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Sample records for hydrocarbon contents ranging

  1. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  2. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  3. Process for paraffin isomerization of a distillate range hydrocarbon feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.Y.; Garwood, W.E.; McCullen, S.B.

    1993-01-19

    Various catalytic processes have been proposed to isomerize n-paraffins so as to lower the pour point of distillate range hydrocarbon feedstocks. However, many available feedstocks contain nitrogen impurities which tend to poison conventional paraffin isomerization catalysts. A process has been developed to obviate or alleviate this problem. According to the invention, the paraffin-containing feedstock is contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite catalyst having pore openings defined by a ratio of sorption of n-hexane to o-xylene of over 3 vol % and the ability to crack 3-methylpentane in preference to 2,3 dimethylbutane under defined conditions. The zeolite catalyst includes a Group VIII metal and has a zeolite SiO[sub 2]/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] ratio of at least 20:1. The contacting is carried out at 199-454 C and a pressure of 100-1,000 psig, preferably 250-600 psig. The group of medium pore zeolites which can be used in the process of the invention includes ZSM-22, ZSM-23, and ZSM-35. The Group VIII metals used in the catalyst are preferably selected from Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Rh, and Ru and the metal is preferably incorporated into the zeolite by ion exchange up to a metal content of preferably 0.1-3 wt %. Experiments are described to illustrate the invention. 1 tab.

  4. Frequency–amplitude range of hydrocarbon microtremors and a discussion on their source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerivani, H; Hafezi Moghaddas, N; Ghafoori, M; Lashkaripour, G R; Haghshenas, E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, some studies have suggested using ambient noise as a tool for hydrocarbon reservoir investigation. This new passive seismic technique, named HyMas, is based on the positive energy anomaly in data spectra between 1 to 6 Hz for microtremor measurements over reservoirs, which are called hydrocarbon microtremors. Despite the acceptable results obtained by the HyMas technique, there are many unknowns, especially concerning the source and generation mechanism of hydrocarbon microtremors and the relations between reservoir characteristics and the attributes of hydrocarbon microtremors. In this study we tried to find the relations between reservoir characteristics, including fluid content and depth, for 12 sites around the world with hydrocarbon microtremor attributes, including peak amplitude and frequency. Based on the power spectral density curves of these 12 reservoirs, a frequency–amplitude range is also proposed as a criterion for separating hydrocarbon microtremors from local noise not related to reservoirs. Finally, the source of the hydrocarbon microtremors is discussed and tidal displacement is suggested as a probable agent for the generation of these anomalies. (paper)

  5. Long range transport of hydrocarbons in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinturier, L.; Leureillard, J.; Arnold, M.; Tisnerat, N.; Pichon, J.J.; Gireaudau, J.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the first results for hydrocarbon analyses of deep surface sediments collected in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples were taken along a north-south transect ranging from 43 deg. S to 55 deg. S in the southwestern Crozet Basin. In order to identify these compounds and elucidate their origins, various techniques were used: gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry; Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (Tandetron: mass spectrometer coupled with a Tandem accelerator allowing the measure of 14 C/ 12 C ratio)

  6. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  7. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2016-01-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  8. [Comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contents in bakery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Witczak, Agata

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of well-known chemical carcinogens with a wide distribution in the environment and formed by the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs have attracted most attention because of their carcinogenic potential. PAHs have been found as contaminants in different food categories such as dairy products, smoked and barbecued meat, vegetables, fruits, oils, coffee, tea, and cereals. Processing of food at high temperatures increases the amount of PAHs in the food Diet is the major source of human exposure to PAHs. The major dietary source of PAH are oils and fats, cereals products and vegetables. The aims of this study were to determine the content levels of 23 PAHs in various sorts of bread. The analytical procedure was based Soxhlet extraction with n--hexane and cleaned up in aflorisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The total concentration of PAHs was low end varied between 2.61 microg/kg to 43.4 microg/kg. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in concentrations of PAHs between rind and bread-crumb.

  9. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Content (TPH) As an Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    potential for hydrocarbon accumulation and could be evaluated for its efficacy as a tool in phytoremediation exercise for cleaning ... often assessed from changes in the physical, chemical ... Germination test: The approach adapted by Agboola.

  10. Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Western environs of the Indo-Pak Plate are comprised of thick Mesozoic sedimentary sequence and extensively extended toward Trans-Indus Salt ranges of North Pakistan. This sequence consists of detrital clastic sediments in the lower level and shallow to deep marine sediments in the upper level. In the Trans-Indus Salt ranges the Lumshiwal Formation represents the transitional level of the lower Cretaceous sequence. In Surghar Range the lower part of formation is composed of cyclic alteration of clayey, silty, very fine grained greenish gray, glauconitic sandstone to rusty brownish gray sandstone. The middle part of formation is comprised of thick bedded to massive, cliff forming, sugary texture, whitish to light yellowish gray occasionally rusty brownish gray medium to coarse grained, moderate to well cemented sandstone. The upper part is comprised of feldspathic, ferruginous, weathering yellowish brown, rusty brown to light gray with locally calcareous sandstone beds. The sandstone is reddish to brownish gray, coarse to granules texture, moderately cemented thick bedded to massive. Total thickness of the formation is 220m at Baroch Nala section 230m in Karandi section at a dip of 60°. Along trend lithological variations and diversified primary sedimentary structures which classifies fifteen different sub-lithofacie in Lumshiwal. Middle and upper parts of the formation show massive to thick, current bedded deposits. Lithofacies analysis revealed that the Lumshiwal Formation was deposited in shallow marine for the lower cyclic part to transitionally prodeltaic to deltaic for the middle to upper part respectively. High silica contents in the upper part compare to the middle and lower part of the formation. On the basis of high silica and low alumina with other low fractions of rock fragments, the sandstone is categorized into quartzarenite, sub-litharenite and sub-arkose. Cross beds in the middle and upper parts of formation indicate west to east

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Content in Cattle Hides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Vol. 21 (6) 1105-1110. Full-text Available Online at www.ajol.info and ... Keywords: Cattle hide, meat, tyre, singeing, hydrocarbons ... on the substance used as fuel for meat processing. .... through the centrifuge at 200 rpm for 5 min. The.

  12. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes non-catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste materials. Three types of waste plastics were used in this study: polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). Under pyrolysis conditions, plastic wastes can be decomposed into three fractions: gas, liquid and solid residue. The liquid products are usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons. In order to obtain useful gasoline-range hydrocarbons from the pyrolytic oil, fractional distillation is preferred for product separation. More valuable chemical raw materials including benzene, toluene and other condensed aromatic hydrocarbons may be obtained by refining the pyrolytic oil. The results showed that waste PS yielded higher liquid, and waste PE and PP yielded higher gaseous products. The dominant pyrolytic liquid product of PS waste was styrene.

  13. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite: Insights into the most primitive CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant

    2015-05-01

    The Paris meteorite is one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites. It is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite, and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism. We have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of this pristine meteorite by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When plotting the relative amino acids abundances of several CM chondrites according to the increasing hydrothermal scale (petrologic subtypes), from the CM2.7/2.8 Paris to the CM2.0 MET 01070, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15), which fits with the relative abundances of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration for CM chondrites. These results confirm the influence of aqueous alteration on the amino acid abundances and distribution. The amino acid analysis shows that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L = 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess = 0.35 ± 0.5%; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess = -1.4 ± 2.6%). The identified hydrocarbons show that Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring nonalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be also related to this low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body. The extraterrestrial hydrocarbon content, suggested by the absence of any biomarker, may well have a presolar origin. The chemistry of the Paris meteorite may thus be closely related to the early stages of the solar nebula with a contribution from interstellar (molecular cloud) precursors.

  14. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  15. [Heavy metals and hydrocarbons content in soils of settlements of the Yamal-Nenets autonomous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, I I; Abakumov, E V; Shamilishvili, G A; Lodygin, E D

    In August 2015 there were executed investigations on the study of the soils diversity of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. One of the directions of this work got be the study of urban soils of settlements of the Yamal-Nenents Autonomous Okrug. The sectors for the observation were settlement of Harsaim, village Aksarka, city of Salekhard, settlement Harp and city of Labytnangi. About 20 soil samples were collected during the field work. Samples were collected from a depth of 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm. Heavy metals (HM) were detected with the use of X-ray fluorescent analyzer “Spectroscan-MAX”. The HM content values were compared with the corresponding Approxible Permissible Concentrations and Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC) adopted in Russia. Hydrocarbons content was determined by gravimetric method. Values of the hydrocarbons content in studied soils were compared with the existing regulations of the Russian Federation. The levels of soil contamination by hydrocarbons were determined. The study of soil samples from different settlements allowed to reveal characteristic features of soil contamination of separate settlements by HM and hydrocarbons and to compare them against each other. The vast majority of samples are characterized by arsenic exceedance of MAC, which should indicate to a high regional background of this element. For a more adequate assessment of the Zc meaning as the value of the total pollution index of soils there were used not only arithmetical average values of the coefficients of the chemical composition concentration (Kc), but also their average geometric values. According to levels of total soil contamination most of soil samples are characterized as non-hazardous (Zc<16). Calculation of soil pollution index showed that the most of soil samples have values less than 1. It characterizes soils as unpolluted. Statistical processing of obtained data in the media of the analytical software interface STATISTICA 10 showed a statistically

  16. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial...... component of such validation studies is the selection of a challenging and balanced set of source (reference) HDR content. In order to facilitate this, we present an objective method based on the premise that a more challenging HDR scene encapsulates higher contrast, and as a result will show up more...

  17. Desiccation resistance: effect of cuticular hydrocarbons and water content in Drosophila melanogaster adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Ferveur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The insect cuticle covers the whole body and all appendages and has bi-directionnal selective permeability: it protects against environmental stress and pathogen infection and also helps to reduce water loss. The adult cuticle is often associated with a superficial layer of fatty acid-derived molecules such as waxes and long chain hydrocarbons that prevent rapid dehydration. The waterproofing properties of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs depend on their chain length and desaturation number. Drosophila CH biosynthesis involves an enzymatic pathway including several elongase and desaturase enzymes. Methods The link between desiccation resistance and CH profile remains unclear, so we tested (1 experimentally selected desiccation-resistant lines, (2 transgenic flies with altered desaturase expression and (3 natural and laboratory-induced CH variants. We also explored the possible relationship between desiccation resistance, relative water content and fecundity in females. Results We found that increased desiccation resistance is linked with the increased proportion of desaturated CHs, but not with their total amount. Experimentally-induced desiccation resistance and CH variation both remained stable after many generations without selection. Conversely, flies with a higher water content and a lower proportion of desaturated CHs showed reduced desiccation resistance. This was also the case in flies with defective desaturase expression in the fat body. Discussion We conclude that rapidly acquired desiccation resistance, depending on both CH profile and water content, can remain stable without selection in a humid environment. These three phenotypes, which might be expected to show a simple relationship, turn out to have complex physiological and genetic links.

  18. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of aromatic and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) content of oily wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I.; Russell, E.C.

    1978-08-01

    An analytical scheme was developed for determining the total organic content and hydrocarbon concentration from a one-liter portion of a wastewater sample, and determining the volatile, suspended, and water-soluble fractions from a second, two-liter portion. Analyses of untreated and treated bilge wastewater from the U.S. Army Fort Eustis, Va., facility showed 10-300 ppm suspended organics and 10-300 ppm dissolved organics in the untreated bilge, and no suspended matter, but 700-2000 ppm dissolved organics, in the treated bilge wastewaters. Of the dissolved organics in untreated and treated wastewater, 70 and 10%, respectively, were extracted with chloroform; the organics in the treated water were probably biologically derived from petroleum degradation. Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic and high-pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the chloroform extracts showed about equal parts of phenolic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons, small amounts of heterocyclics, and traces of polycyclic aromatics in the untreated wastewater, and mainly phenolics in the treated water.

  20. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Content of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pork, beef and chicken barbecued at home by Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslyng, Margit D.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Jensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that, when meat is barbecued, several harmful components, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), may be formed. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA and PAH content in meat (pork, chicken and beef) when barbecued at home...

  2. Enhanced thermal conduction -- An alternative solution for removing a broad range of hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, J.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of Enhanced Thermal Conduction (ETC), an ex-situ soil remediation process. A review of a practical demonstration of this process which was conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants to determine the capability of the technology for remediating soils from gasworks sites that have been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cyanide is also presented in this paper. Projections for using this process to treat soils contaminated with other hazardous materials such as TCE PCE and PCB's are discussed as well.

  3. Jet-Fuel Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Weng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons are the significant components of jet fuel with high energy-density. However, conventional technologies for bio-fuel production cannot produce these products without further aromatization and isomerization. In this work, renewable liquid fuel with high content of aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons was obtained through aqueous catalytic conversion of biomass sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 catalyst. Texture characteristics of the catalyst were determined by physisorption of N2, which indicated its bimodal pore structures were microporous (HZSM-5, pore width: 0.56 nm and mesoporous (SBA-15, pore width: 8 nm. The surface acidity included weak and strong acid sites, predominantly Lewis type, and was further confirmed by the NH3-TPD and Py-IR analysis. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed-bed reactor under the conditions of 593 K, WHSV of 0.75 h−1, GHSV of 2500 h−1 and 4.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure, whereby oil yield of 40.4 wt. % with aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons content of 80.0% was obtained.

  4. Selective transformation of syngas into gasoline-range hydrocarbons over mesoporous H-ZSM-5-supported cobalt nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kang; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Jincan; Peng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2015-01-26

    Bifunctional Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts that couple uniform-sized Co nanoparticles for CO hydrogenation and mesoporous zeolites for hydrocracking/isomerization reactions were found to be promising for the direct production of gasoline-range (C5-11 ) hydrocarbons from syngas. The Brønsted acidity results in hydrocracking/isomerization of the heavier hydrocarbons formed on Co nanoparticles, while the mesoporosity contributes to suppressing the formation of lighter (C1-4 ) hydrocarbons. The selectivity for C5-11 hydrocarbons could reach about 70 % with a ratio of isoparaffins to n-paraffins of approximately 2.3 over this catalyst, and the former is markedly higher than the maximum value (ca. 45 %) expected from the Anderson-Schulz-Flory distribution. By using n-hexadecane as a model compound, it was clarified that both the acidity and mesoporosity play key roles in controlling the hydrocracking reactions and thus contribute to the improved product selectivity in FT synthesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Kandungan Senyawa Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH di Teluk Jakarta (Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Hydrocarbons (PAH Content in Jakarta Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasmi Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    , including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons organic compounds (PAH. These organic compounds are toxic to marine life. This study determines the content of PAH in sea water and sediments in relation to marine life and to find out the source of the PAH compounds in the Bay of Jakarta. Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon levels were carried out in March 2011. Sea water samples were taken by using a water sampler and sediment samples taken using a grab at 15 sites. PAH content were analyzed using gas chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector. The results showed that the content of PAH in seawater in the western part of Jakarta Bay > middle > east. The content of PAH in the western of Jakarta Bay ranged from 201,57 to 474,68 ppb with PAH total 1404,68 ppb, in the middle area ranged from 104,61 to 337,07 ppb with PAH total 825,63 ppb, and in the eastern part ranged from 8.72 to 115,39 ppb with PAH total 806,73 ppb. This means that seawater in the western part receives the PAH compound more than the others. However, the content of PAH in sediments in the western part < middle < eastern. This means that sediment in the western part of Jakarta Bay accumulates PAH compound less than the others areas. The content of PAH in the western part of Jakarta Bay ranged from 1.92 to 64.241 ppm with PAH total 107,931 ppm, in middle part ranged from 16.14 to 77.71 ppb with PAH total 170,61 ppm, and in the eastern part range 8,72 to 115.39 ppm with PAH total 252,25 ppm. This means that sediment in the western area of Jakarta Bay accumulates the PAH compound less than the others. Sources of PAH in seawater and sediment came from several sources namely from combustion of organic material, combustion of petroleum, and from petroleum. PAH content in seawater has passed the Threshold Limit Value stated by KMNLH for marine life and also has passed the threshold value stated the Ministry of Environment and Handbook for Sediment Quality Assessment for marine organism. Key words: Jakarta Bay

  6. Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 Catalyst for Gasoil Range Hydrocarbon Production by Catalytic Hydrocracking of Ceiba pentandra oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustia Wulandari Mirzayanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel from vegetable oil becomes one of the most suitable and logical alternatives to replace fossil fuel. The research focused on various metal ratio Zinc/Molybdenum/HZSM-5 (Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst to produce liquid hydrocarbon via catalytic hydrocracking of Ceiba penandra oil. The catalytic hydrocracking process has been applied in this study to crack Ceiba pentandra oil into a gasoil range hydrocarbon using Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 as a catalyst. The effect of various reaction temperature on the catalytic hydrocracking of Ceiba pentandra oil were studied. The Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst with metal ratio was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. This process used slurry pressure batch reactor with a mechanical stirrer. A series of experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 300-400 oC for 2 h at pressure between 10-15 bar. The conversion and selectivity were estimated. The liquid hydrocarbon product were identified to gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil. The results show that the use of Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 can produce gas oil as the most component in the product. Overall, the highest conversion and selectivity of gas oil range hydrocarbon was obtained when the ZnMo/HZSM-5 metal ratio was Zn(2.86 wt.%-Mo(5.32 wt.%/HZSM-5 and the name is Zn-Mo/HZSM-5_102. The highest conversion was obtained at 63.31 % and n-paraffin (gas oil range selectivity was obtained at 90.75 % at a temperature of 400 oC. Ceiba pentandra oil can be recommended as the source of inedible vegetable oil to produce gasoil as an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 8th September 2017; Revised: 9th September 2017; Accepted: 17th September 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Mirzayanti, Y.W., Kurniawansyah, F., Prajitno, D.H., Roesyadi, A. (2018. Zn-Mo/HZSM-5 Catalyst for Gasoil Range Hydrocarbon Production by Catalytic Hydrocracking of Ceiba pentandra

  7. Catalytic Performance for Hydrocarbon Production from Syngas on the Promoted Co-Based Hybrid Catalysts; Influence of Pt Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Hwan Kang

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Kang, S.H., Ryu, J.H., Kim, J.H., Kim, H.S., Yang, H.C., Chung, D.Y. (2017. Catalytic Performance for Hydrocarbon Production from Syngas on the Promoted Co-Based Hybrid Catalysts; Influence of Pt Contents. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 452-459 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.592.452-459

  8. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric; Tucker, Melvin P; Yang, Bin

    2018-01-10

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4 , Ln(OTf) 3 , In(OTf) 3 , Al(OTf) 3 ] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al 2 O 3 ) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf) 4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt % of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote deoxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric; Tucker, Melvin P.; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4 , Ln(OTf) 3 , In(OTf) 3 , Al(OTf) 3 ] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al2O 3 ) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt % of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids.

  10. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongliang [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA 99354 USA; Current address: Center of Biomass Engineering/College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 PR China; Wang, Huamin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Kuhn, Eric [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Yang, Bin [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-11-14

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion (e.g. Hf(OTf)4, Ln(OTf)3, Al(OTf)3) and noble metal catalysts (e.g. Ru/C, Ru/Al2O3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage via selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalysed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt% of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates via protonating hydroxyls and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalysed by super Lewis acids.

  11. Versatile transformations of hydrocarbons in anaerobic bacteria: substrate ranges and regio- and stereo-chemistry of activation reactions†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarling, René; Kühner, Simon; Basílio Janke, Eline; Gruner, Andrea; Drozdowska, Marta; Golding, Bernard T.; Rabus, Ralf; Wilkes, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons proceeds either via addition to fumarate or by hydroxylation in various microorganisms, e.g., sulfate-reducing or denitrifying bacteria, which are specialized in utilizing n-alkanes or alkylbenzenes as growth substrates. General pathways for carbon assimilation and energy gain have been elucidated for a limited number of possible substrates. In this work the metabolic activity of 11 bacterial strains during anaerobic growth with crude oil was investigated and compared with the metabolite patterns appearing during anaerobic growth with more than 40 different hydrocarbons supplied as binary mixtures. We show that the range of co-metabolically formed alkyl- and arylalkyl-succinates is much broader in n-alkane than in alkylbenzene utilizers. The structures and stereochemistry of these products are resolved. Furthermore, we demonstrate that anaerobic hydroxylation of alkylbenzenes does not only occur in denitrifiers but also in sulfate reducers. We propose that these processes play a role in detoxification under conditions of solvent stress. The thermophilic sulfate-reducing strain TD3 is shown to produce n-alkylsuccinates, which are suggested not to derive from terminal activation of n-alkanes, but rather to represent intermediates of a metabolic pathway short-cutting fumarate regeneration by reverse action of succinate synthase. The outcomes of this study provide a basis for geochemically tracing such processes in natural habitats and contribute to an improved understanding of microbial activity in hydrocarbon-rich anoxic environments. PMID:26441848

  12. Dynamic Viscosity and Compensation Effect in Hydrocarbon Media with a High Content of Resins and Paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitsova, A. A.; Kondrasheva, N. K.; Dolomatov, M. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Linear dependences have been obtained for multicomponent hydrocarbon media (oils and high-boiling fractions), which relate the preexponent and the activation energy of viscous flow in the Arrhenius equation. A distinctive feature of the established kinetic compensation effect is it existing before and after the phase-transition temperature. The obtained results have been confirmed by statistical data and make it possible to predict the dynamic viscosity of multicomponent hydrocarbon systems, such as oil and high-boiling fractions.

  13. Selective Synthesis of Gasoline-Ranged Hydrocarbons from Syngas over Hybrid Catalyst Consisting of Metal-Loaded ZSM-5 Coupled with Copper-Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of syngas (CO + H2 to gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons was carried out using a hybrid catalyst consisting of metal-loaded ZSM-5 coupled with Cu-ZnO in a near-critical n-hexane solvent. Methanol was synthesized from syngas over Cu-ZnO; subsequently, was converted to hydrocarbons through the formation of dimethyl ether (DME over the metal-loaded ZSM-5. When 0.5 wt% Pd/ZSM-5 and 5 wt% Cu/ZSM-5 among the metal-loaded ZSM-5 catalysts with Pd, Co, Fe or Cu were employed as a portion of the hybrid catalyst, the gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons were selectively produced (the gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons in all hydrocarbons: 59% for the hybrid catalyst with Pd/ZSM-5 and 64% for that with Cu/ZSM-5 with a similar CO conversion during the reaction. An increase in the Cu loading on ZSM-5 resulted in increasing the yield of the gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons, and in decreasing the yield of DME. Furthermore, the hybrid catalyst with Cu/ZSM-5 exhibited no deactivation for 30 h of the reaction. It was revealed that a hybrid catalyst containing Cu/ZSM-5 was efficient in the selective synthesis of gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons from syngas via methanol in the near-critical n-hexane fluid.

  14. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  15. Influence of some anti-inflammatory drugs on the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the cytochrome P450 content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, M.H.; Sheweita, S.A.; Abdel-Moneam, N.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt))

    1990-06-01

    The metabolism of benzo({alpha})pyrene is mediated by the mixed function oxidase system including the cytochrome P450-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. The data of the present study revealed the ability of various commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs to alter the activity of this enzyme system, where all the tested drugs, namely phenyl butazone, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and acetaminophen, caused an increase in both the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the cytochrome P450 content whether administered as a single dose or as a repeated dose for 6 consecutive days. The percentage of change for all drugs except phenyl butazone was proportional to the duration of drug administration. On the other hand, pyrazole which is chemically related to phenyl butazone, had no significant effect when administered as a single dose but caused a decrease in both studied parameters when administered as a repeated dose for 6 consecutive days. The mechanisms by which these commonly used drugs modify the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and the cytochrome p450 content are discussed in the text.

  16. Photochemistry in Saturn's Ring-Shadowed Atmosphere: Modulation of Hydrocarbons and Observations of Dust Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, S. G.; Atreya, S. K.; Wilson, E. H.; Baines, K. H.; West, R. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Fletcher, L. N.; Momary, T.

    2016-12-01

    Cassini has been orbiting Saturn for over twelve years now. During this epoch, the ring shadow has moved from covering much of the northern hemisphere with solar inclination of 24 degrees to covering a large swath south of the equator and it continues to move southward. At Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2004, the projection of the A-ring onto Saturn reached as far as 40N along the central meridian (52N at the terminator). At its maximum extent, the ring shadow can reach as far as 48N/S (58N/S at the terminator). The net effect is that the intensity of both ultraviolet and visible sunlight penetrating through the rings to any particular latitude will vary depending on both Saturn's axis relative to the Sun and the optical thickness of each ring system. In essence, the rings act like semi-transparent venetian blinds.Previous work examined the variation of the solar flux as a function of solar inclination, i.e. for each 7.25-year season at Saturn. Here, we report on the impact of the oscillating ring shadow on the photolysis and production rates of hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethane, propane, and benzene) and phosphine in Saturn's stratosphere and upper troposphere. The impact of these production and loss rates on the abundance of long-lived photochemical products leading to haze formation are explored. We assess their impact on phosphine abundance, a disequilibrium species whose presence in the upper troposphere can be used as a tracer of convective processes in the deeper atmosphere.We will also present our ongoing analysis of Cassini's CIRS, UVIS, and VIMS datasets that provide an estimate of the evolving haze content of the northern hemisphere and we will begin to assess the implications for dynamical mixing. In particular, we will examine how the now famous hexagonal jet stream acts like a barrier to transport, isolating Saturn's north polar region from outside transport of photochemically-generated molecules and haze.The research described in this paper was carried out

  17. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the anal......The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted...... the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils...... of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg-1. Three...

  18. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods for the remediation of contaminated groundwater by determining the petroleum hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevoda, Maryna; Geyer, Wolfgang; Mothes, Sibylle [Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Mosig, Peter [Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Seeger, Eva M. [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The effectiveness of different remediation procedures for decreasing the amount of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in contaminated groundwater was evaluated at the site of a former refinery. The investigations were carried out on samples taken from several gravel based HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetlands (CW) which differed in relation to their filter material additives (no additive, charcoal, and ferric oxides additives) and examined the potential effect of these additives on the overall treatment efficiency. Samples of the following gravel based HSSF CW were investigated. No filter additive (system A), 0.1% activated carbon (system B), 0.5% iron(III) hydroxide (system C), and the reference (system D). Systems A-C were planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), whereas system D remained unplanted. In addition, the influence of seasonal conditions on the reduction of these hydrocarbons and the correlation between the amounts of TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers), on the one hand, and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the other, was investigated. The study was carried out by using a modified GC-FID approach and multivariate methods. The investigations carried out in the first year of operation demonstrated that the effectiveness of the petroleum hydrocarbon removal was highest and reached a level of 93 {+-} 3.5% when HSSF filters with activated carbon as a filter additive were used. This remediation method allowed the petroleum hydrocarbon content to be reduced independently of seasonal conditions. The correlation between the reduction of TPH and BTEX was found to be R = 0.8824. Using this correlation coefficient, the time-consuming determination of the BTEX content was no longer necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, James; Huang, Wenlin; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Samuel P.; Wang, Richard Y.; Needham, Larry L.; Sampson, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/Id-HRMS) method for measuring 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites representing seven parent PAHs in 3 mL of urine at low parts-per-trillion levels. PAH levels were determined in urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 from approximately 2400 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and, for the first time, reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the US population. Using this GC/ID-HRMS method, we found detectable concentrations for monohydroxy metabolite isomers of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and benz[a]anthracene. Some monohydroxy metabolite isomers of benzo[c]phenanthrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene exhibited low detection frequencies that did not allow for geometric mean calculations. Our study results enabled us to establish a reference range for the targeted PAHs in the general US population

  20. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} to C{sub 40}) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain

  1. Applying petroleum biomarkers as a tool for confirmation of petroleum hydrocarbons in high organic content soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G.; Martin, E.J.; Waddell, J.; Sandau, C.D. [TRIUM Environmental Solutions, Cochrane, AB (Canada); Denham, G. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Samis, M.W. [Great Plains Environmental Management Ltd., Medecine Hat, AB (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    It is often difficult to separate naturally occurring phytogenic organic materials from petrogenic sources in routine gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analyses. Phytogenic compounds include tannins, waxes, terpenes, fats and oils. This study examined the use of petroleum biomarkers as a means of determining the nature, sources, type and geological conditions of the formation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). The analysis was conducted at a former well site consisting of low-lying peat marshlands that had the potential to interfere with the delineation of PHC impacts. Fourteen boreholes and 8 hand auger holes were placed at the site. Soil samples were analyzed for salinity, metals, and PHC constituents. Biomarker targets included acyclic isoprenoid compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, terpanes, hopanes, and triaromatic steranes. A grain-size analysis showed the presence of peat materials within the saturated zone. Results of the study demonstrated the presence of PHC constituents that exceeded applicable guidelines. The biomarker analysis was used to statistically determine site-specific background levels of hydrocarbons. Nearly 3000 tonnes of soil were excavated from the site. It was concluded that site-specific conditions should be taken into consideration when evaluating reclamation targets. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Decreased Mitochondrial DNA Content in Association with Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in House Dust during Wintertime: From a Population Enquiry to Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Nicky; Koppen, Gudrun; Smeets, Karen; Napierska, Dorota; Plusquin, Michelle; De Prins, Sofie; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Nelen, Vera; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Hoet, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number) was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM) of benzo(a)pyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (±SD) 0.95±0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25th–75th percentile: 390.7–767.3) and 1385ng/g dust (25th–75th percentile: 1000–1980) in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: −15.16 to −4.2; p = 0.002) for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was −7.3% (95% CI: −13.71 to −0.42; p = 0.04). Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(a)pyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM) to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans

  3. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in association with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust during wintertime: from a population enquiry to cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Pieters

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM of benzo(apyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (± SD 0.95 ± 0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25(th-75(th percentile: 390.7-767.3 and 1385 ng/g dust (25(th-75(th percentile: 1000-1980 in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: -15.16 to -4.2; p = 0.002 for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was -7.3% (95% CI: -13.71 to -0.42; p = 0.04. Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(apyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans.

  4. DNA content analysis allows discrimination between Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Lucila Langoni; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Fajardo, Emanuella Francisco; da Silva, Raíssa Bernardes; De Vito, Fernanda Bernadelli; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramírez, Luis Eduardo; Pedrosa, André Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, a human protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Currently the species is divided into six taxonomic groups. The genome of the CL Brener clone has been estimated to be 106.4-110.7 Mb, and DNA content analyses revealed that it is a diploid hybrid clone. Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagellate that has the same reservoirs and vectors as T. cruzi; however, it is non-pathogenic to vertebrate hosts. The haploid genome of T. rangeli was previously estimated to be 24 Mb. The parasitic strains of T. rangeli are divided into KP1(+) and KP1(-). Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the DNA content in different strains of T. cruzi and T. rangeli by flow cytometry. All T. cruzi and T. rangeli strains yielded cell cycle profiles with clearly identifiable G1-0 (2n) and G2-M (4n) peaks. T. cruzi and T. rangeli genome sizes were estimated using the clone CL Brener and the Leishmania major CC1 as reference cell lines because their genome sequences have been previously determined. The DNA content of T. cruzi strains ranged from 87,41 to 108,16 Mb, and the DNA content of T. rangeli strains ranged from 63,25 Mb to 68,66 Mb. No differences in DNA content were observed between KP1(+) and KP1(-) T. rangeli strains. Cultures containing mixtures of the epimastigote forms of T. cruzi and T. rangeli strains resulted in cell cycle profiles with distinct G1 peaks for strains of each species. These results demonstrate that DNA content analysis by flow cytometry is a reliable technique for discrimination between T. cruzi and T. rangeli isolated from different hosts.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - fate and long-range atmospheric transport studied using a global model, EMAC-SVOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviani, Mega; Tost, Holger; Lammel, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are emitted by incomplete combustion from fossil fuel, vehicles, and biomass burning. They may persist in environmental compartments, pose a health hazard and may bio accumulate along food chains. The ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model had been used to simulate global tropospheric, stratospheric chemistry and climate. In this study, we improve the model to include simulations of the transport and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). The EMAC-SVOC model takes into account essential environmental processes including gas-particle partitioning, dry and wet deposition, chemical and bio-degradation, and volatilization from sea surface, soils, vegetation, and snow. The model was evaluated against observational data in the Arctic, mid-latitudes, and tropics, and further applied to study total environmental lifetime and long-range transport potential (LRTP) of PAHs. We selected four compounds for study, spanning a wide range of volatility, i.e., phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Several LRTP indicators were investigated, including the Arctic contamination potential, meridional spreading, and zonal and meridional fluxes to remote regions.

  6. Vanadium contents in Kazakhstan fossils hydrocarbons by data of nuclear-physical analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Solodukhin, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation of nuclear physical methods possibilities of vanadium determination analysis in organic fossils and an application of these methods for solution of scientific and practical tasks are presented. Vanadium contents in high viscous petroleums and petroleum bituminous rock of different deposits of Western Kazakhstan and carbonaceous shales of Dzhangariya are studied. Presented data evidence that organic fossils of numerous deposits of Kazakhstan have industrial interest because of high vanadium concentration in its contents

  7. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Manish; Lou, Silja; Zelenyuk, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists much longer in the atmosphere, and some previous chemical transport modeling studies have ignored heterogeneous oxidation of BaP to bring model predictions into better agreement with field observations. We attribute this unexplained discrepancy to the shielding of BaP from oxidation by coatings of viscous organic aerosol (OA). Accounting for this OA viscosity-dependent shielding, which varies with temperature and humidity, in a global climate/chemistry model brings model predictions into much better agreement with BaP measurements, and demonstrates stronger long-range transport, greater deposition fluxes, and substantially elevated lung cancer risk from PAHs. Model results indicate that the OA coating is more effective in shielding BaP in the middle/high latitudes compared with the tropics because of differences in OA properties (semisolid when cool/dry vs. liquid-like when warm/humid). Faster chemical degradation of BaP in the tropics leads to higher concentrations of BaP oxidation products over the tropics compared with higher latitudes. This study has profound implications demonstrating that OA strongly modulates the atmospheric persistence of PAHs and their cancer risks.

  8. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Lou, Sijia; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on ecosystems and human health. Laboratory measurements show that one of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, which is adsorbed on surfaces of soot particles, reacts very quickly with atmospheric oxidants like ozone within ~2 hours. Yet, field observations indicate that it actually persists for much longer periods in the atmosphere, and this large discrepancy is not well understood. Driven by novel experimental understanding, we develop a new modelling approach, whereby particle-bound BaP is shielded from oxidation by a coating of viscous organic aerosol (OA). We show that application of this new approach in a global climate model leads to higher atmospheric BaP concentrations that agree much better with measurements, compared to the default model, as well as stronger long-range transport and greater deposition fluxes. This new approach also predicts elevated lung-cancer risk from PAHs. Predicted oxidation of BaP is highest over a tropical belt where OA is liquid-like.

  9. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2014-07-01

    A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molar syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of aromatic

  10. High performance direct absorption spectroscopy of pure and binary mixture hydrocarbon gases in the 6-11 μm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Robert; Popescu, Alexandru; Hangauer, Andreas; Strzoda, Rainer; Höfling, Sven

    2017-08-01

    The availability of accurate and fast hydrocarbon analyzers, capable of real-time operation while enabling feedback-loops, would lead to a paradigm change in the petro-chemical industry. Primarily gas chromatographs measure the composition of hydrocarbon process streams. Due to sophisticated gas sampling, these analyzers are limited in response time. As hydrocarbons absorb in the mid-infrared spectral range, the employment of fast spectroscopic systems is highly attractive due to significantly reduced maintenance costs and the capability to setup real-time process control. New developments in mid-infrared laser systems pave the way for the development of high-performance analyzers provided that accurate spectral models are available for multi-species detection. In order to overcome current deficiencies in the availability of spectroscopic data, we developed a laser-based setup covering the 6-11 μm wavelength range. The presented system is designated as laboratory reference system. Its spectral accuracy is at least 6.6× 10^{-3} cm^{-1} with a precision of 3× 10^{-3} cm^{-1}. With a "per point" minimum detectable absorption of 1.3× 10^{-3} cm^{-1} Hz^{{-}{1/2}} it allows us to perform systematic measurements of hydrocarbon spectra of the first 7 alkanes under conditions which are not tabulated in spectroscopic database. We exemplify the system performance with measured direct absorption spectra of methane, propane, iso-butane, and a mixture of methane and propane.

  11. Information content of long-range NMR data for the characterization of conformational heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrałojć, Witold [University of Florence, Center for Magnetic Resonance (CERM) (Italy); Berlin, Konstantin; Fushman, David, E-mail: fushman@umd.edu [University of Maryland, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Biomolecular Structure and Organization (United States); Luchinat, Claudio, E-mail: luchinat@cerm.unifi.it; Parigi, Giacomo; Ravera, Enrico [University of Florence, Center for Magnetic Resonance (CERM) (Italy); Sgheri, Luca [CNR, Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo, Sezione di Firenze (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Long-range NMR data, namely residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) from external alignment and paramagnetic data, are becoming increasingly popular for the characterization of conformational heterogeneity of multidomain biomacromolecules and protein complexes. The question addressed here is how much information is contained in these averaged data. We have analyzed and compared the information content of conformationally averaged RDCs caused by steric alignment and of both RDCs and pseudocontact shifts caused by paramagnetic alignment, and found that, despite the substantial differences, they contain a similar amount of information. Furthermore, using several synthetic tests we find that both sets of data are equally good towards recovering the major state(s) in conformational distributions.

  12. Evaluation of Content-Matched Range Monitoring Queries over Moving Objects in Mobile Computing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, HaRim; Song, MoonBae; Youn, Hee Yong; Kim, Ung Mo

    2015-09-18

    A content-matched (CM) rangemonitoring query overmoving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i) whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii) that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree) for efficient evaluation of CMrange monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods.

  13. Evaluation of Content-Matched Range Monitoring Queries over Moving Objects in Mobile Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaRim Jung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A content-matched (CM rangemonitoring query overmoving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree for efficient evaluation of CMrange monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods.

  14. Reference Ranges of Reticulocyte Haemoglobin Content in Preterm and Term Infants: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laila; Peter, Andreas; Arand, Jörg; Springer, Fabian; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2017-01-01

    Despite iron supplementation, some preterm infants develop iron deficiency (ID). The optimal iron status parameter for early detection of ID has yet to be determined. To establish reference ranges for reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret-He) in preterm and term infants and to identify confounding factors. Retrospective analyses of Ret-He and complete blood count in infants with a clinically indicated blood sample obtained within 24 h after birth. Mean (SD) Ret-He was 30.7 (3.0) pg in very preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) of pH (r = -0.07). There was a slight variation in Ret-He with mode of delivery [normal vaginal delivery: 32.3 (3.2) pg, secondary caesarean section (CS): 31.4 (3.0) pg, instrumental delivery: 31.3 (2.7) pg and elective CS: 31.2 (2.8) pg]. GA at birth has a negligible impact on Ret-He, and the lower limit of the normal reference range in newborns within 24 h after birth can be set to 25 pg. Moreover, Ret-He seems to be a robust parameter which is not influenced by perinatal factors within the first 24 h after birth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Lacustrine Environment Reservoir Properties on Sandstone Minerals and Hydrocarbon Content: A Case Study on Doba Basin, Southern Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumery, N. F. Mohd; Lo, S. Z.; Salim, A. M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of lacustrine environment as the hydrocarbon reservoir has been widely known. However, despite its growing importance, the lacustrine petroleum geology has received far less attention than marine due to its sedimentological complexity. This study therefore aims in developing an understanding of the unique aspects of lacustrine reservoirs which eventually impacts the future exploration decisions. Hydrocarbon production in Doba Basin, particularly the northern boundary, for instance, has not yet succeeded due to the unawareness of its depositional environment. The drilling results show that the problems were due to the: radioactive sand and waxy oil/formation damage, which all are related to the lacustrine depositional environment. Detailed study of geological and petrophysical integration on wireline logs and petrographic thin sections analysis of this environment helps in distinguishing reservoir and non-reservoir areas and determining the possible mechanism causing the failed DST results. The interpretations show that the correlation of all types> of logs and rho matrix analysis are capable in identifying sand and shale bed despite of the radioactive sand present. The failure of DST results were due to the presence of arkose in sand and waxy oil in reservoir bed. This had been confirmed by the petrographic thin section analysis where the arkose has mineral twinning effect indicate feldspar and waxy oil showing bright colour under fluorescent light. Understanding these special lacustrine environment characteristics and features will lead to a better interpretation of hydrocarbon prospectivity for future exploration.

  16. A mechanistic basis for the effect of aluminum content on ethene selectivity in methanol-to-hydrocarbons conversion on HZSM-5

    KAUST Repository

    Khare, Rachit; Liu, Zhaohui; Han, Yu; Bhan, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Increasing crystallize size or aluminum content in MFI-type zeolites independently enhances the propagation of the aromatics-based methylation/dealkylation cycle relative to that of the olefins-based methylation/cracking cycle in methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) conversion and consequentially results in higher ethene selectivity. Ethene selectivity increases monotonically with increasing aluminum content for HZSM-5 samples with nearly identical crystallite size consequent to an increase in the intracrystalline contact time analogous to our recent report detailing the effects of crystallite size (Khare et al., 2015) on MTH selectivity. The confected effects of crystallite size and site density on MTH selectivity can therefore, be correlated using a descriptor that represents the average number of acid sites that an olefin-precursor will interact with before elution.

  17. A mechanistic basis for the effect of aluminum content on ethene selectivity in methanol-to-hydrocarbons conversion on HZSM-5

    KAUST Repository

    Khare, Rachit

    2017-03-20

    Increasing crystallize size or aluminum content in MFI-type zeolites independently enhances the propagation of the aromatics-based methylation/dealkylation cycle relative to that of the olefins-based methylation/cracking cycle in methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) conversion and consequentially results in higher ethene selectivity. Ethene selectivity increases monotonically with increasing aluminum content for HZSM-5 samples with nearly identical crystallite size consequent to an increase in the intracrystalline contact time analogous to our recent report detailing the effects of crystallite size (Khare et al., 2015) on MTH selectivity. The confected effects of crystallite size and site density on MTH selectivity can therefore, be correlated using a descriptor that represents the average number of acid sites that an olefin-precursor will interact with before elution.

  18. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Onojake, Chukunedum M

    2006-04-01

    Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200 x 200 m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from three replicate quadrats at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm). A geographically similar area located 50 m adjacent to the oil-polluted area was used as a reference (control) site. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) and heavy metal concentrations were later determined in the laboratory by extraction and spetrophotemetric techniques. Generally, the THC of soils at surface and subsurface depths of the oil-polluted plots was 2.06 x 10(4) +/- 4.97 x 10(3) mg/kg and 1.67 x 10(3) +/- 3.61 x 10(2) mg/kg soil, respectively, (no overlap in standard errors at 95% confidence limit) while concentrations of heavy metals(Pb, Cd, V, Cu and Ni) were enhanced, especially at the surface. The high levels of THC and heavy metals may predispose the site, which hitherto served as arable agricultural land, to impaired fertility and possible conflagration. When concentrations of heavy metals reach the levels obtained in this study, they may become toxic to plants or possibly bio-accumulate, thus leading to toxic reactions along the food chain. While the spilled-oil may have contributed to the enhanced levels of the metals in the affected soils, physico-chemical properties of the soils, mobility of metals, and the intense rainfall and flooding that preceded the period of study may have also contributed in part to their enhanced concentrations. The presence of high hydrocarbon content may cause oxygen deprivation, which may result in the death of soil fauna by asphyxiation. There is, therefore, an urgent need to clear the affected site of these excess hydrocarbon deposits so as to

  19. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gheckel@cicese.mx; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

  20. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Toro, Ligeia; Heckel, Gisela; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F.; Schramm, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. ΣDDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 μg/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs, 2.96 μg/g), chlordanes (0.12 μg/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 μg/g). The ΣDDTs/ΣPCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA

  1. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  2. Effects of P/Ni ratio and Ni content on performance of γ-Al_2O_3-supported nickel phosphides for deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhena; Tang, Mingxiao; Chen, Jixiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The formation of AlPO_4 was unfavorable for that of nickel phosphides. • The phase compositions of nickel phosphide depended on the amount of reduced P. • Catalytic activity was determined by surface Ni site density and catalyst acidity. • HDO pathway was promoted by increasing P/Ni ratio and Ni content. • Nickel phosphide gave much higher carbon yield and lower H_2 consumption than Ni. - Abstract: γ-Al_2O_3-supported nickel phosphides (mNi-Pn) were prepared by the TPR method and tested for the deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons. The effects of the P/Ni ratio (n = 1.0–2.5) and Ni content (m = 5–15 wt.%) in the precursors on their structure and performance were investigated. Ni/γ-Al_2O_3 was also studied for comparison. It was found that the formation of AlPO_4 in the precursor inhibited the reduction of phosphate and so the formation of nickel phosphides. With increasing the P/Ni ratio and Ni content, the Ni, Ni_3P, Ni_1_2P_5 and Ni_2P phases orderly formed, accompanying with the increases of their particle size and the amount of weak acid sites (mainly due to P-OH group), while the CO uptake and the amount of medium strong acid sites (mainly related to Ni sites) reached maximum on 10%Ni-P1.5. In the deoxygenation reaction, compared with Ni/γ-Al_2O_3, the mNi-Pn catalysts showed much lower activities for decarbonylation, C−C hydrogenolysis and methanation due to the ligand and ensemble effects of P. The conversion and the selectivity to n-C11 and n-C12 hydrocarbons achieved maximum on 10%Ni-P 2.0 for the 10%Ni-Pn catalysts and on 8%Ni-P2.0 for the mNi-P2.0 catalysts, while the turnover frequency (TOF) of methyl laurate mainly increased with the P/Ni ratio and Ni content. We propose that TOF was influenced by the nickel phosphide phases, the catalyst acidity and the particle size as well as the synergetic effect between the Ni site and acid site. Again, the hydrodeoxygenation pathway of methyl

  3. Comparison of the Emission of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Moulding Sands with Furfural Resin with the Low Content of Furfuryl Alcohol and Different Activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymankowska-Kumon S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No-bake process refers to the use of chemical binders to bond the moulding sand. Sand is moved to the mould fill station in preparation for filling of the mould. A mixer is used to blend the sand with the chemical binder and activator. As the sand exits the mixer, the binder begins the chemical process of hardening. This paper presents the results of decomposition of the moulding sands with modified urea-furfuryl resin (with the low content of furfuryl alcohol below 25 % and different activators: organic and inorganic on a quartz matrix, under semi-industrial conditions. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were executed according to the method extended in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering (AGH University of Science and Technology. Article presents the results of the emitted chosen aromatic hydrocarbons and loss on ignition compared with the different activators used to harden this resin. On the bases of the data, it is possible to determine the content of the emitted dangerous substances from the moulding sand according to the content of loss on ignition.

  4. Effects of P/Ni ratio and Ni content on performance of γ-Al2O3-supported nickel phosphides for deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhena; Tang, Mingxiao; Chen, Jixiang

    2016-01-01

    γ-Al2O3-supported nickel phosphides (mNi-Pn) were prepared by the TPR method and tested for the deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons. The effects of the P/Ni ratio (n = 1.0-2.5) and Ni content (m = 5-15 wt.%) in the precursors on their structure and performance were investigated. Ni/γ-Al2O3 was also studied for comparison. It was found that the formation of AlPO4 in the precursor inhibited the reduction of phosphate and so the formation of nickel phosphides. With increasing the P/Ni ratio and Ni content, the Ni, Ni3P, Ni12P5 and Ni2P phases orderly formed, accompanying with the increases of their particle size and the amount of weak acid sites (mainly due to P-OH group), while the CO uptake and the amount of medium strong acid sites (mainly related to Ni sites) reached maximum on 10%Ni-P1.5. In the deoxygenation reaction, compared with Ni/γ-Al2O3, the mNi-Pn catalysts showed much lower activities for decarbonylation, Csbnd C hydrogenolysis and methanation due to the ligand and ensemble effects of P. The conversion and the selectivity to n-C11 and n-C12 hydrocarbons achieved maximum on 10%Ni-P 2.0 for the 10%Ni-Pn catalysts and on 8%Ni-P2.0 for the mNi-P2.0 catalysts, while the turnover frequency (TOF) of methyl laurate mainly increased with the P/Ni ratio and Ni content. We propose that TOF was influenced by the nickel phosphide phases, the catalyst acidity and the particle size as well as the synergetic effect between the Ni site and acid site. Again, the hydrodeoxygenation pathway of methyl laurate was promoted with increasing P/Ni ratio and Ni content, ascribed to the phase change in the order of Ni, Ni3P, Ni12P5 and Ni2P in the prepared catalysts.

  5. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  6. Intraspecific differences in lipid content of calanoid copepods across fine-scale depth ranges within the photic layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zarubin

    Full Text Available Copepods are among the most abundant and diverse groups of mesozooplankton in the world's oceans. Each species has a certain depth range within which different individuals (of the same life stage and sex are found. Lipids are accumulated in many calanoid copepods for energy storage and reproduction. Lipid content in some species increases with depth, however studies so far focused mostly on temperate and high-latitude seasonal vertically migrating copepods and compared lipid contents among individuals either from coarse layers or between diapausing, deep-dwelling copepods and individuals found in the photic, near-surface layer. Here we examined whether lipid contents of individual calanoid copepods of the same species, life stage/sex differ between finer depth layers within the upper water column of subtropical and Arctic seas. A total of 6 calanoid species were collected from samples taken at precise depths within the photic layer in both cold eutrophic and warm oligotrophic environments using SCUBA diving, MOCNESS and Multinet. Measurements of lipid content were obtained from digitized photographs of the collected individuals. The results revealed significant differences in lipid content across depth differences as small as 12-15 meters for Mecynocera clausi C5 and Ctenocalanus vanus C5 (Red Sea, Clausocalanus furcatus males and two clausocalanid C5s (Mediterranean Sea, and Calanus glacialis C5 (Arctic. We suggest two possible explanations for the differences in lipid content with depth on such a fine scale: predator avoidance and buoyancy.

  7. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than −1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption...... curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...... for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from θRH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from θRH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated...

  8. Impact of full range of amylose contents on the architecture of starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Blennow, Andreas; Bertoft, Eric

    2016-08-01

    The effects of amylose deposition on crystalline regions of barley starch granules were studied in granules containing zero to 99.1% amylose using "waxy" (WBS, 0% amylose), normal (NBS, 18% amylose) and amylose-only barley lines (AOS, 99.1% amylose). The effects were probed after hydrolysis of amorphous regions of starch granules in dilute HCl generating lintners, which typically represent the crystalline lamella of starch granules. Compared to NBS and WBS, AOS granules exhibited an irregular, multilobular morphology with a rough surface texture. AOS displayed lower rates of acid hydrolysis than WBS, and AOS reached a plateau at ∼45wt% acid hydrolysis. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography of lintners at equivalent levels of hydrolysis (45wt%) revealed the average degree of polymerization (DP) of AOS lintners was 21, substantially smaller than that of NBS and WBS (DP 42). AOS lintners contained the lowest number of chains (NC) per molecule (1.1) compared to NBS (2.8) and WBS (3.3) and the average chain length of AOS, NBS and WBS lintners was 19, 15 and 13, respectively. Hence, both NC and the average chain length correlated with amylose content. The size distribution profile of AOS lintners revealed a repeat motif in the molecules corresponding to 5-6 glucose residues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurements of ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons at Chichi-jima island, a remote island in the western Pacific: long-range transport of polluted air from the Pacific rim region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shungo; Pochanart, Pakpong; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    Chichi-jima island is located in the Pacific about 1000 km from the Japanese main island and is an ideal remote observatory from which to assess the long-range transport of polluted air from East Asia. The ozone concentration was measured from August 1997 to August 1998. Owing to the air mass change, the seasonal variation of ozone shows a distinct character: low concentration (about 13 ppbv) for the maritime air mass during the summer, and high concentration (about 40 ppbv) for the continental air mass during the winter. To assess the contribution of the long-range transport of polluted air during winter, nonmethane hydrocarbons were also measured in December 1999. Using backward trajectory analysis, the transport time of the air mass from the source area in the Pacific rim region was calculated for each sample. The concentration of hydrocarbons shows a clear negative correlation against the transport time. This analysis clearly shows the transport of polluted air, emitted in East Asia, to the Pacific during the winter. The plots of suitable hydrocarbon pairs showed that the decrease of hydrocarbon concentrations during winter is mainly caused by the mixing with clean background air.

  10. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  11. Hydrocarbon productivities in different Botryococcus strains: comparative methods in product quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Ela; Okada, Shigeru; Melis, Anastasios

    2011-08-01

    Six different strains of the green microalgae Botryococcus belonging to the A-race or B-race, accumulating alkadiene or botryococcene hydrocarbons, respectively, were compared for biomass and hydrocarbon productivities. Biomass productivity was assessed gravimetrically upon strain growth in the laboratory under defined conditions. Hydrocarbon productivities were measured by three different and independent experimental approaches, including density equilibrium of the intact cells and micro-colonies, spectrophotometric analysis of hydrocarbon extracts, and gravimetric quantitation of eluted hydrocarbons. All three hydrocarbon-quantitation methods yielded similar results for each of the strains examined. The B-race microalgae Botryococcus braunii var. Showa and Kawaguchi-1 constitutively accumulated botryococcene hydrocarbons equivalent to 30% and 20%, respectively, of their overall biomass. The A-race microalgae Botryococcus braunii, varieties Yamanaka, UTEX 2441 and UTEX LB572 constitutively accumulated alkadiene hydrocarbons ranging from 14% to 13% and 10% of their overall biomass, respectively. Botryococcus sudeticus (UTEX 2629), a morphologically different green microalga, had the lowest hydrocarbon accumulation, equal to about 3% of its overall biomass. Results validate the density equilibrium and spectrophotometric analysis methods in the quantitation of botryococcene-type hydrocarbons. These analytical advances will serve in the screening and selection of B. braunii and of other microalgae in efforts to identify those having a high hydrocarbon content for use in commercial applications.

  12. Characterization of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for hydrocarbon mixtures and jet fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sheppard A; Tremblay, Raphael T; Brunson, Kristyn F; Kendrick, Christine; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    A directed-flow nose-only inhalation exposure system was constructed to support development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as jet fuels. Due to the complex nature of the aerosol and vapor-phase hydrocarbon exposures, care was taken to investigate the chamber hydrocarbon stability, vapor and aerosol droplet compositions, and droplet size distribution. Two-generation systems for aerosolizing fuel and hydrocarbons were compared and characterized for use with either jet fuels or a simple mixture of eight hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon concentration was monitored via online gas chromatography (GC). Aerosol/vapor (A/V) ratios, and total and individual hydrocarbon concentrations, were determined using adsorbent tubes analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Droplet size distribution was assessed via seven-stage cascade impactor. Droplet mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was between 1 and 3 mum, depending on the generator and mixture utilized. A/V hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from approximately 200 to 1300 mg/m(3), with between 20% and 80% aerosol content, depending on the mixture. The aerosolized hydrocarbon mixtures remained stable during the 4-h exposure periods, with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10% for the total hydrocarbon concentrations. There was greater variability in the measurement of individual hydrocarbons in the A-V phase. In conclusion, modern analytical chemistry instruments allow for improved descriptions of inhalation exposures of rodents to aerosolized fuel.

  13. Biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Salix matsudana leaves: A comparison with the relevant air content and evaluation of environmental parameter effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangai; He, Miao; Shang, Haibo; Yu, Hongling; Wang, Hao; Li, Huijie; Piao, Jingyi; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2018-05-01

    Studies on seasonal distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Salix matsudana leaves covering its annual life cycle were carried out in order to evaluate plant leaf response sensitivity to air pollution. Salix matsudana leaves were collected throughout different development phases of plant leaf inclusive of bud break to fallen leaves, covering from spring (May) to autumn (November). Simultaneously, particle and gas samples were collected using a high volume air sampler. Seven different PAHs were determined simultaneously in these samples. The temperature dependence of the partitioning of PAHs in air and plant leaves was investigated and the results were incorporated into a mathematical model. The measured plant/air partition coefficients have been found to be exponentially proportional to the reciprocal temperature, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, in order to define the influence of different parameters on PAH adsorption on plant leaves, area and lipid leaf content were also measured. Results demonstrated that temperature plays a very important role in PAHs partitioning and that this value should be carefully considered during sampling, in order to obtain the best correlation between PAHs concentration in air and leaves.

  14. TNFα and IL-6 Responses to Particulate Matter in Vitro: Variation According to PM Size, Season, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Soil Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Serrano-Lomelin, Jesús; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Vega, Elizabeth; Vázquez-López, Inés; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; López-Villegas, Maria Tania; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Perez, Irma Rosas; O’Neill, Marie S.; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observed seasonal differences in particulate matter (PM) associations with human health may be due to their composition and to toxicity-related seasonal interactions. Objectives: We assessed seasonality in PM composition and in vitro PM pro-inflammatory potential using multiple PM samples. Methods: We collected 90 weekly PM10 and PM2.5 samples during the rainy-warm and dry-cold seasons in five urban areas with different pollution sources. The elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and endotoxins identified in the samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). We tested the potential of the PM to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in cultured human monocytes (THP-1), and we modeled pro-inflammatory responses using the component scores. Results: PM composition varied by size and by season. PCA identified two main components that varied by season. Combustion-related constituents (e.g., vanadium, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene) mainly comprised component 1 (C1). Soil-related constituents (e.g., endotoxins, silicon, aluminum) mainly comprised component 2 (C2). PM from the rainy-warm season was high in C2. PM (particularly PM2.5) from the dry-cold season was rich in C1. Elevated levels of cytokine production were associated with PM10 and C2 (rainy-warm season), whereas reduced levels of cytokine production were associated with PM2.5 and C1 (dry-cold season). TNFα secretion was increased following exposure to PM with high (vs. low) C2 content, but TNFα secretion in response to PM was decreased following exposure to samples containing ≥ 0.1% of C1-related PAHs, regardless of C2 content. The results of the IL-6 assays suggested more complex interactions between PM components and particle size. Conclusions: Variations in PM soil and PAH content underlie seasonal and PM size–related patterns in TNFα secretion. These results suggest that the mixture of components in PM explains some

  15. Impact of using fishing boat fuel with high poly aromatic content on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chen, Chung-Ban; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    Because of the fishery subsidy policy, the fishing boat fuel oil (FBFO) exemption from commodity taxes, business taxes and air pollution control fees, resulted in the price of FBFO was ˜50% lower than premium diesel fuel (PDF) in Taiwan. It is estimated that ˜650,000 kL FBFO was illegally used by traveling diesel-vehicles (TDVs) with a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE), which accounted for ˜16.3% of the total diesel fuel consumed by TDVs. In this study, sulfur, poly aromatic and total-aromatic contents in both FBFO and PDF were measured and compared. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) from a HDDE under transient cycle testing for both FBFO and PDF were compared and discussed. Finally, the impact caused by the illegal use of FBFO on the air quality was examined. Results show that the mean sulfur-, poly aromatic and aromatic-contents in FBFO were 43.0, 3.89 and 1.04 times higher than that of PDF, respectively. Emission factors of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq obtained by utilizing FBFO were 51.5 and 0.235 mg L -1-Fuel, which were 3.41 and 5.82 times in magnitude higher than obtained by PDF, respectively. The estimated annual emissions of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq to the ambient environment due to the illegally used FBFO were 23.6 and 0.126 metric tons, respectively, which resulted in a 17.9% and a 25.0% increment of annual emissions from all mobile sources, respectively. These results indicated that the FBFO used illegally by TDVs had a significant impact on PAH emissions to the ambient environment.

  16. Evolution of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbon and 3,4 benzopyrene content in mussels from a coastal zone polluted by a fuel spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bories, G; Tulliez, J; Peltier, J C; Fleckinger, R

    1969-05-03

    After an oil spill, a coastal zone was polluted and wild mussels were contaminated by paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons and 3,4-benzopyrene. The evolution of this contamination was followed. Normal levels were re-established after a month and a half. Normal paraffins were metabolized faster than other hydrocarbons.

  17. Two factors influencing dose reconstruction in low dose range: the variability of BKG intensity on one individual and water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tengda; Zhang, Wenyi; Zhao, Zhixin; Zhang, Haiying; Ruan, Shuzhou; Jiao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A fast and accurate retrospective dosimetry method for the triage is very important in radiation accidents. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) fingernail dosimetry is a promising way to estimate radiation dose. This article presents two factors influencing dose reconstruction in low dose range: the variability of background signal (BKG) intensity on one individual and water content. Comparing the EPR spectrum of dried and humidified fingernail samples, it is necessary to add a procedure of dehydration before EPR measurements, so as to eliminate the deviation caused by water content. Besides, the BKGs of different fingers' nails are not the same as researchers thought previously, and the difference between maximum and minimum BKG intensities of one individual can reach 55.89 %. Meanwhile, the variability of the BKG intensity among individuals is large enough to impact precise dose reconstruction. Water within fingernails and instability of BKG are two reasons that cause the inaccuracy of radiation dose reconstruction in low-dosage level. (authors)

  18. Different fattening systems of Iberian pigs according to the 1-alkene hydrocarbon content in the subcutaneous fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera-Alcaide, I.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-Alkene content in samples of subcutaneous fat corresponding to 755 castrated male Iberian pigs has been determined by an off-line combination of HPLC and GC method. The samples corresponded to three groups based on the type of feeding during the finish fattening period (“Montanera”, fed on acorns and pasture; “Recebo”, fed on acorns, feed and pasture; and “Cebo”, fed on feed and pasture. By using the n-alkenes as chemical descriptors, multivariate statistical techniques were applied to differentiate between the three fattening diet types for Iberian pigs. The most differentiating variables were n-C16:1, n-C18:1, n-C22:1 and n-C24:1. However, a clear classification of the samples was not achieved. The level of classification was improved when the data corresponding to the animals fed with the “Recebo” fattening diet was removed from the analysis. A relationship between n-C14:1, n-C16:1 and n-C18:1 levels and the slaughter period was found to be very low for the animals fed with the “Cebo” fattening diet when the animals had not been closely managed and pasture had not been included in their fattening diet.El contenido de n-alquenos de la grasa subcutánea de 755 muestras procedentes de cerdos ibéricos machos, se ha determinado mediante combinación off-line de los métodos HPLC y GC. Las muestras correspondían a tres grupos según el tipo de alimentación en el período final de engorde (“Montanera”, alimentados con bellota y pasto; “Recebo”, alimentados con bellota, pasto y pienso; y “Cebo”, alimentados con pienso y pasto. Usando los n-alquenos como descriptores químicos, se aplicaron técnicas de análisis multivariante para diferenciar entre los tres tipos de alimentación de cerdo ibérico. Se encontró que las variables más diferenciadores fueron n-C16:1, n-C18:1, n-C22:1 y n-C24:1. Sin embargo, el total de las muestras no están clasificadas, mejorando el nivel de clasificación cuando se eliminan

  19. Ability of natural attenuation and phytoremediation using maize (Zea mays L.) to decrease soil contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from biomass fly ash in comparison with PAHs-spiked soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košnář, Zdeněk; Mercl, Filip; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2018-05-30

    A 120-day pot experiment was conducted to compare the ability of natural attenuation and phytoremediation approaches to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil amended with PAHs-contaminated biomass fly ash. The PAH removal from ash-treated soil was compared with PAHs-spiked soil. The removal of 16 individual PAHs from soil ranged between 4.8% and 87.8% within the experiment. The natural attenuation approach led to a negligible total PAH removal. The phytoremediation was the most efficient approach for PAH removal, while the highest removal was observed in the case of ash-treated soil. The content of low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs and the total PAHs in this treatment significantly decreased (P <.05) over the whole experiment by 47.6% and 29.4%, respectively. The tested level of PAH soil contamination (~1600 µg PAH/kg soil dry weight) had no adverse effects on maize growth as well on the biomass yield. In addition, the PAHs were detected only in maize roots and their bioaccumulation factors were significantly lower than 1 suggesting negligible PAH uptake from soil by maize roots. The results showed that PAHs of ash origin were similarly susceptible to removal as spiked PAHs. The presence of maize significantly boosted the PAH removal from soil and its aboveground biomass did not represent any environmental risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An off-on Fluorescent Sensor for Detecting a Wide Range of Water Content in Organic Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kanghyeon; Lee, Wanjin; Kim, Jae Nyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This paper describes the synthesis and water sensing properties of a fluorescent photoinduced electron transfer (PET) sensor (5) with an extended operating sensing range. The 1,8-naphthalimide derivative (5) attached with a piperazine group and a carboxylic group was synthesized and applied as a fluorescent water sensor in water-miscible organic solvents. The fluorescence intensity of the dye 5 increased with increasing water content up to 80% (v/v) and the fluorescence intensities were enhanced 45-, 67- and 122-fold in aqueous EtOH, DMF and DMSO solutions, respectively. In aqueous acetone solution, the enhancement of the fluorescence intensities was somewhat lower (30-fold) but the response range was wider (0-90%, v/v)

  1. Preliminary study of the influence of CO2 extraction conditions on the ester, aldehyde, ketone and hydrocarbon content of grape bagasses from jam production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the chemical characteristics of the essential oil obtained from CO2 extraction of grape bagasses in the production of jam. The experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale unit, where the effect of temperature (290 and 303 K and pressure (15 and 25 Mpa was investigated in terms of liquid yield and chemical composition of the extracts. The CO2 mass flow rate was kept within a range of 2.5 to 3.0 g/min. The instrumental analysis was performed by gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS. The extraction conditions investigated in this work had no significant influence on the mass of essencial oil extracted. The main compounds identified in the extracts by the GC-MS spectra library (match quality higher tan 90% were octadecane, dihydroxy ergostene-dione and phenylethyl n-decanoate when the temperature was increased from 290 to 303 K. Heptanal, ethyl ester of decosonoic acid and hexatriacontane were the individual compounds with the greatest increase in the chromatographic peak area when the pressure was increased from 15 to 25 Mpa. The most important class of compounds were hydrocarbons at 303 K and 15 MPa and were ketones and aldehydes at 25 Mpa and 290 K.

  2. CSDA range, stopping power and mean penetration depth energy relationships in some hydrocarbons and biologic materials for 10 eV to 100 MeV with the modified Rohrlich-Carlson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, Hasan [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Samsun (Turkey); Bentabet, Abdelouahab [Bordj Bou Arreridj University, LCVRN, SNVSTU Faculty, El Anasser (Algeria)

    2017-05-15

    In this study, for some hydrocarbons and biological compounds, stopping power formula are presented, being valid for low and intermediate electron energies. In addition, calculation of the continuous slowing down approximation range (CSDA range) from the stopping power is also made. Calculation of the CSDA range for some hydrocarbons: C{sub 2}H{sub 6} (ethane), C{sub 4}H{sub 10} (butane), C{sub 6}H{sub 14} (hexane) C{sub 8}H{sub 18} (octane), C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5} (adenine) and C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5}O (guanine) have been introduced for incident electrons in the energy range 30 eV to 1 MeV. The range of electrons has been calculated within the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) using modified Rohrlich and Carlson formula of stopping power. Besides, we have calculated the mean penetration depths using a spherical geometric model developed by Bentabet (Vacuum 86:1855-1859, 35). The results have been compared with the other theoretical results, Monte Carlo code such as PENELOPE predictions and semi-empirical results. The calculated results of CSDA ranges for electrons in the energy range from 20 eV to 100 MeV are found to be in good agreement to within 10% with available date. (orig.)

  3. Black tattoo inks induce reactive oxygen species production correlating with aggregation of pigment nanoparticles and product brand but not with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsberg, Trine; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Clausen, Per Axel; Serup, Jørgen

    2013-07-01

    Black tattoo inks are composed of carbon nanoparticles, additives and water and may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aimed to clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by black inks in vitro is related to pigment chemistry, physico-chemical properties of the ink particles and the content of chemical additives and contaminants including PAHs. The study included nine brands of tattoo inks of six colours each (black, red, yellow, blue, green and white) and two additional black inks of different brands (n = 56). The ROS formation potential was determined by the dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) assay. A semiquantitative method was developed for screening extractable organic compounds in tattoo ink based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two black inks produced high amounts of ROS. Peroxyl radicals accounted for up to 72% of the free radicals generated, whereas hydroxyl radicals and H₂O₂ accounted for inks aggregated strongly in water in contrast to the other black inks. They did not exhibit any shared pattern in PAHs and other organic substances. Aggregation was exclusively shared by all ink colours belonging to the same two brands. Ten of 11 black inks had PAH concentrations exceeding the European Council's recommended level, and all 11 exceeded the recommended level for benzo(a)pyrene. It is a new finding that aggregation of tattoo pigment particles correlates with ROS production and brand, independently of chemical composition including PAHs. ROS is hypothesized to be implicated in minor clinical symptoms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  5. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Crustal processes such as deformations or faulting are strictly related to the petrophysical properties of involved rocks. These properties depend on mineral composition, fabric, pores and any secondary features such as cracks or infilling material that may have been introduced during the whole diagenetic and tectonic history of the rock. In this work we investigate the role of hydrocarbons (HC) in changing the petrophysical properties of rock by merging laboratory experiments, well data and static models focusing on the carbonate-bearing Majella reservoir. This reservoir represent an interesting analogue for the several oil fields discovered in the subsurface in the region, allowing a comparison of a wide range of geological and geophysical data at different scale. The investigated lithology is made of high porosity ramp calcarenites, structurally slightly affected by a superimposed fracture system and displaced by few major normal faults, with some minor strike-slip movements. Sets of rock specimens were selected in the field and in particular two groups were investigated: 1. clean rocks (without oil) and 2. HC bearing rocks (with different saturations). For both groups, density, porosity, P and S wave velocity, permeability and elastic moduli measurements at increasing confining pressure were conducted on cylindrical specimens at the HP-HT Laboratory of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. For clean samples at ambient pressure, laboratory porosity varies from 10 % up to 26 % and P wave velocity (Vp) spans from 4,1 km/s to 4,9 km/s and a very good correlation between Vp, Vs and porosity is observed. The P wave velocity at 100 MPa of confining pressure, ranges between 4,5 km/s and 5,2 km/s with a pressure independent Vp/Vs ratio of about 1,9. The presence of HC within the samples affects both Vp and Vs. In particular velocities increase with the presence of hydrocarbons proportionally respect to the amount of the filled

  6. Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Trace Metals in Arctic Aerosols: Long-Range Atmospheric Transport, Photochemical Degradation/Production at Polar Sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Yanase, Ayako; Barrie, Leonard A

    2017-08-15

    The distributions, correlations, and source apportionment of aromatic acids, aromatic ketones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace metals were studied in Canadian high Arctic aerosols. Nineteen PAHs including minor sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAH (dibenzothiophene) and major 6 carcinogenic PAHs were detected with a high proportion of fluoranthene followed by benzo[k]fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. However, in the sunlit period of spring, their concentrations significantly declined likely due to photochemical decomposition. During the polar sunrise from mid-March to mid-April, benzo[a]pyrene to benzo[e]pyrene ratios significantly dropped, and the ratios diminished further from late April to May onward. These results suggest that PAHs transported over the Arctic are subjected to strong photochemical degradation at polar sunrise. Although aromatic ketones decreased in spring, concentrations of some aromatic acids such as benzoic and phthalic acids increased during the course of polar sunrise, suggesting that aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized to result in aromatic acids. However, PAHs do not act as the major source for low molecular weight (LMW) diacids such as oxalic acid that are largely formed at polar sunrise in the arctic atmosphere because PAHs are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less abundant than LMW diacids. Correlations of trace metals with organics, their sources, and the possible role of trace transition metals are explained.

  7. The marine bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 degrades a wide range of lipids and hydrocarbons through the formation of oleolytic biofilms with distinct gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Julie; Camus, Arantxa; Mitteau, Isabelle; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Goulas, Philippe; Grimaud, Régis; Sivadon, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (mainly lipids and hydrocarbons) represent a significant part of the organic matter in marine waters, and their degradation has an important impact in the carbon fluxes within oceans. However, because they are nearly insoluble in the water phase, their degradation by microorganisms occurs at the interface with water and thus requires specific adaptations such as biofilm formation. We show that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 develops biofilms, referred to as oleolytic biofilms, on a large variety of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters. Microarray analysis revealed that biofilm growth on n-hexadecane or triolein involved distinct genetic responses, together with a core of common genes that might concern general mechanisms of biofilm formation. Biofilm growth on triolein modulated the expression of hundreds of genes in comparison with n-hexadecane. The processes related to primary metabolism and genetic information processing were downregulated. Most of the genes that were overexpressed on triolein had unknown functions. Surprisingly, their genome localization was restricted to a few regions identified as putative genomic islands or mobile elements. These results are discussed with regard to the adaptive responses triggered by M. hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 to occupy a specific niche in marine ecosystems. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous flow cytometric quantification of plant nuclear DNA contents over the full range of described angiosperm 2C values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, David W

    2009-08-01

    Flow cytometry provides a rapid, accurate, and simple means to determine nuclear DNA contents (C-value) within plant homogenates. This parameter is extremely useful in a number of applications in basic and applied plant biology; for example, it provides an important starting point for projects involving whole genome sequencing, it facilitates characterization of plant species within natural and agricultural settings, it allows facile identification of engineered plants that are euploid or that represent desired ploidy classes, it points toward studies concerning the role of C-value in plant growth and development and in response to the environment and in terms of evolutionary fitness, and, in uncovering new and unexpected phenomena (for example endoreduplication), it uncovers new avenues of scientific enquiry. Despite the ease of the method, C-values have been determined for only around 2% of the described angiosperm (flowering plant) species. Within this small subset, one of the most remarkable observations is the range of 2C values, which spans at least two orders of magnitude. In determining C-values for new species, technical issues are encountered which relate both to requirement for a method that can provide accurate measurements across this extended dynamic range, and that can accommodate the large amounts of debris which accompanies flow measurements of plant homogenates. In this study, the use of the Accuri C6 flow cytometer for the analysis of plant C-values is described. This work indicates that the unusually large dynamic range of the C6, a design feature, coupled to the linearity of fluorescence emission conferred by staining of nuclei using propidium iodide, allows simultaneous analysis of species whose C-values span that of almost the entire described angiosperms. Copyright 2009 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. Analysis of some aromatic hydrocarbons in a benzene-soluble bitumen from Green River shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrocarbon content of an aromatic fraction, isolated from the bitumen of Green River shale, was studied by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectrometry, gas chromatography and a dehydrogenation technique. The hydrocarbon types and their distribution in this aromatic fraction, as determined by mass spectrometry, are presented. The carbon-number range, empirical formulas and quantity of each compound in the major types are reported. Mass spectra of several compounds and homologous mixtures of compounds isolated from the aromatic fraction are also given.

  10. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  11. Certification of a second series of five hydrocarbon materials for the determination of equilibrium flashpoint (temperature ranges -10/sup 0/C to +5/sup 0/C and 80/sup 0/C to 135/sup 0/C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D J; Gonska, H; Karcher, W

    1984-01-01

    The closed cup flashpoints of five pure hydrocarbon materials (iso-octane, toluene, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane) have been determined by equilibrium methods in an interlaboratory exercise, involving twelve laboratories of the European Community member countries and one laboratory of the Commission of the European Communities. The methods used were based on IP303/74 (or ASTM D3278-73; Rapid Tester) and IP304/74 (Abel, Abel-Pensky, Pensky-Martens Cups) with extension to allow equilibrium conditions to be maintained outside the ranges of these methods. For each hydrocarbon material, the numbers of individual measurements accepted have been between 81 and 92. As a result, the closed cup flashpoints of these materials by an equilibrium method are certified at the following temperatures: CRM No. Hydrocarbon Equilibrium closed cup flashpoint 83 iso-octane -9.5 +- 0.5/sup 0/C 84 toluene +6.0 +- 0.5/sup 0/C 85 n-dodecane +81.0 +- 1.0/sup 0/C 86 n-tetradecane +108.0 +- 1.0/sup 0/C 87 n-hexadecane +133.5 +- 1.0/sup 0/C. This report describes the experimental details of the interlaboratory measurements and the certification procedure. The procedure required extensions to be made to methods IP303/74 and IP304/74 which are given in detail and recommendations are made for the improvement of these methods over the temperature range covered by the flashpoint reference materials.

  12. Monitoring the bio-stimulation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by measurements of soil electrical properties, and CO2 content and its 13C/12C isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, C.; Gourry, J.; Ignatiadis, I.; Colombano, S.; Dictor, M.; Guimbaud, C.; Chartier, M.; Dumestre, A.; Dehez, S.; Naudet, V.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soils represent an environmental issue as it impacts on ecosystems and aquifers. Where significant subsurface heterogeneity exists, conventional intrusive investigations and groundwater sampling can be insufficient to obtain a robust monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants, as the information they provide is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations, with no information between sampling points. In order to obtain wider information in space volume on subsurface modifications, complementary methods can be used like geophysics. Among geophysical methods, geoelectrical techniques such as electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP) seem the more promising, especially to study the effects of biodegradation processes. Laboratory and field geoelectrical experiments to characterize soils contaminated by oil products have shown that mature hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are characterized by enhanced electrical conductivity although hydrocarbons are electrically resistive. This high bulk conductivity is due to bacterial impacts on geological media, resulting in changes in the chemical and physical properties and thus, to the geophysical properties of the ground. Moreover, microbial activity induced CO2 production and isotopic deviation of carbon. Indeed, produced CO2 will reflect the pollutant isotopic signature. Thus, the ratio δ13C(CO2) will come closer to δ13C(hydrocarbon). BIOPHY, project supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR), proposes to use electrical methods and gas analyses to develop an operational and non-destructive method for monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons in order to optimize soil treatment. Demonstration field is located in the South of Paris (France), where liquid fuels (gasoline and diesel) leaked from some tanks in 1997. In order to stimulate biodegradation, a trench has been dug to supply oxygen to the water table and thus stimulate aerobic metabolic bioprocesses. ER and

  13. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  14. Stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity of yellow-poplar ranging from 100 to 10 percent moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody D. Gray; Shawn T. Grushecky; James P. Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content has a significant impact on mechanical properties of wood. In recent years, stress wave velocity has been used as an in situ and non-destructive method for determining the stiffness of wooden elements. The objective of this study was to determine what effect moisture content has on stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Results...

  15. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  16. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  17. Content and Phrasing in Titles of Original Research and Review Articles in 2015: Range of Practice in Four Clinical Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Kerans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reporting guidelines for clinical research designs emerged in the mid-1990s and have influenced various aspects of research articles, including titles, which have also been subject to changing uses with the growth of electronic database searching and efforts to reduce bias in literature searches. We aimed (1 to learn more about titles in clinical medicine today and (2 to develop an efficient, reliable way to study titles over time and on the fly—for quick application by authors, manuscript editors, translators and instructors. We compared content and form in titles from two general medical journals—the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM and the British Medical Journal—and two anesthesiology journals (the European Journal of Anaesthesiology and Anesthesiology; we also analyzed the inter-rater reliability of our coding. Significant content differences were found in the frequencies of mentions of methods, results (between general and subspecialty titles, and geographic setting; phrasing differences were found in the prevalence of full-sentence and compound titles (and their punctuation. NEJM titles were significantly shorter, and this journal differed consistently on several features. We conclude that authors must learn to efficiently survey titles for form and content patterns when preparing manuscripts to submit to unfamiliar journals or on resubmitting to a new journal after rejection.

  18. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  19. Method for upgrading diene-containing hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, L.E. Jr.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1984-05-22

    There is disclosed a method for upgrading of hydrocarbon mixtures, so as to reduce their content of gum precursors such as diolefins and pseudo-diolefins, and provide a resulting product mixture suitable for mild hydrogenation, for use as a motor fuel or as a feed stock to an extraction unit. The process comprises obtaining a hydrocarbon mixture containing about 60-90 wt. % of aromatic components, about 3-40 wt. % of dienes and pseudodienes, and monoolefins, and up to about 6 wt. % of relatively unreactive organic compounds, reacting this mixture with elemental sulfur in the approximate weight ratio of about 5-95 wt. % of the hydrocarbon mixture with about 95-5 wt. % of elemental sulfur, the reaction being carried out at a temperature in the range of 100/sup 0/-150/sup 0/ C. for about 10 minutes to 24 hours with good mixing, removing the unreacted materials by distillation and separating a sulfur-hydrocarbon reaction product to provide the upgraded hydrocarbon mixture.

  20. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  1. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  2. Effects of supplements with increasing glucogenic precursor content on reproduction and nutrient partitioning in young postpartum range cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altering nutrient partitioning in young postpartum beef cows from milk production to body weight gain has potential to improve reproductive performance. A 2-yr study conducted at the Corona Range and Livestock Research Center from February to July in 2003 (n = 33) and 2004 (n = 26) evaluated respons...

  3. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  4. A novel zeolite process for clean end use of hydrocarbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, K M [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Technology Centre

    1997-12-31

    In recent years zeolites such as ZSM-5 have attracted considerable interest for the catalysis of a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations. A novel process developed by Neste converts light olefins to higher molecular weight hydrocarbon products. A wide range of high quality diesel, solvents and lube oils can be produced by the new NESKO process. Hydrotreated products have excellent properties; negligible sulphur or nitrogen compounds, very low aromatic content and pour point lower than -50 deg C. Proprietary technology is used in this olefin oligomerization process. (author) (7 refs.)

  5. A novel zeolite process for clean end use of hydrocarbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, K.M. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Technology Centre

    1996-12-31

    In recent years zeolites such as ZSM-5 have attracted considerable interest for the catalysis of a wide range of hydrocarbon transformations. A novel process developed by Neste converts light olefins to higher molecular weight hydrocarbon products. A wide range of high quality diesel, solvents and lube oils can be produced by the new NESKO process. Hydrotreated products have excellent properties; negligible sulphur or nitrogen compounds, very low aromatic content and pour point lower than -50 deg C. Proprietary technology is used in this olefin oligomerization process. (author) (7 refs.)

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTENT OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL POLLUTED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME OF CRUDE OIL DURING PLANT- MICROBE INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plants in interaction with indigenous organisms in environmental clean –up was evaluated. The agricultural soil used for the study was polluted with 100ml, 200ml, 400ml and 800ml of Bonny light crude oil [100%]. Pre and post Microbial examination of the polluted soil identified the indigenous flora present in the soil to be Penicillum sp Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus mycoides, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli though the absence of S aureus and E. coli was evident during the latter. Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata, Mucuna pruriens, Zea mays and Telfairia occidentalis were the test plant used. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of polluted soil on comparison with the value of 10,380 kg/ mg for control sample, to be low. The high TPH obtained from samples polluted with higher concentration depicts that the numbers of plants to be cultivated for remediation could be a determining factor for a faster clean-up. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA model of SPSS software however, showed there was no significant difference in the degradation of crude oil in samples that are in the green house or field.

  7. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-01-01

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana–Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r 2 < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  8. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  9. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  10. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  11. Biological indicators capable of assessing thermal treatment efficiency of hydrocarbon mixture-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhou, Lixiang; Lin, Yusuo

    2010-08-01

    In China, there are many special sites for recycling and washing the used drums, which release a variety of C5-C40 hydrocarbon mixture into the soil around the site. The remediation of these contaminated sites by thermal treatment is adopted ubiquitously and needs to be assessed. Here we report the feasibility of biological indicators applied to assess thermal treatment efficiency in such contaminated soil. A series of biological indicators, including seed germination index (SGI), root elongation index (REI), plant growth height, biomass, carbon dioxide evolved (CDE), soil respiration inhibition (SRI) and soil enzymatic activities, were employed to monitor or assess hydrocarbon mixture removal in thermal treated soil. The results showed that residual hydrocarbon mixture content correlated strongly negatively with SGI for sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.), plant height, and biomass for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the concentration ranges of 0-3990, 0-3170 and 0-2910 mg kg(-1), respectively. In contrast, REI for sesamum was positively correlated with residual hydrocarbon mixture content from 0 to 1860 mg kg(-1). In addition, both CDE and SRI demonstrated that 600 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content caused the highest amount of soil carbon dioxide emission and inhabitation of soil respiration. The results of soil enzymes indicated that 1000 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content was the threshold value of stimulating or inhibiting the activities of phosphatase and catalase, or completely destroying the activities of dehydrogenase, invertase, and urease. In conclusion, these biological indicators can be used as a meaningful complementation for traditional chemical content measurement in evaluating the environmental risk of the contaminated sites before and after thermal treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  13. Effects of P/Ni ratio and Ni content on performance of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported nickel phosphides for deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhena; Tang, Mingxiao; Chen, Jixiang, E-mail: jxchen@tju.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The formation of AlPO{sub 4} was unfavorable for that of nickel phosphides. • The phase compositions of nickel phosphide depended on the amount of reduced P. • Catalytic activity was determined by surface Ni site density and catalyst acidity. • HDO pathway was promoted by increasing P/Ni ratio and Ni content. • Nickel phosphide gave much higher carbon yield and lower H{sub 2} consumption than Ni. - Abstract: γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported nickel phosphides (mNi-Pn) were prepared by the TPR method and tested for the deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons. The effects of the P/Ni ratio (n = 1.0–2.5) and Ni content (m = 5–15 wt.%) in the precursors on their structure and performance were investigated. Ni/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also studied for comparison. It was found that the formation of AlPO{sub 4} in the precursor inhibited the reduction of phosphate and so the formation of nickel phosphides. With increasing the P/Ni ratio and Ni content, the Ni, Ni{sub 3}P, Ni{sub 12}P{sub 5} and Ni{sub 2}P phases orderly formed, accompanying with the increases of their particle size and the amount of weak acid sites (mainly due to P-OH group), while the CO uptake and the amount of medium strong acid sites (mainly related to Ni sites) reached maximum on 10%Ni-P1.5. In the deoxygenation reaction, compared with Ni/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the mNi-Pn catalysts showed much lower activities for decarbonylation, C−C hydrogenolysis and methanation due to the ligand and ensemble effects of P. The conversion and the selectivity to n-C11 and n-C12 hydrocarbons achieved maximum on 10%Ni-P 2.0 for the 10%Ni-Pn catalysts and on 8%Ni-P2.0 for the mNi-P2.0 catalysts, while the turnover frequency (TOF) of methyl laurate mainly increased with the P/Ni ratio and Ni content. We propose that TOF was influenced by the nickel phosphide phases, the catalyst acidity and the particle size as well as the synergetic effect between the Ni site and

  14. Upgrading of syngas hydrotreated fractionated oxidized bio-oil to transportation grade hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yan; Hassan, El Barbary; Guda, Vamshi; Wijayapala, Rangana; Steele, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrotreating of fractionated oxidized bio-oil with syngas was feasible. • Hydrocarbon properties were similar with all syngas H_2/CO molar ratios except viscosity. • Syngas with H_2/CO molar ratio of (4:6) produced the highest hydrocarbon yield. • The produced hydrocarbons were in the range of gasoline, jet fuel and diesel boiling points. - Abstract: Fast pyrolysis bio-oils have the potential to replace a part of transportation fuels obtained from fossil. Bio-oil can be successfully upgraded into stable hydrocarbons (gasoline, jet fuel and diesel) through a two-stage hydrodeoxygenation process. Consumption large amount of expensive hydrogen during this process is the major hurdle for commercialization of this technology. Applying syngas in the hydrotreating step can significantly reduce the cost of the whole process and make it competitive. In this study, four different models of syngas with different H_2 concentrations (H_2/CO molar ratios = 2:8, 4:6, 6:4 and 8:2) were used for the 1st-stage hydrotreating step of oxidized fractionated bio-oil (OFB). The 2nd-stage hydrocracking step was performed on the produced organic liquid products (OLPs) by using pure H_2 gas. The effect of syngas H_2 concentrations on the yields and properties of OLPs and the 2nd-stage hydrocarbons (HCs) was investigated. Physical and chemical properties of the 2nd-stage hydrocarbons were similar regardless syngas H_2 content, with the exception of the viscosity. Syngas with H_2/CO molar ratio of 4:6 gave significantly highest HCs yield (24.8 wt.%) based on the OFB. Simulated distillation analysis proved that all 2nd-stage hydrocarbons were mixture from a wide range boiling point fuels. These results also indicated that the successful 1st-stage syngas hydrotreating step was having the potential to produce different hydrocarbons.

  15. Analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil from view of bioremediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mracnova, R.; Sojak, L.; Kubinec, R.; Kraus, A.; Eszenyiova, A.; Ostrovsky, I.

    2002-01-01

    The pollution of the environment by petroleum hydrocarbons is the most often pollution of them all. Nevertheless, hydrocarbons present in environment can be not only of petroleum or anthropogenic origin, but of biogenic as well. Typically the hydrocarbons are presented in the environment as very complex mixtures of individual compounds with very different chemical structure, wide range of the boiling points (∼800 0 C) as well as with the wide range of the number of carbon atoms. Immediately they are spread in any environmental matrix the complex physical, chemical and biochemical reactions start. A lot of methods have been developed and new are permanently in progress for the monitoring and control of petroleum hydrocarbons contamination and/or soils bioremediation. Generally, all methods by whose the hydrocarbons contaminants are determined in GC-FID system do not satisfied recommendations for enough accurate and precise results. Hyphenation of capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detector operated in the selective ion monitoring mode essentially allows detailed specification of non-polar extractable hydrocarbons. Isoprenoid alkanes, alkylhomologues of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic alkanes hopanes-like were investigated as markers for recognition of petroleum and biogenic contamination. C 30 17α(H)21β(H)-hopane (C 30 -hopane) seems to be a suitable marker to identify hydrocarbons origin, to determine composting rates for nonpolar extractable compounds and to calculate real content of non-polar extractable compounds in final composting status on the assumption that the contamination is of mineral oil type. This is the survey into the results obtained in this field published in the literature as well as reached in our laboratory. (author)

  16. Hydrocarbon composition and distribution in a coastal region under influence of oil production in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Angela de L R; Carreira, Renato S; Hamacher, Claudia; Scofield, Arthur de L; Farias, Cassia O; Cordeiro, Lívia G M S; Luz, Letícia G; Baêta, Aída P; Kalas, Francine A

    2011-08-01

    Waters and sediments from the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazilian coast) were investigated for the presence and nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The region receives treated produced waters through a submarine outfall system serving the industrial district. The total dispersed/dissolved concentrations in the water column ranged from 10-50 ng L(-1) for ∑16PAH and 5-10 μg L(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the sediments, hydrocarbon concentrations were low (0.5-10 ng g(-1)for ∑16PAH and 0.01-5.0 μg g(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons) and were consistent with the low organic carbon content of the local sandy sediments. These data indicate little and/or absence of anthropogenic influence on hydrocarbon distribution in water and sediment. Therefore, the measured values may be taken as background values for the region and can be used as future reference following new developments of the petroleum industry in the Potiguar Basin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  18. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  19. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  1. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  2. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  3. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH. MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products. Quantitative determination (qNMR has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination. Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 – 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation <6% and a limit of detection <0.1 g/100 g. The applicability of the method was proven by analysing 27 authentic samples with MOSH and MOAH contents in the range of 90-109 g/100 g and 0.02-1.10 g/100 g, respectively. It is important to distinguish this new NMR-approach from the hyphenated liquid chromatography-gas chromatography methodology previously used to characterize MOSH/MOAH amounts in cosmetic products. For mineral hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer

  4. Building global models for fat and total protein content in raw milk based on historical spectroscopic data in the visible and short-wave near infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenteva, Anastasiia; Galyanin, Vladislav; Savenkova, Elena; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2016-07-15

    A large set of fresh cow milk samples collected from many suppliers over a large geographical area in Russia during a year has been analyzed by optical spectroscopy in the range 400-1100 nm in accordance with previously developed scatter-based technique. The global (i.e. resistant to seasonal, genetic, regional and other variations of the milk composition) models for fat and total protein content, which were built using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, exhibit satisfactory prediction performances enabling their practical application in the dairy. The root mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.09 and 0.10 for fat and total protein content, respectively. The issues of raw milk analysis and multivariate modelling based on the historical spectroscopic data have been considered and approaches to the creation of global models and their transfer between the instruments have been proposed. Availability of global models should significantly facilitate the dissemination of optical spectroscopic methods for the laboratory and in-line quantitative milk analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Genotype by environment interaction for carcass traits and intramuscular fat content in heavy Iberian pigs fattened in two different free-range systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. García Casco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotype by environment interaction (G×E is a potential source of reduced efficiency in genetic improvement programs in livestock. The objective of the current work consisted of checking the existence of G×E interaction in carcass traits and in intramuscular fat content (IMF in Iberian pigs fattened in two free-range systems. Genetic component and estimated breeding values (EBV of the percentage of hams, shoulders and loins and IMF in loin were obtained from records of 4,348 and 1,818 pigs fattened in campo (C and montanera (M systems, respectively. A multitrait model where the performances of each system are considered as different traits was implemented. Three selection indexes were built with different treatments about the quality trait, two of them based in the optimal trait theory. The Pearson correlation between EBV and indexes and the Spearman correlation between the rankings of progenies of 21 boars fattened in both systems were calculated. Heritability results were different in both systems (h2 range from 0.43 to 0.66 and from 0.24 to 0.33 in C and M system, respectively and genetic correlation of same traits expressed in the two systems also pointed out to a weak G×E interaction (0.64, 0.67 and 0.66 in hams, shoulders and IMF, respectively. Pearson and Spearman correlations were always significantly different to 1. The obtained results advised to consider this G×E interaction in the analysis model of a breeding program focused on free range production system and to include IMF in the index selection assuming an optimum range for this quality trait, in order to avoid negative effects of selection for carcass performances.

  6. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: are treatability and ecotoxicity endpoints related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, S.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if there is a relationship between biotreatability and ecotoxicity endpoints in a wide range of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, including medium and heavy crude oil-contaminated flare pit wastes and lubrication oil contaminated soil, research was conducted. Each test material was analyzed for pH, water repellency, electrical conductivity, available N and P, total extractable hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and toxicity to seedling emergence, root elongation in barley, lettuce and canola, earthworm survival and luminescent bacteria (Microtox), prior to, and following three months of bioremediation in the laboratory. By monitoring soil respiration, progress of the bioremediation process and determination of a treatment endpoint were assessed. The time required to attain a treatment endpoint under laboratory conditions can range from 30 days to 100 days depending on the concentration of hydrocarbons and degree of weathering. Most flare pits are biotreatable, averaging a loss of 25-30% of hydrocarbons during bioremediation. Once a treatment endpoint is achieved, residual hydrocarbons contents almost always exceeds Alberta Tier I criteria for mineral oil and grease. As a result of bioremediation treatments, hydrophobicity is often reduced from severe to low. Many flare pit materials are still moderately to extremely toxic after reaching a treatment endpoint. (Abstract only)

  7. The analysis of hydrocarbons by dual-energy gamma-ray densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.; Reynolds, P.W.; Lipsett, J.J.

    1985-11-01

    Various hydrocarbons have been analyzed noninvasively by dual-energy gamma-ray densitometry. The hydrogen/carbon atomic ratio was deduced for pure hydrocarbons while for heavy oil process samples, the ash content was inferred

  8. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures on freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge pyrolysis on freely dissolved (Cfree) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in biochars. Four sewage sludges with varying properties and PAH contents were pyrolysed at temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C or 700 °C. Cfree PAH contents were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM). The contents of Cfree PAHs in the sludges ranged from 262 to 294 ng L(-1). Sewage sludge-derived biochars have from 2.3- to 3.4-times lower Cfree PAH contents comparing to corresponding sewage sludges. The Cfree PAH contents in the biochars ranged between 81 ng L(-1) and 126 ng L(-1). As regards agricultural use of biochar, the lower contents of Cfree PAHs in the biochars compared to the sewage sludges makes biochar a safer material than sewage sludge in terms of PAH contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  10. Development of an in-situ diagnostic for the measurement of the hydrogen content of amorphous hydrocarbon layers in fusion devices; Entwicklung einer In-situ-Messmethode zur Bestimmung des Wasserstoffgehalts amorpher Kohlenwasserstoffschichten in Fusionsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrek, F.

    2008-07-15

    A diagnostic method, the laser-induced thermal desorption spectroscopy (LDS), is developed to measure in situ the hydrogen inventory in the surface of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments. Its capabilities will be demonstrated in TEXTOR. In LDS, during the plasma discharge a laser beam is used to heat a spot on a surface close to the plasma to a temperature of 1400 to 2100 K to a depth of 100 {mu}m. Trapped hydrogen will be released into the plasma where it emits line radiation. The emitted H{sub a}-light is quantitatively measured. The amount of released hydrogen is calculated from the intensity of this emission using conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff}. The laser light (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm) is conducted via light fibres. At TEXTOR, a 5 mm{sup 2} sized homogeneous laser spot is created with a pulse duration of 1.5 ms, and an Energy of 5 J, typically. Below the laser spot a volume of at most 1 mm{sup 3} is desorbed. The generated temperature is calculated numerically and indirectly deduced from surface changings. Depending on the conditions during the layer formation the hydrogen content of the hydrocarbon layer will vary and different fractions of the released molecules (H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) are created during the laser heating. The release of atomic hydrogen by laser desorption was not found. The emitted light is measured by means of narrow-band interference filters and a CCD-camera. The fraction of the light emission which lies outside the observation volume is estimated using simulations of the emission by the neutral gas transport Monte Carlo code EIRENE for each molecular fraction. Conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff} were measured in various reference plasmas (T{sub e}=22-30 eV, n{sub e}=1-11 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} and T{sub e}=50-74 eV, n{sub e}=1-5 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) by desorbing prepared graphite samples which release a known amount of hydrogen with a known molecular distribution. LDS measurements were carried out in TEXTOR at

  11. Correlation between endogenous glutathione content and sensitivity of cultured human skin cells to radiation at defined wavelengths in the solar ultraviolet range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, R.M.; Pidoux, M.

    1988-01-01

    Glutathione depletion of cultured human skin fibroblasts by treatment with buthionine-S.R.-sulfoximine (BSO) sensitises them to solar UV radiation. We now show that there is a close quantitative correlation between cellular glutathione content and sensitivity to radiation at 365 nm. A weaker correlation is observed when cells are depleted of glutathione using diethylmaleimide. Both fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes derived from the same foreskin biopsy are sensitised to radiation at 313 nm by glutathione depletion. At low to intermediate fluence levels, 10 mM cysteamine present during irradiation at 302 nm is able to almost completely reverse the sensitising effects of glutathione depletion suggesting that the endogenous thiol protects against radiation at this wavelength by a free radical scavenging mechanism. At 313 nm, the sensitisation is not reversed by cysteamine suggesting that glutathione plays a more specific role in protection against radiation at longer wavelengths. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A fibroblasts (excision deficient) are also sensitised to radiation at 313 and 365 nm by depletion of glutathione. The results provide further evidence that endogenous glutathione is involved in protecting human skin cells against a wide range of solar radiation damage. (author)

  12. MAPPING PROVISION OF LANDSCAPE-ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY FOR AREAS OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND TRANSPORTATION OF HYDROCARBON RAW MATERIALS WITH USING REMOTE SENSING DATA AND GIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Geldieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the wide range of applications at all stages of development of hydrocarbon deposits mapping method. On the model region – Karachaganak gas condensate field to demonstrate the use of modern geoinformation technologies in creating a series of inventory and assessment of landscape-ecological maps, maps of general scientific content, maps application and purpose.

  13. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  14. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  16. Extraction of hydrocarbons from high-maturity Marcellus Shale using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, Palma B.; Philip A. Candela,; Wenlu Zhu,; Alan J. Kaufman,

    2015-01-01

    Shale is now commonly exploited as a hydrocarbon resource. Due to the high degree of geochemical and petrophysical heterogeneity both between shale reservoirs and within a single reservoir, there is a growing need to find more efficient methods of extracting petroleum compounds (crude oil, natural gas, bitumen) from potential source rocks. In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) was used to extract n-aliphatic hydrocarbons from ground samples of Marcellus shale. Samples were collected from vertically drilled wells in central and western Pennsylvania, USA, with total organic carbon (TOC) content ranging from 1.5 to 6.2 wt %. Extraction temperature and pressure conditions (80 °C and 21.7 MPa, respectively) were chosen to represent approximate in situ reservoir conditions at sample depth (1920−2280 m). Hydrocarbon yield was evaluated as a function of sample matrix particle size (sieve size) over the following size ranges: 1000−500 μm, 250−125 μm, and 63−25 μm. Several methods of shale characterization including Rock-Eval II pyrolysis, organic petrography, Brunauer−Emmett−Teller surface area, and X-ray diffraction analyses were also performed to better understand potential controls on extraction yields. Despite high sample thermal maturity, results show that supercritical CO2 can liberate diesel-range (n-C11 through n-C21) n-aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total quantity of extracted, resolvable n-aliphatic hydrocarbons ranges from approximately 0.3 to 12 mg of hydrocarbon per gram of TOC. Sieve size does have an effect on extraction yield, with highest recovery from the 250−125 μm size fraction. However, the significance of this effect is limited, likely due to the low size ranges of the extracted shale particles. Additional trends in hydrocarbon yield are observed among all samples, regardless of sieve size: 1) yield increases as a function of specific surface area (r2 = 0.78); and 2) both yield and surface area increase with increasing

  17. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  18. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  19. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  20. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  3. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments near the Pearl River estuary in the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xuelu; Chen Shaoyong; Xie Xueliang; Long Aimin; Ma Fujun

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment samples at 4 sites along an offshore transect from outer continental shelf off the Pearl River estuary to the shelf slope region of the northern South China Sea, have been analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and non-aromatic hydrocarbons. TOC, TN and EOM show distinct spatial variations. Their highest values are all recorded at the shelf slope region. EOM varies from 18.70-38.58 μg g -1 dry sediment and accounts for 0.20-0.72% of the TOC contents. The non-aromatic hydrocarbons are an important fraction of EOM. Their contents range from 3.43-7.06 μg g -1 dry sediment. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15-38 are identified. They derive from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in different proportions. Results of isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. - Anthropogenic activities have influences on the composition of non-aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of the northern South China Sea outer continental shelf

  4. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  5. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  6. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  7. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  8. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  9. Forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the formation of sewage sludge toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate to what degree polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determines sewage sludge toxicity in relation to Heterocypris incongruens. Six differing sewage sludges with increasing contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were selected for the present study. As well as total PAH content, the content of the potentially bioavailable fraction was also determined in the sewage sludges using a method of mild-solvent extraction (with n-butanol). The PAH content was also calculated in the sewage sludge pore water by the equilibrium partitioning method. The total PAH content in the sewage sludges studied were in the range 3.60 to 27.95 mg kg -1 . The contribution of the n-butanol extracted fraction was in the range 38.7 to 75.4%. In the group of individual PAHs, 4- and 5-ring compounds had the highest content in the potentially bioavailable group. H. incongruens mortality in the range 6.7 to 100%, depending both on the sewage sludge and the dose applied. An increase of the sewage sludge dose usually resulted in an increase in toxicity. At the highest dose, a 100% mortality of H. incongruens was found in half of the sludges. The lowest dose, irrespective of the sludge type, caused over 40% growth inhibition. However, the results obtained did not allow for the establishing of an unambiguous relationship between various sludge toxicity levels and the content of potentially bio-available PAHs. In some cases only, the extraction using n-butanol explained the high difference in toxicity despite a slight differentiation in the PAH content

  10. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  11. Application of fission track analysis to hydrocarbon exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Marshallsea, S.; Tingate, P.; Laslett, G.M.; Hegarty, K.A.; Lovering, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature range over which fission tracks in apatite show observable annealing effects coincides with that responsible for the maximum generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Work is currently in progress in a number of Australian and overseas sedimentary basins, applying Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA) to investigate the thermal evolution of these hydrocarbon prospective regions

  12. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. OvidSP Medline-to-PubMed search filter translation: a methodology for extending search filter range to include PubMed's unique content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J; Sladek, Ruth M

    2013-07-02

    PubMed translations of OvidSP Medline search filters offer searchers improved ease of access. They may also facilitate access to PubMed's unique content, including citations for the most recently published biomedical evidence. Retrieving this content requires a search strategy comprising natural language terms ('textwords'), rather than Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We describe a reproducible methodology that uses a validated PubMed search filter translation to create a textword-only strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed's unique heart failure literature. We translated an OvidSP Medline heart failure search filter for PubMed and established version equivalence in terms of indexed literature retrieval. The PubMed version was then run within PubMed to identify citations retrieved by the filter's MeSH terms (Heart failure, Left ventricular dysfunction, and Cardiomyopathy). It was then rerun with the same MeSH terms restricted to searching on title and abstract fields (i.e. as 'textwords'). Citations retrieved by the MeSH search but not the textword search were isolated. Frequency analysis of their titles/abstracts identified natural language alternatives for those MeSH terms that performed less effectively as textwords. These terms were tested in combination to determine the best performing search string for reclaiming this 'lost set'. This string, restricted to searching on PubMed's unique content, was then combined with the validated PubMed translation to extend the filter's performance in this database. The PubMed heart failure filter retrieved 6829 citations. Of these, 834 (12%) failed to be retrieved when MeSH terms were converted to textwords. Frequency analysis of the 834 citations identified five high frequency natural language alternatives that could improve retrieval of this set (cardiac failure, cardiac resynchronization, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and LV dysfunction). Together these terms reclaimed

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  18. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  19. Identifying specific interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Malloci, Giuliano; Porceddu, Ignazio

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to be ubiquitous for more than twenty years, yet no single species in this class has been identified in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to date. The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and forthcoming Herschel observations in the far infrared spectral range will offer a unique way out of this embarrassing impasse

  20. Producing light hydrocarbons by destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlen, J H

    1928-06-20

    A method of obtaining light hydrocarbons from fuels and natural or industrial carbonaceous materials by cracking under pressure from 5 to 200 atmospheres and within a temperature range of 200 to 1,000/sup 0/C, the cracking operation being assisted by the presence of catalysts such as metallic halides, simultaneously, with hydrogenation by means of nascent hydrogen in the reaction chamber.

  1. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.75 x 107 to 0.98 x 107 ...

  2. Evaluation of environmental samples containing heavy hydrocarbon components in environmental forensic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raia, J.C.; Blakley, C.R.; Fuex, A.N.; Villalanti, D.C.; Fahrenthold, P.D. [Triton Anal Corp, Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This article presents a procedure to evaluate and characterize environmental samples containing mixtures of hydrocarbons over a wide boiling range of materials that include fuels and other products used in commerce. The range of the method extends to the higher boiling and heavier molecular weight hydrocarbon products in the range of motor oil, bunker fuel, and heavier residue materials. The procedure uses the analytical laboratory technique of high-temperature simulated distillation along with mathematical regression of the analytical data to estimate the relative contribution of individual products in mixtures of hydrocarbons present in environmental samples. An analytical technique to determine hydrocarbon-type distributions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with nitric oxide ionization spectrometry evaluation is also presented. This type of analysis allows complex hydrocarbon mixtures to be classified by their chemical composition, or types of hydrocarbons that include paraffins, cycloparaffins, monoaromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Characteristic hydrocarbon patterns for example, in the relative distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are valuable for determining the potential origin of materials present in environmental samples. These methods provide quantitative data for hydrocarbon components in mixtures as a function of boiling range and 'hydrocarbon fingerprints' of the types of materials present. This information is valuable in assessing environmental impacts of hydrocarbons at contaminated sites and establishing the liabilities and cost allocations for responsible parties.

  3. 高级醇和烃类化合物含量对甲醇水混溶性的影响%Impact of the Contents of Higher Alcohols and Hydrocarbon Compounds of Methanol upon the Methanol-Water Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟艳春

    2012-01-01

    基于工业甲醇中高级醇、烃类化合物与水以一定比例混合后澄清度的差异,在规定的条件下,利用气相色谱法,分析了高级醇、烃类化合物含量的高低对甲醇水混溶性的影响.试验结果表明:高级醇含量增加,甲醇的水混溶性变差;烃类物质含量越高,甲醇的水混溶性越差.%Methanol is an important and widely used raw material in basic organic chemistry. A gas chromatography test was done under specified conditions to show the impact of the amount of higher alcohol and hydrocarbon compounds upon the water compatibility of methanol. The result showed that the existence of higher alcohol and hydrocarbon compounds in methanol makes it not clear, which great affected the quality of the product, besides, it affected the adjustment of the process parameters.

  4. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  6. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  7. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  8. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  9. Influence of molecular clustering on the interpretation of diffractograms of hydrocarbon films from tokamak T-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neverov, V. S., E-mail: vs-never@hotmail.com [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Tokamak Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Voloshinov, V. V., E-mail: vladimir.voloshinov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Science, Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, A. B., E-mail: kukushkin-ab@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Tokamak Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Tarasov, A. S., E-mail: tarasov.alexey@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Science, Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The influence of molecular clustering on the formerly suggested interpretation of diffraction patterns of hydrocarbon films formed in the vacuum vessel of the tokamak T-10 is analyzed numerically. The simulation of clustering of simple hydrocarbon molecules C(D, H){sub 4}, C{sub 2}(D, H){sub 4}, and C{sub 6}(D, H){sub 6} and molecules composed of curved graphene (fullerenes and toroidal nanotubes) is carried out with the rigid body molecular dynamics method. It is shown that formerly neglected atomic correlations C–C and C–D(H) in the amorphous hydrocarbon component decrease the calculated values of the scattered intensity in the range of scattering vector modulus 5 < q < 20 nm{sup –1} because of homogenization of scatters on the spatial scale of ∼1 nm. The allowance for these correlations does not change the diffraction patterns in the range q > 20 nm{sup –1}. The results suggest the necessity to introduce to the procedure of determining the structural content of the films, similar to those from the tokamak T-10, the clusters formed by the van der Waals adhesion of hydrocarbon molecules to “graphene” nanoparticles. This simplifies the mathematical optimization to the former level of complexity—but for an extended ensemble of objects—and makes it possible to calculate the diffraction patterns of these objects using the distributed computing resources. A modified algorithm of structural content identification on the basis of joint X-ray and neutron diffractometry is suggested.

  10. Performance estimation of ejector cycles using heavier hydrocarbon refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperski, Jacek; Gil, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. with thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbons was prepared. Investigation was focused on nine hydrocarbons: propane, butane, iso-butane, pentane, iso-pentane, hexane, heptane and octane. A series of calculations was carried out for the generator temperature between 70 and 200 °C, with assumed temperatures of evaporation 10 °C and condensation 40 °C. Calculation results show that none of the hydrocarbons enables high efficiency of a cycle in a wide range of temperature. Each hydrocarbon has its own maximal entrainment ratio at its individual temperature of optimum. Temperatures of entrainment ratios optimum increase according to the hydrocarbon heaviness with simultaneous increase of entrainment ratio peak values. Peak values of the COP do not increase according to the hydrocarbons heaviness. The highest COP = 0.32 is achieved for iso-butane at 102 °C and the COP = 0.28 for pentane at 165 °C. Heptane and octane can be ignored. - Highlights: • Advantages of use of higher hydrocarbons as ejector refrigerants were presumed. • Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. (1999) was prepared. • Optimal temperature range of vapor generation for each hydrocarbon was calculated

  11. Influence of deuterium content on tensile behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material in the temperature range of ambient to 300 degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bind, A.K.; Singh, R.N.; Chakravartty, J.K.; Dhandharia, Priyesh; Ghosh, Agnish; More, Nitin S.; Chhatre, A.G.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2011-08-01

    Tensile properties of autoclaved zirconium-2.5 wt. % niobium pressure tube material were evaluated by uniaxial tension tests at temperatures between 25 and 300 degC and under strain-rates of 1.075 x 10 -4 /s. Six number of Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube spools of length 130 mm were obtained from pressure tube number 19-2557-2. Five spools were polished with abrasive paper to remove the oxide layer. These spools were gaseously charged with controlled amount of deuterium. The target deuterium concentrations were 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 wppm of hydrogen equivalent. Ten samples were machined by EDM wire cutting from every spool. The tensile specimen axis was oriented along longitudinal direction of the tube. Metallographic examination of the deuterium charged samples suggested that the deuterides were predominantly circumferential deuterides. Analysis of tensile results showed that both yield and ultimate tensile strengths of this alloy decreased monotonically with increasing test temperatures. The tensile ductility decreased marginally with increase in test temperature from ambient to 300 degC. It was also observed that both strength and ductility appear to be unaffected by deuterium content at all temperatures, thereby suggesting that at least up to 200 wppm (Heq.) of deuterium tensile properties are not influenced by deuterium. (author)

  12. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  13. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  14. Impact of the Prestige oil spill on marsh soils: Relationship between heavy metal, sulfide and total petroleum hydrocarbon contents at the Villarrube and Lires marshes (Galicia, Spain); Impacto de la marea negra del Prestige en suelos de marisma: relacion entre los contenidos de metales pesados, sulfuros e hidrocarburos en las marismas de Villarrube y Lires (Galicia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, L.; Marcet, P.; Covelo, E.F.; Vega, F.A. [Department of Vegetable Biology and Soil Science, Vigo (Spain); Fernandez-Feal, L.; Fernandez-Feal, C. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Ferrol (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the Prestige oil spill on the total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metal contents of soils in two marshes (Lires and Villarrube, Galicia, Spain) and the relationship between their oxidation-reduction potential and the solubility of heavy metals with sulfide and sulfate contents. Soil samples were taken from polluted and unpolluted areas and their petroleum hydrocarbon contents, heavy metal contents and other chemical characteristics were measured. The soils affected by the oil spill show remarkable contents of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V. The Lires marsh soils are more affected by fuel oil than Villarrube marsh. The effects of the contaminating agents on the soils reach distances of up to 500 m from the coastline. In the first 400 m, there are important spatial variations because the fuel oil penetrated into the soils through tidal action and not directly. The Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V contents of polluted soils were between 50 and 200 times higher than those of their unpolluted counterparts and the background concentrations in Galician coastal sediments. In the case of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V, their origin through the fuel oil was corroborated by the high correlation (r > 0.90) between the concentrations of these metals and the total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the polluted soils, which shows the combined addition of these metals through the fuel oil. [Spanish] Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar el efecto de la marea negra del buque tanque Prestige en el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados en suelos de dos marismas (Lires y Villarrube, Galicia, Espana) y la relacion entre el potencial de oxidacion-reduccion y la solubilidad de los metales pesados con los contenidos de sulfuros y de sulfatos. Se tomaron muestras de suelos de las zonas contaminadas y no contaminadas y se determinaron diversas caracteristicas quimicas, el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados. Los

  15. Occurrence and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface soils from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Rushdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil particles contain a variety of anthropogenic and natural organic components derived from many sources such as industrial and traffic fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial biota. The organic contents of soil and sand from the Arabian region have not fully characterized. Thus, samples of fine soil particles (sieved to <125 μM were collected from the Riyadh area in November 2006 (late summer and February 2007 (late winter. The samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane/hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS in order to characterize the chemical composition and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The results showed that both anthropogenic and natural biogenic inputs were the major sources of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in these extracts. Vehicular emission products and discarded plastics were the major anthropogenic sources in the fine particles of the soils and ranged from 64% to 96% in November 2006 and from 70% to 92% in February 2007. Their tracers were n-alkanes, hopanes, sterane, plasticizers and UCM. Vegetation was also a major natural source of hydrocarbon compounds in samples ranging from ∼0% to18% in November 2006 and from 1% to 13% in February 2007 and included n-alkanes and triterpenoids.

  16. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  17. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  18. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  19. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  20. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  1. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  2. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  3. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  4. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  5. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1978-06-01

    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  6. Water pollution potential of mineral oils with high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extracts); Untersuchungen zur Wassergefaehrdung durch Mineraloele mit hohen Gehalten an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (Heizoel Schwer und Extrakte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, G. [Mobil Schmierstoff GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    A data base on highly aromatic mineral oils has been compiled to classify mineral oil products according to their water-pollution potential (water hazard class or Wassergefaehrdungsklasse, WGK). This activity has been undertaken through the Commission for Water Hazardous Materials (Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe, KBwS). In this special case, highly aromatic mineral oils containing a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, PAK) were evaluated. A test method for measuring the elution potential of PAK into water was developed on petroleum products with high viscosity and high freeze point. This method was applied to determine the solubility of 23 PAK (including 16 PAK according to EPA 610 and 6 PAK according to the German drinking water regulation (Trinkwasserverordnung, TVO)) from heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extract in the aqueous phase. For the 6 PAK, according to TVO, a sum limit of 0,2 {mu}g/l in drinking water is permitted by German legislation. This limit was not exceeded in any of the water phases examined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Einstufung von Mineraloelprodukten in die Wassergefaehrdungsklassen (WGK) durch die Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe ist es notwendig, Basisdaten zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Im speziellen Fall handelt es sich um die Bewertung von Mineraloelen, die sich durch einen hohen Gehalt an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) auszeichnen. Zur Eluierbarkeit von PAK`s aus Produkten mit hoher Viskosiaet bzw. mit hohem Stockpunkt wurde eine Pruefmethode entwickelt. Diese Methode wurde zur Bestimmung der Loeslichkeit von 23 PAK`s (16 PAK`s nach EPA-Liste incl. 6 PAK`s der TVO) aus den Mineraloelen Heizoel Schwer und Neutralextrakt in der Wasserphase eingesetzt. Fuer die PAK der TVO ist in der TVO ein Summengrenzwert von 0,2 {mu}g/l Trinkwasser angegeben. Dieser Grenzwert wurde in keiner der untersuchten Wasserphasen ueberschritten. (orig.)

  7. Study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of major rivers in the Czech Republic using biliary metabolite in chub, Leuciscus cephalus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahova, Jana; Leontovycova, Drahomira; Kodes, Vit; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of the major rivers in the Czech Republic using 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) content in chub bile as a biomarker. The highest concentration of 1-OHP was found in the Otava River at Topělec (80.5 ng mg protein(-1)); the lowest content of 1-OHP was found in the Vltava at Zelčín (9.6 ng mg protein(-1)). At all sites, bottom sediment samples were collected and analyzed for PAH content. The PAH content ranged between 1.2 and 15.2 mg kg dry mass(-1) at all sites. Statistically significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) between biliary 1-OHP and sediment PAH content were found. Correlation coefficients for total and individual priority PAHs ranged from 0.63 to 0.77.

  8. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate

  9. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  10. [Research on Oil Sands Spectral Characteristics and Oil Content by Remote Sensing Estimation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jin-feng; Xing, Li-xin; Pan, Jun; Shan, Xuan-long; Liang, Li-heng; Fan, Rui-xue

    2015-04-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a proven technology to be widely used in identification and exploration of hydrocarbon energy sources with high spectral resolution for detail diagnostic absorption characteristics of hydrocarbon groups. The most prominent regions for hydrocarbon absorption bands are 1,740-1,780, 2,300-2,340 and 2,340-2,360 nm by the reflectance of oil sands samples. These spectral ranges are dominated by various C-H overlapping overtones and combination bands. Meanwhile, there is relatively weak even or no absorption characteristics in the region from 1,700 to 1,730 nm in the spectra of oil sands samples with low bitumen content. With the increase in oil content, in the spectral range of 1,700-1,730 nm the obvious hydrocarbon absorption begins to appear. The bitumen content is the critical parameter for oil sands reserves estimation. The absorption depth was used to depict the response intensity of the absorption bands controlled by first-order overtones and combinations of the various C-H stretching and bending fundamentals. According to the Pearson and partial correlation relationships of oil content and absorption depth dominated by hydrocarbon groups in 1,740-1,780, 2,300-2,340 and 2,340-2,360 nm wavelength range, the scheme of association mode was established between the intensity of spectral response and bitumen content, and then unary linear regression(ULR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) methods were employed to model the equation between absorption depth attributed to various C-H bond and bitumen content. There were two calibration equations in which ULR method was employed to model the relationship between absorption depth near 2,350 nm region and bitumen content and PLSR method was developed to model the relationship between absorption depth of 1,758, 2,310, 2,350 nm regions and oil content. It turned out that the calibration models had good predictive ability and high robustness and they could provide the scientific

  11. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  12. Process and catalyst for the catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1939-10-27

    A process is disclosed for converting hydrocarbon oils of higher than gasoline end boiling point, into large yields of motor fuel of high anti-knock value and substantial yields of normally gaseous readily polymerizable olefins, which comprises subjecting said hydrocarbon oils at a temperature within the approximate range of 425 to 650/sup 0/C. to contact with a catalytic material comprising hydrated silica and hydrated zirconia substantially free from alkali metal compounds.

  13. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  14. Synthesis of Biokerosene through Electrochemical Hydrogenation of Terpene Hydrocarbons from Turpentine Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedi Hudaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia possesses great potential for developing renewable resources as alternative fuels. For example, turpentine oil obtained from Pinus merkusii, which contains mostly monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16. The oil is highly suitable to be processed for biokerosene or even jet biofuel. It consists of hydrocarbons within the range of C10 to C15. However, it contains insufficient H and thus needs to be upgraded. In the present work, electrochemical hydrogenation was used for upgrading. In the electrochemical cell, stainless steel, silver, and carbon were used alternately for the anode, while copper and silver Raschig rings were used for the cathode. An electrolyte solution of cuprous ammonium formate was utilized not only as a source of H but also to draw the unsaturated hydrocarbons into the aqueous phase. The electrolyte : oil ratio (up to 2:1, electrolyte concentration (between 0.4 and 2 M and reaction time were varied throughout the experiments. The bromine number (unsaturation level of the turpentine oil, which was initially 1,86 (mole Br2/mole, was lowered significantly to 0.69-0.90. Promising increase of smoke point values were observed from 11 mm to 16-24 mm, indicating a higher H content of the processed oil, thus making it suitable as a substitute for petroleum kerosene.

  15. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  16. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  17. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  18. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  19. Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in water and sediment in Sao Sebastiao, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanardi, Eliete; Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Miranda, Luiz Bruner de; Weber, Rolf Roland

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in surface water and the origin and distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from the surface bottom sediments. The main objective was to verify the anthropogenic contribution on the adjacent inner shelf of Sao Sebastiao, taking into account the distribution of hydrographic properties and knowledge of the main circulation. The DDPH concentration range of the 20 samples were from 0.35 to 2.50 m u g . L -1 , characterising this region as slightly affected by the contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Considering sediment hydrocarbon results, sites located in the inner shelf were divided into three groups: one with mainly biogenic hydrocarbons, a second one with biogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons and a third with significant contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results show an influence of human activities in the Sao Sebastiao Channel on the surrounding areas of the inner shelf. (Author)

  20. Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in water and sediment in Sao Sebastiao, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Miranda, Luiz Bruner de; Weber, Rolf Roland [Miami Univ., RSMAS/NAC, Miami, FL (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This study describes the dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in surface water and the origin and distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from the surface bottom sediments. The main objective was to verify the anthropogenic contribution on the adjacent inner shelf of Sao Sebastiao, taking into account the distribution of hydrographic properties and knowledge of the main circulation. The DDPH concentration range of the 20 samples were from 0.35 to 2.50 {sup m}u{sup g}. L{sup -1}, characterising this region as slightly affected by the contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Considering sediment hydrocarbon results, sites located in the inner shelf were divided into three groups: one with mainly biogenic hydrocarbons, a second one with biogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons and a third with significant contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results show an influence of human activities in the Sao Sebastiao Channel on the surrounding areas of the inner shelf. (Author)

  1. Structural segregation of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon regions in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, K.M.; Huseynov, A.N.; Hajiyev, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Structural segregation allows identify the earth crust blocks according to their geological setting and structural history conductive for hydrocarbon generation and their entrapment in the sedimentary fill reservoirs. Since then there has been a need to design a new tectonic map of petroleum and hydrocarbons potential systems in Azerbaijan embracing both on- and offshore areas. Map's legend designed upon above mentioned concepts and principles has made it possible to evaluate the role of individual stratigraphic units in hydrocarbon generation and its entrapment, as well as in recognition of regional structural criteria of the hydrocarbon bearing potential of different structural patterns. Tectonic map of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon bearing on and offshore areas in Azerbaijan for the first time contained a wide range of information related to structural criteria of hydrocarbon bearing potential, sedimentary fill's structural architecture, its thickness, both timing of their formation stages and basement consolidation, its subsidence depth, as well as hydrocarbon deposit areal and vertical distribution across individual regions. This map was considered to be of important implication both for the petroleum geoscience and petroleum industry endeavors.

  2. Risk analysis associated with petroleum hydrocarbons: is everything running smoothly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum products represent one of the main sources of environmental contamination, and these products are complex, composed of several hundred individual hydrocarbons. The evaluation of the risks associated with petroleum products is often limited by certain specific parameters such as benzene. The petroleum hydrocarbons running from C(10) to C(50) are not often integrated in an analysis of the toxological risks since the toxological characterization of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons is difficult to carry out. There exist in the United States two approaches that were developed recently that allow the integration of various hydrocarbons comprising a mixture. In this presentation, two of these approaches are described and compared. An overview of these approaches related to Canadian regulatory bodies is included, and a case study completes the account. The two approaches that are most well known in this area are: 1) that of the Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection, and 2) that of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group. The integration of petroleum hydrocarbons in a quantitative evaluation of their toxological risk is possible by present methods. This integration allows a reduction in the uncertainty associated with the use of an integrating parameter in the case of these petroleum hydrocarbons in the C(10) to the C(50) range

  3. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2018-04-03

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  4. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-09-26

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuels and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  5. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  6. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  7. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  8. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  9. Gas condensate--raw material for producing liquid paraffin hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyeva, R.B.; Alikishi-Zade, G.Yu.; Kuliyev, A.M.; Leonidov, A.N.; Pereverzev, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of efficient utilization of gas condensates as raw material for removal of a valuable product, liquid paraffins, is examined. A classification of gas condensates is given which is used as raw material for removing these hydrocarbons: gas condensate with high content of n-alkanes (25-40 mass percent), with average content (18-25 mass percent), with low content (12-18 mass percent), light weight fractions compositions, which do not contain fractions up to 200/sup 0/, and also, content ofless than 12% n-alkanes. Gas condensate I-III groups are 30% of the total reserve of gas condensate. Liquid paraffins hydrocarbons, produced from fractions of diesel fuel, which has been removed from Shatlyk gas condensate under conditions which simulate virtual processes of caramide deparaffinization meet all requirements without additional refining.

  10. Investigation of sulfur-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in coal derived tars of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    1999-07-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize sulphur forms in coal derived tars from pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal and lignite. The pyrolysis tars were analyzed for content of polycyclic aromatic sulfur hydrocarbons (PASH). 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Analysis of monoterpene hydrocarbons in rural atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, M.W.; Westberg, H.H.; Zimmerman, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of monoterpenes from a rural forested site in the northwestern United States is described. Use of a glass capillary column provided excellent resolution of the hydrocarbons. Increased sensitivity and specificity of the mass spectrometer detector over the flame ionization detector were demonstrated for trace (parts per trillion) atmospheric hydrocarbons. As little as 10 ppt of compound was detectable in 100-cc air samples. Two analytical methods (cryogenic and solid adsorbent--Tenax-GC) were used in the collection of ambient air. Analytical results from the two techniques compared very well. Rural concentrations of the monoterpenes varied considerably depending upon location within the forest canopy. The concentration of individual species never exceeded 1 ppb of compound during a 10-month sampling period. The monoterpene total for all samples fell in the range of 0.5- to 16-ppb compound for C 10 terpene

  12. A comparison of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 9} hydrocarbon compositions of vehicle fuels and urban air in Dublin, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, B M; Marnane, I S [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Hourly roadside hydrocarbon concentrations were measured over a six-week period at a heavily trafficked junction in Dublin city centre. Samples of ten typical leaded and unleaded petrol fuels used in Irish vehicles were also collected and their hydrocarbon compositions determined. The measured ambient hydrocarbon concentrations are presented, as are the properties of each of the analysed fuels. Comparison of the ambient hydrocarbon concentrations and the fuel hydrocarbon composition reveals a strong correlation for most hydrocarbons, except those compounds that were wholly combustion derived (i.e. not present in the fuel). Different characteristics were noted for aromatics, alkanes and alkenes. The comparison of roadside ambient air and fuel hydrocarbon content agrees well with other studies that have compared fuel content and exhaust composition. The relative impacts of exhaust and evaporative emissions on roadside hydrocarbon concentrations are apparent. (Author)

  13. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  14. Reservoir petrophysics and hydrocarbon occurrences of the Bahariya Formation, Alamein-Yidma fields, Western Desert of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz Younes, Mohamed [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Geology Dept.

    2012-12-15

    The Bahariya Formation of Cenomanian age is considered to be one of the main oil and gas accumulations in most of the fields of the Western Desert basins. The lithostratigraphic succession of the Bahariya Formation is classified into two main sand units (Unit I and Unit III) separated by shalesiltstone (Unit II). The sandstone of unit-I and III is characterized by being highly enriched in shale content especially glauconite in all wells of the Alamein Field, that has an obvious negative effect on the porosity and oil saturation, where the glauconite increases the grain density of sandstone reservoirs from 2.65 g/cm{sup 3} up to 2.71 g/cm{sup 3}. The well logging data and petrophysical characteristics conducted on Alamein well-28 involving analysis of 30 core samples, were used to evaluate the reservoir characterization and hydrocarbon potentialities. The petrophysical parameters indicate that the primary porosity values are between 8.7 and 29.1%. Decreasing porosity is related to the increase of shale content from 9 to 13%, which occurs as a dispersed habitat. The water saturation changes from 43 to 80%, while the hydrocarbon saturation ranges from 12.1 to 37%. Promising hydrocarbon accumulations are displayed by the sandstone of unit-III due to increased hydrocarbon saturation and effective porosity, thus reflecting the high quality reservoir of this unit. The irreducible and movable hydrocarbon distribution shows a general increase at the eastern and western flanks of the faulted anticline in the Alamein-Yidma fields. The biomarker characteristics and stable carbonisotopic composition of the Bahariya crude oils recovered from the Alamein Field show no obvious variations among them. These oils are paraffinic, containing little branched or cyclic materials waxy n-alkanes(C{sub 25}-C{sub 31}) and characterized by high API gravity, low sulfur content, oleanane index < 2% and moderately high pristane/phytaneratio > 1 and CPI > 1 and the canonical variable parameter is

  15. Viscosity Prediction of Hydrocarbon Mixtures Based on the Friction Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Cisneros, Sergio; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    The application and capability of the friction theory (f-theory) for viscosity predictions of hydrocarbon fluids is further illustrated by predicting the viscosity of binary and ternary liquid mixtures composed of n-alkanes ranging from n-pentane to n-decane for wide ranges of temperature and from...

  16. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  17. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  18. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  19. IMPLICATIONS OF MICROBIAL ADHESION TO HYDROCARBONS FOR EVALUATING CELL-SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY .1. ZETA-POTENTIALS OF HYDROCARBON DROPLETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; VANDEBELTGRITTER, B; VANDERMEI, HC

    1995-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) is generally considered to be a measure of the organisms cell surface hydrophobicity. As microbial adhesion is a complicated interplay of long-range van der Waals and electrostatic forces and various short-range interactions, the above statement only holds

  20. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG) Field Demonstration Report: IRP Site 4, POL Area, Springfield ANG Base, Springfield, Ohio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    ...) methodology to compare the approaches. Soil core composites were analyzed for trichloroethylene, gasoline-range organics, volatile petroleum hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes...

  1. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  2. Mineralization of polycyclic and n-heterocyclic aromatic compounds in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, R.J.; Warshawsky, D.; Vestal, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The comparative mineralization of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds in five soils collected from an abandoned coal tar refinery in eastern Ohio was determined. The soils showed differences only in total extractable hydrocarbon content of the soil chemical characteristics measured. The compounds studied included five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, and carcinogenic benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene) and three N-heterocyclic aromatics (9H-carbazole, and carcinogenic 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and dibenz[a,j]acridine). Mineralization was measured by serum bottle radiorespirometry. Only phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and carbazole were mineralized in the soils after 64 d. Two of the soils with eight to 15 times the hexane -extractable hydrocarbon content consistently showed more rapid initial rates and higher overall extents of mineralization compared to the other three soils. Overall extents of mineralization ranged from 38 to 55% for phenanthrene, 10 to 60% for anthracene, 25 to 70% for pyrene, background to 40% for benz[a]anthracene, and 25 to 50% for carbazole after 64 d. Extents of mineralization by indigenous soil microbiota appear to be more dependent on the chemical characteristics of the soil and not soil total biomass and activity. Cultures capable of degrading phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene were obtained following enrichment techniques. A Mycobacterium sp. capable of degrading these three compounds was isolated and reintroduced into two of the soils, resulting in mineralization enhanced above that of the indigenous soil microbial population. These data indicate that the future success of bioremediation methods relies on the characterization of environmental parameters affecting microbial degradation as well as the isolation of microbial populations that can reduce toxicity in the environment

  3. Identifying future directions for subsurface hydrocarbon migration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, J. F.; Luyendyk, B.; Valentine, D.

    Subsurface hydrocarbon migration is important for understanding the input and impacts of natural hydrocarbon seepage on the environment. Great uncertainties remain in most aspects of hydrocarbon migration, including some basic mechanisms of this four-phase flow of tar, oil, water, and gas through the complex fracture-network geometry particularly since the phases span a wide range of properties. Academic, government, and industry representatives recently attended a workshop to identify the areas of greatest need for future research in shallow hydrocarbon migration.Novel approaches such as studying temporal and spatial seepage variations and analogous geofluid systems (e.g., geysers and trickle beds) allow deductions of subsurface processes and structures that remain largely unclear. Unique complexities exist in hydrocarbon migration due to its multiphase flow and complex geometry, including in-situ biological weathering. Furthermore, many aspects of the role of hydrocarbons (positive and negative) in the environment are poorly understood, including how they enter the food chain (respiration, consumption, etc.) and “percolate” to higher trophic levels. But understanding these ecological impacts requires knowledge of the emissions' temporal and spatial variability and trajectories.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons in offshore sediments from the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Lihaibi, S.S.; Al-Omran, Laila

    1996-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons in offshore sediments from the central part of the Gulf were measured using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Concentrations varied between 4.0 and 56.2 μg/g wet sediment (expressed as Kuwait Crude Oil equivalents), with an average of 12.3 μ/g. Highest concentrations were recorded in the north-west sector, with concentrations decreasing in a south-westerly direction. No significant correlations were observed between petroleum hydrocarbons and sedimentary organic carbon (r-0.07), 'mud' content (r=0.09), 'sand' content (r= -0.08) or 'gravel' content (r= -0.12). Distributions of oil are considered to relate more closely to prevailing current and localized pollutant sources in the region. Despite the substantial inputs of oil to the Gulf, contamination can be considered comparatively low, possibly reflecting physical processes and biological degradation which accelerate removal of petroleum from this marine environment. (author)

  5. Hydrocarbon isotope detection by elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostanovskiy, I.A., E-mail: kostanovskiyia@gmail.com [National Research University MPEI, Krasnokazarmennaya 14, 111250 Moscow (Russian Federation); Afanas’ev, V.P. [National Research University MPEI, Krasnokazarmennaya 14, 111250 Moscow (Russian Federation); Naujoks, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • PCVD hydrocarbon coatings containing protium or deuterium are analyzed via NRA, ERD, XPS and EPES. • EPES analysis with modern electron energy analyzer SPECS Phoibos 225 shows a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes. • Different primary energies and scattering angles help to quantify isotope content from EPES spectra. - Abstract: Experimental results on the hydrocarbon isotope analysis by elastic peak electron spectroscopy are presented. Amorphous hydrocarbon samples (a-C:H, a-C:D) are prepared by PCVD and analyzed by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Electron energy spectra show a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium. Different incident energies and scattering geometries help to resolve plasmon and elastic energy losses.

  6. Hydrocarbon isotope detection by elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostanovskiy, I.A.; Afanas’ev, V.P.; Naujoks, D.; Mayer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PCVD hydrocarbon coatings containing protium or deuterium are analyzed via NRA, ERD, XPS and EPES. • EPES analysis with modern electron energy analyzer SPECS Phoibos 225 shows a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes. • Different primary energies and scattering angles help to quantify isotope content from EPES spectra. - Abstract: Experimental results on the hydrocarbon isotope analysis by elastic peak electron spectroscopy are presented. Amorphous hydrocarbon samples (a-C:H, a-C:D) are prepared by PCVD and analyzed by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Electron energy spectra show a clear signal from the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium. Different incident energies and scattering geometries help to resolve plasmon and elastic energy losses

  7. Toxicity of oils and petroleum hydrocarbons to estuarine crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E. (Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS); Cox, B.A.; Anderson, J.W.

    1978-04-01

    Bioassay experiments with various life stages of three estuarine shrimp and soluble petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) revealed residual Bunker C oil and refined No. 2 fuel oil to be more toxic than two crude oils tested. Larvae of Palaemonetes pugio were slightly more sensitive to the PH than adults, while young penaeid shrimp were shown to be more resistant than older, larger individuals. Shrimp exposed to PH in conjunction with temperature and salinity changes were more susceptible to the PH. Some common aromatic and diaromatic PH, including three naphthalene compounds, were utilized in bioassays. Naphthalenes were highly toxic. The toxicity of petroleum products is closely related to aromatic hydrocarbon content, especially the naphthalenes and related hydrocarbons.

  8. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  9. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  10. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  11. Alkanes as Components of Soil Hydrocarbon Status: Behavior and Indication Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of soils on three key plots with different climatic conditions and technogenic impacts in Volgograd, Moscow, and Arkhangelsk oblasts have showed that alkanes in the soil exchange complex have some indication potential for the identification of soil processes. The following combinations of soil-forming factors and processes have been studied: (a) self-purification of soil after oil pollution; (b) accumulation of hydrocarbons coming from the atmosphere to soils of different land use patterns; and (c) changes in the soil hydrocarbon complex beyond the zone of technogenic impact due to the input of free hydrocarbon-containing gases. At the injection input of hydrocarbon pollutants, changes in the composition and proportions of alkanes allow tracing the degradation trend of pollutants in the soil from their initial content to the final stage of soil self-purification, when the background concentrations of hydrocarbons are reached. Upon atmospheric deposition of hydrocarbons onto the soil, from the composition and mass distribution of alkanes, conclusions can be drawn about the effect of toxicants on biogeochemical processes in the soil, including their manifestation under different land uses. Composition analysis of soil alkanes in natural landscapes can reveal signs of hydrocarbon emanation fluxes in soils. The indication potentials of alkanes in combination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other components of soil hydrocarbon complex can also be used for the solution of other soil-geochemical problems.

  12. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near-surface soils of Kutch-Saurashtra: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Lakshmi Srinivasa; Madhavi, T.; Srinu, D.; Kalpana, M. S.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil gases, methane and heavier homologues were recorded in the near-surface soil samples collected from Kutch-Saurashtra, India. Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic matter. Gas chromatographic analyses of hydrocarbons desorbed from soil samples through acid extraction technique showed the presence of methane through n-butane and the observed concentrations (in ppb) vary from: methane (C1) from 4-291, ethane (C2) from 0-84, propane (C3) from 0-37, i-butane (iC4) from 0-5 and n-butane (nC4) from 0-4. Carbon isotopes measured for methane and ethane by GC-C-IRMS, range between -42.9‰ to -13.3‰ (Pee Dee Belemnite - PDB) and -21.2‰ to -12.4‰ (PDB), respectively. The increased occurrence of hydrocarbons in the areas near Anjar of Kutch and the area south to Rajkot of Saurashtra signifies the area potential for oil and gas.

  13. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  14. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  15. Hydrocarbons in the suspended matter and the bottom sediments in different regions of the Black Sea Russian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nemirovskaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Content and composition of hydrocarbons (mainly the aliphatic ones in the suspended matter and the bottom sediments in the Gelendzhik Bay, the Big Sochi water area, the Feodosiya Bay and the Black Sea central part are defined and compared with the total organic carbon and chlorophyll a contents. It is shown that the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations exceeding the background ones are found only in the coastal zone. Advancing to the pelagic zone is accompanied by sharp decrease of their concentrations. Petroleum and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are mainly manifested in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composition. Influence of construction of the Olympic facilities upon distribution of hydrocarbons in the Big Sochi water area was of short duration, and already by 2015 the aliphatic hydrocarbons concentration decreased, on the average, up to 24 µg/l in the surface waters, and up to 18 µg/g – in the bottom sediments. Accumulation of hydrocarbons took place in bottom sediments, where their concentrations exceeded the background ones in terms of dry weight. In the Gelendzhik Bay, their content reached 252 μg/g, and in the composition of organic carbon (Corg > 1 %, which may indicate the contamination of sediments with oil products. In the Feodosiya Bay their part in the composition of Corg did not exceed 0.73 % and was 0.35 % on average. Natural alkanes dominated in the composition of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The bottom sediments are characterized by the predominance of odd high-molecular terrigenous alkanes. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied sediments was rather low: up to 31 ng/g in the Gelendzhik Bay, up to 348 ng/g in the Feodosiya Bay. These concentrations according to the EPA classification are considered background, or minor petroleum hydrocarbons increase the level of aliphatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments, thus creating a modern hydrocarbon background.

  16. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  18. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  19. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2C Table 2C to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Boiling range (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 21 280-290 Aromatic...

  20. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiceniuk, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential for contamination of recent sediments with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to tanker and refinery activity in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, an area without large local anthropogenic sources of aromatics. Sediment samples were taken from the vicinity of the Come By Chance refinery, Woody Island, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm, all in the north end of the bay. The samples were extracted by two methods, dichloromethane extraction of dried sediment for determination of total aromatic hydrocarbon content and hexane extraction of wet sediment for estimation of the bioavailability of hydrocarbons and determination of more volatile compounds. Class analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons was conducted on a NH 2 column with detection at 255 nm. Total concentrations of di-tricyclic aromatics were highest at the Woody Island site (0.6 μg/g). The sediments from the Come By Chance site, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm sediments contained 0.3, 0.1, and 0.2 μg/g respectively. The hexane extracts from Come By Chance were lowest in di-tricyclic aromatics (0.007 μg/g), with the other sites being equal in concentration (0.01 μg/g). It is evident from the study that aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in Placentia Bay are elevated in some parts of the bay in the absence of local combustion sources, and that the most likely source is petroleum. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Adamson, A. J., E-mail: jchiar@seti.org, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca@1.nasa.gov, E-mail: tielens@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: aadamson@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96729 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 {mu}m) and aliphatic (3.4 {mu}m) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp {sup 2} bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 {mu}m CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 {mu}m aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp {sup 3} bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp {sup 3} content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  2. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Adamson, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 μm) and aliphatic (3.4 μm) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp 2 bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 μm CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 μm aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp 3 bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp 3 content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  3. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  4. Method for the simultaneous determination of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2018-02-23

    We present a new method for simultaneous determination of 22 monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumen using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The eight extraction parameters including the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH, salting out effect, extraction, and centrifugation time were optimized. The low detection limit ranging from 0.36 to 28 μg/L, limit of quantitation (1.1-84 μg/L), good reproducibility, and wide linear ranges, as well as the recoveries ranging from 71.74 to 114.67% revealed that the new method allows the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons at low concentration levels in industrial effluents having a very complex composition. The developed method was applied to the determination of content of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of raw postoxidative effluents in which 15 compounds were identified at concentrations ranging from 1.21 to 1017.0 μg/L as well as in effluents after chemical treatment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Catalyst for reforming hydrocarbons with water vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklin, T.; Farrington, F.; Whittaker, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The catalyst should reform hydrocarbons with water vapour. It consists of a carrier substance (preferably clay) on whose surface the catalytically active substances are formed. By impregnation one obtains this with a mixture of thermally destructable nickel and uranium compounds and calcination of the impregnated carrier. The catalyst is marked by a definite weight ratio of uranium to nickel (about 0.6 to 1), the addition of barium compounds and a maximum limit of these additives. All details of manufacture and the range of variations are described in detail. (UWI) [de

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soil of Novi Sad, Serbia: occurrence and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbić, Biljana D; Đurišić-Mladenović, Nataša; Tadić, Đorđe J; Cvejanov, Jelena Đ

    2017-07-01

    Contents of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in 30 soil samples from 15 locations in Novi Sad, Serbia, assessing for the first time the corresponding health risks in the Serbian urban zone. Total concentrations were in the range of 22-2247 μg kg -1 , with a mean and median value of 363 and 200 μg kg -1 , respectively. Comparison with the relevant maximum allowed contents proposed by the Serbian government and with the Dutch target values implied that soils from the urban area of Novi Sad were "suitable as residential soils" and that no intervention would be needed if the current levels were retained. Seven diagnostic ratios were calculated, indicating the pyrogenic sources of PAHs as the dominant. Cancer risks in humans via accidental ingestion, inhalation of soil particles, and dermal contact with soil were estimated. Cancer risk for soil ingestion by children was the highest. The total lifetime carcinogenic risk as sum of individual cancer risks for seven carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was within the range 10 -4 to 10 -6 , indicating acceptable risks at 30 and 47% of sites for children and adults, respectively. However, for the rest of the samples, total lifetime cancer risk was >10 -4 indicating over the acceptable risk, even though the contents in soil were not of concern as the comparison with the environmental guidance previously showed. This could be explained by (a) the dominant concentrations of higher molecular weight compounds with 4 to 6 rings, among which there are compounds with higher toxicity equivalents, but also with (b) the extreme conditions used for the conservative risk assessment under maximal exposure frequency, exposure time, and ingestion rates.

  7. Degradation of hydrocarbons in arctic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundahl Pedersen, M.; Grau-Hansen, B.; Watson Nielsen, T.; Jensen, L.

    1999-12-01

    The scope of this project is to examine the natural degradation of a hydrocarbon contamination by investigating a specific location. The investigated location is a former airfield at Marraq situated on the west coast of Greenland, approx. 90 km south of Nuuk. In Autumn 1942 the US Air force established a diversion airfield called 'Teague Airfield' - under the military code name Bluie West-4. However, the location was abandoned in 1948 and accordingly all facilities and equipment were left behind, among these were a large amount of oil barrels, which mainly contained gas oil. In relation to the present investigation a number of disposal sites were found each containing approx. 50-600 oil barrels of 200 litres each. Through the years these barrels have corroded causing a heavy gas oil contamination several places on the site. This contamination is estimated to have taken place for approx. 40-50 years ago. The contamination is of such a severe character that a heavy smell of oil can be determined on site. Furthermore, vegetation mortality was observed around the barrels in connection to disposal sites situated in places covered by plants. Marraq is a peninsula consisting of coarse fluviatile deposits. The geology is relatively homogeneous without permafrost, which combined with a range of local defined contaminations, provide a unique possibility to assess the controlling environmental factors of natural degradation of oil contamination in the Arctic. A conservative estimate of the complete amount of gas oil which has contaminated the location is estimated to approx. 120,000 litres or more. The investigation showed that the extent of the oil degradation was different at the individual deposit sites. Roughly estimated the contamination is degraded on the order of 15 to twice the original oil amount. Assumable the contamination has been degraded due to the weathering process (evaporation and wash-out) and microbial degradation. Complex processes are involved depending

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Content in Cattle Hides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Scrap rubber tyre is used as fuel for singeing animal carcasses in third world countries despite the fact that it can .... test method and the quantification of the PAH analytes using ... waste, SW-846 methods) with some modifications.

  9. Trace Metals and Volatile Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    two months and five months were studied in an oil impacted soil at Ukpeliede in the Niger Delta area, Nigeria. This was ... disintegration of natural organometalic plant metabolites ... into mainly oxygen products (e.g. organic acids and phenol.

  10. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  11. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Allamandola, L.J.; Barker, J.R.; Cohen, M.

    1986-02-01

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a uv photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense uv fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments

  12. Determination of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Coca, R.B.; Cert, R.; Perez Camino, M.C.; Moreda, W.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is to inform about the development of a simple and reliable off-line method for the determination of saturated hydrocarbons (SH) in vegetable oils. SH can be used as markers for fuel or for mineral oil contamination in edible oils and fats. The method consists of the isolation of the fraction by LC on deactivated silver-silica gel and subsequent on-column GC-FID analysis. This stationary phase was prepared avoiding any kind of activation. The method was developed and validated through the participation in both a proficiency test organized by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, and a collaborative trial carried out with trained Spanish laboratories according to the standard ISO 5725. Results showed acceptable repeatability and reproducibility values, and Horrat index, being this protocol in use with satisfactory results ever since. The method’s LOQ is 15 mg·kg–1 and its LOD 5 mg·kg–1, which make it suitable to quantify the 50 mg·kg–1 limit established by the EU, and to detect mineral oil content within the 10–500 mg·kg–1 range. Although other procedures with lower LOD have been developed throughout the years, the use of just regular laboratory equipment such as GC-FID makes the proposed method appropriate for application on a routine basis. (Author)

  13. Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Characterization of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikilili, P. V.; Chirwa, E. M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was studied. Naphthalene was used as a model compound to represent these compounds. Low initial concentrations of naphthalene in a range of 30-60 mg/L were completely degraded after incubation for 15 hrs by consortia from a landfill soil while consortia from minewater took more that 29 hrs to reach complete degradation.

  14. Adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons in iron polysulfide chalcogels

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    are found in micro (below 2 nm), meso (2-50 nm), and macro (above 50 nm) porous regions. These chalcogels possess optical bandgaps in the range of 1.55-2.70 eV. These aerogels have been studied for the adsorption of volatile hydrocarbons and gases. A much

  15. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Liquid hydrocarbon generation potential from Tertiary Nyalau Formation coals in the onshore Sarawak, Eastern Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary coals exposed in the north-central part of onshore Sarawak are evaluated, and their depositional environments are interpreted. Total organic carbon contents (TOC) of the coals range from 58.1 to 80.9 wt. % and yield hydrogen index values ranging from 282 to 510 mg HC/g TOC with low oxygen index values, consistent with Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogens. The coal samples have vitrinite reflectance values in the range of 0.47-0.67 Ro %, indicating immature to early mature (initial oil window). T max values range from 428 to 436 °C, which are good in agreement with vitrinite reflectance data. The Tertiary coals are humic and generally dominated by vitrinite, with significant amounts of liptinite and low amounts of inertinite macerals. Good liquid hydrocarbons generation potential can be expected from the coals with rich liptinitic content (>35 %). This is supported by their high hydrogen index of up to 300 mg HC/g TOC and Py-GC ( S 2) pyrograms with n-alkane/alkene doublets extending beyond C30. The Tertiary coals are characterised by dominant odd carbon numbered n-alkanes ( n-C23 to n-C33), high Pr/Ph ratio (6-8), high T m / T s ratio (8-16), and predominant regular sterane C29. All biomarkers parameters clearly indicate that the organic matter was derived from terrestrial inputs and the deposited under oxic condition.

  17. Remediation of hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated soils using Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojinnaka, Chukwunonye; Osuji, Leo; Achugasim, Ozioma

    2012-11-01

    Sandy soil samples spiked with Bonny light crude oil were subsequently treated with Fenton's reagent at acidic, neutral, and basic pH ranges. Oil extracts from these samples including an untreated one were analyzed 1 week later with a gas chromatograph to provide evidence of hydrocarbon depletion by the oxidant. The reduction of three broad hydrocarbon groups-total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were investigated at various pHs. Hydrocarbon removal was efficient, with treatment at the acidic pH giving the highest removal of about 96% for PAH, 99% for BTEX, and some TPH components experiencing complete disappearance. The four-ringed PAHs were depleted more than their three-ringed counterparts at the studied pH ranges.

  18. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  19. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  20. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  1. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  2. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  3. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  4. Laboratory analytical methods for the determination of the hydrocarbon status of soils (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Korotkov, L. A.; Smirnova, M. A.; Kovach, R. G.

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory analytical methods suitable for the determination of the hydrocarbon status of soils (a specific soil characteristic involving information on the total content and qualitative features of soluble (bitumoid) carbonaceous substances and individual hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, etc.) in bitumoid, as well as the composition and content of hydrocarbon gases) have been considered. Among different physicochemical methods of study, attention is focused on the methods suitable for the wide use. Luminescence-bituminological analysis, low-temperature spectrofluorimetry (Shpolskii spectroscopy), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, chromatography-mass spectrometry, and some other methods have been characterized, as well as sample preparation features. Advantages and limitations of each of these methods are described; their efficiency, instrumental complexity, analysis duration, and accuracy are assessed.

  5. Inhibition of hydrocarbon bioremediation by lead in a crude oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, E.S.; Obuekwe, C. [Kuwait University (Kuwait). Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Program

    2005-07-01

    Analyses of soil samples revealed that the level of lead (total or bioavailable) was three-fold greater in crude oil contaminated than in uncontaminated Kuwaiti soils. Investigation of the possible inhibitory effect of lead on hydrocarbon degradation by the soil microbiota showed that the number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria decreased with increased levels of lead nitrate added to soil samples, whether oil polluted or not. At 1.0 mg lead nitrate g{sup -1} dry soil, the number of degraders of hexadecane, naphthalene and crude oil declined by 14%, 23% and 53%, respectively. In a similar manner, the degradation and mineralization of different hydrocarbons decreased with increased lead content in cultures, although the decreases were not significantly different (P>0.05). The dehydrogenase activities of soil samples containing hydrocarbons as substrates also declined with an increase in the lead content of soil samples. (author)

  6. A method for producing a hydrocarbon resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsachev, A B; Andonov, K S; Igliyev, S P

    1980-11-25

    Rock coal resin (KS), for instance, with a relative density of 1,150 to 1,190 kilograms per cubic meter, which contains 8 to 10 percent naphthaline, 1.5 to 2.8 percent phenol and 6 to 15 percent substances insoluble in toluene, or its mixture with rock coal or oil fractions of resin are subjected to distillation (Ds) in a pipe furnace with two evaporators (Is) and a distillation tower with a temperature mode in the second stage of 320 to 360 degrees and 290 to 340 degrees in the pitch compartment. A hydrocarbon resin is produced with a high carbon content, especially for the production of resin and dolomite refractory materials, as well as fuel mixtures for blast furnace and open hearth industry.

  7. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  8. Biodegradation of aliphatic vs. aromatic hydrocarbons in fertilized arctic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out to test a simple bioremediation treatment strategy in the Arctic and analyze the influence of fertilization the degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., pristine, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane, 2-methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, and acenaphthalene. The site was a coarse sand pad that once supported fuel storage tanks. Diesel-range organics concentrations were 250-860 mg/kg soil at the beginning of the study. Replicate field plots treated with fertilizer yielded final concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg N/kg soil. Soil pH and soil-water potentials decreased due to fertilizer application. The addition of fertilizer considerably increased soil respiration potentials, but not the populations of microorganisms measured. Fertilizer addition also led to ??? 50% loss of measured aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in surface and subsurface soils. For fertilized plots, hydrocarbon loss was not associated with the quantity of fertilizer added. Losses of aliphatic hydrocarbons were ascribed to biotic processes, while losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were due to biotic and abiotic processes.

  9. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  10. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  11. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  12. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the processing stages of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Manoela Alano; Maraschin, Marcelo; Rovaris, Angela Angeloni; Amboni, Renata Dias de Mello Castanho; Pagliosa, Cristiane Manfé; Xavier, José Júnior Mendonca; Amante, Edna Regina

    2010-06-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is believed to be due to the degradation of mate compounds and the burning of wood during the "sapeco" (rapid drying process) and the final drying steps, which are the most important processing stages in mate production. Due to the high toxicity of these compounds, studies on their presence in mate are extremely important. The aim of this study was to evaluate PAH levels in mate throughout the processing stages of its production. The PAHs were measured in samples collected at different stages of mate processing. Total PAHs content ranged widely (443-9001 microg/kg) in the samples, with the highest PAHs levels recorded during the mate drying step. The results indicate that the processing method currently used in mate production may lead to an increase in PAHs levels in the final product.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels and risk assessment for food from service facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Woong; Jeong, Jun-Hyun; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2017-06-01

    In this study, levels of benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene in 412 food items collected from food service facilities in Korea were analysed. The concentrations of the eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged 0.13-0.48 μg/kg. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in all food samples were foods regulated by European Union legislation. PAH contents were employed to conduct exposure and risk assessment. The chronic daily intake of PAHs from 412 food samples was 5.48 × 10 -6 -4.70 ×x 10 -4  µg-TEQ BaP /kg/day with margins of exposure of 1.04 × 10 9 -1.16 × 10 11 .

  14. Light hydrocarbons vertical profiles and fluxes in a french rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, M.; Bonsang, B.; Lambert, G.

    By means of manned hot air balloon flights, in July 1986, an experiment was conducted in a rural area of southwest France in order to determine the production at ground level of non-methane hydrocarbons in the C 2-C 6 range. Flux determinations were based on vertical profiles before and after the development of a temperature inversion layer which allowed the measurement of the NMHC accumulation close to ground level. The main species produced in the late afternoon were acetylene, propane, ethene, propene and ethane with production rates of the order of 0.5 to 2 × 10 -4g of C m -2 h -1. Isoprene was found to be the main other unsaturated species also produced. The fluxes and the atmospheric content of the air column before the inversion are consistent with an average OH radical concentration of 2 × 10 6 cm -3.

  15. Mineral oil and synthetic hydrocarbons in cosmetic lip products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, M; Stebler, T; Grob, K

    2016-04-01

    Lipsticks and lip care products may contain saturated hydrocarbons which either stem from mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) or are synthetic, that is polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH). Some of these hydrocarbons are strongly accumulated and form granulomas in human tissues, which prompted Cosmetics Europe (former Colipa) to issue a recommendation for their use in lip care and oral products. From 2012 to 2014, MOSH+POSH were determined in 175 cosmetic lip products taken from the Swiss market in order to estimate their contribution to human exposure. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and POSH were extracted and analysed by GC with FID. Areas were integrated as a total as well as by mass ranges with cuts at n-C25 and n-C34 to characterize the molecular mass distribution. About 68% of the products contained at least 5% MOSH+POSH (total concentration). For regular users, these products would be major contributors to their MOSH+POSH exposure. About 31% of the products contained more than 32% MOSH+POSH. Their regular usage would amount in an estimated MOSH+POSH exposure exceeding the highest estimated dietary exposure. The majority of the products contained hydrocarbons with a molecular mass range which was not in line with the recommendations of Cosmetics Europe. Taking into account that material applied to the lips largely ends up being ingested, MOSH and POSH levels should be reduced in the majority of cosmetic lip products. As the extensive evaluation of the data available on MOSH (EFSA J., 10, 2012, 2704) did not enable the specification of limits considered as safe, the present level of dietary exposure and its evaluation as 'of potential concern' provide the relevant bench mark, which means that lip products should contain clearly less than 5% MOSH+POSH. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  17. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biodegrader metabolic expansion during polyaromatic hydrocarbons rhizoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, C.L.; Susilawati, E.; Kravchenko, A.N. [Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Thomas, J.C. [Dept. of Natural Sciences, Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Root-microbe interactions are considered to be the primary process of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phytoremediation, since bacterial degradation has been shown to be the dominant pathway for environmental PAH dissipation. However, the precise mechanisms driving PAH rhizostimulation symbiosis remain largely unresolved. In this study, we assessed PAH degrading bacterial abundance in contaminated soils planted with 18 different native Michigan plant species. Phenanthrene metabolism assays suggested that each plant species differentially influenced the relative abundance of PAH biodegraders, though they generally were observed to increase heterotrophic and biodegradative cell numbers relative to unplanted soils. Further study of > 1800 phenanthrene degrading isolates indicated that most of the tested plant species stimulated biodegradation of a broader range of PAH compounds relative to the unplanted soil bacterial consortia. These observations suggest that a principal contribution of planted systems for PAH bioremediation may be via expanded metabolic range of the rhizosphere bacterial community. (orig.)

  19. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  20. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  1. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  2. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments. Report No. EE-141

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-01-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed by means of a literature survey and also through discussions with workers in relevent disciplines. This report discusses both the impacts of hydrocarbons on soil and a range of methods available to assist in the decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, oily sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars and some pesticides.

  3. Faixas críticas de teores foliares de macronutrientes em mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. produzidas em tubetes Critical ranges of macronutrient content in leaves of coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L. grown in plastic pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Moraes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    leaves. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height (cm, stem diameter (mm, leaf area (cm², root dry weight (g, stem dry weight (g, leaf dry weight (g, total dry weight (g, and leaf analysis for the following nutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S. The critical ranges obtained for macronutrients were: nitrogen (2.26 to 2.62 dag/Kg; phosphorus (0.22 to 0.25 dag/Kg; potassium (2.59 to 2.92 dag/Kg; calcium (0.69 to 0.76 dag/Kg; magnesium (0.11 to 0.12 dag/Kg; sulfur (0.15 to 0.24 dag/Kg. It was confirmed that the four true pair of leaves were the ideal for leaf sampling aiming at the identification of the mactonutrient contents.

  4. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  5. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  6. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-04-21

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon-carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-01-01

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon–carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO 2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. (paper)

  8. Investigation of Underground Hydrocarbon Leakage using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigutomo, Wahyu; Trimadona; Agustine, Eleonora

    2016-08-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in several petroleum plants to investigate hydrocarbon contamination beneath the surface. The hydrocarbon spills are generally recognized as Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) if the plume of leakage is distributed in the capillary fringe above the water table and as Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPL) if it is below the water table. GPR antennas of 200 MHz and 400 MHz were deployed to obtain clear radargrams until 4 m deep. In general, the interpreted radargram sections indicate the presence of surface concrete layer, the compacted silty soill followed by sand layer and the original clayey soil as well as the water table. The presence of hydrocarbon plumes are identified as shadow zones (radar velocity and intensity contrasts) in the radargram that blur the layering pattern with different intensity of reflected signal. Based on our results, the characteristic of the shadow zones in the radargram is controlled by several factors: types of hydrocarbon (fresh or bio-degraded), water moisture in the soil, and clay content which contribute variation in electrical conductivity and dielectric constants of the soil.

  9. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  10. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  11. Characterization of cyanobacterial hydrocarbon composition and distribution of biosynthetic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Cameron Coates

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to naturally produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids. Hydrocarbon compositions of thirty-two strains of cyanobacteria were characterized to reveal novel structural features and insights into hydrocarbon biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. This investigation revealed new double bond (2- and 3-heptadecene and methyl group positions (3-, 4- and 5-methylheptadecane for a variety of strains. Additionally, results from this study and literature reports indicate that hydrocarbon production is a universal phenomenon in cyanobacteria. All cyanobacteria possess the capacity to produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids yet not all accomplish this through the same metabolic pathway. One pathway comprises a two-step conversion of fatty acids first to fatty aldehydes and then alkanes that involves a fatty acyl ACP reductase (FAAR and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO. The second involves a polyketide synthase (PKS pathway that first elongates the acyl chain followed by decarboxylation to produce a terminal alkene (olefin synthase, OLS. Sixty-one strains possessing the FAAR/ADO pathway and twelve strains possessing the OLS pathway were newly identified through bioinformatic analyses. Strains possessing the OLS pathway formed a cohesive phylogenetic clade with the exception of three Moorea strains and Leptolyngbya sp. PCC 6406 which may have acquired the OLS pathway via horizontal gene transfer. Hydrocarbon pathways were identified in one-hundred-forty-two strains of cyanobacteria over a broad phylogenetic range and there were no instances where both the FAAR/ADO and the OLS pathways were found together in the same genome, suggesting an unknown selective pressure maintains one or the other pathway, but not both.

  12. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  13. Calculating in situ degradation rates of hydrocarbon compounds in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thessen, Anne E; North, Elizabeth W

    2017-09-15

    Biodegradation is an important process for hydrocarbon weathering that influences its fate and transport, yet little is known about in situ biodegradation rates of specific hydrocarbon compounds in the deep ocean. Using data collected in the Gulf of Mexico below 700m during and after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we calculated first-order degradation rate constants for 49 hydrocarbons and inferred degradation rate constants for an additional 5 data-deficient hydrocarbons. Resulting calculated (not inferred) half-lives of the hydrocarbons ranged from 0.4 to 36.5days. The fastest degrading hydrocarbons were toluene (k=-1.716), methylcyclohexane (k=-1.538), benzene (k=-1.333), and C1-naphthalene (k=-1.305). The slowest degrading hydrocarbons were the large straight-chain alkanes, C-26 through C-33 (k=-0.0494 through k=-0.007). Ratios of C-18 to phytane supported the hypothesis that the primary means of degradation in the subsurface was microbial biodegradation. These degradation rate constants can be used to improve models describing the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the event of an accidental deep ocean oil spill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Boyd, Doreen S.

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fossil energy is triggering oil exploration and production projects in remote areas of the world. During the last few decades hydrocarbon production has caused pollution in the Amazon forest inflicting considerable environmental impact. Until now it is not clear how hydrocarbon pollution affects the health of the tropical forest flora. During a field campaign in polluted and pristine forest, more than 1100 leaf samples were collected and analysed for biophysical and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that tropical forests exposed to hydrocarbon pollution show reduced levels of chlorophyll content, higher levels of foliar water content and leaf structural changes. In order to map this impact over wider geographical areas, vegetation indices were applied to hyperspectral Hyperion satellite imagery. Three vegetation indices (SR, NDVI and NDVI 705 ) were found to be the most appropriate indices to detect the effects of petroleum pollution in the Amazon forest. - Highlights: • Leaf biochemical alterations in the rainforest are caused by petroleum pollution. • Lower levels of chlorophyll content are symptom of vegetation stress in polluted sites. • Increased foliar water content was found in vegetation near polluted sites. • Vegetation stress was detected by using vegetation indices from satellite images. • Polluted sites and hydrocarbon seepages in rainforest can be identified from space. - Hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest is observed for first time from satellite data

  15. Diatom, cyanobacterial and microbial mats as indicators of hydrocarbon contaminated Arctic streams and waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.; Adeney, B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Nelson, J.A. [J.B. Services, Sarnia, ON (Canada); Murdock, E. [Nunavut Power, Iqaluit (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    An environmental assessment conducted at Repulse Bay, Nunavut in the summer of 2001 revealed a recent diesel spill flowing from the groundwater into a creek. The spill had not been reported. When Arctic surface waters mix with hydrocarbon impacted groundwater and sediments, distinctive mats of diatom, cyanobacteria and other bacteria are formed. These mats have the potential for phytoremediation of hydrocarbons. This paper explained the apparent dominance of mats in contaminated Arctic waters and why they promote biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater are generally anaerobic. The higher dissolved carbon dioxide in polluted soils and groundwater can benefit photosynthetic cyanobacteria and diatom found in oligotrophic, lower alkalinity Arctic waters. The anaerobic and aerobic bacteria can potentially take advantage of the hydrogen substrate and the nitrogen fixing abilities of the cyanobacteria. Zooplankton predators may be killed off by the toxicity of the polluted groundwater. The paper provides examples where a microbial mat reduced the sulfate content of a hydrocarbon-impacted Arctic stream by 100 ppm, and where a pond covered in a benthic microbial mat showed no evidence of hydrocarbons in the water overlying sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons at concentrations measured at 30,000 ppm. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Determination of hydrogen content of petroleum products from Tema Oil Refinery using neutron backscatter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salifu, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen content of hydrocarbon materials is very important in several areas of industrial process such as mining, vegetable oil extraction and crude oil exploration and refining. A fast and more universal technique based on thermal neutron reflection was employed to determine the total hydrogen contents of petroleum samples from Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) and Crude oil samples from Jubilee field and Nigeria. The experimental set-up consisted of a source-holder housing a 1Ci Am-Be neutron source and a He-3 neutron detector. Two geometrical arrangements were considered and their sensitivities were compared. The set-up was used to measure the excess neutron count in both geometrical considerations and their reflection parameters were calculated as a function of hydrogen content of the samples. Calibration lines were deduced using liquid hydrocarbons containing well-known hydrogen and carbon contents as standards. Two linear equations were generated from the calibration lines and were used to further determine the hydrogen content of thirteen (13) petroleum samples obtained from Quality Control Department of TOR. The total hydrogen contents were found to be in the range of 7.211(hw %) - 15.069 (hw %) for vertical geometry and 7.206 (hw %) - 14.948 (hw %) for horizontal geometry respectively. The results obtained agreed constructively with other results obtained using different methodologies by other studies. The percentage error of the hydrogen contents denoted by (% E) for the various petroleum samples were also obtained and noticed to be within an acceptable range. The neutron backscatter technique was observed as an alternative and more generalized method for quality assurance and standardization in the petroleum industries

  17. Identification of interstellar polysaccharides and related hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.; Olavesen, A.H.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the infrared transmittance spectra of several polysaccharides that may be of interest as possible interstellar candidates. It is stated that a 2.5 to 15 μm spectrum computed from the author's measurements is remarkably close to that required to explain a wide range of astronomical data, except for two points. First the required relative opacity at the 3 μm absorption dip is a factor of about 1.5 lower than was found in laboratory measurements; this difference may arise from the presence of water in terrestrial polysaccharide samples. Secondly, in the 9.5 to 12 μm waveband an additional source of opacity appears to be necessary. Close agreement between the spectrum of this additional opacity and the absorption spectrum of propene, C 3 H 6 , points strongly to the presence of hydrocarbons of this type, which may be associated with polysaccharide grains in interstellar space. (U.K.)

  18. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  19. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  20. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  1. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  2. Total organic carbon, an important tool in an holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, P.D.; Burns, W.A.; Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S. [Battelle Member Inst., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The identification and allocation of multiple hydrocarbon sources in marine sediments is best achieved using an holistic approach. Total organic carbon (TOC) is one important tool that can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations in cases where inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. In a study of the benthic sediments from Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), we find excellent agreement between measured TOC and TOC calculated from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. Confirmation by two such independent source indicators (TOC and fingerprint matches) provides evidence that source allocations determined by the fingerprint matches are robust and that the major TOC sources have been correctly identified. Fingerprint matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of various sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. TOC contents are then calculated using source allocation results from fingerprint matches and the TOCs of contributing sources. Comparisons of the actual sediment TOC values and those calculated from source allocation support our earlier published findings that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in sediments in this area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and associated oil seeps along the northern GOA coast and exclude thermally mature area coals from being important contributors to the PWS background due to their high TOC content.

  3. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  4. Organic tissues, graphite, and hydrocarbons in host rocks of the Rum Jungle Uranium Field, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C.B.; Robbins, E.I.; Bone, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The Rum Jungle Uranium field consists of at least six early Proterozoic deposits that have been mined either for uranium and/or the associated base and precious metals. Organic matter in the host rocks of the Whites Formation and Coomalie Dolomite is now predominantly graphite, consistent with the metamorphic history of these rocks. For nine samples, the mean total organic carbon content is high (3.9 wt%) and ranged from 0.33 to 10.44 wt%. Palynological extracts from the host rocks include black, filamentous, stellate (Eoastrion-like), and spherical morphotypes, which are typical of early Proterozoic microbiota. The colour, abundance, and shapes of these morphotypes reflect the thermal history, organic richness, and probable lacustrine biofacies of the host rocks. Routine analysis of rock thin sections and of palynological residues shows that mineral grains in some of the host rocks are coated with graphitized organic matter. The grain coating is presumed to result from ultimate thermal degradation of a petroleum phase that existed prior to metamorphism. Hydrocarbons are, however, still present in fluid inclusions within carbonates of the Coomalie Dolomite and lower Whites Formation. The fluid inclusions fluoresce dull orange in blue-light excitation and their hydrocarbon content is confirmed by gas chromatography of whole-rock extracts. Preliminary analysis of the oil suggests that it is migrated, and because it has escaped graphitization through metamorphism it is probably not of early Proterozoic age. The presence of live oil is consistent with fluid inclusion data that suggest subsequent, low-temperature brine migration through the rocks. The present observations support earlier suggestions that organic matter in the host formations trapped uranium to form protore. Subsequent fluid migrations probably brought additional uranium and other metals to these formations, and the organic matter provided a reducing environment for entrapment. ?? 1990.

  5. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution using plant residue materials as a biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Baoliang, E-mail: blchen@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yuan Miaoxin; Liu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: The structure-effect relationship provides a reference to select and modify plant residues as a biosorbent with high efficiency to tackle organic pollutants. Research highlights: {yields} Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are effectively removed by plant residues. {yields} Biosorption mechanism of plant residues to abate PAHs is a partitioning process. {yields} Partition coefficients are negatively related with sugar contents of biosorbent. {yields} The aromatic component and K{sub ow} exhibit positive effects on biosorption. {yields} The structure-effect relationship guides plant residue using as a biosorbent. - Abstract: To elucidate biosorption mechanism and removal efficiency of plant residues as a biosorbent to abate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater, sorption of PAHs onto wood chips (WC), ryegrass roots (RR), orange peels (OP), bamboo leaves (BL), and pine needles (PN) were investigated. The structural characterization of the biosorbents was analyzed by elemental composition, BET-N{sub 2} surface area, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PAHs sorption to the selected biosorbents were compared and correlated with their structures. Biosorption isotherms fit well with Freundlich equation and the mechanism was dominated by partition process. The magnitude of phenanthrene partition coefficients (K{sub d}) followed the order of PN > BL > OP > RR > WC, ranged from 2484 {+-} 24.24 to 5306 {+-} 92.49 L/kg. Except the WC sample, the K{sub d} values were negatively correlated with sugar content, polar index [(N + O)/C] of the biosorbents, while the aromatic component exhibited positive effects. For a given biosorbent of bamboo leaves, the carbon-normalized partition coefficients (K{sub oc}) were linearly correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (K{sub ow}) of PAHs, i.e., log K{sub oc} = 1.16 log K{sub ow} - 1.21. The structure-effect relationship provides a reference to select and modify plant residues as a

  6. ) Geochemistry and Hydrocarbon Potential of Cretaceous Shales in the Chad Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alalade, B.; Ogunyemi, A. T.; Abimbola, A.F.; Olugbemiro, R. O.

    2003-01-01

    The Chad Basin is the largest intracratonic basin in Africa and is filled with more than 400m of Cretaceous to Recent sediments. Geochemical and petrographic studies of Cretaceous shales form the Bima, Gongola and Fika Formations were carried out to establish their hydrocarbon potential and thermal maturity. Ditch cuttings of the shales were collected from the Wa di and Karen's exploration wells located in the Nigerian sector of the Chad Basin.The geochemical analysis of the shales indicate that, except for Si02 and K20, all other oxides (Mg O, Fe2O3, AL2O3, CaO) are more abundant in the Fika shale than the Gongola shale. This suggests a more marine condition for the Fika shale compared to the Gongola shale. The Fika and Gongola shales were further classified into Iron shale and shale respectively. Organic carbon contents of the Bima, Gongola and exceed the minimum (0.5wt%) usually required for siliciclastic petroleum source rock. However, the soluble organic matter (SOM) and saturated hydrocarbon (SHC) contents of the shales, which ranges from 108pm to 743ppm and 23ppm to 100ppm respectively, are generally low and are therefore, organically lean. The organic matter of the shales is predominantly terrestrially derived, vitrinite rich, Type III kerogen and are therefore, gas prone. Thermal maturity assessed from SOM/TOC, SHC/TOC ratios and spore color index (SCI) indicate that the Fika shale is immature while the Gongola and Bima shales are within the oil window

  7. The effect of aromatization on the isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons during early diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.; Boreham, C. J.; Summons, R. E.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with varying degrees of aromatization were isolated from the Eocene Messel Shale (Rheingraben, Germany). The high abundances of these compounds and their structural resemblances to cyclic triterpenoid lipids are consistent with derivation from microbial rather than thermal processes. Compounds structurally related to oleanane contain from five to nine double bonds; those within a series of aromatized hopanoids contain from three to nine. All are products of diagenetic reactions that remove hydrogen or methyl groups, and, in several cases, break carbon-carbon bonds to open rings. Aromatized products are on average depleted in 13C relative to possible precursors by l.2% (range: l.5% enrichment to 4% depletion, n = 9). The dependence of 13C content on the number of double bonds is not, however, statistically significant and it must be concluded that there is no strong evidence for isotopic fractionation accompanying diagenetic aromatization. Isotopic differences between series (structures related to ursane, des-A-ursane, des-A-lupane, des-A-arborane, and possibly, des-A-gammacerane are present) are much greater, indicating that 13C contents are controlled primarily by source effects. Fractionations due to chromatographic isotope effects during HPLC ranged from 0.1 to 2.8%.

  8. Hydrocarbon occurrence in NW Africa's MSGBC area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymond, A.; Negroni, P.

    1989-06-01

    The MSGBC (Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Conakry) coastal basin has evolved as a passive margin from Jurassic time up to the present following a period of poorly known rifting of Permian to Middle Jurassic age. Structural configuration of the Paleozoic series is documented by large outcrops and a good number of seismic sections. Based on previous exploration efforts that found significant hydrocarbon shows, a comprehensive study of this African basin's source rocks, maturation evolution and petroleum generation potential was undertaken. About 1,000 geochemical analyses of the Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series identified good source rocks in the Cenomano-Turonian, Silurian, Senonian and Paleocene ages. The parameters used to identify and characterize source rock are: Total organic carbon content (TOC) in percent and source potential (in kg HC/t), representing the amount of hydrocarbon generated per ton of rock and determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.

  9. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the Antarctic pack ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted near the Russian Antarctic stations in May, 2001 in the Pridz Bay and coastal part of the Davies Sea to examine the content of dissolved and suspended forms of aliphatic hydrocarbons in melted snow samples, pack ice and ice cores. The site included clean control areas and polluted test areas. A spill was performed by covering the bare ice surface with marine diesel fuel. The different physical characteristics of clean and polluted ice were measured. This included radiation balance, reflected solar radiation, integral albedo radiation, surface temperature, seawater temperature, salinity at depth, and ice salinity. The study showed that accumulation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon took place in the ice-water barrier zone, mostly in suspended form. It was concluded that for oil spills in pack Antarctic ice, the mechanism of filtration due to convection-diffusion plays an important role in the transformation of diesel fuel. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  11. He+ irradiation temperature influence on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Deming; Sun, Li; Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong; Bi, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongping

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films were irradiated with 100 keV He + or annealed at sample temperatures varying from 25 to 600 °C. The effects of sample temperature on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM-based nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Analysis shows that annealing results in the decrease in the nanohardness of hydrocarbon films from 4.0 GPa to 0.55 GPa while He + irradiation at an elevated sample temperature results in the formation of dense diamond-like carbon films with nanohardness up to 20.0 GPa. This indicates that polymer-like hydrocarbon films can be transformed into the hard diamond-like carbon films with a relatively low H content on vacuum vessels of fusion devices due to the energetic bombardments at an elevated wall temperature

  12. He{sup +} irradiation temperature influence on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Yang, Deming [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Sun, Li [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116023 (China); Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong [Accelerator Laboratory, School of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Bi, Zhenhua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electronic Science, Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films were irradiated with 100 keV He{sup +} or annealed at sample temperatures varying from 25 to 600 °C. The effects of sample temperature on the structure and nanohardness of hydrocarbon films are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM-based nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Analysis shows that annealing results in the decrease in the nanohardness of hydrocarbon films from 4.0 GPa to 0.55 GPa while He{sup +} irradiation at an elevated sample temperature results in the formation of dense diamond-like carbon films with nanohardness up to 20.0 GPa. This indicates that polymer-like hydrocarbon films can be transformed into the hard diamond-like carbon films with a relatively low H content on vacuum vessels of fusion devices due to the energetic bombardments at an elevated wall temperature.

  13. Temperature-dependent mid-IR absorption spectra of gaseous hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingbeil, Adam E.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative mid-IR absorption spectra (2500-3400 cm -1 ) for 12 pure hydrocarbon compounds are measured at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 deg. C using an FTIR spectrometer. The hydrocarbons studied are n-pentane, n-heptane, n-dodecane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), 2-methyl-butane, 2-methyl-pentane, 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, 2-methyl-2-butene, propene, toluene, m-xylene, and ethylbenzene. Room-temperature measurements of neat hydrocarbon vapor were made with an instrument resolution of both 0.1 and 1 cm -1 (FWHM) to confirm that the high-resolution setting was required only to resolve the propene absorption spectrum while the spectra of the other hydrocarbons could be resolved with 1 cm -1 resolution. High-resolution (0.1 cm -1 ), room-temperature measurements of neat hydrocarbons were made at low pressure (∼1 Torr, 133 Pa) and compared to measurements of hydrocarbon/N 2 mixtures at atmospheric pressure to verify that no pressure broadening could be observed over this pressure range. The temperature was varied between 25 and 500 o C for atmospheric-pressure measurements of hydrocarbon/N 2 mixtures (X hydrocarbon ∼0.06-1.5%) and it was found that the absorption cross section shows simple temperature-dependent behavior for a fixed wavelength over this temperature range. Comparisons with previous FTIR data over a limited temperature range and with high-resolution laser absorption data over a wide temperature range show good agreement

  14. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Model Titan atmospheric hydrocarbon analysis by Ion Mobility Spectrometry in dry helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojiro, D.R.; Stimac, R.M.; Wernlund, R.F.; Cohen, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is one analytical technique being investigated for the in situ analysis of the atmosphere of Titan. Any hydrocarbon ions that may form react immediately, in microseconds, with the high concentration of water vapor normally present in conventional IMS. By reducing the water concentration to the parts-per-billion range, the lifetime of the hydrocarbon ions may be increased to the milliseconds required for measurement. At low water level concentrations, other species may become the reactant ion. This study focuses on IMS analysis of expected Titan atmospheric hydrocarbons under very dry, low water concentration conditions

  16. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Formaldehyde, methanol and hydrocarbon emissions from methanol-fueled cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Lipari, F.; Potter, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions tests were conducted on several methanol- and gasoline-fueled vehicles. Separate samples for chromatographic analysis of formaldehyde, methanol, and individual hydrocarbons were collected in each of the three phases of the driving cycle and in each of the two portions of the evaporative emissions test. One vehicle, equipped with an experimental variable-fuel engine, was tested using methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures of 100, 85, 50, 15, and 0 percent methanol. Combustion-generated hydrocarbons were lowest using methanol fuel, and increased several-fold as the gasoline fraction was increased. Gasoline components in the exhaust increased from zero as the gasoline fraction of the fuel was increased. On the other hand, formaldehyde emissions were several times higher using methanol fuel than they were using gasoline. A dedicated methanol car and the variable-fuel car gave similar emissions patterns when they both were tested using methanol fuel. The organic-carbon composition of the exhaust was 85-90 percent methanol, 5-7 percent formaldehyde, and 3-9 percent hydrocarbons. Several cars that were tested using gasoline emitted similar distributions of hydrocarbons, even through the vehicles represented a broad range of current and developmental engine families and emissions control systems

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  20. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  1. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  2. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils.

  3. Solvation of hydrocarbons in aqueous-organic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedov, I.A.; Magsumov, T.I.; Solomonov, B.N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic functions of solvation in mixtures of water with acetone and acetonitrile are measured at T = 298.15 K. • Solvation of n-octane and toluene in aqueous-organic mixtures is studied. • When increasing water content, Gibbs free energies grow up steadily, while enthalpies have a maximum. • Hydrocarbons are preferentially solvated with organic cosolvent even in mixtures with rather high water content. • Acetonitrile suppresses the hydrophobic effect less than acetone. - Abstract: We study the solvation of two hydrocarbons, n-octane and toluene, in binary mixtures of water with organic cosolvents. Two polar aprotic cosolvents that are miscible with water in any proportions, acetonitrile and acetone, were considered. We determine the magnitudes of thermodynamic functions of dissolution and solvation at T = 298.15 K in the mixtures with various compositions. Solution calorimetry was used to measure the enthalpies of solution, and GC headspace analysis was applied to obtain limiting activity coefficients of solutes in the studied systems. For the first time, the enthalpies of solution of alkane in the mixtures with high water content were measured directly. We observed well-pronounced maxima of the dependencies of enthalpies of solvation from the composition of solvent and no maxima for the Gibbs free energies of solvation. Two factors are concluded to be important to explain the observed tendencies: high energy cost of reorganization of binary solvent upon insertion of solute molecules and preferential surrounding of hydrocarbons with the molecules of organic cosolvent. Enthalpy-entropy compensation leads to a steady growth of the Gibbs free energies with increasing water content. On the other hand, consideration of the plots of the Gibbs free energy against enthalpy of solvation clearly shows that the solvation properties are changed dramatically after addition of a rather small amount of organic cosolvents. It is shown that they

  4. Process and catalysts for hydrocarbon conversion. [high antiknock motor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-14

    High anti-knock motor fuel is produced from hydrocarbons by subjecting it at an elevated temperature to contact with a calcined mixture of hydrated silica, hydrated alumina, and hydrated zirconia, substantially free from alkali metal compounds. The catalyst may be prepared by precipitating silica gel by the acidification of an aqueous solution of an alkali metal silicate, intimately mixing hydrated alumina and hydrated zirconia therewith, drying, purifying the composite to substantially remove alkali metal compounds, again drying, forming the dried material into particles, and finally calcining. The resultant conversion products may be fractionated to produce gasoline, hydrocarbon oil above gasoling boiling point range, and a gaseous fraction of olefins which are polymerized into gasoline boiling range polymers.

  5. Application of sunflower stalk-carbon nitride nanosheets as a green sorbent in the solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi Khosrowshahi, Elnaz; Razmi, Habib

    2018-02-08

    A green biocomposite of sunflower stalks and graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets has been applied as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for sample preparation of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different solutions using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Before the modification, sunflower stalks exhibited relatively low adsorption to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons extraction. The modified sunflower stalks showed increased adsorption to the analytes extraction due to the increase in surface and existence of a π-π interaction between the analytes and graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets on the surface. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection and quantification for five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds could reach 0.4-32 and 1.2-95 ng/L, respectively. The method accuracy was evaluated using recovery measurements in spiked real samples and good recoveries from 71 to 115% with relative standard deviations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in various samples-well water, tap water, soil, vegetable, and barbequed meat (kebab)-with analytes contents ranging from 0.065 to 13.3 μg/L. The prepared green composite as a new sorbent has some advantages including ease of preparation, low cost, and good reusability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee.

  7. Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in the Vicinity of Fuel Stations in Abraka, Nigeria. ... (0.00191mg.kg-1). Investigation also reveals that all tested samples are contaminated, with mean values ranging between 0.000207±0.00026mg.kg-1 and 0.002123±0.00303mg.kg-1. Similarly, spearmen's ...

  8. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and risk elements in honey from the South Moravian region (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Batelková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the actual content of some exogenous contaminants in the honey from the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and risk elements (Mercury - Hg, Cadmium - Cd, Lead - Pb, and Arsenic - As in multifloral blossom and honey dew samples of honey were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy methods. The samples were collected form beekeepers and from retail stores located in South Moravia in the Czech Republic. Concentrations of individual PAHs in honey samples ranged between 0.02 μg·kg-1–1.93 μg·kg-1. The limit of benzo[a]pyrene for infant formula (1.0 μg·kg-1 was not exceeded and fluoranthene was not quantified in any of the samples. Concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Pb were in the range of 3.24 μg·kg-1–11.31 μg·kg-1, 0.95 μg·kg-1–32.35 μg·kg-1, and 22.80 μg·kg-1–177.85 μg·kg-1, respectively. Concentration of As exceeded the detection limit only in three samples, ranging from 3.51 μg·kg-1 to 4.35 μg·kg-1. Acceptable limits for trace elements in infant formula were met. Results of this study complete present knowledge of the contaminant content in Czech honey and confirmed high quality and safety of honey from the South Moravian region.

  10. Magnetic graphene oxide as adsorbent for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linli; Xu, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Detection of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites in urine is an advisable and valid method to assess human environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, novel Fe3O4/graphene oxide composites were prepared and their application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine was investigated by coupling with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the hybrid material, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide fast separation to simplify the analytical process and graphene oxide provides a large functional surface for the adsorption. The prepared magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The experimental conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 98.3-125.2%, the relative standard deviations ranged between 6.8 and 15.5%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.01-0.15 ng/mL. The simple, quick, and affordable method was successfully used in the analysis of human urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two different cities. The results indicated that the monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level in human urine can provide useful information for environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  12. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  13. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  14. Middle distillates hydrogen content via GC×GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozka, Petr; Mo, Huaping; Šimáček, Pavel; Kilaz, Gozdem

    2018-08-15

    Liquid transportation fuels in the middle distillate range contain thousands of hydrocarbons making the predictions and calculations of properties from composition a challenging process. We present a new approach of hydrogen content determination by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC×GC-FID) using a weighted average method. GC×GC-FID hydrogen determination precision was excellent (0.005 wt% repeatability). The method accuracy was evaluated by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, which is non-biased, measures the H signal directly and was independently validated by controls in the current study. The hydrogen content (in the range of 12.72-15.54 wt%) in 28 fuel samples were determined using GC×GC-FID. Results were within ± 2% of those obtained via NMR. Owing to the fact that NMR is accepted as an accurate technique for hydrogen content determination, the GC×GC method proposed in this study can be considered precise and accurate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selection of bacteria with hydrocarbon degrading capacity isolated from Colombian Caribbean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Florez, Silvia; Gomez, Martha L; Martinez Maria M

    2008-01-01

    Thirty one bacterial isolations in minimal salts supplemented medium with hydrocarbons (ACPM or crude oil) as sole carbon source were isolated from sediment samples from the Colombian Caribbean. Bacterial strains underwent selection tests in different concentrations of hydrocarbons; 11 tolerant crude oil and ACPM strains in a range of 1-8%v/v were chosen. A mixed bacterial culture was created and assessed its ability to degrade hydrocarbons in a laboratory-scale test, with a concentration of 2% v/v of ACPM over a period of 21 days. Measurements of biomass in Colony Forming Units (CFU)/mL were used to develop the growth curve of the mixed culture. Hydrocarbons remotion was measured by mass chromatography. The mixed culture was able to degrade the 68.6% of aliphatic hydrocarbons in preference of long chain n- alkenes (C12- C31), reaching a maximum growth of 3.13 x 10 9 UFC / mL. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was not evidenced under the observation time. Nine of the eleven strains were identified using the biochemical systems BBL and API 50 CHB/E; they belonged to the genus Klebsiella, Chromobacterium, Flavimonas, Enterobacter,Pseudomonas, and Bacillus. The evaluated strains have enzymatic potential to degrade hydrocarbons and it is necessary to characterize them at molecular level in order to develop and effective consortium for field application

  16. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from South China Sea off Kuching Division, Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafidz Yusoff; Zaini Assim; Samsur Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen surface sediment samples collected from South China Sea off Kuching Division, Sarawak were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons were recovered from sediment by Soxhlet extraction method and then analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/ MS). Total concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from South China Sea off Kuching division are ranged from 35.6 μg/ g to 1466.1 μg/ g dry weights. The sediments collected from Bako Bay, Kuching showed high concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons. Several molecular indices were used to predict the predominant sources of hydrocarbons. Carbon preference index (CPI) value revealed widespread anthropogenic input in this study area (CPI= 0 to 4.1). The ratio of C 31 / C 19 and C 29 / C 31 indicated that major input of aliphatic hydrocarbon mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements. Generally, the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment from South China Sea off Kuching division are generally higher compare to other area in the world. (author)

  17. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were

  18. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  19. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  20. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  1. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  2. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  3. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  4. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  5. Detailed modeling of size distribution functions and hydrogen content in combustion-formed particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirignano, Mariano; D' Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); Kent, John [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    A kinetic modeling approach is proposed to delve into the nature and chemistry of combustion-produced particles. A sectional method is used for the first time on this purpose. It is based on modeling of gas-to-particle transitions by sections containing 125 lumped species with C numbers ranging from 24 to 4 x 10{sup 8} and H/C ratio ranging from 0 to 1. This allows not only the mass evolution of particles, but also their hydrogen content to be followed. The model is tested in an atmospheric pressure premixed flat flame of ethylene/oxygen with C/O = 0.8 and cold gas flow velocity of 4 cm/s. Comparison of modeled results with experimental data is satisfying in terms of species concentrations and H/C ratio of the particles. Analysis of model results in comparison with the experimental data has shown that it is possible to distinguish different precursors of particles moving from the exit of the burner into the post-oxidation region of the flame. At particle inception, i.e. just downstream from the flame front, gas-phase PAHs are responsible for particle nucleation and oligomers of aromatic hydrocarbons and small pericondensed hydrocarbons are predominantly present. Then the dehydrogenation process takes place and soot formation starts; in this zone large pericondensed and stacked structures are produced. Further up soot maturation generally linked with dehydrogenation is present, but still a few particles with higher H/C and with low coagulation efficiency are produced and remain present along the flame. The model, in accordance with experimental structural soot analysis, shows that in soot particles condensed structures typical of clusters of large pericondensed hydrocarbons are present whereas high-molecular mass condensed species mainly comprise oligomers of small aromatic compounds of clusters of small pericondensed hydrocarbons. (author)

  6. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Utilization of hydrocarbons by cyanobacteria from microbial mats on oily coasts of the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hasan, R.H.; Sorkhoh, N.A.; Al Bader, D.; Radwan, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that Microcoleus chthonoplastes and Phormidium corium, the predominant cyanobacteria in microbial mats on crude oil polluting the Arabian Gulf coasts, contribute to oil degradation by consuming individual n-alkanes. Both cyanobacteria grew phototrophically better in the presence of crude oil or individual n-alkanes than in their absence, indicating that hydrocarbons may have been utilized. This result was true when growth was measured in terms of dry biomass, as well as in terms of the content of biliprotein, the accessory pigment characteristic of cyanobacteria. The phototrophic biomass production by P. corium was directly proportional to the concentration of n-nonadecane (C 19 ) in the medium. The chlorophyll to carotene ratio of hydrocarbon-grown cyanobacteria did not decrease compared to the ratio in the absence of hydrocarbons, indicating that on hydrocarbons the organisms were not stressed. Comparing the fatty acid patterns of total lipids from hydrocarbon-grown cyanobacteria to those of the same organisms grown without hydrocarbons confirms that n-alkanes were taken up and oxidized to fatty acids by both cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  8. Trace element characterisation of Cretaceous Orange Basin hydrocarbon source rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinlua, A.; Adekola, S.A.; Swakamisa, O.; Fadipe, O.A.; Akinyemi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Vanadium and nickel contents indicate that the rock samples from the Orange Basin have marine organic matter input. → The organic matter of the Orange Basin source rocks were deposited in reducing conditions. → Despite the similarities in the organic matter source input and depositional environment of the samples from the two well, cross plots of Co/Ni versus V/Ni and Mo/Ni versus Co/Ni were able to reveal their subtle differences. → Cluster analysis classified the samples into three groups based on subtle differences in their .thermal maturity. - Abstract: Trace elements in the kerogen fraction of hydrocarbon source rock samples from two wells obtained from the Cretaceous units of the Orange Basin, South Africa were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, in order to determine their distribution and geochemical significances. The concentrations of the elements (As, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and V) determined ranged from 0.64 to 47,300 ppm for the samples analysed. The total organic carbon (TOC) values indicate that the samples are organic rich but did not show any trend with the distribution of the trace metals except Ce, Mo and Pb. Dendrogram cluster analysis discriminated the samples into three groups on the basis of their level of thermal maturity. Thermal maturity has a significant effect on the distribution of the trace metals. Cobalt/Ni and V/Ni ratios and cross plots of the absolute values of V and Ni indicate that the samples had significant marine organic matter input. The V and Ni contents and V/(V + Ni) ratio indicate that the organic matter of the source rocks had been deposited in reducing conditions. Despite the similarities in the organic matter source input and depositional environment of the organic matter of the samples from the two well, cross plots of Co/Ni versus V/Ni and Mo/Ni versus Co/Ni were able to reveal subtle differences. Cluster analysis of the samples was also able to reveal the subtle

  9. Carbon/Hydrogen ratio determination in hydrocarbons and its mixtures by electron backscattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, I.; Desdin, L.F.; Navarro, A.; Fuentes, M.

    1996-01-01

    A method carbon/hydrogen ratio (C/H) determination in hydrocarbons and its mixtures was improved using the electron backscattering technique. Besides the hetero atoms (S,O and N) influence in petroleum is studied for being able to determinate the C/H ratio in cuban petroleum with high sulphur contents

  10. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  11. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  12. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  13. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  14. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  15. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  16. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  17. Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and main hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Soares Neto; J. A. Carvalho; C. A. G. Veras; E. C. Alvarado; R. Gielow; E. N. Lincoln; T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; J. C. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire are presented and discussed. The experiment was conducted in the arc of deforestation, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The average carbon content of dry biomass was 48% and the estimated average moisture content of fresh biomass was 42% on...

  18. The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shallow groundwater from an alluvial-diluvial fan of the Hutuo River in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincui; Zhao, Yongsheng; Sun, Jichao; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Chunyan

    2018-06-01

    This paper has investigated the concentration and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shallow groundwater from an alluvial-diluvial fan of the Hutuo River in North China. Results show that the concentration levels of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons range from 0 to 92.06 ng/L, do not conform to drinking water quality standards in China (GB 5749- 2006). However, the concentration figures of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are much lower than that of other studies conducted elsewhere in China. In addition, highly-concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (50-92 ng/L) are fragmentarily distributed. The composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from this study indicates that low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are predominant in groundwater samples, medium molecular compounds occur at low concentrations, and high molecular hydrocarbons are not detected. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition in groundwater samples is basically the same as that of gaseous samples in the atmosphere in this study. Therefore, the atmospheric input is assumed to be an important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, no less than wastewater discharge, adhesion on suspended solids, and surface water leakage. Ratios of specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons demonstrate that they mainly originate from wood or coal combustion as well as natural gas and partially from petroleum according to the result of principal component analysis. On the whole, conclusions are drawn that the contamination sources of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are likely petrogenic and pyrolytic inputs. Future investigations by sampling topsoil, vadose soil, and the atmosphere can further verify aforementioned conclusions.

  19. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  20. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  1. Autothermal reforming of liquid hydrocarbons for H{sub 2} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, C.; Montel, S.; Cremer, P.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems IWV-3: Process Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The process of autothermal reforming of hydrocarbons can be used for the production of hydrogen within a fuel cell system. The application of three precious metal catalysts for the autothermal reforming of alkane mixtures with boiling ranges between 235 and 325 C was examined. The experiments were carried out at n(O{sub 2})/n(C) = 0.40, n(H{sub 2}O)/n(C) = 2.20, a catalyst bed temperature between 730 and 570 C and a hydrocarbon feed of 30 g/h. The catalysts yielded different hydrocarbon conversions, which can be explained by differences in the activity for the steam reforming reaction. The most active catalyst was also successfully utilized in the conversion of 400 g/h hydrocarbon feed. (orig.)

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the Cispata Bay, Colombia: A marine tropical ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Núñez, Saudith; Navarro-Frómeta, Amado; Marrugo-Negrete, José; Enamorado-Montes, Germán; Urango-Cárdenas, Iván

    2017-07-15

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were evaluated in shallow sediments, water, fish and seabird samples from the Cispata Bay, Colombia. The heavy metals concentrations in the sediment was in the following order: Cu>Pb>Hg>Cd. The heavy metal concentration was different (ppolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 7.0-41ngg -1 in sediment, 0.03-0.34ngmL -1 in water samples, 53.24ngg -1 in fish, and 66ngg -1 in seabirds. The high concentrations of heavy metals in seabirds may be explained by their feeding habits. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Cispata Bay may be due to hydrocarbon spills during oil transport at the nearby oil port. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianli; Kang, Haiyan; Wu, Junfeng

    2016-05-01

    Given the potential risks of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the analysis of their presence in water is very urgent. We have developed a novel procedure for determining chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The extraction parameters of solid-phase extraction were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method showed wide linear ranges (1.0-1000 ng/L) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9952 to 0.9998. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.591 and 0.045-1.502 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 82.5 to 102.6% with relative standard deviations below 9.2%. The obtained method was applied successfully to the determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples. Most of the chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected and 1-monochloropyrene was predominant in the studied water samples. This is the first report of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples in China. The toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied tap water were 9.95 ng the toxic equivalency quotient m(-3) . 9,10-Dichloroanthracene and 1-monochloropyrene accounted for the majority of the total toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared by pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared from pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge in temperature range 200-700 °C was studied. The sorption behaviour was found to depend on the degree of carbonization where the fractions of carbonized and uncarbonized organic content in the biochar act as an adsorption media and partition media, respectively. The sorption and partition fractions were quantified by isotherm separation method and isotherm parameters were correlated with biochar properties (aromaticity, polarity, surface area, pore volume and ash content). The risk assessment for the 16 priority EPA PAHs present in the biochar matrix was performed and it was found that the concentrations of the PAHs in the biochar were within the permissible limits prescribed by US EPA (except BC400 and BC500 for high molecular weight PAHs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Petroleum pollution in surface sediments of Daya Bay, South China, revealed by chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Shaoyong

    2008-10-01

    Nine surface sediments collected from Daya Bay have been Soxhlet-extracted with 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol. The non-aromatic hydrocarbon (NAH) fraction of solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and some bulk geochemical parameters have been analyzed to determine petroleum pollution of the bay. The NAH content varies from 32 to 276 μg g -1 (average 104 μg g -1) dry sediment and accounts for 5.8-64.1% (average 41.6%) of the EOM. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15 to 35 are identified to be derived from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in varying proportions. The contribution of marine authigenic input to the sedimentary n-alkanes is lower than the allochthonous input based on the average n-C 31/ n-C 19 alkane ratio. 25.6-46.5% of the n-alkanes, with a mean of 35.6%, are contributed by vascular plant wax. Results of unresolved complex mixture, isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. There is strong evidence of a common petroleum contamination source in the bay.

  6. Characterization of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental tobacco smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Fais Fadzil; Norhayati Mohd Tahir

    2007-01-01

    A study has been conducted to investigate the distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). ETS is the smoke that is present in the ambient air due to smoking of tobacco. Types of cigarettes (C1R1 and C6R1) were chosen based on a result of a simple survey carried out to determine the consumer choice of cigarette brand. In analyzing the ETS, volunteers were asked to smoke each brand of cigarette in a closed room and the ETS was then collected using the high Volume Air Sampler fitted with a glass fiber filter. Smoke samples from the glass fiber filter were then extracted using Ultrasonic Agitation and fractionated into aliphatic and aromatic fraction using silica-alumina column. Identification and quantification was done using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Results indicated the presence of n-alkanes in ETS, ranging from C 13 to C 36 with an odd to even carbon number predominance with Carbon Preference Index(CPI) values ranging from 3.34 to 4.90. Total identified resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons (TIRAH) concentration found in ETS ranged from 590 μg m -3 to 591 μg m -3 with the percentage of plant wax n-alkanes ranging from 61% to 64% of the TIRAH found in ETS samples. In source apportionment, CPI > 1 and high percentage of plant wax n-alkanes has generally been associated with the contribution of terrestrial plant source, thus this result indicates that even after curing process and smoking of tobacco, the overall signature of the source of n-alkanes is still preserved. Amount of PAHs detected in all ETS samples ranged from 11.7 ng m -3 to 56.1 ng m -3 . Results also indicated the presence of medium to high molecular weight PAHs with dominant presence of benzo(g, h, i)perylene compound. This result seems to support the contention that smoking process involves a high temperature burning with an oxygen deficient zone in the cigarette itself. Although the concentrations were low, the

  7. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  8. Weathering of hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments: testing the effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.A.; Codi, S.; Pratt, C.; Duke, N.C.

    1999-01-01

    This field study was a combined chemical and biological investigation of the relative effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills impacting mangrove habitats. The aim of the chemistry was to determine whether dispersant affected the short- or long-term composition of a medium range crude oil (Gippsland) stranded in a tropical mangrove environment in Queensland, Australia. Sediment cores from three replicate plots of each treatment (oil only and oil plus dispersant) were analyzed for total hydrocarbons and for individual molecular markers (alkanes, aromatics, triterpanes, and steranes). Sediments were collected at 2 days, then 1, 7, 13 and 22 months post-spill. Over this time, oil in the six treated plots decreased exponentially from 36.6 ± 16.5 to 1.2 ± 0.8 mg/g dry wt. There was no statistical difference in initial oil concentrations, penetration of oil to depth, or in the rates of oil dissipation between oiled or dispersed oil plots. At 13 months, alkanes were > 50% degraded, aromatics were ∼30% degraded based upon ratios of labile to resistant markers. However, there was no change in the triterpane or sterane biomarker signatures of the retained oil. This is of general forensic interest for pollution events. The predominant removal processes were evaporation (≤27%) and dissolution (≥56%), with a lag-phase of 1 month before the start of significant microbial degradation (≤17%). The most resistant fraction of the oil that remained after 7 months (the higher molecular weight hydrocarbons) correlated with the initial total organic carbon content of the soil. Removal rate in the Queensland mangroves was significantly faster than that observed in the Caribbean and was related to tidal flushing. (author)

  9. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  10. Quantification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Hou, Hongwei; Chen, Huan; Liu, Yong; Wang, An; Hu, Qingyuan

    2015-09-17

    A stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate was developed and validated. Compared with previously reported methods, this method has lower limits of detection (0.04-1.35 ng/cig). Additionally, the proposed method saves time, reduces the number of separation steps, and reduces the quantity of solvent needed. The new method was applied to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in 213 commercially available cigarettes in China, under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime and the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The results showed that the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content was more than two times higher in samples from the Health Canadian intense smoking regime than in samples from the International Standardization Organization smoking regime (1189.23 vs. 2859.50 ng/cig, ppolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) increased with labeled tar content in both of the tested smoking regimes. There was a positive correlation between total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime with that under the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The proposed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method is satisfactory for the rapid, sensitive, and accurately quantitative evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in cigarette smoke condensate, and it can be applied to assess potential health risks from smoking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  12. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  13. Occurrence of Hydrocarbon Degrading Genes in the Soils of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktasheva, L. R.; Shalyamova, R. P.; Guseva, U. A.; Galitskaya, P. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Oil pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems nowadays. The ability of soils for self-restoration is important, when choosing the strategy of pollution control. This ability depends on the pull of microbes able to decompose hydrocarbons that were present in the nonpolluted soil prior to pollution. In this study, the occurrence of alkane degrading genes in the soils of the Republic of Tatarstan being one of the oil processing regions in Russia, was investigated. It was found that alkane degrading genes belonging to group I were present in 20 of the 25 soil samples, and their abundances ranged between 0.01 and 0.07%. Alkane degrading genes belonging to group II were not detected in the samples investigated, and those belonging to group III were present in all the samples, and their abundances ranged between 0.06 and 7.25%. No correlation between the alkane degrading gene copy numbers and pH and organic carbon content in soils was revealed.

  14. Sedimentary Record of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Shuanglong Catchment, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the dated sediments from the Shuanglong catchment in the southwest of China were measured to characterize source inputs. The PAHs concentrations in the priority controlling list of US EPA (∑PAHs ranged within 102.47~563.24 ng g−1, with an average value of 207.18 ng g−1. The 2-3 rings PAHs were predominant, accounting for 73.77% of ∑PAH. According to the classification of pollution levels, ∑PAHs concentrations in the sediments are within the range of moderate pollution level. Both the total and individual PAH concentrations changed with the depth. The profile distribution of PAHs concentration in the sediments suggested that PAHs acted as an effective way to reconstruct the historical trends of socioeconomic changes in the study areas. Results of Ant/(Ant + Phe, Fla/(Fla + Pyr, and BaA/(BaA + Chry show that petroleum and petrogenic matter are attributed to the potential pollution source in the Shuanglong catchment. The coal combustion and incomplete combustion of gasoline and fossil fuel are dominant. TOC contents had positive correlation with ∑PAHs (R2=0.72, P<0.001, 2-3 rings (R2=0.44, P<0.001, 4-ring (R2=0.78, P<0.001, and 5-6 rings (R2=0.62, P<0.001.

  15. Comparative Genomics of the Ubiquitous, Hydrocarbon-degrading Genus Marinobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Webb, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The genus Marinobacter is amongst the most ubiquitous in the global oceans and strains have been isolated from a wide variety of marine environments, including offshore oil-well heads, coastal thermal springs, Antarctic sea water, saline soils and associations with diatoms and dinoflagellates. Many strains have been recognized to be important hydrocarbon degraders in various marine habitats presenting sometimes extreme pH or salinity conditions. Analysis of the genome of M. aquaeolei revealed enormous adaptation versatility with an assortment of strategies for carbon and energy acquisition, sensation, and defense. In an effort to elucidate the ecological and biogeochemical significance of the Marinobacters, seven Marinobacter strains from diverse environments were included in a comparative genomics study. Genomes were screened for metabolic and adaptation potential to elucidate the strategies responsible for the omnipresence of the Marinobacter genus and their remedial action potential in hydrocarbon-polluted waters. The core genome predominantly encodes for key genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation, biofilm-relevant processes, including utilization of external DNA, halotolerance, as well as defense mechanisms against heavy metals, antibiotics, and toxins. All Marinobacter strains were observed to degrade a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon species, including aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic as well as acyclic isoprenoid compounds. Various genes predicted to facilitate hydrocarbon degradation, e.g. alkane 1-monooxygenase, appear to have originated from lateral gene transfer as they are located on gene clusters of 10-20% lower GC-content compared to genome averages and are flanked by transposases. Top ortholog hits are found in other hydrocarbon degrading organisms, e.g. Alcanivorax borkumensis. Strategies for hydrocarbon uptake encoded by various Marinobacter strains include cell surface hydrophobicity adaptation via capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Southern Black Sea Shelf, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkıs, Nuray; Aksu, Abdullah; Erşan, Mahmut S

    2012-02-01

    In this study, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents and some aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were analysed in coastal sediments of hot points collected from along the Southern Black Sea Shelf. Surface sediment (0-2 cm) samples were collected from the locations using a Van Veen type grab sampler in September 2008 during a cruise on the Pollution Monitoring R/V ARAR. All sampling procedures were carried out according to internationally recognized guide-lines (UNEP 1991). Samples were analysed using a UV-fluorescence spec-trophotometry (UNEP/IOC/IAEA 1992) and gas chromatog- raphy (GC) via a Hewlett-Packard HP6890N series with a selective detector (GC-MSD) after hexane/ dichloromethane extraction. The ratio C(17)/C(18) varied between 2.2 and 2.9 for the surface sediments of TRK 34Y (Samsun), TRK46 (Giresun), and TRK55 (Rize), respectively. These results showed higher marine organic matter accumulation. However, pyrolytic PAHs were found predominant in these areas. In contrast, petrogenic contributions were found at Stations TRK1 (İğneada), TRK13 (Zonguldak), TRK53 (Trabzon) and TRK61 (Hopa). TPH contents of surface sediments varied between 0.29 and 363 μg g(-1) (dry wt) throughout the shelf. The lowest values were measured at Stations TRK1 (İğneada) and TRK 19 (Bartın), whereas the highest values were found at Stations TRK13 (Zonguldak) and TRK 53 (Trabzon).

  17. Sampling of high molecular weight hydrocarbons with adsorbent tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemberg, B.

    1996-12-01

    Adsorption tubes have been used to determine the content of hydrocarbons in gas samples from small scale combustion and gasification of biomass. Compounds from benzene (mw 78) to indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene (mw 276) have been examined. The results show that it is possible to analyze polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with 4 aromatic rings (mw 202). Detection limits for these compounds are 3 . PAH with higher molecule weight can be identified and quantified in samples with high amounts of PAH e.g. at gasification of biomass. Sampling on adsorption tubes is extremely quick and easy. The tube is inserted in the gas of interest and the sample is sucked through the tube with a pump. Sampling times of 2-10 minutes are often sufficient. High moisture content in the gas may result in losses of the most volatile compounds, when drying. Even very low concentrations of water in the tube may cause ice formation in the cold-trap and the sample will be destroyed. The analysis is unfortunately time-consuming because the desorption oven must be cooled between every analysis. This will reduce the number of samples which can be analyzed per day. The tubes can be stored for several weeks before analysis without deterioration. 4 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  19. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  20. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  1. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  2. New method dynamically models hydrocarbon fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.G.; Weissbrod, J.M.; Sheth, B.V. [Kesler Engineering, East Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method for calculating distillation column dynamics can be used to model time-dependent effects of independent disturbances for a range of hydrocarbon fractionation. It can model crude atmospheric and vacuum columns, with relatively few equilibrium stages and a large number of components, to C{sub 3} splitters, with few components and up to 300 equilibrium stages. Simulation results are useful for operations analysis, process-control applications and closed-loop control in petroleum, petrochemical and gas processing plants. The method is based on an implicit approach, where the time-dependent variations of inventory, temperatures, liquid and vapor flows and compositions are superimposed at each time step on the steady-state solution. Newton-Raphson (N-R) techniques are then used to simultaneously solve the resulting finite-difference equations of material, equilibrium and enthalpy balances that characterize distillation dynamics. The important innovation is component-aggregation and tray-aggregation to contract the equations without compromising accuracy. This contraction increases the N-R calculations` stability. It also significantly increases calculational speed, which is particularly important in dynamic simulations. This method provides a sound basis for closed-loop, supervisory control of distillation--directly or via multivariable controllers--based on a rigorous, phenomenological column model.

  3. MODELING GALACTIC EXTINCTION WITH DUST AND 'REAL' POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Zonca, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the remarkable apparent variety of galactic extinction curves by modeling extinction profiles with core-mantle grains and a collection of single polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our aim is to translate a synthetic description of dust into physically well-grounded building blocks through the analysis of a statistically relevant sample of different extinction curves. All different flavors of observed extinction curves, ranging from the average galactic extinction curve to virtually 'bumpless' profiles, can be described by the present model. We prove that a mixture of a relatively small number (54 species in 4 charge states each) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can reproduce the features of the extinction curve in the ultraviolet, dismissing an old objection to the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the interstellar extinction curve. Despite the large number of free parameters (at most the 54 × 4 column densities of each species in each ionization state included in the molecular ensemble plus the 9 parameters defining the physical properties of classical particles), we can strongly constrain some physically relevant properties such as the total number of C atoms in all species and the mean charge of the mixture. Such properties are found to be largely independent of the adopted dust model whose variation provides effects that are orthogonal to those brought about by the molecular component. Finally, the fitting procedure, together with some physical sense, suggests (but does not require) the presence of an additional component of chemically different very small carbonaceous grains.

  4. Predicting bioremediation of hydrocarbons: Laboratory to field scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplock, E.E.; Mardlin, D.P.; Killham, K.S.; Paton, G.I.

    2009-01-01

    There are strong drivers to increasingly adopt bioremediation as an effective technique for risk reduction of hydrocarbon impacted soils. Researchers often rely solely on chemical data to assess bioremediation efficiently, without making use of the numerous biological techniques for assessing microbial performance. Where used, laboratory experiments must be effectively extrapolated to the field scale. The aim of this research was to test laboratory derived data and move to the field scale. In this research, the remediation of over thirty hydrocarbon sites was studied in the laboratory using a range of analytical techniques. At elevated concentrations, the rate of degradation was best described by respiration and the total hydrocarbon concentration in soil. The number of bacterial degraders and heterotrophs as well as quantification of the bioavailable fraction allowed an estimation of how bioremediation would progress. The response of microbial biosensors proved a useful predictor of bioremediation in the absence of other microbial data. Field-scale trials on average took three times as long to reach the same endpoint as the laboratory trial. It is essential that practitioners justify the nature and frequency of sampling when managing remediation projects and estimations can be made using laboratory derived data. The value of bioremediation will be realised when those that practice the technology can offer transparent lines of evidence to explain their decisions. - Detailed biological, chemical and physical characterisation reduces uncertainty in predicting bioremediation.

  5. HYDROCARBON POLLUTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper is aimed to estimate the current level of hydrocarbon pollution of the marine environment in the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The paper discusses the results of three-year studies conducted in 2012-2014 within the framework of Roshydromet’s Programme of monitoring of transboundary waters of the Caspian Sea. Spatial distribution of concentrations of hydrocarbons (total and polyaromatic in water and bottom sediments of the area was analysed. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons were determined by means of infrared spectrometry and PAHs – of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.Results. The range of the total hydrocarbons in the area’s water is from slight traces to 240 µg/l, in sediments – from traces to 114 µg/g (dry weight. Total concentrations of PAHs in water varied from traces to 321 ng/l, in sediments – from traces to 699 ng/g (dry weight. For the source identification, data of satellite monitoring of the area were used. The data showed increasing input of hydrocarbons coming into the marine environment with discharges from vessels.Conclusion. The results of these studies are compared to those of previous research and show that the level of hydrocarbons in the area is typical for slightly polluted areas.

  6. Structural and electrical evolution of He ion irradiated hydrocarbon films observed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Deming; Sun, Li; Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Bi, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongping

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films are irradiated with 100 keV He ion at the fluences of 1.0 × 10 15 –1.0 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 or at the irradiation temperature ranging from 25 to 600 °C. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) has been used to evaluate the nanoscale electron conducting properties of these irradiated hydrocarbon films. Nanoscale and conducting defects have been formed in the hydrocarbon films irradiated at a relatively high ion fluence (1.0 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 ) or an elevated sample temperature. Analysis indicates that He ion irradiation results in the evolution of polymer-like hydrocarbon into a dense structure containing a large fraction of sp 2 carbon clusters. The sp 2 carbon clusters formed in irradiated hydrocarbon films can contribute to the formation of filament-like conducting channels with a relatively high local field-enhancing factor. Measurements indicate that the growth of nanoscale defects due to He ion irradiation can result in the surface swelling of irradiated hydrocarbon films at a relatively high ion fluences or elevated temperature

  7. Structural and electrical evolution of He ion irradiated hydrocarbon films observed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Yang, Deming [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Sun, Li [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116023 (China); Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Bi, Zhenhua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electronic Science, Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films are irradiated with 100 keV He ion at the fluences of 1.0 × 10{sup 15}–1.0 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} or at the irradiation temperature ranging from 25 to 600 °C. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) has been used to evaluate the nanoscale electron conducting properties of these irradiated hydrocarbon films. Nanoscale and conducting defects have been formed in the hydrocarbon films irradiated at a relatively high ion fluence (1.0 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}) or an elevated sample temperature. Analysis indicates that He ion irradiation results in the evolution of polymer-like hydrocarbon into a dense structure containing a large fraction of sp{sup 2} carbon clusters. The sp{sup 2} carbon clusters formed in irradiated hydrocarbon films can contribute to the formation of filament-like conducting channels with a relatively high local field-enhancing factor. Measurements indicate that the growth of nanoscale defects due to He ion irradiation can result in the surface swelling of irradiated hydrocarbon films at a relatively high ion fluences or elevated temperature.

  8. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  9. Relation between PAH and black carbon contents in size fractions of Norwegian harbor sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, Amy M.P.; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D.

    2006-01-01

    Distributions of total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in different particle size fractions for four Norwegian harbor sediments. The total PAH (16-EPA) concentrations ranged from 2 to 113 mg/kg dry weight with the greatest fraction of PAH mass in the sand fraction for three of the four sediments. TOC contents ranged from 0.84% to 14.2% and BC contents from 0.085% to 1.7%. This corresponds to organic carbon (OC = TOC - BC) contents in the range of 0.81-14% and BC:TOC ratios of 1.3-18.1%. PAH isomer ratios suggested that the PAH in all four sediments were of pyrogenic origin. Furthermore, stronger correlations between PAH versus BC (r 2 = 0.85) than versus OC (r 2 = 0.15) were found. For all size fractions and bulk sediments, the PAH-to-BC ratios for the total PAHs were on average 6 ± 3 mg PAH/g BC. These results suggest that PAH distributions were dominated by the presence of BC, rather than OC. As sorption to BC is much stronger than sorption to OC, this may result in significantly lower dissolved concentrations of PAH than expected on the basis of organic carbon partitioning alone. - PAH contents correlated better with black carbon than organic carbon for four Norwegian harbor sediments

  10. Development of an efficient bacterial consortium for the potential remediation of hydrocarbons from contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustuvmani Patowary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia towards total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples 5 isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1 and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1 and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and Bacillus cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH after five weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  12. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix.

  14. Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development Hazards Within the Central United States. Report 1: Overview and Potential Risk to Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Zou 2013; NRC 2013). The ideal shale for gas production should have low clay content, less than 30%, and high brittle mineral content, greater...high clay content has higher ductility, thus increasing the energy loss within the rock; i.e., requiring more imparted energy to generate fractures...used to increase the permeability of the geologic formation containing recoverable hydrocarbons and utilizes highly pressurized, low- viscosity fluid

  15. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  16. Pre-Alleghenian (Pennsylvanian-Permian) hydrocarbon emplacement along Ordovician Knox unconformity, eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, F.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1989-03-01

    Cores taken during exploration for Mississippi Valley-type lead and zinc ores in the Mascot-Jefferson City zinc district of eastern Tennessee commonly contain hydrocarbon residues in carbonate rocks of the Knox Group immediately below the Lower Ordovician Knox unconformity. The location and number of these residue-bearing strata reveal information about the Paleozoic history of hydrocarbon emplacement in the region. Contour maps, generated from nearly 800 holes covering more than 20 km/sup 2/, indicate that zones with elevated organic content in the uppermost 30 m of the Lower Ordovician Mascot Dolomite show a strong spatial correlation with Middle Ordovician paleotopographic highs. These same zones show no spatial association with present-day structural highs, which were formed during Pennsylvanian-Permian Alleghenian tectonism. This suggests that the physical entrapment of hydrocarbons migrating through the upper permeable units of the Mascot must have occurred prior to the principal tectonism of the Alleghenian orogeny. 7 figures, 1 table.

  17. [Pattern of growth and metabolism of thermotolerant microorganisms on media containing carbohydrates and hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnikov, E I; Isakova, D M; Eliseeva, G S; Loiko, Z I

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to examine the growth and metabolism of thermotolerant yeast Candida tropicalis K-41 and bacteria Micrococcus freudenreichii that do not have a single temperature point but instead have an optimal temperature plateau at which the growth rate and biosynthetic activity remain unaltered or change insignificantly. Upon transition from the carbohydrate to the hydrocarbon pattern of nutrition these microorganisms show significant changes in metabolic processes: optimal concentration of biotin in the medium decreases significantly; the synthesis of riboflavin, nicotinic and pantothenic acids increases in yeast; the synthesis of nicotinic acid, biotin and vitamin B12 increases in bacteria. During microbial cultivation on hydrocarbons the content of cell lipids grows; yeast accumulate actively phospholipids and free fatty acids; bacteria build up intensively waxes and phospholipids. With the near-maximal growth rate the total synthesis of lipids decreases on carbohydrates and increases drastically on hydrocarbons, primarily at the expense of the above fractions.

  18. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  19. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  20. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  1. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  2. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  3. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  4. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  5. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  6. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  7. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  8. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  9. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  10. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  11. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  12. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  13. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  14. Total organic carbon, an important tool in a holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, P.D.; Burns, W.A.; Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to verify the consistency of source allocation results for the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background of the northern Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound where the Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in 1998. The samples used in the study were either pre-spill sediments or from the seafloor outside the spill path. It is assumed that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the area comes from either seep oil residues and shale erosion including erosion from petroleum source rock shales, or from coals including those of the Bering River coalfields. The objective of this study was to use the TOC calculations to discriminate between the two very different sources. TOC can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations, particularly when inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. The benthic sediments used in this study showed excellent agreement between measured TOC and calculated TOC from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. TOC and fingerprint matches confirmed that TOC sources were properly identified. The matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of different sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. It was concluded that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the sediments in the area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and oil seeps along the northern Gulf of Alaska coast. Thermally mature area coals are excluded from being important contributors to the background at Prince William Sound because of their high TOC content. 26 refs., 4 figs

  15. Total organic carbon, an important tool in a holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, P.D. [Battelle, Waltham, MA (United States); Burns, W.A. [W.A. Burns Consulting Services, Houston, TX (United States); Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States); Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S. [Battelle, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to verify the consistency of source allocation results for the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background of the northern Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound where the Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in 1998. The samples used in the study were either pre-spill sediments or from the seafloor outside the spill path. It is assumed that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the area comes from either seep oil residues and shale erosion including erosion from petroleum source rock shales, or from coals including those of the Bering River coalfields. The objective of this study was to use the TOC calculations to discriminate between the two very different sources. TOC can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations, particularly when inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. The benthic sediments used in this study showed excellent agreement between measured TOC and calculated TOC from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. TOC and fingerprint matches confirmed that TOC sources were properly identified. The matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of different sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. It was concluded that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in the sediments in the area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and oil seeps along the northern Gulf of Alaska coast. Thermally mature area coals are excluded from being important contributors to the background at Prince William Sound because of their high TOC content. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  17. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  18. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  19. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  20. Catalytic conversion of carboxylic acids in bio-oil for liquid hydrocarbons production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shurong; Guo, Zuogang; Cai, Qinjie; Guo, Long

    2012-01-01

    Bio-oil must be upgraded to be suitable for use as a high-grade transport fuel. Crude bio-oil has a high content of carboxylic acids which can cause corrosion, and the high oxygen content of these acids also reduces the oil’s heating value. In this paper, acetic acid and propanoic acid were chosen as the model carboxylic acids in bio-oil. Their behavior in the production of liquid hydrocarbons during a catalytic conversion process was investigated in a micro-fixed bed reactor. The liquid organic phase from this catalytic conversion process mainly consisted of liquid hydrocarbons and phenol derivatives. Under the condition of low Liquid Hourly Space Velocity (LHSV), the liquid organic phase from acetic acid cracking had a selectivity of 22% for liquid hydrocarbons and a selectivity of 65% for phenol derivatives. The composition of the organic products changed considerably with the LHSV increasing to 3 h −1 . The selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons increased up to 52% while that for phenol derivatives decreased to 32%. Propanoic acid performed much better in producing liquid hydrocarbons than acetic acid. Its selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons was as high as 80% at LHSV = 3 h −1 . A mechanism for this catalytic conversion process was proposed according to the analysis of the components in the liquid organic phases. The pathways of the main compounds formation in the liquid organic phases were proposed, and the reason why liquid hydrocarbons were more effectively produced when using propanoic acid rather than acetic acid was also successfully explained. In addition, BET and SEM characterization were used to analyze the catalyst coke deposition. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► High content of carboxylic acids in bio-oil causes its corrosiveness. ► Acetic acid and propanoic acid are two dominant acids in bio-oil. ► Liquid hydrocarbons were produced by cracking of these two dominant acids. ► A mechanism model was proposed to explain

  1. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, H.; Iglesias Gonzalez, M.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institute I

    2012-07-01

    The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage due to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers e.g. in form of H{sub 2} that can be further processed to hydrocarbons. Storage in form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared to H{sub 2} storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage and utilization already exists. The present contribution introduces the potential of H{sub 2} integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO{sub 2} emissions decreased since fossil resources for H{sub 2} production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO{sub 2} is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed, however lower hydrocarbon product yields per H{sub 2} are achieved since CO{sub 2} has the highest oxygen content. (orig.)

  3. Hydrocarbon degradation potential in reference soils and soils contaminated with jet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Hoeppel, R.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum degradation in surface and subsurface soils is affected by such factors as moisture content, pH, soil type, soil organics, temperature, and oxygen concentrations. In this paper, the authors determine the degradation rates of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons added to soils collected from a contaminated surface site, contaminated subsurface sites, and a clean reference site. The radiolabeled hydrocarbons used include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, 1-methynaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, anthracene, chrysene, and hexadecane. Microbial degradation rates were based on determination of mineralization rates (production of 14 CO 2 ) of hydrocarbons that were added to soil samples. Since water was added and oxygen was not limiting, the hydrocarbon rates determined are likely to be higher than those occurring in situ. Using radiolabeled hydrocarbons, information can be provided on differences in the degradation rates of various petroleum compounds in different types of soils at a site, on possible production of petroleum metabolites in the soil, and on the importance of anaerobic petroleum degradation and the effects of nutrient, water, and surfactant addition on biodegradation rates

  4. [Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment from Zhoushan coastal area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Tuan, Le Huy; Mei, Wei-Ping; Ruan, Hui-Hui; Wu, Hao

    2014-07-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in water and sediments of Zhoushan coastal area every two months in 2012. The concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 382.3 to 816.9 ng x L(-1), with the mean value of 552.5 ng x L(-1) in water; whereas it ranged from 1017.9 to 3047.1 ng x g(-1), with the mean value of 2 022.4 ng x g(-1) in sediment. Spatial distribution showed that Yangshan and Yanwoshan offshore area had the maximum and minimum of total PAHs contents in water, while the maximum and minimum occurred at Yangshan and Zhujiajian Nansha offshore area in sediment. Temporal distribution revealed that total PAHs contents in water reached the maximum and minimum values in October and June, however in sediments these values were found in August and June, respectively. The PAHs pollution was affected by oil emission, charcoal and coal combustion. Using the biological threshold and exceeded coefficient method to assess the ecological risk of PAHs in Zhoushan coastal area, the result showed that sigma PAHs had a lower probability of potential risk, while there was a higher probability of potential risk for acenaphthylene monomer, and there might be ecological risk for acenaphthene and fluorene. Distribution of PAHs between sediment and water showed that Zhoushan coastal sediment enriched a lot of PAHs, meanwhile the enrichment coefficient (K(d) value) of sediment in Daishan island was larger than that in Zhoushan main island.

  5. Advertising Content

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...

  6. Origin and distribution of hydrocarbons and organic matter in the surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghden, Hatem; Tedetti, Marc; Sayadi, Sami; Serbaji, Mohamed Moncef; Elleuch, Boubaker; Saliot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the origin and distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs and PAHs) and organic matter (OM) in surficial sediments of the Sfax-Kerkennah channel in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea). TOC, AH and PAH concentrations ranged 2.3–11.7%, 8–174 μg g −1 sed. dw and 175–10,769 ng g −1 sed. dw, respectively. The lowest concentrations were recorded in the channel (medium sand sediment) and the highest ones in the Sfax harbor (very fine sand sediment). AHs, PAHs and TOC were not correlated for most of the stations. TOC/N and δ 13 C values revealed a mixed origin of OM with both marine and terrestrial sources. Hydrocarbon molecular composition highlighted the dominance of petrogenic AHs and the presence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs, associated with petroleum products and combustion processes. This work underscores the complex distribution patterns and the multiple sources of OM and hydrocarbons in this highly anthropogenized coastal environment. - Highlights: • TOC, AHs and PAHs ranged 2–12%, 8–174 μg g −1 sed. dw and 175–10,769 ng g −1 sed. dw. • Lowest concentrations in the Sfax-Kerkennah channel, highest ones in the Sfax harbor • Decoupling between TOC, AH and PAH contents • TOC/N and δ 13 C values revealed a mixed origin of OM with marine and terrestrial sources. • Dominance of petrogenic AHs and presence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs

  7. Distribution of particle-phase hydrocarbons, PAHs and OCPs in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Tao, Shu; Zhang, Zhi-Huan; Lan, Tian; Zuo, Qian

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the total suspended particles (TSP) collected from 13 different locations in Tianjin, China, where intensive coal burning for domestic heating in winter takes place and a large quantity of pesticides had been produced and applied. Carbon preference index (CPI), carbon number maximum (C max) of n-alkane and plant wax index (%wax C n) indicate that n-alkanes come from both biogenic and petrogenic sources, and biogenic source contributes more n-alkanes in autumn than in winter. Petroleum biomarkers as indicators of petrogenic source such as hopanes and steranes were also detected in both seasons' samples. The sum of 16 PAH concentrations (∑PAH) ranged from 69.3 to 2170 ng m -3 in winter and from 7.01 to 40.0 ng m -3 in autumn. Seasonal variations were mainly attributed to the difference in coal combustion emission and meteorological conditions. The results of a source diagnostic analysis suggest that PAHs in TSP mainly come from coal combustion. Seven OCPs (four hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) and three dichlorodipheny-trichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs)) were detected in most samples. Concentrations of the sum of α-, β-, δ- and γ-HCH (∑HCH) and the sum of p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD and p, p'-DDE (∑DDT) in autumn varied in the ranges of 0.002-0.9 ng m -3 and 0.025-2.21 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values of 0.127±0.241 ng m -3 and 0.239±0.546 ng m -3, respectively. In winter, ∑HCH and ∑DDT in TSP ranged from 0.071 to 5.35 ng m -3 and from 0.416 to 3.14 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values 1.05±1.88 ng m -3 and 0.839±0.713 ng m -3, respectively. Both of the illegal application of technical HCH and DDT and the volatilization from topsoil contributed to the particle-phase contents of HCHs and DDTs in the atmosphere.

  8. Enhanced aerobic biodegradation of some toxic hydrocarbon pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshahawy, M.R.M.

    2007-01-01

    samples were collected from the same location in Suez Gulf during the period from June, 2004 to April 2006 then microbiologically and chemically analyzed . the TPH levels ranged from 55 to 86 ppm and exceeded the known permissible limits referring to a settled situation of chronic hydrocarbon pollution in the studied area. on the other hand the biodegrading bacterial counts cfu clearly reflected the great adaptation of endogenous bacteria to use hydrocarbons as a sole source of carbon . the ratio of biodegrading bacteria to heterotrophic ones ranged between 26 and 50% over the period of collection. the biodegradation potentials of suez gulf consortia were studied at different concentrations of phenanthrene as a sole carbon source. it was found that the degradation kinetics of phenanthrene either due to biotic or abiotic factors is affected with the initial concentration of PAHs. twenty PAHs degraders were isolated from Suez Gulf consortia after different adaptation periods on phenanthrene.ten isolates were selected to be promising due to their ability to tolerate high base oil concentrations, grow at wide range of temperatures and their short incubation period on MSO. the biodegradation kinetics of 200 ppm phenanthrene by the selected isolates was monitored by HPLC

  9. Technology selection for remediation of lead and hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, K.E.; Sparks, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for selection of a technology for remediation of 70,000 tons of lead and hydrocarbon impacted soil resulting from an excavation at the Mobil Torrance Refinery. This methodology resulted from over two years of extensive research and technology evaluation. Twelve technologies and combination of technologies were evaluated, which often included bench scale testing, to determine the most cost effective and technically feasible remediation option. The results of the studies for each technology are discussed and presented in tabular form. The technologies investigated include: fixation/stabilization, soil washing, solvent washing, heap leach extraction, froth flotation, bioremediation, thermal desorption, electrokinetic extraction, asphalt incorporation, vitrification, off-site treatment, and off-site disposal. The associated costs and technical feasibility of each of the remediation options evaluated are presented. Laboratory analyses of the excavated soil indicate hydrocarbons range from non-detect to 11,000 ppm with an average of 2,600 ppm, soluble lead (CA test-not TCLP) range from 1.4 ppm to 100 ppm with an average of 29 ppm, and low levels of organic lead are present. Average grain size of the soil ranges from number-sign 200 to number-sign 120 mesh, and permeability averages 10--4 cm/sec. Significant odors, likely caused by hydrogen sulfide and thiophenes, were detected when the soil was excavated and control of odors during the remediation phase is a critical concern

  10. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  11. Hydrocarbon pollution in the sediment from the Jarzouna-Bizerte coastal area of Tunisia (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrafi-Nouira, I; Khedir-Ghenim, Z; Zrafi, F; Bahri, R; Cheraeif, I; Rouabhia, M; Saidane-Mosbahi, D

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the presence and origin of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found near the Jarzouna (Bizerte, Tunisia) oil refinery. Analyses of surface sediments (layer 1) and deep sediments (layer 2) showed that Total Hydrocarbon (TH) concentrations ranged from 602 +/- 7.638 microg/g in layer-1 to 1270 +/- 2.176 microg/g in layer-2. The results suggest that the deeper the sediment, the higher the level of total hydrocarbon found. The sedimentary Non Aromatic Hydrocarbon (NAH) and Aromatic Hydrocarbon (AH) concentrations ranged from 66.22 +/- 1.516 to 211.82 +/- 10.670 microg/g for NAH, and from 13.84 +/- 0.180 to 115.60 +/- 2.479 microg/g for AH. The high variability of these concentrations was associated with the location of the sediment collection sites. Aliphatic biomarker analysis revealed petroleum contamination close to the refinery rejection site, and biogenic sources further away. Petroleum contamination may be associated with increased industrial activity in the area of Jarzouna-Bizerte in the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  13. Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

    2001-02-01

    Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend musclelipid content of the organs. No clear bioaccumulation dependence on fish weight/size was observed for gills, digestive tube and liver when the fat contents of these tissues were taken into account. However, the concentrations in muscle decreased with size, possibly implying a simple dilution effect by the increase of body weight. Hydrocarbons, and particularly PAHs, were strongly depleted in all tissues with respect to organochlorinated compounds if compared with the amounts present in bottom waters and sediment. Smaller specimens displayed for most pollutants qualitatively different patterns than larger fish, which could be attributed to their particular habitat/diet. The aliphatic hydrocarbon profiles suggested that Mora moro was exposed to a more predominant intake of biogenic rather than petrogenic hydrocarbons. The entrance and storage organs exhibited characteristic PAH and PCB distributions, reflecting different bioaccumulation and metabolic pathways. Compared with the profiles currently found in surface fish species, a relatively higher contribution of heavier components, namely hepta- and octochlorinated PCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

  14. Detection of irradiated mushrooms by GC/MS analysis of lipid-derived hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Koller, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    A number of methods has been developed for the detection of irradiated foods in recent years, and in the case of mushrooms several methods have been proposed, of which the thermoluminescence (TL) measurements seem to be the most valuable. However, in several cases mineral contamination of fresh mushrooms is so extremely low that not enough minerals can be isolated for TL analysis. In that case an alternative method is needed to detect the radiation treatment of mushrooms. Several methods including TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride) staining, kinetin treatment, dropping out of spores and mirco-gel electrophoresis of spores, were tested, but the most promising method was the GC/MS analysis of radiation-induced lipid-derived hydrocarbons in spite of the low fat content - around 0.2-0.3% - of mushrooms. Successful results were achieved by GC/MS analysis of the radiolytic hydrocarbons. Although mushrooms have a low fat content, by extracting a large quantity, in this case 500 g of mushrooms, about 1.2-1.5 g of fat could be obtained. The main fatty acids of mushroom fat and some of their expected cleavage products on irradiation - the c n-1 hydrocarbon which has one C atom less than the parent fatty acid and the C n-2:1 hydrocarbon, which has two C atoms less and an additional double bond in position 1 - are given. (orig./Vhe)

  15. Hydrocarbon pollution fixed to combined sewer sediment: a case study in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-02-01

    Over a period of two years (2000-2001), sediment samples were extracted from 40 silt traps (STs) spread through the combined sewer system of Paris. All sediment samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters (pH, organic matter content, grain size distribution), with total hydrocarbons (THs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) selected from the priority list of the US-EPA. The two main objectives of the study were (1) to determine the hydrocarbon contamination levels in the sediments of the Paris combined sewer system and (2) to investigate the PAH fingerprints in order to assess their spatial variability and to elucidate the PAH origins. The results show that there is some important inter-site and intra-site variations in hydrocarbon contents. Despite this variability, TH and PAH contamination levels (50th percentile) in the Parisian sewer sediment are estimated at 530 and 18 microg g(-1), respectively. The investigation of the aromatic compound distributions in all of the 40 STs has underlined that there is, at the Paris sewer system scale, a homogeneous PAH background pollution. Moreover, the study of the PAH fingerprints, using specific ratios, suggests the predominance of a pyrolytic origin for those PAHs fixed to the sewer sediment.

  16. Certified reference materials for the determination of mineral oil hydrocarbons in water, soil and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Liebich, A.; Win, T.; Nehls, I.

    2005-07-01

    The international research project HYCREF, funded by the European Commission in the 5{sup th} Framework programme, aimed to develop methods to prepare homogeneous and stable water-, soil- and waste reference materials contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons and to test certify the mineral oil content by gas chromatographic methods. As mineral oil products are important sources for environmental contaminations a high need exists for certified reference materials for their determination using the new gas chromatographic methods (soil: ISO/FDIS 16703, waste: ENpr 14039, water: ISO 9377-2). The experimental conditions and results for preparation and characterisation of a total of nine reference materials (3 water, 3 soil- and 3 waste materials) are described and discussed. Target values for the reference materials were defined at the beginning of the project in order to have clear quality criteria, which could be compared with the achieved results at the end of the project. These target specifications were related to the maximum uncertainty from test certification exercises (<5% for soil/waste and <10% for water), the maximum inhomogeneity between bottles (<3%) and minimum requirements for stability (>5 years for soil/waste and >2 years for water). The feasibility studies showed that solid materials (soil, waste) could be prepared sufficiently homogeneous and stable. The test certified values of the 6 solid materials comprise a wide range of mineral oil content from about 200-9000 mg/kg with expanded uncertainties between 5.7-13.1% using a coverage factor k (k=2). The development of new water reference materials - the so-called ''spiking pills'' for an offshore- and a land-based discharge water represents one of the most innovative aspects of the project. The spiking pill technology facilitates the application and storage and improves the material stability compared with aqueous materials. Additional to the preparation and test certification of

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  18. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  19. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in tropical estuary of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Trigueis, Jorge Alberto [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Karina Santos [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As part of the environmental assessment within Todos os Santos Bay, State of Bahia - Brazil, in summer of 2005, superficial water and sediments samples of the mangrove were collected at five locations to determine the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the Dom Joao estuary at the Sao Francisco do Conde Region. Sandy sediments with low organic matter content dominate the studied area. Trace metal levels indicated that sediments were moderately polluted with Cu (overall mean: 21.48 +/- 4.76 {mu}g.g-1 dry sediment), but not with Pb (15 +/- 8), Zn (38 +/- 10), Cr (15 +/- 7), Ni (13 +/- 6) and Cd (0.4 +/- 0.2). Depending on location, total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 to 10.6 {mu}g.g-1. To discriminate pattern differences and similarities among samples, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix. PCA revealed the latent relationships among all the stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. Principal components analysis confirmed two regions according to their environmental quality. The results pointed out that almost all the area presented some substances that can cause adverse biological effects, especially in the outermost region where some metals are above TEL level. (author)

  20. Comparison of various extraction techniques for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooibroek, D; Hoogerbrugge, R; Stoffelsen, B H G; Dijkman, E; Berkhoff, C J; Hogendoorn, E A

    2002-10-25

    Two less laborious extraction methods, viz. (i) a simplified liquid extraction using light petroleum or (ii) microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE), for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of the compost worm Eisenia andrei, were compared with a reference method. After extraction and concentration, analytical methodology consisted of a cleanup of (part) of the extract with high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and instrumental analysis of 15 PAHs with reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (RPLC-FLD). Comparison of the methods was done by analysing samples with incurred residues (n=15, each method) originating from an experiment in which worms were exposed to a soil contaminated with PAHs. Simultaneously, the performance of the total lipid determination of each method was established. Evaluation of the data by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the performance of the light petroleum method for both the extraction of PAHs (concentration range 1-30 ng/g) and lipid content corresponds very well with the reference method. Compared to the reference method, the MASE method yielded somewhat lower concentrations for the less volatile PAHs, e.g., dibenzo[ah]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene and provided a significant higher amount of co-extracted material.

  1. Degradation and mineralization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and naphthalene in intertidal marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.E.; Capone, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 μg/g [ppm]) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks

  2. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential, Task 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vicinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the Nevada Test Site (NTS) area in southern Nevada. In order to reconstruct the Paleozoic stratigraphy, we are also studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS. A thorough understanding of the structure will also be essential to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We are now provisionally limiting the name open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes to the rocks that make up the Eleana Range - i.e., the rocks that we have been calling open-quotes western Eleanaclose quotes. The mudstone section (which we have until now called open-quotes eastern Eleanaclose quotes) we are provisionally calling the open-quotes Chainman Shaleclose quotes, in keeping with regional lithostratigraphic nomenclature. We continue to work out the internal stratigraphies and basin histories of both units; XRD (r-ray diffraction) determinations of clay mineralogy are an addition to our understanding of the Chainman. The basin histories place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. This year we have hired a consulting petroleum geologist for two jobs: (1) to review drillhole data from southern Nevada on file at NBMG and make recommendations about more detailed study of any interesting drillholes; and (2) to log the UE17e core (in the Chainman) and evaluate source rock potential. The results of these studies have been incorporated into this report, and the consultant's reports

  3. Climate change opportunities in the hydrocarbon sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amey, A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation described some of the innovative policy, market and technology approaches that are needed to move to a carbon constrained future. The world's primary power consumption is currently 12 trillion watts. Most of the energy (85 per cent) comes from fossil fuels. Climate Change Central (C3) was incorporated as a not-for-profit company in 2000. It includes representatives from major industry sectors, environmental associations, and all levels of government. C3 provides leadership in encouraging action on climate change and developing climate change partnerships and alliances. It also provides strategic intelligence in identifying climate change priorities and appropriate policy frameworks. It helps increase public awareness of the issue. While C3 is focused on reducing greenhouse gases (GHG), it stands neutral in the Kyoto Protocol debate and is working to define emission reduction priorities in partnership with all stakeholders. Priorities include energy efficiency/conservation; emission off-sets development; adaptation; technology and market innovation; and, socio-economic implications. The difficulty in reducing GHGs stems from the fact that carbon emissions, energy use, and economic growth are directly related. In a buoyant, hydrocarbon-based economy, economic growth has meant an increase in energy production, energy use and increased carbon emissions, even while emission intensity decreases significantly. The United States contributes 23 per cent of the world's total carbon emissions, of which 90 per cent comes from energy production and consumption. Many states have implemented policies to control carbon emissions. A range of policy approaches are also underway in Canada to set GHG emission targets, to support the development of GHG off-set and trading systems, and to promote renewable energy source development. Efforts are also underway to develop clean coal or zero emission coal technology, to promote distributed power generation, biofuels, and

  4. Environmental Remediation: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2012-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistent semi-volatile organic compounds. They are contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods due to their high degree of conjugation, and aromaticity. PAHs are present in industrial effluents as products of incomplete combustion processes of organic compounds. Petroleum, coal and shale oil contain extremely complex mixtures of these PAHs, and their transport and refining process can also result in the release of PAHs. It is therefore prudent that such effluents are treated before discharge into the environment. In this project, different approaches to the treatment of PAHs have been investigated. Hydrous pyrolysis has been explored as a potential technique for degrading PAHs in water using anthracene as a model compound. The experiments were performed under different conditions of temperature, substrate, redox systems and durations. The conditions include oxidising systems comprising pure water, hydrogen peroxide and Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts to assess a range of reactivities. Products observed in GCMS analysis of the extract from the water phase include anthrone, anthraquinone, xanthone and multiple hydro-anthracene derivatives (Paper I). In addition a modified version of the Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water oxidising system was tested; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts were adopted for the conversion of a mixture of anthracene, fluorene and fluoranthene. The rate of conversion in the mixture was high as compared to that of only anthracene (Paper II). Also the use of LECA (Lightweight expanded clay aggregates) as an adsorbent (Paper III) for PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) removal from water has been.(Author)

  5. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation methodology does, however, require more space that may not be available when refurbishing older process plants. Relocating structural elements would introduce much hot work, which should be minimized in live plants. It is also costly. The aim of the present study is therefore to develop a test concept for testing fire resistance of equipment protected with only air-gap and thermal insulation, i.e., without the fire-protective insulation. The present work demonstrates a conceptual methodology for small scale fire testing of mockups resembling a section of a distillation column. The mockups were exposed to a small-scale propane flame in a test configuration where the flow rate and the flame zone were optimized to give heat flux levels in the range 250–350 kW/m2. Results are presented for a mockup resembling a 16 mm thick distillation column steel wall. It is demonstrated that the modern distance insulation in combination with the heat capacity of the column wall indicates 30+ minutes fire resistance. The results show that this methodology has great potentials for low cost fire testing of other configurations, and it may serve as a set-up for product development.

  6. Effect of the hydrocarbon phenanthrene on Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorellaceae) growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero Paternina, Angelica; Cruz Casallas, Pablo E; Velasco Santamaria, Yohana M

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene on the growth of chlorella vulgaris alga were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The algae were exposed during 72 h to different concentrations of phenanthrene (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10000 μg/l). The alga density was daily determined by a neubauer chamber. The average growth average, total biomass and inhibition percentage of the biomass were also determined. In addition, the content of chlorophyll a was determined at the beginning and the end of the experiment. the assays were carried out in glass bottles of 0,4 l using the complex NPK (remital m 17-6-18) at 1 g/l as an organic fertilizing. The results showed that phenanthrene inhibited progressively the alga growth being the lowest cellular growth observed in the medium with the highest phenanthrene concentration, reaching an inhibition percentage of 59 %. In the other treatments, the daily growth rate was relatively constant. The chlorophyll a concentration evaluated by spectrophotometry was not affected by the phenanthrene concentration. in conclusion, the growth of the alga c. vulgaris was affected negatively by the exposure to nominal concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene higher than 1 μg/l.

  7. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. (AGIP, Milan (Italy))

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  8. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in some regions of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Qasim, S.Z.; Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.

    Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in some parts of the Northern Indian Ocean using UV bsorbance technique with a clean up step. The concentration of oil ranged from 0.6 to 26.5 mu gl. Higher values were recorded along the oil tanker...

  9. Moss as bio-indicators of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Vicente J. Monleon

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of air pollutants linked to a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including asthma, cancers, cardiovascular disease, and fetal growth impairment. PAHs are emitted by combustion of organic matter (e.g. fossil fuels, plant biomass) and can accumulate in plant and animal tissues over time. Compared to criteria...

  10. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  11. Determination of hydrogen content of Jatropha biodiesel oil using neutron reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, I. O.; Jonah, S. A.; Omede, M.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel is an environmental-friendly alternative to fossil fuel and holds immense potential for the future energy needs of the country. Non-edible jatropha biodiesel oil has been identified as one of the suitable bio-fuel options. In this work, experimental measurements were performed to determine the total hydrogen content of jatropha oil and jatropha-synthetic diesel oil mixture. The work was carried out using a neutron reflection facility at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Jatropha oil and jatropha-synthetic diesel mixture were subjected to experimental measurements for the purpose of determining bulk hydrogen content using neutron reflection facility that had been previously calibrated using various hydrocarbon materials of known hydrogen content. The hydrogen content of the sample were subsequently determined using their measured neutron reflection coefficient values and calibration data. In general, results obtained indicate high hydrogen content range of 10.68-12.16wt% for jatropha oil and the various jatropha-synthetic diesel mixtures. The implication of this is that jatropha oil or jatrophal-synthetic diesel mixture can be used as alternative fuel to mitigate high carbon monoxide emission.

  12. Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples five isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1, and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1, and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and B. cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing) has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of TPH after 5 weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  13. Dynamics of hydrocarbon vents: Focus on primary porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Shedd, W.; Abichou, T.; Pineda-Garcia, O.; Silva, M.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of hydrocarbon release by monitoring activity of a single vent at a 1215m deep site in the Gulf of Mexico (GC600). An autonomous camera, deployed by the submersible ALVIN, was programmed to capture a close-up image every 4 seconds for approximately 3.5 hours. The images provided the ability to study the gas hydrate outcrop site (that measured 5.2x16.3cm3) in an undisturbed state. The outcrop included an array of 38 tube-like vents through which dark brown oil bubbles are released at a rate ranging from 8 bubbles per minute to 0 bubbles per minute. The average release of bubbles from all the separate vents was 59.5 bubbles per minute, equating the total volume released to 106.38cm per minute. The rate of bubble release decreased toward the end of the observation interval, which coincided approximately with the tidal minimum. Ice worms (Hesiocaeca methanicola, Desbruyères & Toulmond, 1998) were abundant at the vent site. The image sequence showed the ice-worms actively moving in and out of burrows in the mound. It has been speculated that Hesiocaeca methanicola contribute to gas hydrate decomposition by creating burrows and depressions in the gas hydrate matrix (Fisher et al, 2000). Ice worm burrows could generate pathways for the passage of oil and gas through the gas hydrate mound. Gas hydrates commonly occur along active and/or passive continental margins (Kennicutt et al, 1988a). The release of oil and gas at this particular hydrocarbon seep site is along a passive continental margin, and controlled primarily by active salt tectonics as opposed to the movement of continental tectonic plates (Salvador, 1987). We propose a descriptive model governing the release of gas and oil from deep sub-bottom reservoirs at depths of 3000-5000m (MacDonald, 1998), through consolidated and unconsolidated sediments, and finally through gas hydrate deposits at the sea floor. The oil and gas escape from the source rock and/or reservoir through

  14. Ecological risk assessment of a site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, M.E.; Feniak, N.A.; Willes, R.F.; Moore, C.E.; Mucklow, L.

    1995-01-01

    The aquatic and terrestrial health risks associated with petroleum contamination on a decommissioned military base, contaminated with products ranging from Bunker C oil to aviation fuel, were assessed using a methodology whereby an analytical measurement of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) could be correlated with compositional characterization and thus with toxicity. The constituents of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination represent wide ranges of physical-chemical properties, environmental fate, and toxicity. The composition of TPH can vary greatly, dependent on the sources or fuel types and the interaction of age as well as site- and chemical-specific characteristics in determining the impact of weathering processes. Therefore, a bulk sum analysis of TPH cannot be related to toxicity without characterization of its composition and association of the constituents, and therefore composition, with actual toxicity data. To address this need, the constituents of TPH were represented by surrogate chemicals, with selection based on structure-activity relationships and available toxicity data. Toxicological profiles were developed from governmental regulations and on the published literature for both the aquatic and terrestrial media. Risk characterization consisted of a comparison of water concentration limits and exposure limits, developed for each surrogate, to estimated surrogate concentrations throughout the site. The concentrations of surrogates were extrapolated from TPH composition characterization analyses, conducted at a select number of sampling locations, to bulk sum analyses of TPH at related sampling locations

  15. A study of light hydrocarbons (C{sub 4}-C{sub 1}3) in source rocks and petroleum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odden, Wenche

    2000-07-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction and five included papers. Of these, four papers are published in international journals and the fifth was submitted for review in April 2000. Emphasis has been placed on both naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons in petroleum fluids and their proposed source rocks as well as direct application of light hydrocarbons to oil/source rock correlations. Collectively, these papers describe a strategy for interpreting the source of the light hydrocarbons in original oils and condensates as well as the source of the asphaltene fractions from the reservoir fluids. The influence of maturity on light hydrocarbon composition has also been evaluated. The papers include (1) compositional data on the light hydrocarbons from thermal extracts and kerogen pyrolysates of sediment samples, (2) light hydrocarbon data of oils and condensates as well as the pyrolysis products of the asphaltenes from these fluids, (3) assessment of compositional alteration effects, such as selective losses of light hydrocarbons due to evaporation, thermal maturity, phase fractionation and biodegradation, (4) comparison of naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons, and (5) compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of the whole range of hydrocarbons of all sample types. (author)

  16. Comparing the Energy Content of Batteries, Fuels, and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash P.; Newman, John

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for calculating the theoretical and practical specific energies of rechargeable batteries, fuels, and materials is presented. The methodology enables comparison of the energy content of diverse systems such as the lithium-ion battery, hydrocarbons, and ammonia. The methodology is relevant for evaluating the possibility of using…

  17. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  18. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  19. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  20. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs in field soils, sediments and sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, H.

    1992-01-01

    As requested by the Ministry of Agriculture of the FRG, the 'Verband Deutscher Landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalten (VDLUFA)' built up a data collection over chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs in field soils, sediments, sewage sludges. Nearly 70.000 samples were collected and statistically evaluated. The results of these investigations will be described. The major constituents of the chlorinated hydrocarbons generally were Lindane, DDT(total) and HCB. In sewage sludges PCBs could be detected in nearly every sample. The contents of PCBs in field soils are smaller than in sewage sludges. Rather 'high contents', greater than 100-200 μg/kg d.m./organic pollutants, were detected only in 2% of the samples. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Using Ramped Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Petroleum Hydrocarbons Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Bacosa, H. P.; Liu, J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In summer of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill polluted hundreds of miles of coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. A combination of human-mediated and natural weathering processes then altered the chemical composition (i.e. toxicity) of this spilled crude oil over time and space. One of the most important, yet challenging, aspects of oil spill science is to quantify these chemical changes in natural environments. In this study, we develop ramped pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to address this challenge. In this technique, 0.1mg of freeze-dried sample is pyrolyzed over a gradual temperature ramp (50-650°C). The eluded gas is cold-trapped over different thermal ranges (a.k.a. thermal slicing) and each range is individually analyzed via GC-MS, yielding quantifiable, compound-specific results. Py-GC-MS with thermal slicing has never been used for petroleum hydrocarbon analysis, but it has many advantages - it uses minimal sample, is time efficient and does not require sample preparation (minimizing compound loss and increasing the analytical window). During development of this method, we analyzed oiled sediments and tar collected on Grand Isle, Louisiana from 2010-2012. We quantified n-alkane (C10-C38), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hopane content and confirmed these results with traditional solvent extraction, silica gel fractionation and mass spectrometry. Overall, we found rapid depletion of n-alkanes and PAHs (>90% depletion) in all samples within one year of Deepwater Horizon. After this, n-alkanes were almost 100% depleted by 2012, while PAH degradation continued to a maximum total degradation of 99% and 98% in sediment and tar, respectively. This not only describes the fate of petroleum compounds in salt marshes and beach deposits over time, but also complements previous radiocarbon studies of the same samples showing different rates of degradation in different micro-environments. In addition, the results presented

  2. A pre-Paleogene unconformity surface of the Sikeshu Sag, Junggar Basin: Lithological, geophysical and geochemical implications for the transportation of hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Gao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The unconformity surface at the bottom of the Paleogene is one of the most important migration pathways in the Sikeshu Sag of the Junggar Basin, which consists of three layers: upper coarse clastic rock, lower weathering crust and leached zone. The upper coarse clastic rock is characterized by higher density and lower SDT and gamma-ray logging parameters, while the lower weathering crust displays opposite features. The transport coefficient of the unconformity surface is controlled by its position in respect to the basal sandstone; it is higher in the ramp region but lower in the adjacent uplifted and sag areas. The content of saturated hydrocarbons increases with the decrease of the content of non-hydrocarbons and asphaltenes. The content of benzo[c] carbazole decreases as the content of benzo[a] carbazole and [alkyl carbazole]/[alkyl + benzo carbazole] increases. This suggests that the unconformity surface is an efficient medium for the transportation of hydrocarbons.

  3. Passive Seismic for Hydrocarbon Indicator : Between Expectation and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandito, Riky H. B.

    2018-03-01

    In between 5 – 10 years, in our country, passive seismic method became more popular to finding hydrocarbon. Low price, nondestructive acquisition and easy to mobilization is the best reason for choose the method. But in the other part, some people are pessimistically to deal with the result. Instrument specification, data condition and processing methods is several points which influence characteristic and interpretation passive seismic result. In 2010 one prospect in East Java Basin has been measurement constist of 112 objective points and several calibration points. Data measurement results indicate a positive response. Furthermore, in 2013 exploration drliing conducted on the prospect. Drill steam test showes 22 MMCFD in objective zone, upper – late oligocene. In 2015, remeasurement taken in objective area and show consistent responses with previous measurement. Passive seismic is unique method, sometimes will have difference results on dry, gas and oil area, in field production and also temporary suspend area with hidrocarbon content.

  4. Validation of an analytical methodology for the quantitative analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Yordad Companioni Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a validation of an analytical procedure for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples. The proposed protocol is able to measure n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in samples at concentrations as low as 30 ng/g, with a precision better than 15% for most of analytes. The extraction efficiency of fortified sediments varied from 65.1 to 105.6% and 59.7 to 97.8%, for n-alkanes and PAH in the ranges: C16 - C32 and fluoranthene - benzo(apyrene, respectively. The analytical protocol was applied to determine petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments collected from a marine coastal zone.

  5. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  6. Stability of hydrocarbon systems at thermobaric conditions corresponding to depth down to 50 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcherov, V.; Kolesnikov, A.; Mukhina, E.; Serovaiskii, A.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the theoretical models show that crude oil stability is limited by the depth of 6-8 km (`oil window'). Commercial discovery of crude oil deposits on the depth more than 10 km in the different petroleum basins worldwide casts doubt on the validity of the above-mentioned theoretical calculations. Therefore, the question at which depth complex hydrocarbon systems could be stable is important not only from fundamental research point of view but has a great practical application. To answer this question a hydrocarbon mixture was investigated under thermobaric conditions corresponding to the conditions of the Earth's lower crust. Experiments were conducted by means of Raman Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the complex hydrocarbon systems could be stable and remain their qualitative and quantitative composition at temperature 320-450 °C and pressure 0.7-1.4 GPa. The oxidizing resistance of hydrocarbon system was tested in the modelled the Earth's crust surrounding. The hydrocarbon system stability at the presence of Fe2O3 strongly confirms that the Earth's crust oxygen fugacity does not influence on petroleum composition. The data obtained broaden our knowledge about the possible range of depths for crude oil and natural gas deposits in the Earth's crust and give us the possibility to revise the depth of petroleum deposits occurrence.

  7. Integration of direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells for highly efficient power generation from hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Choi, Pyoungho; Smith, Franklyn; Bokerman, Gary [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In view of impending depletion of hydrocarbon fuel resources and their negative environmental impact, it is imperative to significantly increase the energy conversion efficiency of hydrocarbon-based power generation systems. The combination of a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor with a direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells (FC) as a means for a significant increase in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is discussed in this paper. The data on development and operation of a thermocatalytic hydrocarbon decomposition reactor and its coupling with a proton exchange membrane FC are presented. The analysis of the integrated power generating system including a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor, direct carbon and hydrogen FC using natural gas and propane as fuels is conducted. It was estimated that overall chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of the integrated system varied in the range of 49.4-82.5%, depending on the type of fuel and FC used, and CO{sub 2} emission per kW{sub el}h produced is less than half of that from conventional power generation sources. (author)

  8. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  9. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  10. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  11. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  12. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  13. Contaminated soil phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam. cytochrome p450 EROD-activity induced by hydrocarbons in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, S; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Pérez-Flores, L J; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments with Cyperus laxus Lam were conducted to determine the rate and extent of phytoremediation and the effect of hydrocarbons on the cytochrome P450 EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) enzymatic activity in roots. Plants were cultivated on hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (HCS) and spiked perlite. Phytoremediation was evaluated using 6.5 kg HCS (173 +/- 15 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] g(-1) of dry soil) pots at different moisture contents; the average removal rate was 3.46-0.25 mg TPH g(-1) dry soil month(-1) and 48% was removed when moisture was kept at 60%. The aromatic hydrocarbon fraction was the mostly removed, 60%; aliphatic, 51%; and polar 24% after 24-month experiments. In unplanted pots, TPH concentration did not exhibit significant differences with respect to the initial concentration. We confirmed that the presence of hydrocarbons induced ERODactivity up to 6.5-fold. Moreover, short-term experiments (up to 13 d) with spiked perlite demonstrated that two EROD activities in roots contributed to the total detected; 60% was found in the cytosolic and 40% in the microsomal fraction. To our knowledge, this is the first work that tries to build links between the hydrocarbon-inducible character of ERODactivity in roots and the phytoremediation ability of C. laxus in highly contaminated soils.

  14. Influence of nonylphenol on the fatty acids and hydrocarbon composition of aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. О. Osinna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Composition of surface lipids of aquatic plants Acorus calamus L., Typha latifolia L. and Carex acuta L. was investigated under the influence of nonylphenol strong solution. Experimental plants showed some significant changes in the surface lipids composition in comparison with a control. Change in the fatty acids composition, decrease of hydrocarbons content and biosynthetical disorder in the elongation processes of some certain components were revealed.

  15. Assessment and source identification of pollution risk for touristic ports: Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of 4 marinas of the Apulia region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Matilda; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Mastrorilli, Piero; Damiani, Leonardo; Piccinni, Alberto Ferruccio

    2017-01-30

    The Apulia region in Italy has the longest Adriatic coastline; thus, maritime tourism is the driving force for its economic development. Pollution risk for four representative touristic ports of the region was assessed by determining the concentrations of 10 metals, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) congeners, and the main nutrients. The cumulative mean Effects Range-Median quotient (mERMq) was used to assess the hazard degree, while the distribution patterns and content ratios of different PAH sediment concentrations were investigated to identify the pollution sources. Principal component analyses indicated an anomalous pollution trend for one of the small touristic ports assessed; this trend emerged from contamination by heavy metals and PAHs to a larger extent than expected, considering the main activity in this port, especially in its inner basin. The reason of this anomaly is thought to be the hydrodynamic and/or other stress factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant in anoxic environments and pose biochemical challenges to their anaerobic degradation by microorganisms. Within the framework of the Priority Program 1319, investigations funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft on the anaerobic microbial degradation of hydrocarbons ranged from isolation and enrichment of hitherto unknown hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microorganisms, discovery of novel reactions, detailed studies of enzyme mechanisms and structures to process-oriented in situ studies. Selected highlights from this program are collected in this synopsis, with more detailed information provided by theme-focused reviews of the special topic issue on 'Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons' [this issue, pp. 1-244]. The interdisciplinary character of the program, involving microbiologists, biochemists, organic chemists and environmental scientists, is best exemplified by the studies on alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases. Here, research topics ranged from in-depth mechanistic studies of archetypical toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase, substrate-specific phylogenetic clustering of alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases (toluene plus xylenes, p-cymene, p-cresol, 2-methylnaphthalene, n-alkanes), stereochemical and co-metabolic insights into n-alkane-activating (methylalkyl)succinate synthases to the discovery of bacterial groups previously unknown to possess alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases by means of functional gene markers and in situ field studies enabled by state-of-the-art stable isotope probing and fractionation approaches. Other topics are Mo-cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases performing O2-independent hydroxylation of hydrocarbons and alkyl side chains (ethylbenzene, p-cymene, cholesterol, n-hexadecane), degradation of p-alkylated benzoates and toluenes, glycyl radical-bearing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase, novel types of carboxylation reactions (for acetophenone, acetone, and potentially also benzene and

  17. Fractal nature of hydrocarbon deposits. 2. Spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.C.; Schutter, T.A; Herring, P.R.; Thomas, W.J.; Scholz, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are unevenly distributed within reservoirs and are found in patches whose size distribution is a fractal over a wide range of scales. The spatial distribution of the patches is also fractal and this can be used to constrain the design of drilling strategies also defined by a fractal dimension. Fractal distributions are scale independent and are characterized by a power-law scaling exponent termed the fractal dimension. The authors have performed fractal analyses on the spatial distribution of producing and showing wells combined and of dry wells in 1,600-mi 2 portions of the Denver and Powder River basins that were nearly completely drilled on quarter-mile square-grid spacings. They have limited their analyses to wells drilled to single stratigraphic intervals so that the map pattern revealed by drilling is representative of the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons at depth. The fractal dimensions for the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons in the two basins are 1.5 and 1.4, respectively. The fractal dimension for the pattern of all wells drilled is 1.8 for both basins, which suggests a drilling strategy with a fractal dimension significantly higher than the dimensions 1.5 and 1.4 sufficient to efficiently and economically explore these reservoirs. In fact, the fractal analysis reveals that the drilling strategy used in these basins approaches a fractal dimension of 2.0, which is equivalent to random drilling with no geologic input. Knowledge of the fractal dimension of a reservoir prior to drilling would provide a basis for selecting and a criterion for halting a drilling strategy for exploration whose fractal dimension closely matches that of the spatial fractal dimension of the reservoir, such a strategy should prove more efficient and economical than current practice

  18. An-integrated seismic approach to de-risk hydrocarbon accumulation for Pliocene deep marine slope channels, offshore West Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Adel A. A.; Bakr, Ali; Maher, Ali

    2017-12-01

    The Nile Delta basin is a hydrocarbon rich province that has hydrocarbon accumulations generated from biogenic and thermogenic source rocks and trapped in a clastic channel reservoirs ranging in age from Pliocene to Early Cretaceous. Currently, the offshore Nile Delta is the most active exploration and development province in Egypt. The main challenge of the studied area is that we have only one well in a channel system exceeds fifteen km length, where seismic reservoir characterization is used to de-risk development scenarios for the field by discriminating between gas sand, water sand and shale. Extracting the gas-charged geobody from the seismic data is magnificent input for 3D reservoir static modelling. Seismic data, being non-stationary in nature, have varying frequency content in time. Spectral decomposition analysis unravels the seismic signal into its initial constituent frequencies. Frequency decomposition of a seismic signal aims to characterize the time-dependent frequency response of subsurface rocks and reservoirs for imaging and mapping of bed thickness, geologic discontinuities and channel connectivity. Inversion feasibility study using crossplot between P-wave impedance (Ip) and S-wave impedance (Is) which derived from well logs (P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density) is applied to investigate which inversion type would be sufficient enough to discriminate between gas sand, water sand and shale. Integration between spectral analysis, inversion results and Ip vs. Is crossplot cutoffs help to generate 3D lithofacies cubes, which used to extract gas sand and water sand geobodies, which is extremely wonderful for constructing facies depositional static model in area with unknown facies distribution and sand connectivity. Therefore de-risking hydrocarbon accumulation and GIIP estimation for the field became more confident for drilling new development wells.

  19. Culture-dependent characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARNEST

    Hydrocarbons interact with the environment and micro- organisms determining the .... it is pertinent to study the community dynamics of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria ... Chikere CB (2013). Application of molecular microbiology techniques in.

  20. Response of microalgae from mud-flats to petroleum hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer ... the hydrocarbon, there was delayed nutrient uptake. ... waters, but the use of inorganic of organic nitrogen in ... ment, fish kills as oxygen is depleted, offensive odour.

  1. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  2. Petrology, palynology and organic geochemistry of Eocene lignite of Matanomadh, Kutch Basin, western India: Implications to depositional environment and hydrocarbon source potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mathews, Runcie P.; Saraswati, Pratul K.; Banerjee, Santanu [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Singh, Bhagwan D.; Tripathi, Suryakant M.; Singh, Alpana [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere

    2011-01-01

    Petrological, palynological and organic-geochemical investigations were undertaken to determine the source vegetation, depositional conditions and hydrocarbon source potential of Eocene Matanomadh lignites from Kutch Basin, western India. The maceral study reveals that studied lignites are rich in huminite (av. 63%) with sub-ordinate amount of liptinite (av. 19%) and low inertinite (av. 3%), along with low to moderately high associated mineral matters (av. 15%). The overall petrographic composition points to a lagoonal condition for the formation of these lignites. The mean huminite reflectance values (R{sub r}: 0.28-0.34%, av. 0.31%) as well as low Rock-Eval T{sub max} (av. 417 C) values for the seams, suggest brown coal or lignitic stage/rank for the studied lignites. The palynological assemblages, dominated by tropical angiospermic pollen, suggest prevalence of warm humid tropical climate during the deposition of these lignites. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of lignites ranges between 26 and 58 wt.%, whereas the TOC content of the associated carbonaceous shales is around 4 wt.%. The Hydrogen Index (HI) ranging from 23 to 452 mg HC/g TOC indicates that the lignite sequence has the potential to produce mixed oil and gaseous hydrocarbons on maturation. The major pyrolysis products of lignites, derived from Curie point pyrolysis-GC-MS, are straight chain aliphatics, phenols and cadalene-based C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids. The exclusive occurrence of C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids suggests that these compounds are derived from dammar resin of angiosperm plants, belonging to family Dipterocarpaceae. (author)

  3. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  4. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  5. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  6. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  7. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  8. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  9. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  10. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  11. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  13. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  14. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  15. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  17. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  18. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  19. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  20. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.