宜切点.选取2 052例哈萨克族成人,依据国际糖尿病联盟标准,检出两个以上MS组分的假阳性和假阴性率均较低的腰围切点为男性≥99 cm,女性≥88 cm.建议哈萨克族成人以此切点作为MS的检出标准.%The optimum cut-off point of waist circumference for identifying metabolic syndrome(MS)in Kazak was investigated.Based on Internationul Diabetes Eederation.2052 Kazak adults were analysed.At the cut-off point of waist circumference(≥199 cm for men,≥88 cm for women),the rates of false positive and negative for identifying MS were reduced to a minimum.The two cut-off points were possibly appropriate for identifying MS in Kazak.

  14. Consistency and inconsistency in testing biomarkers in breast cancer. A GRELL study in cut-off variability in the Romance language countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Caldarella, Adele; Ferretti, Stefano; Ardanaz, Eva; Arveux, Patrick; Bara, Simona; Barrios, Enrique; Bento, Maria J; Bordoni, Andrea; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Candela, Giuseppina; Colombani, Françoise; Delafosse, Patricia; Federico, Massimo; Francart, Julie; Giacomin, Adriano; Grosclaude, Pascale; Guizard, Anne V; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Konzelmann, Isabelle; La Rosa, Francesco; Lapotre, Benedicte; Leone, Nathalie; Ligier, Karine; Mangone, Lucia; Marcos-Gragera, R; Martinez, Ruth; Michelena, Maria J; Michiara, Maria; Miranda, Ana; Molinié, Florence; Mugarza-Gomez, Conception; Paci, Eugenio; Piffer, Silvano; Puig-Vives, Montserrat; Sacchettini, Claudio; Sánchez, Maria J; Traina, Adele; Tretarre, Brigitte; Tumino, Rosario; Van Vaerenbergh, Elke; Velten, Michel; Woronoff, Anne S

    2013-08-01

    Biological markers are crucial factors in order to differentiate female breast cancers and to determine the right therapy. This study aims at evaluating whether testing for biomarkers for female breast cancer has similar frequency and characteristics across and within countries. Population-based cancer registries of the Association for cancer registration and epidemiology in Romance language countries (GRELL) were asked to complete a questionnaire on biomarkers testing. The data collected referred to invasive female breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. The investigation focused on 1) the overexpression and amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncogene (HER2); 2) the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors; and 3) the proliferation index (PI). Weighted percentages, the heterogeneity among and within countries, and the correlation between responses and calendar years were evaluated. The study was based on 19,644 breast cancers. Overall, 85.9% of the cases were tested for HER2, 91.8% for both ER and PgR, and 74.1% for proliferative markers. For HER2 and ER-PgR, the frequency of testing increased from 2004 to 2009. Testing varied among countries (HER2 from 82.0% to 95.9%, ER-PgR from 89.3% to 98.9%, PI from 10% to 92%) and also within the same country (e.g. HER2 in Italy from 51% to 99%) as well as within single cancer registries. The most relevant differences were in the scores for positive/negative/not clearly defined HER2 (e.g. HER2 was defined positive if IHC 3+ in 21/33 registries), and in the cut-off of positive cells for ER/PgR (from >0% to >30%) and PI positivity (from >0% to >20%). Biological markers are widely tested in the Romance language countries; however, the parameters defining their positivity may vary, raising concerns about homogeneity in breast cancer classification and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Kurotani, Kayo; Sasaki, Naoko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nagahama, Satsue; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tomita, Kentaro; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Hori, Ai; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Kabe, Isamu; Liu, Weiping; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-03-03

    We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM) and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS) for DM in Japanese. Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20-69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980), were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3-4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7-9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women) had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women) for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  16. Fasting serum leptin levels in the analysis of body mass index cut-off values: are they useful for overweight screening in children and adolescents? A school population-based survey in three provinces of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falorni, A; Galmacci, G; Bini, V; Papi, F; Molinari, D; De Giorgi, G; Faraoni, F; Celi, F; Di Stefano, G; Berioli, M G; Contessa, G; Bacosi, M L

    1998-12-01

    -III, stage IV-V). Children and adolescents from central Italy had greater BMI percentiles when compared to other European populations. Fasting serum leptin concentrations showed a distribution pattern related to z-score, thus allowing to identification of two different subgroups. The z-scores of BMI, identified as separation points, indicated a trend to leptin production by adipocytes that could be taken as indicators of significant increases of fat mass. This study proposes criteria and a statistical approach that could be useful in the identification of BMI cut-off values when screening children and adolescents for overweight.

  17. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  18. Direct numerical simulations of temporally developing hydrocarbon shear flames at elevated pressure: effects of the equation of state and the unity Lewis number assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, Ayse; Miller, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of temporally developing shear flames are used to investigate both equation of state (EOS) and unity-Lewis (Le) number assumption effects in hydrocarbon flames at elevated pressure. A reduced Kerosene / Air mechanism including a semi-global soot formation/oxidation model is used to study soot formation/oxidation processes in a temporarlly developing hydrocarbon shear flame operating at both atmospheric and elevated pressures for the cubic Peng-Robinson real fluid EOS. Results are compared to simulations using the ideal gas law (IGL). The results show that while the unity-Le number assumption with the IGL EOS under-predicts the flame temperature for all pressures, with the real fluid EOS it under-predicts the flame temperature for 1 and 35 atm and over-predicts the rest. The soot mass fraction, Ys, is only under-predicted for the 1 atm flame for both IGL and real gas fluid EOS models. While Ys is over-predicted for elevated pressures with IGL EOS, for the real gas EOS Ys's predictions are similar to results using a non-unity Le model derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and real diffusivities. Adopting the unity Le assumption is shown to cause misprediction of Ys, the flame temperature, and the mass fractions of CO, H and OH.

  19. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  20. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  1. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUV{sub max} cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Johannes [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Herrmann, Jochen; Adam, Gerhard; Derlin, Thorsten [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, Reinhard E. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5. Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard. Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (r{sub s} = 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3 % vs 79.8 %; P = 0.013). In patients with NF1, quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning. (orig.)

  2. [Selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy for treating spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs caused by cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Cao, Xu; Xu, Shi-gang; Li, De-kui; Xu, Lin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and the result for the surgical treatment of spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs in patients who underwent the selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy. From March 2004 to April 2008, 27 patients included 19 boys and 8 girls, aging 13-21 years with an average of 15 years underwent selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation with exercise therapy. The AXIS 8 holes titanium plate was inserted into the lateral mass of spinous process through guidance of the nerve stimulator, choosed fasciculus of low-threshold nerve dorsal root and cut off its 1.5 cm. After two weeks, training exercise therapy was done in patients. Training will include lying position, turning body, sitting position, crawling, kneeling and standing position, walking and so on. Spastic Bobath inhibiting abnormal pattern was done in the whole process of training. The muscular tension, motor function (GMFM), functional independence (WeeFIM) were observed after treatment. All patients were followed up from 4 to 16 months with an average of 6 months. Muscular tension score were respectively 3.30 +/- 0.47 and 1.25 +/- 0.44 before and after treatment;GMFM score were respectively 107.82 +/- 55.17 and 131.28 +/- 46.45; WeeFIM score were respectively 57.61 +/- 25.51 and 87.91 +/- 22.39. There was significant improvement before and after treatment (P cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs is safe and effective method, which can decrease muscular tension and improve motor function, which deserves more wide use.

  3. Design of Cut-off Ditch at Valley-type Small Waste Sanitary Landfill Site in Southwest China%西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹许鑫; 吕燕; 尹滔

    2012-01-01

    对西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计展开探讨,结合相关规范优选适用于西南地区的截洪沟设计充满度、设计流速、径流系数等关键设计参数,对截洪沟的流量计算、断面选择、沟壁沟底材料及基础设计、出水口及转弯段的设计、整体平面布置等进行讨论,提出三种优化截洪沟断面.通过截洪沟的优化设计可实现清污分流,降低渗滤液产量,减少雨水对垃圾渗滤液收集及处理系统的冲击,降低垃圾渗滤液处理成本,确保垃圾填埋场正常、安全运行.%The design of cut-off ditch at valley-type small landfill site in the southwest China is explored. The design parameters of cut-off ditch applicable to the southwest China, such as design filling degree, design flow, runoff coefficient and other key design parameters are selected according to the related codes. The flow calculation, cross section selection, materials and foundation design for the ditch walls and bottom, design of outlet and curved segment and overall layout are discussed. Three kinds of optimized cross sections of cut-off ditch are proposed. The optimization design of cut-off dilch can achieve the separation of rainwater and sewage, reduce the leachate production, mitigate the impact of rainwater on collection and treatment systems of landfill leachate, thus reducing the treatment cost of landfill leachate and ensuring the normal and safe operation of landfill site.

  4. Predictive Values of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for Risk Factors of Certain Related Diseases in Chinese Adults - Study on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For prevention of obesity in Chinese population, it is necessary to define the optimal range of healthy weight and the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults. The Working Group on Obesity in China under the support of International Life Sciences Institute Focal point in China organized a meta-analysis on the relation between BMI, waist circumference and risk factors of related chronic diseases (e. g.,high diabetes, diabetes mellitus, and lipoprotein disorders). Methods 13 population studies in all met the criteria for enrollment, with data of 239 972 adults (20-70 year) surveyed in the 1990s. Data on waist circumference was available for 111411 persons and data on serum lipids and glucose were available for more than 80 000. The study populations located in 21provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China as well as in Taiwan. Each enrolled study provided data according to a common protocol and uniform format. The Center for data management in Department of Epidemiology, Fu Wai Hospital was responsible for statistical analysis. Results and conclusion The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all increased with increasing levels of BMI or waist circumference. BMI at 24 with best sensitivity and specificity for identification of the risk factors, was recommended as the cut-off point for overweight, BMI at 28 which may identify the risk factors with specificity around 90 % was recommended as the cut-off point for obesity. Waist circumference beyond 85 cm for men and beyond 80 cm for women were recommended as the cut-off points for central obesity.Analysis of population attributable risk percent illustrated that reducing BMI to normal range (<24) could prevent 45%-50% clustering of risk factors. Treatment of obese persons (BMI ≥ 28)with drugs could prevent 15%-17% clustering of risk factors. The waist circumference controlled under 85 cm for men and under 80 cm for

  5. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Shih, A. Z. L.; Woo, Y. C.; Fong, C. H. Y.; Leung, O. Y.; Janus, E.; Cheung, B. M. Y.; Lam, K. S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. Material & Methods In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25–74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995–1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010–2012) after 15 years of follow-up. Results At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713–0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777–0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. Conclusions HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance. PMID:27658115

  6. An approach for the delineation of a generic cut-off value for local respiratory tract irritation by irritating or corrosive substances as a pragmatic tool to fulfill REACH requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, H

    2014-04-01

    Under the current European legislation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals (REACHs) a Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) has to be delineated for acute and chronic inhalation effects. The majority of available experimental studies are performed by the oral route of exposure. Route to route extrapolation poses particular problems for irritating or corrosive substances but the necessity for additional animal studies with inhalation exposure needs to be balanced with the regulatory information requirements. Existing occupational exposure limits (OEL) as surrogate for cut-off limits representing safe exposure under working conditions were grouped under certain criteria for substances that are legally classified in Europe as irritating or corrosive. As a result, it was shown that the OEL for irritating substances in this dataset is not lower than 10mg/m(3) and for corrosives not lower than 1mg/m(3). Under certain conditions these generic limits could be applied as a pragmatic, but still sufficiently reliable and protective upper cut-off limit approach to avoid additional animal tests with irritating or corrosive chemicals. The respective systemic toxicity profiles and physical-chemical properties need to be considered. Specific exclusion criteria for the discussed concept apply.

  7. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification: population-based analysis from the Danish Lymphoma Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Anne O; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco; Pedersen, Lars M; Jensen, Bo A; Jensen, Paw; Møller, Michael B; Mourits-Andersen, Hans T; Pedersen, Robert S; Klausen, Tobias W; de N Brown, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of rituximab and generally improved health among elderly patients have increased the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The International Prognostic Index (IPI) from 1992 is based on pre-rituximab data from clinical trials including several lymphoma subtypes. We applied IPI factors to a population-based rituximab-treated cohort of 1990 patients diagnosed 2000-2010 and explored new factors and the optimal prognostic age cut-off for DLBCL. Multivariate-analyses (MVA) confirmed the prognostic value of all IPI factors except the presence of > 1 extranodal lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), stage and albumin level, and (2) a separate age-adjusted DLBCL-PI for patients ≤ 70 years including PS, LDH, albumin level and > 1 extranodal lesion, however excluding stage.

  8. High Voltage Test Power’s Fast Cutting-off Device Based on Infrared%基于红外线的高压试验电源快速切断装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡双双; 周刚; 胡海平; 邱东晓; 金海; 潘克菲

    2015-01-01

    High voltage power system during the test will generate tens of kilovolts or more high-pressure. Therefore,to ensure the safety of persons and equipment is a basic requirement.However,approaches of the traditional use of ropes or fence to seclude the high voltage test area can not protect the safety of personnel and equipment at the root when testing personnel or foreign body mistakenly go in the charged region.This paper presented a program of fast high voltage test power cut-off device based on infrared.It can make audible voice alarm,at the same time quickly cut off high voltage power supply,to ensure the safety of persons and equipment from the source,when testing personnel or foreign objects mistakenly go in the charged region.%提出了一种基于红外线的高压试验电源快速切断的方案,并设计了装置的硬件电路和系统软件。经现场试验,当有人员或异物误入带电区域时,发出声光语音报警的同时快速切断高压电源,从源头上保证人身和设备安全。

  9. On-line cut-off technique and organic modifier addition aided signal enhancement for trace analysis of carbohydrates in cellulase hydrolysate by ion exclusion chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Tsai, Hsiang-Rong; Chang, Kuo-Chung

    2006-06-30

    Paper cellulose has been hydrolyzed with calcium alginate immobilized cellulase to produce carbohydrate products and the three trace sugars, galactose, arabinose, and mannose in the cellulase hydrolysate have been analyzed by HPIEC/ESI-MS. Applying the on-line cut-off technique to the HPIEC/ESI-MS can cut the high concentration glucose off to eliminate its interference on the peaks of minor sugars and enhance their signals from 1.1- to 1.6-fold. However, the on-line post column addition of 15% ethanol to the eluate can increase the signal of the three trace sugars, galactose, arabinose, and mannose up to 17-, 23-, and 11-fold, respectively, and make the corresponding detection limits as 0.04, 0.04, and 0.03 ppm. The accuracies of the quantitative analysis for the three trace sugars with the signal enhanced HPIEC/ESI-MS by the two enhancement methods were larger than 95%. The precisions of the analytical results were also greatly improved by the assistance of the two techniques and were less than 6.5%. The quantitative analysis of the three trace sugars was performed with the internal standard method and the internal standard (IS) was sorbitol. Overall, the signal enhancement of HPIEC/ESI-MS and quantification of the three trace sugars by the on-line cut-off technique and organic modifier addition was successful.

  10. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  11. Study on Spectral Response beyond Cut off of Cs2Te Ultra Violet Photo Cathode%Cs2Te紫外光电阴极带外光谱响应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰; 姜云龙; 李靖雯; 姬明; 李金沙; 张勤东

    2015-01-01

    With the strong light as the input, the spectral response beyond cut off of the Cs2Te ultraviolet photo cathode is measured. The results show that the spectral response of the Cs2Te cathode beyond cut off is lower, and is several orders of magnitude lower than that within the cutoff. The peak sensitivity of within cutoff can be greater than 40mA/W, but the spectral response beyond cut off can be as low as 10-3mA/W order of magnitude at 550nm wavelength. The divergence of spectral response beyond cut off of Cs2Te ultraviolet photo cathode made with the same process is large. According to the test of three different visible light photo cathode, namely Na2KSb (Cs), K2CsSb and GaAs (Cs-O), it is proved that these three kinds of visible light photo cathode also have certain spectral response. The test data show that the spectral response beyond cut off is related to the size of the work function (positive electron affinity cathode) or the band gap (negative electron affinity cathode). The smaller the work function or the band gap is, the greater the spectral response beyond cut off. The spectral response beyond cut off is a common phenomenon for photo cathode. The reason is that the effect of multiphoton absorption, i.e. multiphoton effect. Because Cs2Te photo cathodes are present spectral response beyond cut off, thus, when solar blind image intensifier adopting Cs2Te photo cathodes is used in the strong sun light or straight to the sun's light, detected signal would be disturbed by the light of the sun, or by the image of the sun like. Thus solar blind image intensifier does not have the sun blind characteristic. In order to make the solar blind ultraviolet image intensifier fully equipped with solar blind characteristic, solar blind filter is needed. Combining solar blind filter with spectral response of Cs2Te cathode beyond cut off, solar blind image intensifier can achieve complete solar blind. So in the practical application of ultra violet detecting, the solar

  12. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  13. 虎红平板凝集试验确诊布鲁杆菌病截断值的探讨%Cut-off value of rose bengal plate agglutination test in rapid diagnosis of brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志东; 刘云霞; 李艳红; 李建云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the cut-off value of rose bengal plate agglutination test(RBPT) in rapid diagnosis of brucellosis.Methods From May to June 2009,398 people who came to the outpatient department of Inner Mongolia Center for Endemic Disease Control and Research were diagnosed brucellosis by RBPT and tube agglutination test (SAT).Tube agglutination test as a gold standard,rose bengal plate agglutination test,its authenticity and reliability were evaluated.Results Taking positive predictive value 100.0% as the selection standard,the cut-off value of RBPT was "++" which could be used to diagnose brucellosis.The sensitivity was 83.3%; the specificity was 100.0%; the Youden index was 0.832; and the compliance rote was 89.9%.Conclusion The cut-off value "++" of RBPT to diagnosis brucellosis is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的 探讨虎红平板凝集试验确诊布鲁杆菌病凝集度的截断值.方法 内蒙古地方病防治研究中心门诊部选择2009年5月至2009年6月,进行布鲁杆菌病检查的398人,进行试管凝集试验和虎红平板凝集试验检测,以试管凝集试验为金标准,探讨虎红平板凝集试验诊断布鲁杆菌病的截断值,并对可靠性和真实性进行评价.结果 以阳性预测值100.0%作为筛选标准,虎红平板凝集试验快速确诊布鲁杆菌病的截断值为“++”,以该凝集度强度作为截断值进行布鲁杆菌病诊断,灵敏度为83.3%,特异度为100.0%,约登指数为0.823,符合率为89.9%.结论 以虎红平板凝集试验的“++”作为截断值诊断布鲁杆菌病,值得临床推广.

  14. Determination of a cut-off value of antral area measured in the supine position for the fast diagnosis of an empty stomach in the parturient: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Lucille; Zieleskiewicz, Laurent; Desgranges, François-Pierrick; Cogniat, Bérengère; Pop, Marius; Boucher, Pierre; Bellon, Amandine; Léone, Marc; Chassard, Dominique; Bouvet, Lionel

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound measurement of the antral cross-sectional area of the stomach, performed in the supine position, has been described for preoperative assessment of gastric content in the adult, but, to date, no study has determined the cut-off value of the antral area for the diagnosis of an empty stomach in the parturient. Nevertheless, previous studies in parturients have reported that the use of a simple qualitative grading scale (0 to 2) was reliable for the estimation of the gastric fluid volume. However, this qualitative grading score requires turning the parturient into the right lateral decubitus position for the ultrasound examination, something which may not be easily feasible, particularly in the case of an obstetric emergency. To calculate the cut-off value of the antral area, measured in the supine position during established labour, for the diagnosis of 'empty' stomach. A prospective cohort study. Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France. Seventy-three women in established labour. For each parturient, ultrasound assessment of gastric contents was performed in the supine and right lateral decubitus position and scored 0 to 3 on a qualitative grading scale. This assessment was followed by ultrasound measurement of the antral cross-sectional area in both the supine and right lateral positions. To assess the performance of the antral area measured in the supine position for the diagnosis of an 'empty' stomach (gastric antrum grade 0), a receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated. Data from 73 women were analysed. For the diagnosis of grade 0, the cut-off value for the antral area measured in the supine position was 381 mm (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 76% and negative predictive value, 80%). With a parturient lying in the supine position, a single assessment of the antral cross-sectional area may be used for the fast diagnosis of an empty

  15. PtSi红外探测器截止波长延长研究%Study on Extension of Cut-off Wavelength of PtSi Infrared Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 杨家德; 刘飒; 宁永功; 陈艾

    2001-01-01

    The basic theory of the extension of cut-off wavelength of PtSi infrared detectors is discussed.Three methods are introduced including Tl+ and Ir+ doping, MBE growth of P+layer and B+, In+ low-energy ion-implantation.%讨论了将PtSi红外探测器截止波长延长的理论基础,并介绍了采用在衬底掺入Tl+和Ir+,MBE生长P+层以及低能离子注入B+,In+来延长PtSi红外探测器截止波长的三种方法。

  16. 蒙古族农牧民代谢综合征诊断的腰围切点观察%Observation of the cut-off point of waist circumference for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in Mongolian peasants and herdsmen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 刘永跃; 王健; 阿尔斯楞; 李永山; 张永红; 佟伟军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To survey the cut-off point of waist circumference for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese Mongolian peasants and herdsmen. Methods Based on the IDF consensus worldwide definition of metabolic syndrome (2005), 2589 Mongolia adults aged over 20 years from agricultural and pastoral areas in Tongliao city were enrolled to analyze the Ors of the clustering of MS components at different sizes of waist circumference. The sensitivity , specificity and area under the ROC curve by different cut-off points of waist circumference for identifying at least two components of MS were estimated to find the cut-off points for men and women in Mongolia. Results The Ors of the clustering of MS components were increased significantly with the sizes of waist circumference. The waist circumference( ≥ 84cm for men, ≥81 cm for women) corresponded to the largest area under the ROC curve , namely, at these cut-off points, the rates of sensitivity and specificity for identifying MS were relatively high. Conclusion The cut-points of WC according to IDF criteria are high for men of Mongolia peasant and herdsmen. It should be lowered to 85cm for men and 80cm for women. This recommendation needs to be further confirmed by follow-up studies in Mongolian people.%目的 研究我国蒙古族农牧民代谢综合征(MS)诊断的腰围(WC)适宜切点. 方法 以内蒙古自治区通辽市科左后旗朝鲁吐苏木和奈曼旗固日班花苏木32个自然村2589名年龄大于20岁的蒙古族农牧民为研究对象,以国际糖尿病联盟(IDF) MS全球共识诊断标准为基础,分析蒙古族男女不同WC水平与MS其他组分聚集的关联,检出至少两个组分存在时灵敏度和特异度均较高的WC界限,作为诊断蒙古族农牧民MS的WC切点,并以此计算不同年龄组MS的检出率. 结果 随WC增大,MS组分聚集的OR值显著增高.当男性WC≥84 cm、女性WC≥81 cm时,ROC曲线下面积最大. 结论 IDF标准在蒙古族农牧民男性

  17. Diagnostic and prognostic value of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations in very elderly heart disease patients: specific geriatric cut-off and impacts of age, gender, renal dysfunction, and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondé-Cynober, F; Morineau, G; Estrugo, B; Fillie, E; Aussel, C; Vincent, J-P

    2011-01-01

    Confirming the presence of heart failure (HF) in geriatric patients is made difficult by the overlapping symptoms with other diseases and by limited access to investigative techniques such as echography, and the clinical signs are either non-constant or difficult to interpret. In this context, BNP measurement could prove highly useful. We determined a cut-off value of BNP for diagnosing HF in geriatric patients and gauged its predictive power in terms of cardiovascular events, dependence and death within a 6-month timeframe. This clinical and biological study was performed in patients, 44 women and 20 men, age>65 years with suspected HF hospitalized in the geriatric unit at Emile-Roux hospital. Echography was performed at baseline examination. BNP concentrations were determined at baseline examination and at 2 and 6 months later. Renal function was assessed via the Cockroft-Gault formula. Nutritional status was assessed using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI). Final reference diagnosis was established by both cardiologist and geriatrician. The diagnostic value of BNP was assessed by area under the ROC curve. The average age of the 64 patients was 84.3±7.4 years. The final diagnosis was HF in 26 patients (41%). A BNPvalue of 90% (accuracy 80%) for excluding the diagnosis of HF. BNP values were predictive of cardiovascular events over a 2-month timeframe in patients with HF and over a 6-month timeframe in the global population. BNP values were not predictive of mortality in patients with or without HF. BNP testing should help to differentiate pulmonary from cardiac etiologies of dyspnea, but a specific cut-off point has to be used in geriatric settings, mainly for patients presenting nutritional and renal dysfunctions.

  18. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Rico N; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is a cross-sectional study. Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery of a University Medical Center. Sixty patients, 6 months to 5 years after chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and SHI, both validated in Dutch and provided with cut-off scores. Associations were tested between the outcome measures and independent variables (age, gender, tumor stage and site, and radiotherapy technique, time since treatment, comorbidity and food intake). Fifty-two patients returned the SWAL-QOL and 47 the SHI (response rate 87 and 78 %, respectively). Swallowing and speech problems were present in 79 and 55 %, respectively. Normal food intake was noticed in 45, 35 % had a soft diet and 20 % tube feeding. Patients with soft diet and tube feeding reported more swallowing problems compared to patients with normal oral intake. Tumor subsite was significantly associated with swallowing outcome (less problems in larynx/hypopharynx compared to oral/oropharynx). Radiation technique was significantly associated with psychosocial speech problems (less problems in patients treated with IMRT). Swallowing and (to a lesser extent) speech problems in daily life are frequently present after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future prospective studies will give more insight into the course of speech and swallowing problems after chemoradiation and into efficacy of new radiation techniques and swallowing and speech rehabilitation programs.

  19. Quantum fields and Poisson processes. Pt. 2. Interaction of boson-boson and boson-fermion fields with a cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J. (Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Mathematique); Gaveau, B.; Rideau, G. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Dept. de Mathematiques)

    1985-05-01

    Quantum field evolutions are written as expectation values with respect to Poisson processes in two simple models; interaction of two boson fields (with conservation of the number of particles in one field) and interaction of a boson with a fermion field. The introduction of a cutt-off ensures that the expectation values are well-defined.

  20. Effect of Body Mass Index on All-cause Mortality and Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases - Report for Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To verify the optimal cut-off points for overweight and obesity in Chinese adults based on the relationship of baseline body mass index (BMI) to all-cause mortality, and incidence of cardiovascular diseases from pooled data of Chinese cohorts. Methods The prospective study data of existing cohort studies in China were collected, and the age-adjusted all-cause mortality stratified by BMI were estimated. The similar analysis was repeated after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and after excluding smokers. The incidence of age-adjusted coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke stratified by BMI were also analyzed. Multiple Cox regression coefficients of BMI for the incidence of CHD and stroke after controlling other risk factors were pooled utilizing the methods of weighting by inverse of variance to reveal whether BMI had independent effect and its strength on the incidence of CHD and stroke. Results The data of 4 cohorts including 76 227persons, with 745 346 person-years of follow-up were collected and analyzed. The age-adjusted allcause mortality stratified by BMI showed a U-shaped curve, even after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and excluding smokers. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality increased when BMI was lower than 18.5 and higher than 28. The incidence of CHD and stroke, especially ishemic stroke increased with increasing BMI, this was consistent with parallel increasing of risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed that BMI was an independent risk factor for both CHD and stroke. Each amount of 2 kg/m2 increase in baseline BMI might cause 15.4%, 6.1% and 18.8 % increase in relative risk of CHD, total stroke and ischemic stroke. Reduction of BMI to under 24 might prevent the incidence of CHD by 11% and that of stroke by15 % for men, and 22 % of both diseases for women. Conclusion BMI ≤18.5, 24-27.9 and ≥28 (kg/m2) is the appropriate cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obesity in

  1. Selection of a cut-off for high- and low-methane producers using a spot-methane breath test: results from a large north American dataset of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide measurements in breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Klaus; Le, Chenxiong; Wacher, Vince; Sliman, Joe; Cruz, Christine; Porter, Tyler; Carter, Stephen

    2017-01-27

    Levels of breath methane, together with breath hydrogen, are determined by means of repeated collections of both, following ingestion of a carbohydrate substrate, at 15-20 minutes intervals, until 10 samples have been obtained. The frequent sampling is required to capture a rise of hydrogen emissions, which typically occur later in the test: in contrast, methane levels are typically elevated at baseline. If methane emissions represent the principal objective of the test, a spot methane test (i.e. a single-time-point sample taken after an overnight fast without administration of substrate) may be sufficient. We analysed 10-sample lactulose breath test data from 11 674 consecutive unique subjects who submitted samples to Commonwealth Laboratories (Salem, MA, USA) from sites in all of the states of the USA over a one-year period. The North American Consensus (NAC) guidelines criteria for breath testing served as a reference standard. The overall prevalence of methane-positive subjects (by NAC criteria) was 20.4%, based on corrected methane results, and 18.9% based on raw data. In our USA dataset, the optimal cut-off level to maximize sensitivity and specificity was ≥4 ppm CH4, 94.5% [confidential interval (CI): 93.5-95.4%] and 95.0% (CI: 94.6-95.5%), respectively. The use of a correction factor (CF) (5% CO2 as numerator) led to reclassifications CH4-high to CH4-low in 0.7 % and CH4-low to CH4-high in 2.1%. A cut-off value for methane at baseline of either ≥4 ppm, as in our USA dataset, or ≥ 5 ppm, as described in a single institution study, are both highly accurate in identifying subjects at baseline that would be diagnosed as 'methane-positive' in a 10-sample lactulose breath test for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press and Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.

  2. Improving thermal and electrochemical performances of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode at high cut-off charge potentials by MF{sub 3} (M=Ce, Al) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulaich, Abdelmaula, E-mail: a.aboulaich@managemgroup.com; Ouzaouit, Khalid; Faqir, Hakim; Kaddami, Abderrahman; Benzakour, Intissar; Akalay, Ismail

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Fluoride metal is successfully coated on the surface of LiCoO{sub 2}. • Easy and scalable method is adopted for the synthesis of coated-LiCoO{sub 2}. • Appropriate amount of AlF{sub 3} or CeF{sub 3} is beneficial to reduce cation disorder. • The electrochemical performances of coated LiCoO{sub 2} is significantly enhanced at higher potential (cycling efficiency and reversible capacity). • The coated cathode exhibits excellent thermal stability highlighted by calorimetric technique. - Abstract: Surface coating of LiCoO{sub 2} remained one of the efficient methods to enhance its electrochemical and thermal performances, especially at high cut-off potential. In this work, MF{sub 3} (M = Ce, Al) coated LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized via co-precipitation method followed by a solid state reaction at 400 °C. The morphology and structure of the modified cathode material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the fluoride compound MF{sub 3} is successfully coated on the surface of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode particles with an average layer thickness about 12 nm and 40 nm for AlF{sub 3} and CeF{sub 3}, respectively. The electrochemical tests show that the AlF{sub 3}-coating layer significantly enhances the cycling performance of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode material, even at high cut-off potential. While the bare LiCoO{sub 2} cathode displays fast fading at 4.6 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li cutoff potential, the surface-modified electrode exhibits the great capacity of 160 mAh g{sup −1} with excellent capacity retention on several cycles. We concluded that the electrochemical and the thermal enhancement at high potential are ascribed to the presence of MF{sub 3} coating layer which prevent the side reaction during the charge discharge process, alleviate the attack by the acidic electrolyte and reduce the damage of electrode structure.

  3. The upper limit of the reference range for thyroid-stimulating hormone should not be confused with a cut-off to define subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waise, Ahmed; Price, Hermione C

    2009-03-01

    The upper limit of the reference range for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is used to assist in identifying individuals with hypothyroidism. Improvements in TSH assays have led to better definition of the lower limit of the reference range, but the upper limit of the range for a healthy population is currently a topic of some debate. Population studies have improved our understanding of the clinical implications of elevated serum TSH concentrations in terms of future progression to hypothyroidism, but have not yet fully elucidated the correlation of modestly elevated TSH levels with long-term morbidity. This paper will review the current debate including the arguments for and against reducing the upper limit of the TSH range, whether such a level should be based on evidence from epidemiological studies, and the implications of categorizing large numbers of people with subclinical hypothyroidism. The impact of using different methodologies for the measurement of TSH and the inherent variability of results on reference ranges is also discussed. We argue that the reference range for TSH should be assay-specific and be determined by standard techniques in normal populations as recommended by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry. In contrast, we suggest that a decision level be determined separately from epidemiological studies to identify a population with subclinical hypothyroidism. Serial monitoring of TSH in this population deserves further study as a means of identifying those at risk of progressing to frank hypothyroidism and meriting treatment.

  4. Cut-off value of red-blood-cell-bound IgG for the diagnosis of Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamesaki, Toyomi; Oyamada, Takashi; Omine, Mitsuhiro; Ozawa, Keiya; Kajii, Eiji

    2009-02-01

    Direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia (Coombs-negative AIHA) is characterized by laboratory evidence of in vivo hemolysis, together with a negative DAT performed by conventional tube technique (CTT) in clinically suspected AIHA patients. The immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for red-blood-cell-bound immunoglobulin G (RBC-IgG) can be used to diagnose patients in whom CTT does not detect low levels of red cell autoantibodies. We investigated the diagnostic cutoff value of the IRMA for RBC-IgG in Coombs-negative AIHA and calculated its sensitivity and specificity. Of the 140 patients with negative DAT by CTT referred to our laboratory with undiagnosed hemolytic anemia, AIHA was clinically diagnosed in 64 patients (Coombs-negative AIHA). The numbers of Coombs-negative AIHA and non-AIHA patients changed with age and gender. The cutoff values were determined from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve according to age and gender. The IRMA for RBC-IgG proved to be sensitive (71.4%) and specific (87.8%) when using these cutoffs. Using these cutoffs for 41 patients with negative DAT referred to our laboratory in 2006, all the pseudonegative cases were treated with steroids before the test. The 31 untreated cases could be grouped using one cutoff value of 78.5 and showed 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity, independent of gender and age. Results indicate that RBC-IgG could become a standard approach for the diagnosis of Coombs-negative AIHA, when measured before treatment.

  5. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor reduces the number of precursor and effector T cells, but preserves thymic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, V.J.; Smit, J.J.; Bol-Schoenmakers, M.; van Duursen, M.B.M.; van den Berg, M.; Pieters, R.H.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation suppresses immune responses, including allergic sensitization, by increasing the percentage of regulatory (Treg) cells. Furthermore, AhR activation is known to affect thymic precursor T cells. However, the effect of AhR activation on intrathymic CD4(+)CD25(

  6. Optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome%腰围身高比预测代谢综合征的切点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建家; 张雅萍; 林振忠; 牟伦盼; 孙炳庆; 苏劲波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between waist-to-height ratio and metabolic syndrome,in order to identify the optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome.Methods In this cross-sectional study,we recruited 343 people who received physical examination in First Hospital of Quanzhou between January 2012 and June 2014,and collected the information of their waist circumference,height,weight,blood pressure,laboratory test results (including fasting blood glucose,2-hour glucose after oral glucose tolerance test,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and visceral fat area assessed by computed tomography.Then a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the optimal cut-off points of waist-to-height ratio for the prediction of metabolic syndrome.Results Among the 343 people,there were 195 metabolic syndrome patients,the prevalence rate was 56.8%,which was 70.2% in men (127/181) and 42.0% in women (68/162).In ROC curve analysis,the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio for the prediction of metabolic syndrome was 0.664 for men,and 0.673 for women.The optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome was 0.543 0 (sensitivity 88.2%,specificity 44.4%) for men,and 0.568 3 (sensitivity 86.8%,specificity 46.8%).Conclusion The optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome in Quanzhou population is 0.543 0 for men and 0.568 3 for women.%目的 研究腰围身高比与代谢综合征的关系,寻找腰围身高比预测代谢综合征的最佳切点.方法 采用横断面调查方法,纳入2012年1月至2014年6月在福建医科大学附属泉州第一医院进行体检的343名人员,体检项目包括腰围、身高、体质量、血压、实验室检查(包括空腹血糖、口服葡萄糖耐量试验2h血糖、三酰甘油、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇)、CT测定腹腔内脂肪面积.通过受试者工

  7. On the comparison of the polarisation behaviour of exchange-biased AF/F NiMn/Fe 37Co 48Hf 15 bi-layer and multi-layer films with increased ferromagnetic cut-off frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Krüger, K.

    2012-03-01

    Antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AF/F) NiMn/Fe37Co48Hf15 films were investigated with respect to their exchange bias, in-plane unidirectional anisotropy, polarisation and high frequency behaviour. After deposition, carried out by r.f. magnetron sputtering, the films were post-annealed for 4 h at 300 °C in a static magnetic field, in order to induce exchange-bias, which results in a unidirectional anisotropy. Dependent on the presence of a bi-layer or multi-layer sandwich structure the films show a different exchange-bias field-ferromagnetic inter-layer thickness behaviour with exchange-bias fields μ0*Heb between 2 and 10 mT. The in-plane uniaxial (single film) or unidirectional anisotropy fields μ0*HUF were between 4 and 18 mT. This results in a significant increase of the cut-off frequency in the GHz range in comparison to a single Fe37Co48Hf15 film, which is shown by frequency-dependent permeability plots. High damping in the imaginary part of the permeability, i.e., high resonance line broadening could be observed for films with high coercivity μ0*Hc of around 7 mT in the easy axis of magnetisation.

  8. Extracorporeal light chain elimination: high cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis parallel to chemotherapy allows for a high proportion of renal recovery in multiple myeloma patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Nils; Denecke, Barbara; Guthoff, Martina; Oehrlein, Katharina; Kanz, Lothar; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Weisel, Katja C

    2012-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and strongly affects prognosis, with particularly poor outcomes in patients requiring hemodialysis. Introduction of the novel therapeutic agents to MM therapy has improved myeloma response and renal outcome. This case series reviews the efficacy of combined systemic and extracorporeal therapy to further optimize time to light chain (serum-free light chain (sFLC)) reduction and renal recovery in MM patients with dialysis-dependent AKI (n = 19). High cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC removal was initiated in parallel to chemotherapy. Combined therapy resulted in early sFLC response after a median of 13 (range 4-48) days and 6 (3-22) HCO hemodialysis sessions. Time to sFLC response was shorter in patients recovering renal function. Median time to dialysis independence was 15 (4-64) days. By intent-to-treat analysis, sustained renal recovery was achieved in 73.7% (77.8% adjusted for death) of patients. In multivariate analysis, duration of AKI prior to initiation of therapy was an independent predictor of renal functional outcome. Combining HCO hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC elimination and effective chemotherapy is a novel treatment strategy allowing for early and sustained sFLC reduction and a high proportion of renal recovery in these patients. Timely diagnosis and onset of therapy is essential for improving renal outcome.

  9. Cutting off Mediation. Agamben as Master Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Deuber-Mankowsky

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agamben’s Homo Sacer turns centrally upon “bare life”. However, the following subjects are not thematized: natality, gender, sexuality, the relation of the sexes, the heterosexual character of the symbolic order and political culture, the interest of women in the reproduction of life. The entire question of sexual difference —like that of the difference between victim and perpetrator, between witnesses and those born afterwards— is banned from Agamben’s horizon. Thus a deep unease remains, which this paper is intended to explore. It will first present the methodological and theoretical inspirations, which Homo Sacer owes to the thought of Carl Schmitt. Secondly it will show that Schmitt’s concepts of nomos and the state of exception cannot provide a suitable basis for rewriting Foucault’s concept of biopolitics.

  10. 电励磁同步电动机转矩角截止负反馈闭环控制%Torque-Angle Cut-Off Negative Feedback Closed-Loop Control Strategy of Electrical Excited Synchronous Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慕君; 步伟明; 冯敬芳; 王志乾

    2013-01-01

    针对电励磁同步电动机负载变化易失步的问题,通过对转矩角特性分析,提出了一种基于转矩角截止负反馈的控制策略。阐述了利用转矩角控制防止失步的原理,建立了基于同步电动机磁链观测的转矩角数学模型,并设计了转矩角外环、励磁电流内环的双闭环控制系统。仿真结果表明,该控制策略与常规控制相比,适应负载变化的能力显著提高,有效抑制了电机的失步,为电机的稳定控制开辟了新途径。%Aiming at the problem that the electrical synchronous excited motor will be out of step with the load changes, this paper raised a control strategy based on torque-angle cut-off feedback via the analysis of torque-angle characteristics. Discussion was made to the principle using torque-angle control to prevent out-of-step. The mathematical model of torque-angle was constructed based on the flux linkage observation of synchronous motors and the double closed-loop control system for the outer loop adopting torque-angle and the inner loop adopting field current were designed. The simulation results show that compared with conventional control, this control strategy obviously met the requirements of load changes, effectively restraining out-of-step of motors, which opens up a new way for stable control of motors.

  11. ROC curve establish to cut-off value of hematologic indicators for thalassemia screening%ROC曲线确立血液学各指标在地贫筛查中的CUT-OFF值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 何升; 阙婷; 唐燕青

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Establish to cut - off value of hematologic indicators for thalassemia screening. Methods: Use SYSMEX he- matology analyzer to detect MCV, MCH, RDW - CV, Hb RBC, use HPLC analyzer HBA2. All of examples carry out thalassemia gene test which apply gap - per and RDB principle. Result: MCV MCH are better than other hematologic indicators. In thalassemia screening. MCV is higher than MCH RDW - CV HBA2 showed value for β thalassemia screening. RBC and HB have screening of limited value. Conclusion; Laboratory should establish; to suit cutoff value in order to ruduse missed diagnosis and Diagnostic Errors.%目的 用ROC曲线(受试者工作特征曲线)确立各血液学指标在地贫筛查中的切值.方法 以SYSMEX五分类血细胞分析仪进行全血细胞计数,记录RBC,HB,MCH,MCV,RDW-CV的数值.用伯乐HPLC进行血红蛋白电泳分析记录HBA2值.所有标本进行地中海贫血基因检测.采用gap-pcr及RDB(反向点杂交)原理对筛查结果进行验证.结果 在地贫筛查中MCV和MCH比较有价值,MCV的价值略大于MCH,RDW-CV,和HBA2对β地贫的筛查价值更加的显著,而RBC及HB在地贫筛查中价值不大.结论 为减少漏诊及误诊,实验室应该建立合适的切值

  12. Electrochemical performance of a nickel-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries under different cut-off voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-lin; Mu, Dao-bin; Wu, Bo-rong; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-01

    A spherical-like Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursor was tuned homogeneously to synthesize LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The effects of calcination temperature on the crystal structure, morphology, and the electrochemical performance of the as-prepared LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 were investigated in detail. The as-prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, laser particle size analysis, charge-discharge tests, and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results show that the spherical-like LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 material obtained by calcination at 900°C displayed the most significant layered structure among samples calcined at various temperatures, with a particle size of approximately 10 μm. It delivered an initial discharge capacity of 189.2 mAh•g-1 at 0.2C with a capacity retention of 94.0% after 100 cycles between 2.7 and 4.3 V. The as-prepared cathode material also exhibited good rate performance, with a discharge capacity of 119.6 mAh•g-1 at 5C. Furthermore, within the cut-off voltage ranges from 2.7 to 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5 V, the initial discharge capacities of the calcined samples were 170.7, 180.9, and 192.8 mAh•g-1, respectively, at a rate of 1C. The corresponding retentions were 86.8%, 80.3%, and 74.4% after 200 cycles, respectively.

  13. 热阻可调式断桥复合保温砌块的研制%Development of a bridge-cut-off composite insulation block with the adjustable thermal resistance feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永权; 任增茂; 罗天祥; 陈延军

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a bridge-cut-off composite insulation block with the adjustable thermal resistance feature,which structure is constituted by a new force block and insulating material.Regulating the proportion size of the insulation material and air interlayer on the basis of constant force main structure,the block can meet the demand of the wall thermal performance in different climatic regions with an economical way, and the performance price ratio of the block enhances at the same time.The block can use many kinds of waste in its production,e.g.,fly ash,construction waste.It has many advantages,such as environmental protection,energy conservation,fire preventing and so on,which can be generalized in nationwide.%介绍了一种热阻可调式断桥复合保温砌块,该砌块采用新型受力块体与绝热材料复合构造,在受力主体结构不变的基础上,可以通过调节绝热材料和空气间层配合尺寸,以最经济的方式满足不同气候环境区域对墙体热工性能的要求,增强了复合保温砌块节能性价比。该砌块在生产过程中可以利用粉煤灰、建筑垃圾等多种废弃物,具有经济、环保、节能和防火性能好等特点,适合在全国范围内推广应用。

  14. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelli Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. Methods We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1 Flow cytometry (FC to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG E1; 2 VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU or % of inhibition (% inhibition. Results Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4–33.1% and 3.5% (1.7–9.4%, respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5% had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, p 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. Conclusion In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  15. Body mass index cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years%中国2~18岁儿童青少年超重和肥胖筛查体重指数界值点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 宗心南; 季成叶; 米杰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the body cut-offs of mass index (BMI) for the purpose of screening overweight and obesity for Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years. Methods Based on the BMI growth reference values for Chinese children aged 0-18, using the common methods to establish the BMI cut-offs for screening overweight and obesity. These methods were having the same empirical percentile or Z scores and the BMI value at 18 years consistent with adults.Three sets of BMI cut-offs, including (BMI24, BMI28) , (P85, P95) and (Z1, Z2) , were initially identified. Differences were compared on different cut-off points and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity with different BMI reference, different values and "prevalence" of overweight and obesity based on "2004 Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Study ". Cut-offs standards which recommended by the Chinese Working Group on Obesity for Children (WGOC) and by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were also used. Finally the appropriate cut-offs were defined. Results Three sets of BMI cut-offs for screening overweight and obesity for Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years were obtained according to the above mentioned methods for selection. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity defined by those cut-offs appeared not to be significantly different. Compared with the WGOC, the BMI cut-off points for screening overweight and obesity for both boys and girls from our study were very close to the WGOC', but cut-off points for screening overweight for girls aged 8.5-15.5 y was 0.3-1.0 kg/m2 lower than the WGOC'. Going through the database on screening of "2004 Beijing Children's Metabolic Syndrome Survey ", the prevalence of overweight for girls was about 3.4% higher than using the cut-offs of WGOC. Conclusion Results from this study suggested that the BMI cut-offs passed through the cut-off point of BMI24 and BMI28 at 18 years was appropriate for screening overweight and obesity in

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon-induced injury to subtidal marine sediment resources. Subtidal study number 1a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    To determine the distribution of oil in subtidal sediments after the Exxon Valdez oil spill we sampled sediments at six depths (0, 3, 6, 20, 40 and 100 m) at 53 locations in Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska from 1989 to 1991. Results are based on 1278 sediment samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In 1989, the oil concentration was greatest in the Sound at 0 m. Outside the Sound, Exxon Valdez oil occurred at Chugach Bay, Hallo Bay, Katmai Bay, and Windy Bay in 1989. Hydrocarbons often matched Exxon Valdez oil less closely, oil was more patchily distributed, and the oil concentration decreased in sediments after 1989.

  17. Role of signal-to-cut-off ratios of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody by enzyme immunoassays along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of elevated signal-to-cut off ratios (S/CO as an alternate to further supplemental testing (i.e., RIBA has been included in the guidelines provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention for HCV diagnostic purposes since 2003. With availability of screening by NAT and non availability of RIBA, further confirmation of HCV infection has been possible at the molecular level (RNA. Aims: To study the role of S/CO ratios of anti hepatitis C virus antibody detection by enzyme immunoassays (EIA along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors. Methods: In this study we reviewed the donor screening status for anti HCV from January 2013 to May 2014. All the donations were screened for anti HCV with fourth generation ELISA (BioRad Monolisa Ag-Ab Ultra as well as with ID NAT (Procleix Ultrio. The S/CO ratio of all the anti-HCV reactive samples were analysed for their presence of HCV RNA. Results: On screening 21,115 donors for HCV, 83 donors (0.39% were found reactive on pilot tube and repeat plasma bag testing (S/Co ratio ≥1 by ELISA. 41 donors were HCV RNA reactive with ID-NAT. 4 samples out of 41 were NAT yields and 37 were concordant reactive with ELISA. The S/Co ratio of anti-HCV reactive samples ranged from 0.9-11.1 [mean = 5.1; SD ΁ 2.9] whereas S/Co ratio of anti HCV and NAT reactive samples (concordant positives ranged from 4.1-11.1 [mean 7.3]. In our analysis we found that S/CO ratio of 4 showed positive predictive value (PPV and sensitivity of 100%. Summary/Conclusions: Our study showed that S/CO of 4 for anti HCV on ELISA would have maximum positive predictive value of having donor with HCV RNA. S/CO ratio of 4 is very close to 3.8 which was the CDC guideline. The presence of anti-HCV does not distinguish between current or past infections but a confirmed anti-HCV-positive result indicates the need for counseling and medical evaluation for HCV infection.

  18. Integration Technology of Combining Binary-layer Foundation Excavation Dewatering with Suspended Cut-off Wall and Recharge%二元地基基坑降水结合悬挂式防渗墙及回灌一体化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒; 李守德; 王由国; 柯倩雯; 张灿虹

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,a generalized model of the typical cross-section is used to study the consequence of excavation dewatering with suspended cut-off wall and recharge well which have some effects on water head and ground subsidence which is outside of excavation. The comparisons of the condition of excavation direct precipitation , the condition of cut-off wall excavation precipitation and the condition of cut-off wall and recharge well excavation dewatering are analyzed. The result shows that suspended cut-off wall and recharge well can significantly enhance the water head and effectively reduce the settlement in the outside of the excavation,reduce the unit sedimentation of soft soil,have little effect on the unit sedimentation of silt and sand layers. Meanwhile,the comparisons of the tilt ratio of three conditions indicate the distance away from cut-off wall and recharge well closer ,the smaller the differential settlement.%通过构造基坑降水三维概化模型,利用有限元软件FLAC3D分析悬挂式防渗墙和回灌对基坑坑外的水头和地面沉降影响,主要将基坑直接降水工况、设置防渗墙的基坑降水工况和设置防渗墙及回灌井的基坑降水工况进行对比分析。分析结果表明防渗墙和回灌井,可明显提升坑外水头,有效降低了坑外沉降,减小软土层的单位沉降值,对粉砂层和细砂层的单位沉降值影响很小。同时,对比三种工况下的倾斜比,说明了距离防渗墙与回灌井越近,不均匀沉降越小。

  19. Pontos de corte para a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a triagem de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares na infância Cardiorespiratory fitness cut offs points and cardiovascular risk factors screening at infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a validade e propor novos pontos de corte para aptidão cardiorrespiratória de escolares de sete a 12 anos de idade. A amostra foi constituída por 1.413 escolares. A aptidão cardiorrespiratória foi medida através do teste de corrida/caminhada de nove minutos. O colesterol total e as pressões arterial sistólica e diastólica foram medidas e através delas foram criadas referências de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Através da curva receiver operating characteristic entre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e as referências de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares foram identificados os valores dos pontos de corte. Adicionalmente foi utilizada a análise bivariada seguida do cálculo de razão de chances (odds ratio-OR para identificar quanto os indivíduos que não atenderam os pontos de corte propostos tinham a mais de chance de apresentar fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Os resultados indicaram que, dentre as propostas analisadas, a que foi sugerida neste estudo apresentou melhores ajustamentos entre sensibilidade e especificidade. Os resultados da análise bivariada mostraram que indivíduos que não atenderam os pontos de corte propostos têm maiores chances de apresentarem fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares.The main objective of the study was to analyze and propose news cardiorespiratory fitness cut offs points for 7 to 12-year old school students. The sample was composed of 1,413 students. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by the 9-minutes walking/running test. Total cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and with their results cardiovascular risk factors reference were designed. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve between cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors reference identified the cut offs point values. The bivariate analysis and odds ratio (OR calculation was used to

  20. Divergences in the quark number susceptibility: The origin and a cure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavai, Rajiv V. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Sharma, Sayantan, E-mail: sayantans@quark.phy.bnl.gov [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2015-10-07

    Quark number susceptibility on the lattice, obtained by merely adding a μN term with μ as the chemical potential and N as the conserved quark number, has a quadratic divergence in the cut-off a. We show that such a divergence already exists for free fermions with a cut-off regulator. While one can eliminate it in the free lattice theory by suitably modifying the action, as is popularly done, it can simply be subtracted off as well. Computations of higher order susceptibilities, needed for estimating the location of the QCD critical point, then need a lot fewer number of quark propagators at any order. We show that this method of divergence removal works in the interacting theory.

  1. Divergences in the quark number susceptibility: The origin and a cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv V. Gavai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quark number susceptibility on the lattice, obtained by merely adding a μN term with μ as the chemical potential and N as the conserved quark number, has a quadratic divergence in the cut-off a. We show that such a divergence already exists for free fermions with a cut-off regulator. While one can eliminate it in the free lattice theory by suitably modifying the action, as is popularly done, it can simply be subtracted off as well. Computations of higher order susceptibilities, needed for estimating the location of the QCD critical point, then need a lot fewer number of quark propagators at any order. We show that this method of divergence removal works in the interacting theory.

  2. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    hydrocarbon polluted sediments and water .... ecosystem may result in selective increase or decrease in microbial population (Okpokwasili ... been implicated in degradation of hydrocarbons such as crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and.

  3. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  4. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  5. The Brazilian hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticide registration: a critical appraisal / Critérios de exclusão baseados em perigo adotados no Brasil para registro de pesticidas: Uma avalição crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, the world’s top consumer of agricultural pesticides, adopts a unique hazard-based cut-off approach to pesticide registration. Cut-off criteria for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, hormonal disturbances and damage to reproductive organs were introduced by the Pesticide Law enacted in 1989. As far as health is concerned, law enforcement is additionally regulated by rules issued by the federal health authority (National Agency for Health Surveillance – ANVISA. Contrasting to the European Union’s hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticides, Brazilian rules do not make an exception for “negligible” exposures. Moreover, Brazilian regulations have shortcomings (e.g. no reference to relevance of Mode of Action to humans that make cut-off criteria difficult to be put into effect. The deficiencies of regulations and difficulties to consistently apply the hazard-based cut-off criteria are appraised in this article. Adoption of a risk assessment approach or cut-off criteria based on classification into the Globally Harmonized System’s hazard categories 1A and 1B is suggested. Resumo O Brasil, líder mundial do consumo de agro-químicos, adota uma singular abordagem para registro de agrotóxicos que é baseada em critérios de exclusão quanto à periculosidade. Critérios de exclusão para mutagenicidade, carcinogenicidade, teratogenicidade, distúrbios hormonais e dano a órgãos reprodutivos foram introduzidos pela Lei de Agrotóxicos promulgada em 1989. Em relação à saúde, a aplicação da lei é também regulada por portarias publicadas pela autoridade sanitária federal (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – ANVISA. Em contraste com os critérios de exclusão baseados na periculosidade que a União Européia usa para agrotóxicos, a regulamentação brasileira não faz exceção para exposições insignificantes. Além disso, a regulamentação brasileira apresenta deficiências (e.g., não faz men

  6. On the application of plastic concrete cut-off wall in Huashan Reservoir Risk Removal Reinforcement Project%浅谈塑性混凝土防渗墙在花山水库除险加固工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳正绍; 梁水新; 陆家辉

    2016-01-01

    Plastic concrete cut-off wall is a plastic wall structure with certain compressive strength and impermeability capacity,and lower modulus of elasticity,which can be controlled artificially for curbing leakage,piping,etc.Plastic concrete cut-off wall not only can cut off seepage flow of the dam (soil)body and lower seepage slope in the dam (soil) body,but also can withstand certain vertical and horizontal load.It can adapt to the surrounding dam (soil ) body deformation and foundation deformation,thereby greatly reducing stress in the wall,avoiding wall cracking,saving cement and reducing the cost of the engineering seepage control with remarkable effect.%塑性混凝土防渗墙是一种塑性墙体结构,具有一定的抗压强度和抗渗能力,有较低的弹性模量,并可人为地控制,抑制渗漏、管涌等。塑性混凝土防渗墙不仅能有效截断坝(土)体的渗透水流和降低坝(土)体中渗透坡降,还能承受一定的垂直和水平荷载,能适应周围坝(土)体变形、地基变形,大大减小墙体内应力,避免墙体开裂,且可节约水泥,降低工程防渗造价,效果显著。

  7. Nursing care of sectioned skin-flap ligation for early pedicle cut-off in 93 patients with Ⅲ-grade burns%93例Ⅲ度烧伤患者分段结扎皮瓣早期断蒂的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉丹; 黄书润; 邱双双; 李丽香; 沈秋凤

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the nursing care of sectioned skin-flap ligation for early pedicle cut-off in 93 patients with Ⅲ-grade burns. During pedicle ligation,nursing care focused on close observation of blood circulation of the skin flap,especially within the 24 hours after ligation,so as to detect and deal with problems as early as possible and prevent ischemia and necrosis of skin flap. Careful and gentle operations to relieve patients' pain on the premise of tight ligation. After ligation,the key points were changing dressings timely to prevent wound infection and suture reaction,as well as early functional exercises after pedicle cut-off. The average time of pedicle cut-off in the 93 patients was 10 days with good therapeutic outcome and without necrosis of skin flap.%对93例接受分段结扎皮瓣早期断蒂的患者进行观察及护理.认为护理要点包括:每次结扎蒂部时均严密观察皮瓣血液循环,特别是结扎后24h内,及时发现问题,并采取积极的处理措施,建立皮瓣情况评估单,预防皮瓣缺血、坏死;结扎时做到耐心沟通,动作轻柔,既保证扎紧蒂部又能减轻患者的疼痛;结扎后加强换药,减少伤口感染及线头反应等并发症;断蒂后尽早行功能锻练.本组平均断蒂时间10d,结扎或断蒂后皮瓣无坏死,随访结果满意.

  8. Norms for the mini-mental state examination: adjustment of the cut-off point in population-based studies (evidences from the Bambuí health aging study Normas para o uso do mini-exame do estado mental: adequação do ponto de corte em estudos populacionais (evidências do Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Castro-Costa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in an elderly population-based cohort, using several Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE cut-off points recommended by Brazilian authors and to examine the percentile distribution of MMSE scores in the study population. METHOD: A total of 1558 subjects aged >60 years (89.4% of the total, living in the city of Bambuí, MG, completed the MMSE and were included in the present study. RESULTS: The estimated prevalences of cognitive impairment varied from 13.2% to 27.0% depending on the cut-off point and agreement varied widely between them (kappa range: 0.38 to 0.88. Cut-off point 13/14 corresponded to the 5th percentile and 21/22 corresponded to the lower quartile of the MMSE score distribution. CONCLUSION: In the absence of comparable cut-off points, percentile distributions are more adequate for population-based studies of elderly with low schooling level.OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de déficit cognitivo em uma base populacional de idosos, utilizando-se os diferentes pontos de corte do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM recomendados por autores brasileiros e verificar a distribuição em percentis da pontuação do MEEM na população estudada. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 1558 (89,4% do total indivíduos com idade >60 anos residentes na cidade de Bambuí, MG, que foram submetidos ao MEEM. RESULTADOS: A prevalência estimada de déficit cognitivo variou de 13,2% a 27,0%, dependendo do ponto de corte utilizado, observando-se grande variação na sua concordância (índices de kappa entre 0,38 e 0,88. O ponto de corte de 13/14 correspondeu ao 5º percentil e o de 21/22, ao quartil inferior da distribuição dos escores do MEEM. CONCLUSÃO: Na ausência de pontos de corte comparáveis, a distribuição em percentis é mais adequada para estudos de base populacional de idosos com baixa escolaridade.

  9. Reliability, validity and cut-off value of the childhood autism spectrum test%儿童孤独症谱系测验量表的信度、效度及临界值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关智勇; 龚建华; 陈艳琳; 周首俊; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of the childhood autism spectrum test (CAST) of children in Mainland China according to autism screening,in order to provide the effective reference for the identification and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders of children.Methods Two hundreds and fifty-two typical developing children,and 61 autistic children who were confirmed by psychological clinic of Child Healthcare Clinic,Shenzhen Luohu District Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital who were conformed with diagnosis standards of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition(DSM-5) by using CAST Chinese version were assessed,and the reliability and validity analysis were made on the CAST scale.The receiver operating characteristic curve was drew to determine the optimal threshold value,and the sensitivity,specificity and positive predictive value were calculated.Results CAST Chinese version had good reliability,Cronbach's α was 0.880.Split-half reliability coefficient r was 0.821,and the whole scale calibration reliability coefficient was 0.902.There was statistically significant difference between items and the total score(P<0.05).The consistency between the CAST ≥4 years old children and diagnosis standards of DSM-5 reached 0.884(P=0.000).The consistency 3-<4 years old children and diagnosis standards of DSM-5 reached 0.867 (P=0.000).Among the screening of the children who were ≥4 years old,the cut off was 15 scores that the sensitivity and specificity were best.With the children of 3-<4 years old,a designated cut-point should be 17 scores.Conclusions There are good reliability and validity of CAST,which can be used to mainland China,as well as to screen autistic children more than 3 years old.%目的 探讨儿童孤独症谱系测验(CAST)量表在中国大陆儿童孤独症筛查的适用性,为儿童孤独症谱系障碍的识别与诊断提供有效参考.方法 采用CAST量表对252例健康儿童及深圳市罗湖区妇幼

  10. Application of pipe-joint technology in Kaoshantun Reservoir dam concrete cut-off wall construction%接头管法在靠山屯水库大坝混凝土防渗墙施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文

    2016-01-01

    本文以辽宁锦州义县靠山屯水库大坝混凝土防渗墙施工为例,针对接头施工质量难控制问题,对接头管法施工工艺中接头管下设、拔管时机控制与起拔力确定等关键技术进行了阐述分析,并结合工程实际,提出了混凝土防渗墙接头管施工常见问题及其解决措施,以期对此类地下连续墙施工有所借鉴。%In the paper,Liaoning Jinzhou Kaoshantun Reservoir dam concrete cut-off wall construction is adopted as an example.The key technologies of pipe-joint installation,pipe removal timing control,removal force datermination,etc. during pipe-joint technology construction process are described and analyzed aiming at difficult quality control in joint construction.Engineering practice is combined for proposing common problems and solutions in concrete cut-off wall pipe-joint construction,thereby providing reference for similar underground continuous wall construction.

  11. Determining the Optimum Cut-Off Grades in Sulfide Copper Deposits / Określanie Optymalnej Wartości Odcięcia Zawartości Procentowej Pierwiastka Użytecznego W Złożach Siarczku Miedzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Esmaeil; Oraee, Kazem; Shafahi, Zia Aldin; Ghasemzadeh, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Optimum cut-off grades determination in mining life affects production planning and ultimate pit limit and it is also important from social, economical and environmental aspects. Calculation of optimum cut-off grades has been less considered for mines containing various mineral processing methods. In this paper, an optimization technique is applied to obtain optimum cut-off grades for both concentration and heap leaching processes. In this technique, production costs and different recoveries of heap leaching method directed into modeling different annual cash flows in copper mines. Considering the governing constraints, the Lagrange multiplier method is practiced to optimize the cut-off grades in which the objective function is supposed to maximize Net Present Value. The results indicate the effect of heap leaching process on the optimum cut-off grades of primary and secondary sulfide deposits. Określanie optymalnego poziomu odcięcia dla zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego ma poważny wpływ na planowanie produkcji, określanie ostatecznych limitów zasobów złoża; jest to także ważna kwestia z punktu widzenia kwestii społecznych, ekonomicznych i środowiskowych. Obliczanie optymalnego poziomu odcięcia dla zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego nie było zwykle szeroko rozważane w przypadku kopalni prowadzących ciągły system przeróbki. W pracy tej przedstawiono technikę optymalizacji określania poziomu zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego z uwzględnieniem zarówno procesów koncentracji jak i ługowania. W metodzie uwzględniono koszty produkcji i różne wskaźniki odzysku rudy, wielkości te wykorzystane zostały do modelowania rocznych przepływów gotówki w kopalniach miedzi. Uwzględniając narzucone ograniczenia, zastosowano metodę mnożników Lagrange'a w celu optymalizacji określania poziomu zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego, gdzie przyjętą funkcją celu jest maksymalizacja wartości bie

  12. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  13. Influence of different body mass index cut-off values in assessing the nutritional status of adolescents in a household survey Influência de distintos valores críticos do índice de massa corporal na avaliação do estado nutricional de adolescentes em inquérito domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric nutritional status of the adolescent population of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and the influence of changes in the adopted body mass index (BMI cut-offs in the nutritional status assessment of the adolescent population. A population-based survey conducted in 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households and 523 adolescents. The multiple proportions test and prevalence ratios were used to analyze differences between estimates obtained from different BMI cut-offs. Changes in cut-off values from the old to the new recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO resulted in a significant increase in overweight prevalence among total, male and female adolescent population (25%, 27% and 23%, respectively (p Este artigo tem por objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional antropométrico da população adolescente residente em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, bem como a influência das mudanças nos valores críticos de índice de massa corporal (IMC na avaliação do estado nutricional dessa população. Uma pesquisa amostral probabilística de base populacional conduzida em 2003 obteve dados de 1.734 domicílios e 523 adolescentes. Testes para múltiplas proporções e razões de prevalência foram utilizados para analisar as diferenças entre estimativas obtidas segundo distintos valores críticos de IMC. Mudanças nos pontos de corte da antiga para a atual recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS resultaram em aumentos significativos nas prevalências de sobrepeso entre o total de adolescentes, meninos e meninas (25%, 27% e 23%, respectivamente (p < 0,05. A proposta da International Obesity Task Force resultou em uma redução significativa de 29% e 39% na prevalência de baixo-IMC-para-idade entre o total de adolescentes e meninos, respectivamente, quando comparada à recomendação atual da OMS (p < 0,05. Foi evidenciado que uma simples

  14. Prognostic value of Ki67 and p53 in patients with estrogen receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer: Validation of the cut-off value of the Ki67 labeling index as a predictive factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHARA, MASAHIRO; MATSUURA, KAZUO; AKIMOTO, ETSUSHI; NOMA, MIDORI; DOI, MIHOKO; NISHIZAKA, TAKASHI; KAGAWA, NAOKI; ITAMOTO, TOSHIYUKI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of the Ki67 labeling index and p53 status as prognostic and predictive indicators of operable estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Among 697 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent curative surgery between 2002 and 2013, 308 patients with ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer were assessed. The results of the multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that a high Ki67 labeling index was significantly associated with a short recurrence-free interval (RFI) (p=0.004) and was marginally associated with a worse overall survival (p=0.074). A positive p53 status was not associated with worse outcomes. To validate the cut-off values of the Ki67 labeling index for identifying patients who may benefit from additional chemotherapy, prognostic factors were investigated in breast cancer patients treated postoperatively with endocrine therapy alone. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that a Ki67 labeling index cut-off of 20.0% was optimal for predicting recurrence among patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The 5-year RFIs for patients with Ki67 <20 and ≥20% were 97.2 and 86.6%, respectively (p=0.0244). A high Ki67 labeling index (≥20%) was significantly associated with large tumors (p<0.01), lymph node metastasis (p=0.0236) and positive p53 status (p<0.001). The univariate analysis demonstrated that Ki67 labeling index ≥20%, lymph node metastasis and progesterone receptor negativity were significant worse prognostic factors for RFI (p=0.0333, 0.0116 and 0.0573, respectively). The Ki67 labeling index was found to be a useful prognostic factor in patients with ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer and the cut-off values of the Ki67 labeling index for making a decision regarding adjuvant treatment were validated. PMID:27073684

  15. Scanning laser polarimetry: »number« parameter sensitivity and specificity in glaucoma diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cvenkel

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scanning laser polarimetry (SLP is a method that enables quantitative assessment of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness surrounding the optic nerve. The commercially available device GDx (GDx, Laser Diagnostics Technologies, San Diego, CA yields an outprint consisting of a reflectance image, colour-coded retardation map, and the 14 parameters, of which the »Number« was shown to be the single best parameter to discriminate between glaucomatous and normal eyes. The »Number« is a probability score, ranging from 1 (low probability of glaucoma to 100 (high probability of glaucoma. In our study we determined the sensitivity and the specificity of the »Number« at cutoff values of 23 and 30. Methods: Thirty patients with different stage of glaucoma and 14 patients with typical glaucomatous changes of the ONH without visual field loss (preperimetric glaucoma were included in the analysis. The control group was represented by 27 adults without ocular pathology with intraocular pressure of < 21 mmHg and normal visual fields. The sensitivity and specificity of the »Number« was determined at a cut-off level of 23 and 30. Results: The sensitivity of the »Number« at a cut-off level of 30 for the glaucoma group was 74% at a specificity of 86%, at a cut-off of 23 the sensitivity increased to 83% at a specificity of 76%. The discriminating ability of the »Number« in the group with preperimetric glaucoma was low, with the sensitivities of 36% and 50% at a cut-off value of 30 and 23, respectively.Conclusions: The parameter »Number« yielded good separation between normal eyes and eyes with moderate and advanced glaucoma. However, the sensitivity of the »Number« in eyes with mild glaucoma and especially with preperimetric glaucoma was low. Because of the great interindividual variability of the RNFL, the assessment of RNFL thickness change over time would be more appropriate to detect early glaucomatous changes.

  16. Hydrocarbon processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.G.; Seddon, D.

    1989-06-28

    A process for the catalytic conversion of synthesis-gas into a product which comprises naphtha, kerosene and distillate is characterized in that the catalyst is a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst also containing a zeolite, the naphtha fraction contains 60% or less linear paraffins and the kerosene and distillated fractions contain more linear paraffins and olefins than found in the naphtha fraction. Reduction of the relative amount of straight chain material in the naphtha fraction increases the octane number and so enhances the quality of the gasoline product, while the high quality of the kerosene and distillate fractions is maintained.

  17. 概率截断值对先进轻水堆核电厂应急计划区划分的影响%Impact of Cut-Off Probability on Emergency Planning Zone Sizing for Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄挺; 曲静原; 曹建主

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, NRC performed an evaluation of emergency planning for the evolutionary and advanced light water reactors, and indicated that no changes to emergency planning (EP) requirements were warranted in the existing technical framework. However, NRC also recognized if the lower probability of severe accidents or the longer time period between accident initiation and release of radioactive material was considered, the changes to EP requirements for advanced light water reactors might be warranted and the emergency planning zone (EPZ) sizing might be reduced. This means that if the accidents which probabilities are lower than a cut-off probability are not considered, there may be a significant impact on the EPZ sizing. AP1000 was selected as an example in this study and the probable impacts of different cut-off probabilities were studied by using MACCS code in accordance with the NUREG-0396 method. The results show that, only if the cut-off probability is higher than the occurrence probability of the accident which has relatively serious consequence and high probability, there will be a significant impact on the EPZ sizing for the advanced light water reactor.%1997年,美国核管会(NRC)在对被动与改进型先进轻水堆的应急计划进行评估后指出,在现有的技术框架下先进轻水堆的应急计划应当保持不变,但也表明如果考虑到严重事故发生概率更低,事故的延迟时间更长,则有可能简化对先进轻水堆的应急计划要求,减小应急计划区.这意味着,如果在事故选择时不考虑低于某一概率截断值的事故,则有可能对先进轻水堆核电厂应急计划区的划分产生较大的影响.本文以AP1000核电机组为例,参考美国NUREG-0396的方法,使用MACCS程序对选取不同事故概率截断值可能产生的影响进行研究.研究结果表明,只有当概率截断值高于某些相对概率较大、而后果较为严重的事故的发生概率时,才会对先进轻水堆应

  18. Determinación del valor umbral de tamizaje de la glicemia en ayunas, para identificar la intolerancia a los carbohidratos, en mujeres con síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos Determination of fasting plasma glucose cut-off valuefor the identification of abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yai-Linn Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar el valor predictivo de la glucosa en ayunas, para identificar intolerancia a los carbohidratos en pacientes con síndrome de ovario poliquístico. Materiales y métodos: a 100 mujeres con diagnóstico de síndrome de ovario poliquístico, se les realizó una prueba de tolerancia a 75 g de glucosa. Resultados: la sensibilidad para una cifra umbral de 101 mg/dl, fue de un 41,7%, IC 95%: 23% - 63%, y la especificidad de un 92,1%, IC95 %:83% - 97%. Con un valor predictivo positivo del 62,5%, y negativo del 83,3%.El valor de corte óptimo fue de 93mg /dl, con una sensibilidad del 75%, IC 95%: 53%-89%, y una especificidad del 73,7%, IC 95%: 62%-83%. La cifra de corte umbral óptima de la glicemia en ayunas para el tamizaje de intolerancia en mujeres con SOPQ, fue de 93 mg/dl. Conclusiones: las recomendaciones actuales para diagnosticar intolerancia a los carbohidratos, en mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico, no son apropiadas.Objective: To determine the predictive value of fasting glucose to identify abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and methods: 100 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome underwent a tolerance test toa 75 gdose of glucose. Results: Sensitivity for a threshold value of 101 mg/dl was 41.7% (95% C.I.: 23% - 63% and specificity 92.1% (95% C.I.: 83% - 97%; with a positive predictive value of 62.5% and a negative predictive value of 83.3%. The optimum cut-off value was 93 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 75% (95% C.I.: 53% - 89% and a specificity of 73.7% (95% C.I.: 62% - 83%. The optimum fasting plasma glucose cut-off value for intolerance in women with PCOS was 93md/dL. Conclusions: The current recommendations for diagnosing abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome are not appropriate.

  19. Effect of hydrocarbon to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging in tight sandstone reservoirs and method for hydrocarbon correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Xiu-hong

    2017-04-01

    , 100ms, 300ms and 1000ms are first used to separate the T2 distributions of the residual oil saturation as 8 parts, and 8 pore components percentage compositions are calculated, second, an optimal T2 cutoff is determined to cut the T2 spectra of fully brine saturated conditions into two parts, the left parts (with short T2 time) represent to the irreducible water, and they do not need to be corrected, only the shape for the right parts of the T2 spectra needed to be corrected. Third the relationships among the amplitudes corresponding to the T2 times large than the optimal T2 cut off and 8 pore components percentage compositions are established, and they are used to predict corrected T2 amplitudes from NMR logging under residual oil saturation. Finally, the amplitudes corresponding to the left parts and the estimated amplitudes are spliced as the corrected NMR amplitudes, and a corrected T2 spectrum can be obtained. The reliability of this method is verified by comparing the corrected results and the experimental measurements. This method is extended to field application, fully water saturated T2 distributions are extracted from field NMR logging, and they are used to precisely evaluate hydrocarbon-bearing formations pore structure.

  20. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  1. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  2. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential established based on dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of oilfield water samples were analyzed in this work. Research on the relationship between the concentrations and distribution of dissolved hydrocarbons sug gested that the contents and composition of dissolved hydrocarbons varied with the hydrocar bon-generating potential of reservoirs. The concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons were low in dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers, but high in gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, especially in gas reservoirs with condensed oil. Series of carbon-number alkanes were usually absent in oilfield water from dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers but abundant in oil field water from oil-water reservoirs, gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, whose carbon numbers varied most widely in oil reservoirs and least in gas reservoirs. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential was established based on the characteristics of dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water to assist hydrocarbon exploration.

  3. Production of hydrocarbons by Aspergillus carbonarius ITEM 5010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Malavika; Sørensen, Annette; Ahamed, Aftab; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous fungus, Asperigillus carbonarius, is able to produce a series of hydrocarbons in liquid culture using lignocellulosic biomasses, such as corn stover and switch grass as carbon source. The hydrocarbons produced by the fungus show similarity to jet fuel composition and might have industrial application. The production of hydrocarbons was found to be dependent on type of media used. Therefore, ten different carbon sources (oat meal, wheat bran, glucose, carboxymethyl cellulose, avicel, xylan, corn stover, switch grass, pretreated corn stover, and pretreated switch grass) were tested to identify the maximum number and quantity of hydrocarbons produced. Several hydrocarbons were produced include undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane 2,4-dimethylhexane, 4-methylheptane, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl benzene, o-xylene. Oatmeal was found to be the carbon source resulting in the largest amounts of hydrocarbon products. The production of fungal hydrocarbons, especially from lignocellulosic biomasses, holds a great potential for future biofuel production whenever our knowledge on regulators and pathways increases.

  4. New oral cut-off time limits in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittis, Maria; Franco, Michele; Cochrane, Clint

    2016-11-01

    Standard collection procedure for the investigation of allegations of penile - oral assault has traditionally been the oral swab. Review of both the literature and NSW forensic laboratory results from oral swabbing has highlighted the sub-optimal nature of this method for the recovery of both sperm and offender DNA. 554 oral swabs, collected in NSW from 2010 to 2015, were analysed. Sperm detection occurred in only 4.2%. In the same period there was analysis of 104 oral rinses (of which 16.4% were positive for sperm) and 71 peri-oral samples (of which 18.3% were positive for sperm). As a result, a decision was made to revise forensic collection guidelines for sample collection in cases of penile - oral assault. Oral swabbing is no longer recommended. Current NSW forensic collection guidelines recommend the collection of both an oral rinse and a peri-oral (lip) swab. Samples are to be taken in the first 12 h after a penile - oral assault in all cases where there is a suspicion of oral assault. Oral collections may be extended to 24 h post penile - oral assault in those cases where there is either a clear recollection of ejaculation into the mouth (or ejaculation elsewhere prior to penile penetration of the mouth) or in those cases where a complainant is clear that there had been penile penetration of the mouth but is unable to recall whether or not ejaculation has taken place.

  5. On the Cut-off Point for Combinatorial Group Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Klasner, N.; Wegener, I.

    1999-01-01

    The following problem is known as group testing problem for n objects. Each object can be essential (defective) or non-essential (intact). The problem is to determine the set of essential objects by asking queries adaptively. A query can be identified with a set Q of objects and the query Q is an...

  6. [ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS' CUT-OFF POINTS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SARCOPENIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda Moreno, Alicia S

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la sarcopenia es un síndrome caracterizado por baja masa muscular junto con pérdida de fuerza y/o disminución del rendimiento físico. Debido al envejecimiento de nuestra población, se ha producido un aumento de su prevalencia relacionada con la edad, a la que se suman otros factores causados por ciertas enfermedades o la malnutrición. Objetivo: ofrecer una herramienta para el diagnóstico de sarcopenia que determine de forma accesible la pérdida de masa muscular. Material y métodos: se realizó un protocolo antropométrico estandarizado en 883 varones y 506 mujeres, sanos y activos, de edad entre 20 y 39 años. Se calcularon los siguientes índices de desarrollo muscular: perímetros (brazo, antebrazo, muslo y pierna), perímetros corregidos (brazo, muslo y pierna), áreas musculares transversales (CSA de brazo, muslo y pierna) y masa muscular total (kg), en porcentaje (%) y relativa a la talla (kg/m2) mediante la ecuación de Lee. Se fijó como punto de corte el percentil 2,5 (rango inferior del 95% del intervalo de confianza) para las variables estudiadas. Resultados: se encontraron diferencias significativas (p muscular fue en varones de 9,1 kg/m2, y en mujeres de 7,3 kg/m2. Y para las CSA (cm2) varón vs. mujer: brazo, 37,7 vs. 24,2; muslo, 154,3 vs. 115,8; y pierna, 78,8 vs. 60,2. Conclusiones: existe dimorfismo sexual que exige criterios diagnósticos diferenciados. La técnica antropométrica puede servir como screening de sarcopenia en el estudio de grandes poblaciones.

  7. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins...... involved in processes that influence the binding of colistin to the cell membrane. During 2008–2011, 6,583 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of human origin and 1931 isolates of animal/meat origin were collected. The isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility was tested towards colistin (range...... 1–16 mg/L). Moreover, 37 isolates were tested for mutations in pmrA and pmrB by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. MIC distribution for colistin at serotype level showed that Salmonella Dublin (n=198) followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (n=1247) were less susceptible than “other...

  8. Man Cuts Off Penis in Fit of Religious Fervor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱土英

    2002-01-01

    一位菲律宾的男子自残,用利刃割下了自己的阳物。主要原因是其妻离他而去。到首都马尼拉去做保姆(housemaid)了。他想象自己的阳物正像眼镜蛇一样逼近其他女性(his penis as a"cobra"(眼镜蛇)drawing him towardwomen),而《马太福音》曾云:If your hand or your foot causes you to sin,cut it offand throw it away.于是,此君对自己下了“毒手”。可幸的是,手术成功,割下的阳物又被接上。只是短了20%……

  9. How to preserve symmetries with cut-off regularized integrals?

    CERN Document Server

    Varin, T; örtel, M; Urban, M

    2006-01-01

    We present a prescription to calculate the quadratic and logarithmic divergent parts of several integrals employing a cutoff in a coherent way, i.e. in total agreement with symmetry requirements. As examples we consider one-loop Ward identities for QED and a phenomenological chiral model.

  10. Influence of excited-state absorption on time-resolved luminescence: general formalism and application to the phosphorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Tiago; Fedorov, Alexander; Berberan-Santos, Mário N

    2015-02-23

    The luminescence decay of a species in an absorbing medium whose optical thickness changes with time, as occurs with triplet-triplet absorption following excitation cut-off, is studied theoretically and experimentally. A general luminescence decay function based on a distribution of optical thicknesses is presented. A simple decay function previously used empirically is shown to result from an exponential distribution of optical thicknesses. The general approach introduced allows the adequate description of the phosphorescence decays of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coronene and triphenylene (normal and perdeuterated forms for both molecules), in polymer films in the presence of excited-state absorption. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  12. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  13. Avaliação do desempenho diagnóstico e do valor de corte para o índice de respiração rápida e superficial na predição do insucesso da extubação Evaluation of the diagnostic performance and cut-off value for the rapid shallow breathing index in predicting extubation failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Roberta Danaga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho diagnóstico do índice de respiração rápida e superficial (IRRS na predição do insucesso da extubação de pacientes adultos em terapia intensiva e verificar a adequação do valor de corte clássico para esse índice. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo realizado na unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, através da avaliação do IRRS em 73 pacientes consecutivos considerados clinicamente prontos para extubação. RESULTADOS: O IRRS com valor de corte clássico (105 ciclos/min/L apresentou sensibilidade de 20% e especificidade de 95% (soma = 115%. A análise da curva receiver operator characteristic (ROC demonstrou melhor valor de corte (76,5 ciclos/min/L, o qual forneceu sensibilidade de 66% e especificidade de 74% (soma = 140%, e a área sob a curva ROC para o IRRS foi de 0,78. CONCLUSÕES: O valor de corte clássico do IRRS se mostrou inadequado nesta casuística, prevendo apenas 20% dos pacientes com falha na extubação. A obtenção do novo valor de corte permitiu um acréscimo substancial de sensibilidade, com aceitável redução da especificidade. O valor da área sob a curva ROC indicou satisfatório poder discriminativo do índice, justificando a validação de sua aplicação.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI in predicting extubation failure among adult patients in the intensive care unit and to determine the appropriateness of the classical RSBI cut-off value. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted in the adult intensive care unit of the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. The RSBI was evaluated in 73 consecutive patients considered clinically ready for extubation. RESULTS: The classical RSBI cut-off value (105 breaths/min/L presented a sensitivity of 20% and a specificity of 95% (sum = 115%. Analysis of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve

  14. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  15. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  16. A cut-off low in southern South America: dynamic and thermodynamic processes Um caso de vórtice ciclonico desprendido em altos níveis no sul da América do Sul: processos dinâmicos e termodinâmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Anibal Godoy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic and thermodynamic processes involved in the life cycle of a cutoff low occurred in March 2007 are studied. These processes are analyzed using the vorticity and thermodynamic equations and a set of analyses generated with the BRAMS model. The main processes that explain the segregation of the subtropical part of the trough are the horizontal advection of cyclonic vorticity at high levels and warm horizontal advection at middle levels, both over the Pacific Ocean extending south to the Patagonia region, building the ridge located upstream of the trough. Increased intensity of the upper level low pressure system is mainly explained by intensification of the ridges down and upstream. The divergence effect is opposed to the horizontal advection of vorticity which explains the stagnation of the cut-off low windward of the Andes. The decay stage is dominated by warm vertical advection. Assuming the conservation of potential vorticity the analysis of parcel trajectories , allowed detecting the entrance of stratospheric air to middle levels of the lower troposphere around the cut-off low.Neste trabalho foram estudados os processos dinâmicos e termodinâmicos que envolvem o ciclo de vida de um caso de vórtice ciclônico desprendido em altos níveis, que ocorreu em março de 2007. Tais processos são analisados através dos termos das equações de vorticidade e termodinâmica usando um conjunto de análises geradas com o modelo BRAMS. Os principais processos que explicam o desprendimento da parte subtropical de um cavado são a advecção horizontal da vorticidade anticiclonica em níveis altos e a advecção horizontal de ar quente em níveis médios, ambas sobre o sul do Oceano Pacífico e estendendo-se em direção a região Patagônica, aprofundando a crista localizada corrente acima do cavado. A continuidade do aprofundamento desta crista, juntamente com a crista localizada corrente abaixo do cavado são as responsáveis da intensifica

  17. 节段截桥局限漂浮技术治疗胸椎黄韧带骨化症%Segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum in throracic spine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁卫东; 张健; 盛伟斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) in throracic spine.Methods Retrospective study was performed in 98 patients with thoracic OLF who under went operation.There was 56 males and 42 females with an average age of 45.8 (35-73) years.The average duration of onset was 17 (3-51) months.The main clinical symptoms were numbness and paraesthesia (n=90),lower limb weakness and walking trouble (n =46),positive pyramidal tract signs (n =33) and sphincter function obstacle (n =9).OLF was screened and diagnosed by radiology,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),computed tomography (CT) or CT myelography (CTM).A total of 142 OLF nidus were spotted.The lesions involved single segment (n =32),double segments (n =56),three segments (n =6) and ≥ four segments (n =4).And the locations were at upper throracic segment (T1-4) (n =34),middle throracic segment (T5-8) (n =23) and lower throracic segment (T9-12) (n =42).The OLF nidus were removed by local floating technology off windowing at cephalic and caudal ends and a cut-off bridge at both sides of involved segments.Pre-and post-operative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and Epstein grades were recorded to evaluate the outcomes.Results The mean loss volume of blood was 320 ml and operative duration 155 min.All cases recovered independent activities.The mean follow-up period was 28 (13-48) months.The mean preoperative JOA score was 4.3 (1-8) points and the mean postoperative JOA score 9.7 (5-11) points.The recovery rate was 78.8%.According to Epstein grade,the excellent and good rate was 86.7%.Conclusion As a common cause of thoracic spinal cord compression,OLF should be operated as early as possible.Based upon clinical and imaging findings,the application of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology is both safe and efficacious in the treatment of OLF in throracic spine.%目的 探

  18. 皮肤点刺试验阳性界值与sIgE对间歇性变应性鼻炎的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of positive cut-off values in skin prick test and sIgE for intermittent allergic rhinitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓; 魏利召; 王东; 刘一

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of different positive cut-off values of skin prick test(SPT) in the evaluation of serum specific IgE(sIgE) in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis(AR) soldiers in Inner Mongolia,and to evaluate the diagnostic consistency between SPT and serum sIgE.Methods66 soldiers in a station of Inner Mongolia who had positive clinical symptoms and signs of AR were accepted SPT with 23 kinds of inhalant allergens, then 31 intermittent AR soldiers were selected, who had no less than 4 positive SPT and higher level of positve results. According to SPT, aforementioned 31 soldiers underwent detection of Artemisia vulgaris, Artemisia absinthium, Ambrosia trifida, Humulus scandens, Ulmus americana, Salix caprea, Betula verrucosa and taraxaci sIgE that was performed, using UniCAP100 system. The reference standard of AR was established according to the clinical symptoms, signs and positive SPT. The influence of diagnostic value of sIgE was evaluated based on“+”and“++”positive cut-off value of SPT, respectively. The diagnostic indexes includes sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and concordance rate. And the diagnostic consistency between SPT and serum sIgE was also evaluated.Results ①Artemisia pollen was the major allergen among intermittent AR soldiers at this station and its SPT positive rate was more than 60%, followed by Sunflower, Humulus scandens, ragweed, Betula alba, Ulmus americana and Salix caprea in turns, with the SPT positive rate being more than 30%.②Based on“+” positive cut-off value of SPT, the sensitivity of serum sIgE ranged from 0.500(Humulus scandens) to 0.982(Artemisia), the specificity ranged from 0.500(ragweed, Ulmus americana, Betula verrucosa) to 1.000(Artemisia), and the concordance rate ranged from 0.581(Humulus scandens) to 0.984(Artemisia). When adjusting the cut-off value to“++”, the sensitivity of serum sIgE ranged from 0.524(Humulus scandens) to 0.982(Artemisia

  19. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons during Composting of Sewage Sludge%污泥堆腐过程中多环芳烃(PAHs)的降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晶; 彭喜玲; 方海兰; 南蓬

    2011-01-01

    In the light of utilization of organic waste resource, a composting process of mixture of sewage sludge and greenery waste was carried out to study the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which would provide clear evidence for the practice. Results indicated that total content of 16 priority PAHs in the maturation phase decreased to 3.202 mg/kg from the original 6.225 mg/kg, with degradation rate about 48.57%, and final PAHs content satisfied the accepted European Union cut-off limits for sludge to be considered safe for agricultural application set at 6 mg/kg. As far as an individual PAHs was concerned, PAHs containing fewer aromatic rings were easier to be degraded, which might be because the tendency of bioavailability of various PAH compounds during composting is strongly related to number of aromatic rings, molecular weight and sancture.%结合有机废弃物资源化利用的特点,进行了污泥与绿化植物废弃物堆肥实验,以探讨其中多环芳烃的降解状况,为其更好的资源化利用提供坚实的证据.研究表明,污泥与绿化植物废弃物物堆肥腐熟时,16种优控多环芳烃的总量由原来的6.225 mg/kg降到了3.202mg/kg,降解率达到了48.57%,并且堆肥后满足了欧洲联盟规定的多环芳烃农用限值6mg/kg.就单个多环芳烃化合物而言,环数越少降解效果越好,分析其原因可能与PAHs所含苯环多少以及其分子量大小有关.

  20. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  1. 先天性心脏病患儿术前充血性心力衰竭年龄分层后血浆氨基末端B型脑利钠肽前体诊断界值的研究%Cut-off values of amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide for the diagnosis of chronic heart failure in children of age stratification with congenital heart disease prior to heart surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林春旺; 曾祥林; 孟秀会; 江少虎; 欧阳辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过检测先天性心脏病(congenital heart disease,CHD)患儿在行心脏手术前血浆中的氨基末端B型脑利钠肽前体(amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide,NT-proBNP)血浆浓度,绘制ROC曲线分析其敏感度、特异度及约登指数,探讨0~5岁经年龄分层前后充血性心力衰竭(congestiveheart failure,CHF)患儿血浆NT-proBNP诊断界值.方法 测定2011年1月至2013年1月收治的100例CHD术前患儿(试验组)及100例正常儿童(对照组)血浆NT-proBNP,合并CHF的CHD患儿(CHF组)经年龄分层又分为0~1岁组、~3岁组和~5岁组,探讨各自的NT-proBNP诊断CHF的界值.结果 100例CHD患儿中,34例符合改良Ross心力衰竭诊断标准,试验组在年龄分层前按照ROC曲线选取的NT-proBNP诊断CHF界值为502 ng/L,经年龄分层后0~1岁组、~3岁组、~5岁组的NT-proBNP诊断CHF界值分别为552 ng/L、449ng/L、349 ng/L.结论 该研究结果显示,合并CHF的CHD术前患儿经年龄分层后0~1岁组、~3岁组、~5岁组的NT-proBNP诊断CHF界值分别为552 ng/L、449ng/L、349 ng/L.%Objective To detect the plasma amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) of children with congenital heart disease(CHD) prior to heart surgery,to analysize its sensitivity,specificity and Youden index by receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve,to explore the cut-off values of plasma NTProBNP for the diagnosis of congestive heart failure(CHF) in children under 5 years old before and after age stratification.Method The plasma NT-proBNP was detected for 100 children with CHD prior to heart surgery (experimental group) and 100 normal children(control group) between January 2011 to January 2013.Age stratification(0 ~ 1 year group,~3 years group and ~ 5 year group) was conducted in children with CHF younger than 5 years old to explore the cut-off values of plasma NT-ProBNP for the diagnosis of CHF.Results The NT-proBNP of 34 patients with CHF(n =100) was in

  2. On the comparison of the polarisation behaviour of exchange-biased AF/F NiMn/Fe{sub 37}Co{sub 48}Hf{sub 15} bi-layer and multi-layer films with increased ferromagnetic cut-off frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, K., E-mail: klaus.seemann@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Campus North), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leiste, H.; Krueger, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Campus North), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AF/F) NiMn/Fe{sub 37}Co{sub 48}Hf{sub 15} films were investigated with respect to their exchange bias, in-plane unidirectional anisotropy, polarisation and high frequency behaviour. After deposition, carried out by r.f. magnetron sputtering, the films were post-annealed for 4 h at 300 Degree-Sign C in a static magnetic field, in order to induce exchange-bias, which results in a unidirectional anisotropy. Dependent on the presence of a bi-layer or multi-layer sandwich structure the films show a different exchange-bias field-ferromagnetic inter-layer thickness behaviour with exchange-bias fields {mu}{sub 0} Low-Asterisk H{sub eb} between 2 and 10 mT. The in-plane uniaxial (single film) or unidirectional anisotropy fields {mu}{sub 0}*H{sub UF} were between 4 and 18 mT. This results in a significant increase of the cut-off frequency in the GHz range in comparison to a single Fe{sub 37}Co{sub 48}Hf{sub 15} film, which is shown by frequency-dependent permeability plots. High damping in the imaginary part of the permeability, i.e., high resonance line broadening could be observed for films with high coercivity {mu}{sub 0}*H{sub c} of around 7 mT in the easy axis of magnetisation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Static and dynamic properties of NiMn/Fe{sub 37}Co{sub 48}Hf{sub 15} bi- and multi-layer films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretic analysis of the H{sub eb}- field difference of bi- and multi-layer films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two-stage magnetic process in the polarisation curves of the AF/F multi-layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damping at the ferromagnetic permeability resonance state of AF/F multi-layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Derivation of the ferromagnetic resonance of AF/F multi-layer films.

  3. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  4. Cool Sooting Flames of Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.A. MANSUROV

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paramagnetism of soot particles sampled from cool sooting flames of methane and propane in a separately-heated two-sectional reactor under atmospheric pressure at the reactor temperatures of 670-1170 K. The temperature profiles of the flames were studied. The sampling was carried out with a quartz sampler and the samples were frozen with liquid nitrogen. A number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, fluoranthene, coronene, anthanthrene, 1,12-benzperylene,were identified by spectroscopic methods in the extract of soot. The processes of soot formation at methaneoxygen mixture combustion in the electric field with applied potential changed from 0 to 2,2 kV at different polarity of electrodes have been investigated. It has been stated that at the electrical field application, an increase in soot particle sizes and soot yield occurs; besides, at the application of the field, speeding up the positively charged particles, the interplanar distance decreases. On the basis of investigation of soot particles paramagnetism, it was shown that initially soot particles have high carcinogetic activity and pollute the environment owing to a rapid decrease of the number of these radical centers. The reduction of the radical concentration is connected with radical recombination on soot.

  5. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  6. Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria: Isolation and Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little information how to identify hydrocarbon degrading bacteria for bioremediation of marine oil spills. We have used gravel which contaminated oil mousse from Beach Simulator Tank, in Marine Biotechnology Institute, Kamaishi, Japan, and grown on enrichment culture. Biostimulation with nutrients (N and P was done to analyze biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds: Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Trichlorodibenzofuran and Benzo[a]pyrene. Community of bacteria from enrichment culture was determined by DGGE. Isolating and screening the bacteria on inorganic medium contain hydrocarbon compounds and determination of bacteria by DAPI (number of cells and CFU. DNA was extracted from colonies of bacteria and sequence determination of the 16S rDNA was amplified by primers U515f and U1492r. Twenty nine strains had been sequence and have similarity about 90-99% to their closest taxa by homology Blast search and few of them have suspected as new species.

  7. Ecotoxicologically based environmental risk limits for several volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong FMW de; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Verbruggen EMJ; SEC

    2007-01-01

    This report describes ecotoxicological environmental risk limits derived for a number of volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons. On the basis of evaluated literature, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) proposes ecotoxicological environmental risk limits for these compounds

  8. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS: A FLEXIBLE VARIABLE SPEED TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons has evolved into a number of different processes. These processes include in-situ aquifer bioremediation, bioventing, biosparging, passive bioremediation with oxygen release compounds, and intrinsic bioremediation. Although often viewe...

  9. Microbiological aspects of the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons from air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, Jan; Wijngaard, Arjan J. van den; Janssen, Dick B.

    1993-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used synthetic chemicals that are frequently present in industrial emissions. Bacterial degradation has been demonstrated for several components of this class of compounds. Structural features that affect the degradability include the number of chlorine atoms and

  10. Microbiological aspects of the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons from air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, Jan; Wijngaard, Arjan J. van den; Janssen, Dick B.

    1993-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used synthetic chemicals that are frequently present in industrial emissions. Bacterial degradation has been demonstrated for several components of this class of compounds. Structural features that affect the degradability include the number of chlorine atoms and

  11. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  12. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  13. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer (case b) the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...

  14. 困难气道危险因素Logistic回归分析及身高甲颏距离比最佳临界点%Logistic regression analysis of the risk factors for difficult airway and the cut-off value of height-to-thyromental distance ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳皓; 陈萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the risk factors for difficult airway in laryngoscopy and mask ventilation. Methods A total of 300 patients receiving general anesthesia with tracheal intubation were examined preoperatively for height, thyromental and sternomental distance (TMD), range of neck movement, inter-incisor distance, and modified Mallampati class. Intubation Difficult Score was used to identify a difficult laryngoscopy. Difficult airway was defined as either difficult laryngoscopy or difficult mask ventilation. The association between the airway characteristics and difficult airway was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, and the cut-off values for the height-to-TMD ratio was determined by the ROC curve. Results and Conclusion Eight airway characteristics were identified to contribute to a difficult airway, including (OR [95%CI]) the height-to-TMD ratio (3.58[1.95-8.46]), modified Mallampati class (3.34 [1.82-7.14]), BMI (3.07 [1.64-6.69]), history of a previous difficult airway (2.79 [1.28-5.25]), a thick neck (2.15 [1.04-4.37]), range of neck movement (1.98 [0.96-3.89]), sternomental and angulus mandibulae distance (1.46 [0.67-3.04]), and inter-incisor distance (1.01 [0.49-2.54]). The optimal cut-off value for the height-to-TMD ratio was 22.8 for predicting a difficult airway.%目的:根据常用气道评估指标探究困难气道的危险因素。方法选择300例拟行气管插管全麻的患者,术前测量身高、甲颏距离、颈部后仰度、张口度、改良Mallampati分级等气道评估指标。以困难插管评分>5分为困难气管插管,结合困难面罩通气共同定义困难气道。通过logistic回归分析评估各项指标与困难气道相关性,并通过ROC曲线计算受试人群身高甲颏距离比最佳临界点。结果共8项相关因素按相对危险度估计值(OR)由大到小依次为:身高甲颏距离比3.58(1.95~8.46)、改良Mallampati分级3.34(1.82~7.14)、体质量指数3.07(1.64~6.69

  15. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  16. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  17. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  18. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  19. Divergences in the quark number susceptibility : The origin and a cure

    CERN Document Server

    Gavai, Rajiv V

    2014-01-01

    Quark number susceptibility on the lattice, obtained by merely adding a $\\mu N$ term with $\\mu$ as the chemical potential and $N$ as the conserved quark number, has a quadratic divergence in the cut-off $a$. We show that it is simply a faithful representation of the corresponding continuum result. While one can eliminate it in the free theory by suitably modifying the action, as is popularly done, it can simply be subtracted off as well. Computations of higher order susceptibilities, needed for estimating the location of the QCD critical point, then need a lot fewer number of quark propagators at any order. We show that in the interacting theory this method of divergence removal works.

  20. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  1. Learning and perceptual similarity among cuticular hydrocarbons in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nick; Dreier, Stephanie; Jørgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; Guerrieri, Fernando J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Nestmate recognition in ants is based on perceived differences in a multi-component blend of hydrocarbons that are present on the insect cuticle. Although supplementation experiments have shown that some classes of hydrocarbons, such as methyl branched alkanes and alkenes, have a salient role in nestmate recognition, there was basically no information available on how ants detect and perceive these molecules. We used a new conditioning procedure to investigate whether individual carpenter ants could associate a given hydrocarbon (linear or methyl-branched alkane) to sugar reward. We then studied perceptual similarity between a hydrocarbon previously associated with sugar and a novel hydrocarbon. Ants learnt all hydrocarbon-reward associations rapidly and with the same efficiency, regardless of the structure of the molecules. Ants could discriminate among a large number of pairs of hydrocarbons, but also generalised. Generalisation depended both on the structure of the molecule and the animal's experience. For linear alkanes, generalisation was observed when the novel molecule was smaller than the conditioned one. Generalisation between pairs of methyl-alkanes was high, while generalisation between hydrocarbons that differed in the presence or absence of a methyl group was low, suggesting that chain length and functional group might be coded independently by the ant olfactory system. Understanding variations in perception of recognition cues in ants is necessary for the general understanding of the mechanisms involved in social recognition processes based on chemical cues.

  2. 腋窝皱襞小切口大汗腺剪除术根治腋臭334例疗效观察及围手术期护理%The Clinical Effect Observation and Perioperative Care of A Treatment Method, Cutting off Apocrine Sweat Gland Precisely with Minimally Invasive in Axillary Folds, for Bromhidrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璃; 林孝华; 宣喧; 李智铭

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察腋窝皱襞小切口大汗腺剪除术根治腋臭的疗效,探讨其围手术期预防并发症的措施.方法 入选患者均沿腋毛区外1.0cm处标记手术区域,在腋窝中央皮肤皱褶处切口,长约1.5 ~2.0cm,沿皮下组织浅层分离术区皮肤组织,翻转皮瓣,剪除皮肤上脂肪组织、大汗腺及毛囊,修剪成仅含皮肤全层和真皮下血管网的超薄皮瓣,再缝合切口.结果 334例患者,共治疗668侧,均有效,痊愈412侧,显效256侧,无效0侧.围手术期出现皮下血肿21侧、局部皮肤坏死6侧、切口延迟愈合11侧、局部湿疹样皮炎12侧、水疱和血疱56侧,积极对症处理后,预后良好.结论 腋窝皱襞小切口大汗腺剪除术根治腋臭,疗效肯定,手术切口瘢痕不明显.围手术期应积极预防和处理各种并发症的发生.%Objective To discuss the clinical effect and perioperative care of a treatment method to cure the bromhidro-sis completely. Methods Mark the surgical area 1cm away around the armpit hair, draw the operative incision along the center of the area, which is around 1.5 ~2.0cm; Peel and turn off the skin, directly cut off the fat, apocrine sweat gland and hair follicle attached to the skin, and left full-thickness skin and subcutaneous vascular net only, then sew up the incision. Results Total 334 suffers, 668 sides were all cured properly. Of which 412 sides were healed completely. 256 sides gained remarkable curative effect. There were some complications incurred,such as subcutaneous hematoma(21 sides) ,local skin necrosis(6 sides) , delayed wound healing (11 sides ), local eczematous dermatitis ( 12 sides ), blister and blood blister ( 56 sides). In the end, they had also been appropriately cured. Conclusion This surgery is a useful treatment method for bromhidrosis, and the Scar is not obvious. However, it is also necessary to prevent and appropriately cure in case of any complications.

  3. Un caso de baja segregada en niveles altos en el sur de Sudamérica: descripción del ciclo de vida y su relación con la precipitación A case of high level cut-off cyclonic vortex over southern South America: description of the life cycle and its relation to precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Anibal Godoy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el ciclo de vida de una baja segregada que afectó el sur de Sudamérica entre el 26 de Marzo y el 2 de Abril del 2007 y se explora la relación existente entre las diferentes etapas de este sistema y la precipitación ocurrida sobre la franja central de Argentina. Además se evalúa si otros procesos coadyuvaron para la ocurrencia de la misma. Las características más relevantes de este sistema son su larga duración y el lento desplazamiento, ya que entre el inicio y el fin de su vida se desplaza sólo 780 km, manteniéndose estacionario, durante las etapas de segregación y madurez, por más de 56 hs frente a la costa central chilena. Esta última característica favorece la formación de un sistema de baja presión sobre el noroeste de Argentina y la persistencia de una corriente en chorro en capas bajas del norte que se extiende desde el centro de Bolivia hasta norte argentino. La masa de aire con características tropicales conducida por esta configuración y la convergencia en niveles bajos favorecieron el desarrollo convectivo. La precipitación acumulada durante estas etapas, en algunas regiones del sur del litoral argentino, superó los 300 mm, produciendo extensas inundaciones en la región. Durante la etapa de decaimiento (96 hs de duración, el sistema se debilita a medida que se desplaza hacia el este y las precipitaciones afectaron las provincias del centro-oeste de Argentina donde la lluvia en 48 horas duplicó el promedio mensual de marzo.This paper describes the life cycle of a high level cut-off cyclonic vortex that affected southern South America between 26 March and 2 April 2007, and explores the relationship between the evolution stages of the system and the rainfall over central Argentina. The possibility of other processes contributing to rainfall is also analyzed. The most relevant characteristics of this system were its length and slow displacement: from its development to decay it moved only

  4. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  5. Determinação de escore e nota de corte do módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood para discriminação de adultos asmáticos em estudos epidemiológicos Determining the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults in epidemiological studies using the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne de Fátima Maçãira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar o questionário padronizado escrito do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, módulo sobre asma, para pesquisa de prevalência de asma, estabelecendo seu escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de adultos asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Entrevistamos pacientes ambulatoriais adultos, 40 asmáticos e 38 controles, pareados por sexo e idade, utilizando o módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, composto por oito aspectos dicotômicos de asma. Determinamos o escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de asmáticos, definindo sua sensibilidade, especificidade e índice de Youden. Validamos o método em contraposição ao diagnóstico clínico e funcional. A reprodutibilidade das questões individuais foi testada por meio de reentrevistas de metade dos pacientes após algumas semanas. RESULTADOS: O escore variou de 0 a 14 pontos. Um escore = 5 pontos permitiu discriminar pacientes asmáticos (sensibilidade = 93%, especificidade = 100% e índice de Youden = 0,93. A maioria das questões apresentou boa reprodutibilidade, observada em reentrevista após 48,2 ± 11,1 dias (Kappa e Kappa ponderado variando de 0,43 a 1,00 para as questões individuais. CONCLUSÃO: A validação de uma nota de corte permite uma interpretação alternativa às informações fornecidas pelo módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, levando em conta o conjunto das informações e não somente as respostas individuais de cada questão em estudos de prevalência de asma em adultos.OBJECTIVE: To validate, for use in asthma prevalence studies, the asthma module of the standardized written questionnaire developed for use in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, establishing the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults. METHODS: We interviewed 78 adult outpatients (40 adult asthmatics and 38 age-matched and gender-matched controls

  6. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  8. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  9. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  10. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  13. QSPR Models for Octane Number Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir H. Al-Fahemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR is performed as a means to predict octane number of hydrocarbons via correlating properties to parameters calculated from molecular structure; such parameters are molecular mass M, hydration energy EH, boiling point BP, octanol/water distribution coefficient logP, molar refractivity MR, critical pressure CP, critical volume CV, and critical temperature CT. Principal component analysis (PCA and multiple linear regression technique (MLR were performed to examine the relationship between multiple variables of the above parameters and the octane number of hydrocarbons. The results of PCA explain the interrelationships between octane number and different variables. Correlation coefficients were calculated using M.S. Excel to examine the relationship between multiple variables of the above parameters and the octane number of hydrocarbons. The data set was split into training of 40 hydrocarbons and validation set of 25 hydrocarbons. The linear relationship between the selected descriptors and the octane number has coefficient of determination (R2=0.932, statistical significance (F=53.21, and standard errors (s =7.7. The obtained QSPR model was applied on the validation set of octane number for hydrocarbons giving RCV2=0.942 and s=6.328.

  14. Application of backflush and micro-flow techniques to the analysis of C5-C13 hydrocarbons in crude oils and its geochemical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An Agilent 6890N GC equipped with both FID and Agilent 5975 MSD analyzer has been employed to analyze C5-C13 hydrocarbon fractions of crude oils. A technical combination of program temperature volatilizer injection, backflush and micro-flow controller afforded a fine separation of C5-C13 compounds on a PONA column with the heavy part of crude oils being cut off before entering the analytical column. Both GC-FID chromatogram and GC-MS mass chromatograrns (MID and full scan) could be obtained at the same time. The retension time differences of nC6-nC13 alkanes between GC and TIC were in the range of 0.02-0. 58 minutes. Totally 286 peaks have been assigned group compositions. Results on 8 typical oil samples from CNPC Key Laboratory Crude Oil Library showed that the characteristics of C6-C13 hydrocarbon group composition could be used in oil-oil correlation studies.

  15. NEW TRENDS IN ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR BIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M.; Sonia eMulero-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally considered as a critical intermediate in the toxic and carcinogenic response to dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD), the Aryl hydrocarbon/Dioxin receptor (AhR) has proven to be also an important regulator of cell physiology and organ homeostasis. AhR has become an interesting and actual area of research mainly boosted by a significant number of recent studies analyzing its contribution to the proper functioning of the immune, hepatic, cardiovascular, vascular and ...

  16. New Trends in Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Mulero-navarro, Sonia; Fernandez-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally considered as a critical intermediate in the toxic and carcinogenic response to dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD), the Aryl hydrocarbon/Dioxin receptor (AhR) has proven to be also an important regulator of cell physiology and organ homeostasis. AhR has become an interesting and actual area of research mainly boosted by a significant number of recent studies analyzing its contribution to the proper functioning of the immune, hepatic, cardiovascular, vascular and ...

  17. Biodegradation testing of hydrophobic chemicals in mixtures at low concentrations – covering the chemical space of petroleum hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Hammershøj, Rikke Høst; Mayer, Philipp

    Petroleum products are complex mixtures of varying composition containing thousands of hydrocarbons each with their own physicochemical properties and degradation kinetics. One approach for risk assessment of these products is therefore to group the hydrocarbons by carbon number and chemical class...... i.e. hydrocarbon blocks. However, the biodegradation kinetic data varies in quantity and quality for the different hydrocarbon blocks, hampering the characterization of their fate properties. In this study, biodegradation kinetics of a large number of hydrocarbons aiming to cover the chemical space...... of petroleum hydrocarbons, were therefore determined at ng/L to µg/L concentrations in surface water, seawater and activated sludge filtrate. Two hydrocarbon mixtures were prepared, comprising a total of 53 chemicals including paraffins, naphthenics and aromatic hydrocarbons from C8 to C20. Passive dosing from...

  18. Selection of the open pit mining cut-off grade strategy under price uncertainty using a risk based multi-criteria ranking system / Wybór strategii określania warunku opłacalności wydobycia w kopalniach odkrywkowych w warunkach niepewności cen w oparciu o wielokryterialny system rankingowy z uwzględnieniem czynników ryzyka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Yousue; Osanloo, Montza; Esfahanipour, Akbar

    2012-12-01

    Cut-off Grade Strategy (COGS) is a concept that directly influences the financial, technical, economic, environmental, and legal issues in relation to exploitation of a mineral resource. A decision making system is proposed to select the best technically feasible COGS under price uncertainty. In the proposed system both the conventional discounted cash flow and modern simulation based real option valuations are used to evaluate the alternative strategies. Then the conventional expected value criterion and a multiple criteria ranking system were used to rank the strategies based on the two valuation methods. In the multiple criteria ranking system besides the expected value other stochastic orders expressing abilities of strategies in producing extra profits, minimizing losses and achieving the predefined goals of the exploitation strategy are considered. Finally, the best strategy is selected based on the overall average rank of strategies through all ranking systems. The proposed system was examined using the data of Sungun Copper Mine. To assess the merits of the alternatives better, ranking process was done at both high (prevailing economic condition) and low price conditions. Ranking results revealed that at different price conditions and valuation methods, different results would be obtained. It is concluded that these differences are due to the different behavior of the embedded option to close the mine early, which is more likely to be exercised under low price condition rather than high price condition. The proposed system would enhance the quality of decision making process by providing a more informative and certain platform for project evaluation.

  19. Aeromagnetics of southern Alberta within areas of hydrocarbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, G. E.; Morris, W. A. [McMaster Univ., School of Geography and Geology, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    The relationship between the observed geomagnetic field and hydrocarbon pools is investigated by reviewing the sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary basins and the methods for isolating individual contributions, with specific reference to noise suppression. A recent high resolution aeromagnetic survey acquired by the Geological Survey of Canada in southern Alberta is used as the test case to demonstrate the method and the potential of aeromagnetic surveys to resolve structural controls on hydrocarbon emplacement. The investigation was undertaken in an effort to account for the fact that several features of the residual magnetic field appear to be common to a majority of hydrocarbon pools. Some of these commonalities are: (1) the long axis of the pool appears to be coincident with the strike of the basement-sourced magnetic signal, (2) hydrocarbon pools encompass areas of broad low amplitude magnetic anomalies, (3) cross-cutting fractures or faulting systems are located within areas of a majority of hydrocarbon pools, and (4) pools are associated with linear and/or curvilinear magnetic lineaments, of which a great number have topographic expression. These associations may arise as a result of eH/pH conditions of the hydrocarbons and the surrounding sediments, or they may arise purely as a result of the trapping structures. The physical extent of the interaction area of the pool with the surrounding sediment may be another factor in explaining the association of hydrocarbons and magnetics. 48 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments: metal influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Raquel; Mucha, Ana P; Teixeira, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the potential effect of metals, such as Cd, Cu and Pb, on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments was investigated under laboratory conditions. Sandy and muddy non-vegetated sediments were collected in the Lima River estuary (NW Portugal) and spiked with crude oil and each of the metals. Spiked sediments were left in the dark under constant shaking for 15 days, after which crude oil biodegradation was evaluated. To estimate microbial abundance, total cell counts were obtained by DAPI staining and microbial community structure was characterized by ARISA. Culturable hydrocarbon degraders were determined using a modified most probable number protocol. Total petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations were analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy after their extraction by sonication, and metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained showed that microbial communities had the potential to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons, with a maximum of 32 % degradation obtained for sandy sediments. Both crude oil and metals changed the microbial community structure, being the higher effect observed for Cu. Also, among the studied metals, only Cu displayed measurable deleterious effect on the hydrocarbons degradation process, as shown by a decrease in the hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms abundance and in the hydrocarbon degradation rates. Both degradation potential and metal influence varied with sediment characteristics probably due to differences in contaminant bioavailability, a feature that should be taken into account in developing bioremediation strategies for co-contaminated estuarine sites.

  1. Clinical values and optimal cut-off points of basic vital signs in early identiifcation of critical hand, foot, and mouth disease%基础生命体征对危重型手足口病的早期诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兴媛; 李英; 邓坤; 温淑媚; 蓝灵利; 侯国祯; 张宝明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical values of basic vital signs in early identiifcation of critical hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Methods The clinical data of 358 children with severe HFMD [212 cases in stage 2 (central nervous system involvement) and 146 cases in stage 3 (earlier stage of cardiopulmonary failure, critical type)] were reviewed. The diagnostic values of peak temperature and duration of fever, as well as the heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in different age groups, for critical HFMD (stage 3) were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results HFMD might progress to critical type in case of HR ≥148.5 beats/minutes, RR ≥36.5 times/minutes, SBP≥95 mm Hg, and DBP≥59 mm Hg among children aged 0-1 year. HR≥142.5 times/minutes, RR≥31.5 times/mintes, SBP≥103 mm Hg, and DBP≥60.5 mm Hg in children aged 1-2 years had a certain diagnostic value for critical HFMD. HFMD might progress to critical type in case of HR ≥139.5 times/minutes, RR ≥29.5 times/minutes, and SBP≥103 mm Hg among children ≥3 years of age. The sensitivity and speciifcity of every indicator were higher than 0.517 and 0.769, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for peak temperature was 0.507 (P=0.816, compared with AUC=0.5). When the duration of fever was≥5.5 days, the sensitivity and speciifcity were 0.589 and 0.571, respectively. Conclusions HR, RR, and BP are good indicators to identify critical HFMD (stage 3) early. The optimal cut-off points conform to the age characteristics of children. DBP in children ≥3 years of age, peak temperature, and duration of fever have a low value in early identiifcation of critical HFMD.%目的:探讨基础生命体征在早期识别危重型手足口病中的诊断价值。方法收集2010年1月至2014年8月358例重症手足口病患儿(2期重型212例,3期危重型146例)的临床资料,

  2. 辨认和控制能力精神医学评定量表划界标准与实证效度%Cut-off point and empirical validity of psychiatric assessment scale of cognitive and volition capacity in crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅; 高北陵; 胡峰; 李学武; 王轶; 吴冬凌

    2014-01-01

    目的 检验辨认和控制能力精神医学评定量表(Psychiatric Assessment Scale of Cognitive and Volition Capacity in crime,PASCVC)的实证效度,并制定全国常模.方法 于2009年8月至2011年12月间在全国七大行政区的十五家司法鉴定机构共收集评定辨认和控制能力的司法精神鉴定案例1 000例,由量表评定者用PASCVC、精神病人限定刑事责任能力评定量表(Diminished Criminal Responsibility Rating Scale,DCRRS)和暴力作案行为人刑事责任能力评定量表(Criminal Responsibility Rating Scale of Violence,CRRSV)进行评分,所有案例均由鉴定人做出辨认和控制能力完全丧失、大部分丧失、部分丧失、小部分丧失、稍有受损和正常的六个等级判断.结果 ①依据频数分布表的结果得出:辨认和控制能力完全丧失的划界分为≤56、大部分丧失为57~ 66、部分丧失为67~76、小部分丧失为77~ 87、稍有受损为88~ 100、正常为≥101.②六级划界分评定的等级划分结果与专家鉴定意见的相关为0.939 (P=0.001).③PASCVC与DCRRS和CRRSV的一致性Kappa值分别为0.838和0.835 (P<0.001).④PASCVC量表评定和专家评定两种方法分别建立判别函数,回代判别量表与专家判断的正确率分别为86.9%和85.1%;两种分级结果的一致性Kappa值为0.857 (P<0.001).结论 该量表具有较好的实证效度,可作为辨认和控制能力司法鉴定的客观评定工具.%Objective To test the cut-off point and empirical validity of psychiatric assessment scale of cognitive and volition capacity for suspects in crime (PASCVC).Methods One thousand of forensic psychiatry cases from fifteen bodies of the seven administrative regions in China were collected for forensic assessment by the three scales of PASCVC,DCRRS and CRRSV in August 2009 to December 201 l.in all cases by the appraiser to make six grade judgment of the cognitive and volition capacity including completely lost

  3. Density functional calculations on hydrocarbon isodesmic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunelli, Alessandro; Selmi, Massimo

    1994-06-01

    Hartree—Fock, Hartree—Fock-plus-correlation and self-consistent Kohn—Sham calculations are performed on a set of hydrocarbon isodesmic reactions, i.e. reactions among hydrocarbons in which the number and type of carbon—carbon and carbon—hydrogen bonds is conserved. It is found that neither Hartree—Fock nor Kohn—Sham methods correctly predict standard enthalpies, Δ Hr(298 K), of these reactions, even though — for reactions involving molecules containing strained double bonds — the agreement between the theoretical estimates and the experimental values of Δ Hr seems to be improved by the self-consistent solution of the Kohn—Sham equations. The remaining discrepancies are attributed to intramolecular dispersion effects, that are not described by ordinary exchange—correlation functionals, and are eliminated by introducing corrections based on a simple semi-empirical model.

  4. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Mehrasbi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (20 g/kg dw soil was investigated in 3 media, differing in the kind of petroleum fractions. In the laboratory experiments, during 5 months, the activities of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and dehydrogenase activity of soil was determined. Gas chromatographic analysis showed the biological decontaminations for gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture (gas oil, kerosene and furnace oil are 60 %, 36 % and 55 %, respectively. Dehydrogenase activity which was assessed by TTC technique, correlated significantly positive with the numbers of microorganisms. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients(r in contaminated soils with gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture were 0.79, 0.80 and 0.69, respectively.

  5. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  6. Baryon Number, Strangeness and Electric Charge Fluctuations in QCD at High Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, M; Jung, C; Karsch, F; Kaczmarek, O; Laermann, E; Mawhinney, R D; Miao, C; Petreczky, P; Schmidt, C; Söldner, W

    2008-01-01

    We analyze baryon number, strangeness and electric charge fluctuations as well as their correlations in QCD at high temperature. We present results obtained from lattice calculations performed with an improved staggered fermion action (p4-action) at two values of the lattice cut-off with almost physical up and down quark masses and a physical value for the strange quark mass. We compare these results, with an ideal quark gas at high temperature and a hadron resonance gas model at low temperature. We find that fluctuations and correlations are well described by the former already for temperatures about 1.5 times the transition temperature. At low temperature qualitative features of the lattice results are well described by a hadron resonance gas model. Higher order cumulants, which become increasingly sensitive to the light pions, however show deviations from a resonance gas in the vicinity of the transition temperature.

  7. Hydrocarbon-Fueled Scramjet Research at Hypersonic Mach Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-31

    hypersonic flow. Laser-induced fluorescence has the threefold advantages for combustion studies of being non- intrusive , species-specific and highly sensitive...Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, WA. Griffiths, A. (2004), Development and Demonstration of a Diode Laser Based Temperature and Water Vapour

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  9. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein

  10. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

  11. APLICACIÓN DE SALES DE TETRAZOLIO DE NUEVA GENERACIÓN (XTT PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DE LA DENSIDAD DE MICROORGANISMOS DEGRADADORES DE HIDROCARBUROS EMPLEANDO LA TÉCNICA DEL NÚMERO MÁS PROBABLE Application of the New Generation Tetrazolium Salt (XTT for the Enumeration of Hydrocarbon Degrading Microorganisms Using the Most Probable Number Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTORIA EUGENIA VALLEJO

    Full Text Available El presente estudio evaluó el desempeño de dos sales de tetrazolio, una tradicional: INT y una de nueva generación: XTT, para estimar la densidad de microorganismos degradadores de hidrocarburos (HCs en suelos empleando la técnica del Número Más Probable (NMP. Se analizaron 96 muestras de suelo provenientes de la Ecorregión Cafetera de Colombia. Los microorganismos fueron recuperados en agar mínimo de sales en atmósfera saturada de HCs y la capacidad degradadora fue confirmada por repiques sucesivos utilizando diesel como fuente de carbono. No se observaron diferencias significativas en los recuentos de microorganismos degradadores obtenidos con las dos sales (t de Student, p The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two tetrazolium indicators: a traditional one: INT and a new generation one: XTT, for the estimation of hydrocarbon (HC degrading microorganism s density using the Most Probable Number Technique (MPN. Ninety six composite soil samples were taken and analyzed from Ecorregión Cafetera Colombiana. Degrading microorganisms were recovered in minimum salt medium with saturated HC atmosphere. Degrading HC capacity of the microorganisms was confirmed by successive subcultures in the same medium using diesel as only carbon source. Counts obtained with the two salts were not significantly different (Student t test, p < 0,05 but XTT allowed an easier visualization of positive wells due to product solubility of the reduce product. A greater percentage of isolates was obtained using XTT (67%, which suggests that salt type is relevant for recovering of these microorganisms. Additionally, cell detection limit, optimal conditions of XTT concentration and incubation times for detection of activity were evaluated. This evaluation was performed by means of microplate format for hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms using Acinetobacter sp. An inhibitory effect was observed in the recovering of cultivable cells when XTT

  12. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  13. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  14. Light color, low softening point hydrocarbon resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.L.; Hentges, S.G.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a hydrocarbon resin having a softening point of from 0{degrees} C to about 40{degrees} C, a Gardner color of about 7 or less, a number average molecular weight (Mn) of from about 100 to about 600, and a M{sub {ital w}}/M{sub {ital n}} ratio of from about 1.1 to about 2.7, prepared by Friedel Crafts polymerization of a hydrocarbon feed. It comprises: from about 5% to about 75% by weight of a C{sub 8} to C{sub 10} vinyl aromatic hydrocarbon stream; up to about 35% by weight of a piperylene stream; and from about 25% to about 70% by weight of a stream containing C{sub 4} to C{sub 8} monoolefin chain transfer agent of the formula RR{prime}C {double bond} CR{double prime}R triple{prime} where R and R{prime} are C{sub 1} to C{sub 5} alkyl, R{double prime} and R triple{prime} are independently selected from H and a C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl group.

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in surface sediments of Beiluohe Basins, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Helin; Zhang, Li; Yue, Leping; Zheng, Guozhang

    2008-10-01

    Twenty-two surface sediment samples were collected from Beiluohe River, China, in 2005. Saturated hydrocarbons analysis was carried out on different river sediments in order to detect possible contaminations by petroleum development. Total concentrations of hydrocarbons in the sediments ranged from 6.4-147.3 microg g(-1) (dry wt) with an average of 76.8 microg g(-1), revealing relatively low to medium contamination in studied areas in spite of oil development for many years. The THC levels in the mainstream of Beiluohe River were relatively low. Sediment samples with higher total hydrocarbon concentrations were from the sites related to the petroleum activities or urban discharges. Gas chromatographic distribution patterns of n-alkanes are characteristic of petroleum in most samples. They show a strong unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a small predominance of odd on even numbered n-alkanes. On the other hand, pentacyclic triterpanes and steranes occurred in all analyzed sediments and displayed similar signatures that are characteristic of mature organic matter contribution from oil contaminations. Hydrocarbons of terrestrial origin were also detected in the samples. However, contribution from plantwax hydrocarbons is overshadowed in samples by hydrocarbons of petroleum origin. This is obvious by the presence of the high relative abundance of UCM, and the identification of mature hopane and sterane in samples.

  16. Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms naturally associated with sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Eliyas, M; Al-Sarawi, H; Radwan, S S

    2011-05-01

    Sawdust, one of the materials used as sorbent for removing spilled oil from polluted environments was naturally colonized by hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi, 1×10(5)-2×10(5) colony forming units (CFU) g(-1), depending on the hydrocarbon substrate. This sorbent was initially free of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria. Incubating wet sawdust at 30°C resulted in gradually increasing the fungal counts to reach after 6months between 5×10(6) and 7×10(6)CFUg(-1), and the appearance of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria in numbers between 8×10(4) and 3×10(5)cellsg(-1). The fungi belonged to the genera Candida (32% of the total), Penicillium (21%), Aspergillus (15%), Rhizopus (12%), Cladosporium (9%), Mucor (7%) and Fusarium (4%). Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences the bacteria were affiliated to Actinobacterium sp. (38%), Micrococcus luteus (30%), Rhodococcus erythropolis, (19%) and Rhodococcus opacus (13%). Individual pure fungal and bacterial isolates grew on a wide range of individual pure aliphatic (n-alkanes with chain lengths between C(9) and C(40)) and aromatic (benzene, biphenyl, anthracene, naphthalene and phenanthrene) hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Quantitative determinations revealed that all fungal and bacterial isolates could consume considerable proportions of crude oil, phenanthrene (an aromatic hydrocarbon) and n-hexadecane (an aliphatic hydrocarbon) in batch cultures. It was concluded that when sawdust is used as a sorbent, the associated microorganisms probably contribute to the bioremediation of oil and hydrocarbon pollutants in the environment.

  17. Methane Decomposition and C2 Hydrocarbon Formation under the Condition of DC Discharge Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxun He; Miao Hu; Zhiguo Lu

    2004-01-01

    The infrared emission spectra of methane, H, CH and C2 hydrocarbons in natural gas were measured. The processes of methane decomposition and formation of C2 hydrocarbons were studied. The experiment shows that methane decomposition can be divided into three periods as the reaction proceeds.In the first period, a large number of free radicals were formed. While in the last period, the formation of C2 hydrocarbons and the decrease of free radicals were observed. The time and conditions of methane decomposition and formation of C2 hydrocarbons are different.

  18. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity study of a number of short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons using the micronucleus test and the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay) in human lymphocytes: a structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, M; Baeten, A; Geerlings, P; Kirsch-Volders, M

    1998-03-01

    Using the micronucleus (MN) test and the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay, potential mutagenicity (MN formation), genotoxicity (DNA breakage capacity) and cytotoxicity (cell proliferation reduction) of five chlorinated hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride, hexachloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1-chlorohexane and 2,3-dichlorobutane) have been evaluated in isolated human lymphocytes. With the MN test a low but statistically significant mutagenic activity was detected for all tested substances (except 2,3-dichlorobutane) with one out of the two donors and in the presence or absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9 mix). However, at the concentration ranges tested none of the positive compounds induced a clear dose-dependent mutagenic effect. The Comet assay detected a strong DNA damaging effect for 1-chlorohexane, 2,3-dichlorobutane and 1,2-dichloroethane, but not for carbon tetrachloride and hexachloroethane. The influence of metabolism on the genotoxic activity of the chemicals was more clear in the Comet assay than in the MN test. The experimental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity data obtained in this study, together with data on five more related chemicals previously investigated, and their physico-chemical descriptors or electronic parameters have been used for QSAR analysis. The QSAR analysis high-lighted that the toxicity of the tested compounds was influenced by different parameters, like lipophilicity (logP), electron donor ability (charge) and longest carbon-chlorine (LBC-Cl) bond length. In addition, steric parameters, like molar refractivity (MR) and LBC-Cl, and electronic parameters, like ELUMO (energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, indicating electrophilicity), were predominant factors discriminating genotoxins from non-genotoxins in the presence but not in the absence of S9 mix. Although a limited number of compounds have been examined and cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were identified in two different

  19. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  20. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  1. Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-31

    distribution unlimited Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis Matthew...Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04 January 2016 - 31 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on...Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  2. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  3. Electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Gerard Anthony

    1993-01-01

    This work involves the characterisation of the electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons. A variety of methods were employed involving the use of catalytic reagents to enhance the rate at which chlorinated organic compounds are reduced. The first reagent used was oxygen which was electrochemically reduced to superoxide in nonaqueous solvents. Superoxide is a reactive intermediate and decomposes chlorinated hydrocarbons. However it was found that since the rate of reaction betw...

  4. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  5. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  6. The criteria for the decision of transrectal US-guided prostate biopsy: Can we reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Joon Hyung; Cho, Jae Ho; Ahn, Jay Hong; Chang, Jay Chun [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    To establish the criteria which can safely reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies by comparing the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) findings, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) in the decision of criteria for the prostatic biopsy using TRUS. Two hundred and twenty patients underwent TRUS- guided prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA and/or focal nodule on TRUS were included. Sixty five (27.5%) patients were confirmed as prostate cancer, and remained 155 (70.5%) patients were reported as benign diseases including benign prostate hyperplasia. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TRUS, PSA and PSAD were evaluated and the single criterion or the combination of the criteria which can safely reduce the unnecessary biopsies without missing prostatic cancer were investigated. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TRUS, PSA (cut-off value, 4 ng/ml) and PSAD (cut-off level, 0.2 ng/ml/cm{sup 3}) were 78.5%/95.4%/95.4%/27.8%/51.6%/64/5%, 42.7%/64.5%/73.6%, respectively. PSAD cut-off level 0.2 ng/ml/cm{sup 3} was the most excellent single criterion for the decision of prostatic biopsy and the number of unnecessary biopsies was 100 cases. But 3 cases of prostatic cancer which the PSAD level was below 0.2 ng/ml/cm{sup 3} were included and in all these 3 cases, a focal nodule was detected on TRUS. Therefore, we applied these two criteria at once and the biopsies of 30 cases (13.6%) are unnecessary. With the single criterion, we could not obtain the satisfactory results but by the combinations of criteria (TRUS and PSAD), 30 (13.6%) cases are unnecessary biopsies without missing cancer. We think that the short term follow-up may be a substitute for the immediate when nodular lesion is suspicious on TRUS and serum PSAD level is below 0.2 ng/ml/cm{sup 3}.

  7. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  8. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  9. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  10. Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich

    2011-01-01

    Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher

  11. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  12. Conversion of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Kammer Hansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a number of papers about direct oxidation of methane and hydrocarbon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at relatively low temperatures (about 700degreesC) have been published. Even though the conversion of almost dry CH4 at 1000degreesC on ceramic anodes was demonstrated more than 10 years...

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  14. Optimization of a Hydrocarbon Bioremediation System at Laboratory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acuña A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the parameters of moisture, temperature and ratio of nutrients to estimate the possibility of applying the technique of bioremediation in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. For this, an initial characterization of contaminated soil was made according to their physical and chemical characteristics and the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon degraders bacteria. Also the contaminant concentration by gravimetric method and by gas chromatography was studied. To optimize moisture and temperature, microcosms with moisture of 3%, 10%, 15% and 20% and temperatures of 5°C, 15°C, 28°C and 37°C were used. The monitoring of the mineralization of hydrocarbons was performed by measuring the CO2 produced. To optimize the ratio of nutrients, different microcosms were designed and were monitored by oxygen consumption and by determination of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography. The C:N:P relationships studied were 100:20:2, 100:10:1, 100:5:0,5 and 100:1:0,1. The results indicate that the mineralization of hydrocarbons was optimal for moisture of 10% to 20% and temperatures of 25°C to 37°C with CO2 production values of 3000-4500 mgCO2 kg-1. The optimal C:N:P ratio was 100:1:0,1 in which the highest oxygen consumption was and the elimination of 83% of total hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography with 78% and 89% of n-alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons elimination, respectively.

  15. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  16. Alteration and Reformation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Prediction of Remaining Potential Resources in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Hong; PANG Xiongqi; YANG Haijun; LIN Changsong; MENG Qingyang; WANG Huaijie

    2010-01-01

    Complex hydrocarbon reservoirs developed widely in the superimposed basins of China formed from multiple structural alterations,reformation and destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages.They are characterized currently by trap adjustment,component variation,phase conversion,and scale reformation.This is significant for guiding current hydrocarbon exploration by revealing evolution mechanisms after hydrocarbon reservoir formation and for predicting remaining potential resources.Based on the analysis of a number of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs,there are four geologic features controlling the degree of destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages:tectonic event intensity,frequency,time and caprock sealing for oil and gas during tectonic evolution.Research shows that the larger the tectonic event intensity,the more frequent the tectonic event,the later the last tectonic event,the weaker the caprock sealing for oil and gas,and the greater the volume of destroyed hydrocarbons in the early stages.Based on research on the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoir destruction mechanisms,a geological model of tectonic superimposition and a mathematical model evaluating potential remaining complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been established.The predication method and technical procedures were applied in the Tazhong area of Tarim Basin,where four stages of hydrocarbon accumulation and three stages of hydrocarbon alteration occurred.Geohistorical hydrocarbon accumulation reached 3.184billion tons,of which 1.271 billion tons were destroyed.The total volume of remaining resources available for exploration is~1.9 billion tons.

  17. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  18. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  19. Magic Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    THE last digit of my home phone number in Beijing is 4. “So what?” European readers might ask.This was my attitude when I first lived in China; I couldn't understand why Chinese friends were so shocked at my indifference to the number 4. But China brings new discoveries every day, and I have since seen the light. I know now that Chinese people have their own ways of preserving their well being, and that they see avoiding the number 4 as a good way to stay safe.

  20. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  1. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and hydrocarbon blends in our various combustion systems, with emphasis on the effects of elevated pressure using our pressurized flow reactor ( PFR ...facility. Detailed experimental data were generated from the PFR for use in associated kinetic modeling work. We continued to develop and extend both

  2. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  3. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  4. Performance comparison of autothermal reforming for liquid hydrocarbons, gasoline and diesel for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inyong; Bae, Joongmyeon; Bae, Gyujong

    This paper discusses the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for fuel cell applications, focusing on gasoline and diesel due to their high hydrogen density and well-established infrastructures. Gasoline and diesel are composed of numerous hydrocarbon species including paraffins, olefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics. We have investigated the reforming characteristics of several representative liquid hydrocarbons. In the case of paraffin reforming, H 2 yield and reforming efficiency were close to thermodynamic equilibrium status (TES), although heavier hydrocarbons required slightly higher temperatures than lighter hydrocarbons. However, the conversion efficiency was much lower for aromatics than paraffins with similar carbon number. We have also investigated the reforming performance of simulated commercial diesel and gasoline using simple synthetic diesel and gasoline compositions. Reforming performances of our formulations were in good agreement with those of commercial fuels. In addition, the reforming of gas to liquid (GTL) resulted in high H 2 yield and reforming efficiency showing promise for possible fuel cell applications.

  5. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132....

  6. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  7. Hydrogen Abstraction from Hydrocarbons by NH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Kamal; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Gore, Jeff; Westmoreland, Phillip R; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2017-03-23

    This contribution investigates thermokinetic parameters of bimolecular gas-phase reactions involving the amine (NH2) radical and a large number of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. These reactions play an important role in combustion and pyrolysis of nitrogen-rich fuels, most notably biomass. Computations performed at the CBS-QB3 level and based on the conventional transition-state theory yield potential-energy surfaces and reaction rate constants, accounting for tunnelling effects and the presence of hindered rotors. In an analogy to other H abstraction systems, we demonstrate only a small influence of variational effects on the rate constants for selected reaction. The studied reactions cover the abstraction of hydrogen atoms by the NH2 radical from the C-H bonds in C1-C4 species, and four C5 hydrocarbons of 2-methylbutane, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-2-butene, and 3-methyl-1-butyne. For the abstraction of H from methane, in the temperature windows 300-500 and 1600-2000 K, the calculated reaction rate constants concur with the available experimental measurements, i.e., kcalculated/kexperimetal = 0.3-2.5 and 1.1-1.4, and the previous theoretical estimates. Abstraction of H atom from ethane attains the ratio of kcalculated/kexperimetal equal to 0.10-1.2 and 1.3-1.5 over the temperature windows of available experimental measurements, i.e., 300-900 K and 1500-2000 K, respectively. For the remaining alkanes (propane and n-butane), the average kexperimental/kcalculated ratio remains 2.6 and 1.3 over the temperature range of experimental data. Also, comparing the calculated standard enthalpy of reaction (ΔrH°298) with the available experimental measurements for alkanes, we found the mean unsigned error of computations as 3.7 kJ mol(-1). This agreement provides an accuracy benchmark of our methodology, affording the estimation of the unreported kinetic parameters for H abstractions from alkenes and alkynes. On the basis of the Evans

  8. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  9. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  10. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  11. Membranous nephropathy following exposure to volatile hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrenreich, T.; Yunis, S.L.; Churg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solvents has long been known to cause renal tubular disease in man. Recently, the occurrence of glomerular disease such as Goodpasture's syndrome with proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis has been related to hydrocarbon exposure. This report concerns four patients with membranous nephropathy who had a history of prolonged exposure to a number of volatile hydrocarbons. Membranous nephropathy is a chronic renal disease involving glomeruli and occurring principally in adults. Its clinical onset is insidious and is manifested by proteinuria or edema. Proteinuria is the hallmark of the disease and may be present for many years without symptoms. It is often a slowly progressive disease. About one-fourth of the patients improve clinically and lose their proteinuria, while up to one-fourth develop renal failure. The glomerular capillary wall lesions are distinctive, contain deposits of immunoglobulin and complement considered to represent immune-complexes, and show a morphological progression from early Stage I to late Stage IV. While in most cases there is no known etiology, in some patients the disease has been deemed to be secondary to specific diseases or agents such as infections, neoplasms, or chemicals. The four cases described fall into this last category.

  12. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  13. Paleozoic Hydrocarbon-Seep Limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, J.

    2007-12-01

    To date, five Paleozoic hydrocarbon-seep limestones have been recognized based on carbonate fabrics, associated fauna, and stable carbon isotopes. These are the Middle Devonian Hollard Mound from the Antiatlas of Morocco [1], Late Devonian limestone lenses with the dimerelloid brachiopod Dzieduszyckia from the Western Meseta of Morocco [2], Middle Mississippian limestones with the dimerelloid brachiopod Ibergirhynchia from the Harz Mountains of Germany [3], Early Pennsylvanian limestones from the Tantes Mound in the High Pyrenees of France [4], and Late Pennsylvanian limestone lenses from the Ganigobis Shale Member of southern Namibia [5]. Among these examples, the composition of seepage fluids varied substantially as inferred from delta C-13 values of early diagenetic carbonate phases. Delta C-13 values as low as -50 per mil from the Tantes Mound and -51 per mil from the Ganigobis limestones reveal seepage of biogenic methane, whereas values of -12 per mil from limestones with Dzieduszyckia associated with abundant pyrobitumen agree with oil seepage. Intermediate delta C-13 values of carbonate cements from the Hollard Mound and Ibergirhynchia deposits probably reflect seepage of thermogenic methane. It is presently very difficult to assess the faunal evolution at seeps in the Paleozoic based on the limited number of examples. Two of the known seeps were typified by extremely abundant rhynchonellide brachiopods of the superfamily Dimerelloidea. Bivalve mollusks and tubeworms were abundant at two of the known Paleozoic seep sites; one was dominated by bivalve mollusks (Hollard Mound, Middle Devonian), another was dominated by tubeworms (Ganigobis Shale Member, Late Pennsylvanian). The tubeworms from these two deposits are interpreted to represent vestimentiferan worms, based on studies of the taphonomy of modern vestimentiferans. However, this interpretation is in conflict with the estimated evolutionary age of vestimentiferans based on molecular clock methods

  14. Numbers, Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  15. Numbers, Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  16. Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  17. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  18. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  19. Aqueous reactions of chlorine dioxide with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rav-Acha, C.; Choshen, E.

    1987-11-01

    In contrast to mechanisms proposed earlier in the literature, according to which chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) reacts with various hydrocarbons in aqueous media by abstracting allylic or benzylic hydrogens, it is shown that ClO/sub 2/ reacts with olefins through initial electron transfer. Hydrocarbons that can undergo facile oxidation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some olefins, react with ClO/sub 2/ quite rapidly, while saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, some aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins substituted with electron-withdrawing groups remain unreactive. This was substantiated by comparing the reactivities toward ClO/sub 2/ of a variety of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated acids, PAH, or cyclic and acyclic olefins. The results were supported by a detailed kinetic and product study of the reaction between ClO/sub 2/ and some model compounds.

  20. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...