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Sample records for hydrilla verticillata lf

  1. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    to drought, but largely due to the loss of aquatic vegetation, particularly Hydrilla verticillata ... Hydrilla for aeration, or through migrant water birds to whose feathers and feet the ... biological control of this weed [6]. This is a case of beneficial.

  2. Genetic Relationships among Invasive Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) Biotypes in the US and Their Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    throughout this large distribution, although they may be due to environmentally induced plasticity , rather than being indicative of taxonomic...Surveys of hydrilla herbivores have been undertaken in India, Pakistan, Malaysia , Korea, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Africa, and Australia (Bennett and... Malaysia (Steward 1993). US monoecious hydrilla plants likely originated in Korea (Madeira et al. 2007, Benoit 2011); therefore, natural enemy

  3. Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) Collected from Hydrilla Verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata was conducted in selected Kenyan and Ugandan lakes, and emerging chironomid adults were collected from samples of Hydrilla and seven other aquatic macrophytes. Hydrilla was absent from Lake Victoria, in sites where it previously occurred. Hydrilla was found in four of ...

  4. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploration for Natural Enemies of Hydrilla verticillata in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    mandibles and heads than the scavengers. Bill Beck of Florida A&M University, who identified the hydrilla midge as a species of Polypedilum, feels...that the head and mandibles of this midge resemble those of the scavenger section instead of the herbivore section of the genus, as the types occur in...Lakshmanan, K. K. 1965. " Embryological Studies in the Hydrocharitaceae. IV. Post-Fertilization Development in Hydrilla verticillata Royle," Phyton Rev

  6. Interspecific competition effects on phosphorus accumulation by Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Liu, Zhengwen

    2011-01-01

    The competition between submersed plants has been recognized as an important factor influencing the structure of plant communities in shallow lakes. The ability of different species to take up and store nutrients from the surrounding ambience varies, and hence plant community structure might be expected to affect the cycling of nutrients in lake ecosystems. In this study, the uptake of phosphorus by Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans was studied and compared in monoculture and competitive mixed-culture plantings. Results showed that for both studied species the phosphorus concentrations of different tissues and of whole plants was unaffected by competition. However, the quantity of phosphorus accumulated by whole plants of H. verticillata was significantly higher in mixture culture than in monoculture, while that of V. natans was lower in the mixed culture. The results indicated that H. verticillata has a competitive advantage over V. natans, when the two species are grown in competition, and is able to accumulate a greater quantity of phosphorus.

  7. Acclimation of Hydrilla verticillata to sediment anoxia in vegetation restoration in eutrophic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Dai, Yanran; Rui, Shengyang; Cui, Naxin; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

    2015-12-01

    Sediment anoxia generally results from intense organic enrichment and is a limiting factor in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters. To investigate the effect of sediment anoxia on a typical pollution-tolerant submerged macrophyte species, Hydrilla verticillata, and acclimation mechanisms in the plant, a gradient of sediment anoxia was simulated with additions of sucrose to the sediment, which can stimulate increased concentrations of total nitrogen, NH4(+) and Fe in pore water. H. verticillata growth was significantly affected by highly anoxic conditions, as indicated by reduced total biomass in the 0.5 and 1% sucrose treatments. However, slight anoxia (0.1% sucrose addition) promoted growth, and the shoot biomass was 22.64% higher than in the control. In addition to morphologic alterations, H. verticillata showed physiological acclimations to anoxia, including increased anaerobic respiration and changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in roots. The soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate contents in roots of the 1% treatment were both significantly higher compared with those in the control. The increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity and pyruvate content in the roots suggested that H. verticillata has a well-developed capacity for anaerobic fermentation. This study suggests that highly anoxic sediments inhibit the growth of H. verticillata and the species has a degree of tolerance to anoxic conditions. Further in situ investigations should be conducted on the interactions between sediment conditions and macrophytes to comprehensively evaluate the roles of sediment in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters.

  8. Molecular techniques to distinguish morphologically similar Hydrilla verticillata, Egeria densa, Elodea nuttallii, and Elodea canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Nancy B.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    The four submerged aquatic species, hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata [monoecious and dioecious]), Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa), Canadian waterweed (Elodea canadensis), and western waterweed (Elodea nuttallii), are difficult to positively identify because of their morphological similarity to each other, resulting in possible misidentification. This limits our ability to understand their past and present distribution, which is important in aquatic plant management. We investigated a molecular technique to identify these species, which are problematic because of their invasive nature on multiple continents. Approximately 100 samples of these species, ranging in age from 40-yr-old herbarium samples to recently collected plants, were collected from regions across the United States. The distribution and range of the samples collected in this research were compared to those reported in the literature. We confirmed information on the current wide distribution of both hydrilla biotypes in the United States and discovered that hydrilla had actually invaded the waterways near Washington, DC 6 yr earlier than originally reported. In addition, we found evidence of the confusion, dating back to the 1980s, between Canadian waterweed and western waterweed in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Canadian waterweed was previously reported as common and western waterweed as rare; however, our samples indicate the opposite is true. This information indicates there is a need for investigators to anticipate the spread of hydrilla populations to northern U.S. waterways, where it will compete with existing plant species, including Canadian and western waterweeds. Our ability to confirm distribution and pace of spread of invasive and noninvasive species will improve with increased application of molecular techniques.

  9. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  10. Experimental feeding of Hydrilla verticillata colonized by stigonematales cyanobacteria induces vacuolar myelinopathy in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert D Mercurio

    Full Text Available Vacuolar myelinopathy (VM is a neurologic disease primarily found in birds that occurs when wildlife ingest submerged aquatic vegetation colonized by an uncharacterized toxin-producing cyanobacterium (hereafter "UCB" for "uncharacterized cyanobacterium". Turtles are among the closest extant relatives of birds and many species directly and/or indirectly consume aquatic vegetation. However, it is unknown whether turtles can develop VM. We conducted a feeding trial to determine whether painted turtles (Chrysemys picta would develop VM after feeding on Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata, colonized by the UCB (Hydrilla is the most common "host" of UCB. We hypothesized turtles fed Hydrilla colonized by the UCB would exhibit neurologic impairment and vacuolation of nervous tissues, whereas turtles fed Hydrilla free of the UCB would not. The ability of Hydrilla colonized by the UCB to cause VM (hereafter, "toxicity" was verified by feeding it to domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus or necropsy of field collected American coots (Fulica americana captured at the site of Hydrilla collections. We randomly assigned ten wild-caught turtles into toxic or non-toxic Hydrilla feeding groups and delivered the diets for up to 97 days. Between days 82 and 89, all turtles fed toxic Hydrilla displayed physical and/or neurologic impairment. Histologic examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed vacuolations in all treatment turtles. None of the control turtles exhibited neurologic impairment or had detectable brain or spinal cord vacuolations. This is the first evidence that freshwater turtles can become neurologically impaired and develop vacuolations after consuming toxic Hydrilla colonized with the UCB. The southeastern United States, where outbreaks of VM occur regularly and where vegetation colonized by the UCB is common, is also a global hotspot of freshwater turtle diversity. Our results suggest that further investigations into the effect of the

  11. Characteristics and kinetic studies of Hydrilla verticillata pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiquan; Chen, Zhihua; Li, Genbao; Chen, Xiaojuan; Hu, Mian; Laghari, Mahmood; Wang, Xun; Guo, Dabin

    2015-10-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic of Hydrilla verticillata (HV) have been investigated using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the pyrolysis behavior of HV can be divided into two independent stages. The kinetics of Stage I was investigated using a distributed activation energy model (DAEM) with discrete 99 first-order reactions. Stage II was an independent stage which corresponds to the decomposition of calcium oxalate, whose kinetics was studied using iso-conversional method together with compensation effect and master-plots method. The activation energies ranged from 92.39 to 506.17 and 190.42 to 222.48 kJ/mol for the first and second stages respectively. Calculated data gave very good fit to the experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a tip miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, Karen N; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Mukherjee, A; Diaz, R; Netherland, Michael D; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-10-15

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. Application of ADM1 for modeling of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Xun; Huo, Chan; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Mian

    2016-07-01

    The present study focused on the application of anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) to simulate biogas production from Hydrilla verticillata. Model simulation was carried out by implementing ADM1 in AQUASIM 2.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to select the most sensitive parameters for estimation using the absolute-relative sensitivity function. Among all the kinetic parameters, disintegration constant (kdis), hydrolysis constant of protein (khyd_pr), Monod maximum specific substrate uptake rate (km_aa, km_ac, km_h2) and half-saturation constants (Ks_aa, Ks_ac) affect biogas production significantly, which were optimized by fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to well predict the experimental results of daily biogas production and biogas composition. The simulation results of evolution of organic acids, bacteria concentrations and inhibition effects also helped to get insight into the reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effects of the decomposing liquid of Cladophora oligoclona on Hydrilla verticillata turion germination and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Peng, Xue; Liu, Biyun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2018-08-15

    Excessive proliferation of filamentous green algae (FGA) has been considered an important factor resulting in the poor growth or even decline of submerged macrophytes. However, there is a lack of detailed information regarding the effect of decaying FGA on submerged macrophytes. This study aimed to investigate whether the decomposing liquid from Cladophora oligoclona negatively affects Hydrilla verticillata turion germination and seedling growth. The results showed that the highest concentrations of decomposing liquid treatments inhibited the turion germination rate, which was the lowest than other treatments, at only 84%. The chlorophyll a fluorescence (JIP test) and physiological indicators (chlorophyll a content, soluble sugars, Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -ATPase and PAL activity) were also measured. The chlorophyll a content in the highest concentration (40% of original decomposing liquid) treatment group decreased by 43.53% than that of the control; however, soluble sugars, Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -ATPase, and PAL activity increased by 172.46%, 271.19%, and 26.43% respectively. The overall results indicated that FGA decay has a considerable effect on submerged macrophyte turion germination and seedling growth, which could inhibit their expansion and reproduction. This study emphasized the need to focus on effects of FGA decomposition on the early growth stages of submerged macrophytes and offered technological guidance for submerged vegetation restoration in lakes and shallow waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New methods for the analysis of invasion processes: multi-criteria evaluation of the invasion of Hydrilla verticillata in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterroso, I; Binimelis, R; Rodríguez-Labajos, B

    2011-03-01

    The study described in this article incorporates stakeholders' views on aquatic invasion processes and combines expert analysis with information from field work into an evaluation exercise. Management scenarios are designed based on available technical data and stakeholders' perceptions. These scenarios are evaluated using the Social Multi-Criteria Evaluation framework employing the NAIADE model. Two evaluations are carried out, technical and social. Social acceptance of different management scenarios, distribution of costs and benefits, and attribution of responsibility are discussed. The case study was carried out on Lake Izabal, a body of water connected to the Caribbean Sea in Northeastern Guatemala. In 2000, local fishermen reported the presence of an alien species in the lake, the macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata. Two years later, this alien species was established around the entire lakeshore, damaging the ecosystem, endangering native species and the subsistence of local inhabitants through impacts on transportation, fishing practices, and tourism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidative response of the three macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to a time dependent exposure of cell-free crude extracts containing three microcystins from cyanobacterial blooms of Lake Amatitlán, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Oliva, Claudia Suseth; Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria in natural environments are a potential risk to the integrity of ecosystems. In this study, the effects of cyanobacterial cell-free crude extracts from a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom containing three MC-congeners MC-LR, -RR, and -YR at environmental relevant concentrations of 49.3±2.9, 49.8±5.9, and 6.9±3.8μg/L, respectively, were evaluated on Ceratophyllum demersum (L.), Egeria densa (Planch.), and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.). Effects on photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophyll (chl), chl a, chl b, and carotenoids), enzymatic defense led by catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR), and biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured after 1, 4, and 8h and after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of exposure. Results show that in all exposed macrophytes, photosynthetic pigments were negatively affected. While chl a and total chl decreased with increasing exposure time, a parallel increase in chl b was observed after 8h. Concomitant increase of ∼5, 16, and 34% of antioxidant carotenoid concentration in exposed C. demersum, E. densa, and H. verticillata, respectively, was also displayed. Enzymatic antioxidant defense systems in all exposed macrophytes were initiated within the first hour of exposure. In exposed E. densa, highest values of CAT and GR activities were observed after 4 and 8h, respectively, while in exposed H. verticillata highest value of POD activity was observed after 8h. An early induction with a significant increase of biotransformation enzyme GST was observed in E. densa after 4h and in C. demersum and H. verticillata after 8h. These results are the first to show rapid induction of stress and further possible MC biotransformation (based on the activation of GST enzymatic activity included in MC metabolization during the biotransformation mechanism) in macrophytes exposed to crude extract containing a mixture of MCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    taxonomists for full identification. Chironomid larvae damaging tips and emerging adults were collected from hydrilla at Chetian Town, Lizui Town, and...R. S. Arias, B. E. Scheffler, S. O. Duke, M. Netherland, F. E. Dayan. 2004. Somatic mutation-mediated evolution of herbicide resistance in the

  18. Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla Verticillata; Final Report on Surveys in East Africa, 1981-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    vast numbers of chironomid larvae, together with small nematodes , trichopterans, and various other less abundant insect larvae. However, most of these...Luond, R. 1982. "A Revision of the Genus Hydrilla (Hydrocharitaceae)," Aquatic Botany, Vol 13, pp 485-504. Markham, R. H. 1982. "Search for Biocontrol

  19. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2% and zinc (93.7% and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8% compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5% and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  20. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Ismail; Fatt, Ng Tham; Othman, Faridah; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata) to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2%) and zinc (93.7%) and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8%) compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5%) and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water. PMID:24102060

  1. Oxidative stress mediated toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles after a concentration and time dependent exposure of the aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Annette; Wanninger, Lena; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    The present study focused on oxidative stress effects in the aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata after exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs). Experiments were conducted with different TiO 2 -NPs and concentrations (0.1 mg/L and 10 mg/L) in a time-dependent manner (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h, 168 h). To assess various levels of the oxidative stress response in H. verticillata, the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and activities of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) were evaluated. Study results imply oxidative stress effects after TiO 2 -NP exposure as adaptations in plant metabolism became apparent to counteract increased ROS formation. All TiO 2 -NPs caused elevated activities of the enzymes CAT and GR. Moreover, decreased ratios of GSH/GSSG indicated an activation of GSH-dependent pathways counteracting ROS formation. Plants exposed to a bulk-sized control revealed a size-dependent influence on the antioxidative stress response. As H 2 O 2 level increases were solely detected after exposure to 10 mg/L TiO 2 -NPs and nano-exposed plants showed normalization in its antioxidative stress response after 168h of exposure, it can be suggested that macrophytes are able to cope with currently predicted low-level exposures to TiO 2 -NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elaboración de abono orgánico a partir de plantas acuáticas: Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto o Lirio de agua (Eichhornia crassipes), procedentes del Lago de Coatepeque y Lago de Güija

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes de Cabrales, Cecilia Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por finalidad elaborar un abono orgánico bajo la técnica de compostaje, conocida como proceso de descomposición aeróbica. Se realizaron tres formulaciones de abono a partir de las plantas acuáticas Elodea (Hydrilla verticillata) y Jacinto de agua (Eichhornia crassipes) en las siguientes proporciones: Elodea 100%, Jacinto de agua 100% y mezcla de ambas en una proporción de 50:50. A los abonos obtenidos se les realizaron análisis químico con la finalidad de cuantificar...

  3. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Growth and Rooting Depth Characteristics of Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Myriophyllum Spicatum L. on Fertilized and Unfertilized Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    originally collected from natural populations-Myriophyllun, from Lake Wingra, Wisconsin, and Hydri ~la, from the Potomac River, Virginia. The two...species by influencing the mass of sediment nutri- ents available for growth. Notably, the high production levels in Myriophyllwn and Hydri //a on N-rich...sharing the same letter (upper case for Hydri //a and lower case for yrnophy/um) do not differ significantly. Asterisk denotes values that are

  4. Eficácia do diquat no controle de Hydrilla verticillata, Egeria densa e Egeria najas e toxicidade aguda para o Guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of diquat in the control of Hydrylla verticillata, Egeria densa and Egeria najas and its acute toxicity to Phallocerus caudimaculatus, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N.P. Henares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as macrófitas aquáticas submersas, Egeria densa e Egeria najas, têm causado prejuízos aos usos múltiplos da água. Hydrilla verticillata foi recentemente introduzida, mas tem histórico como planta problemática nos EUA, no México e na Austrália. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as suscetibilidades relativas dessas três macrófitas aquáticas ao diquat e os riscos da utilização desse herbicida para o guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para isso, foram instalados ensaios em condições de laboratório, a fim de avaliar a suscetibilidade relativa das três macrófitas por meio da manutenção de ponteiros dessas plantas em soluções contendo 0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; e 1,6 mg L-1 de diquat (Reward® por 14 dias. A avaliação foi realizada pela variação do acúmulo de matéria fresca e do comprimento dos ponteiros no período de exposição ao herbicida. H. verticillata mostrou maior sensibilidade ao diquat em comparação com as duas macrófitas do gênero Egeria, mesmo em baixas concentrações do herbicida. Nas maiores concentrações, E. densa mostrou maior sensibilidade que E. najas. O risco da aplicação do diquat para P. caudimaculatus foi estimado pela toxicidade aguda. Alevinos de P. caudimaculatus de 0,4 ± 0,2 mg foram expostos a soluções de 0,0; 1,0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0; 20,0; 25,0; e 30,0 mg L-1 de diquat. A concentração letal de 50% (CL(I (50;96h do diquat estimada para P. caudimaculatus foi de 7,17 mg L-1. Para P. caudimaculatus, a toxicidade aguda foi superior à concentração recomendada para o controle de macrófitas aquáticas submersas, indicando risco muito baixo para esse peixe.In Brazil, the submerged plants Egeria densa and Egeria najas have caused damage to multiple uses of water. Hydrilla verticillata has been recently introduced, but it has a history as a problem plant in the U.S., Mexico and Australia. The objectives of this work were to assess the relative susceptibilities of these three

  5. [Chemical constituents of Rauvolfia verticillata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Chun-Jie

    2012-06-01

    The study on the Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill., which belongs to Apocynaceae, was carried out to look for its chemical constituents and pharmacological activity. The isolation and purification were performed by chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS (octadecyl silane) open column. The structures of obtained compounds were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Three indole alkaloids and one acridone alkaloid were isolated from chloroform layer extract and identified as ajmalicine B (1), sandwicine (2), raunescine (3) and 7-hydroxynoracronycine (4) separately. Ajmalicine B (1) is a new compound belonging to indole alkaloid. Compound 4 as an acridone alkaloid was a new type compound isolated from Rauvolfia genus for the first time. We also did some biological activity research on the new type compound (4) to explore other pharmacological activities in addition to antihypertensive activity.

  6. The Ecology and Environmental Impacts of Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-15

    in the dewatered areas. The drawdown also encouraged the germination of waterhyacinth seeds in the dewatered areas. Plant Analysis The productivity of...controls hydrilla in most situations. Sonar is the DowElanco registered trademark for products containing the active ingredient fluridone . Sonar aquatic

  7. Integrated Weed Management Strategies for Control of Hydrilla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Linda S; Shearer, Judy F

    2009-01-01

    ...), and the fungal pathogen Mycoleptodiscus terrestris (Gerd.) Ostazeski, applied alone and in combination with one another, as an integrated weed management strategy against the nuisance aquatic plant, hydrilla...

  8. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    California ( Madeira et al. 2004). Monoecious hydrilla was first discovered in Delaware in 1976 and later in the Potomac River (Haller 1982, Steward et al...1984). It has now expanded its distribution through the Atlantic States and northward to Maine ( Madeira et al. 2004). Separate populations have...the water surface and then spreading laterally and forming a mat (Van 1989). Madeira et al. (1997) hypothesized that this growth form was an

  9. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    has given it new status as an invasive species of great concern. Monoecious hydrilla management is primarily through chemical control using endothall...result in removal of non-target species , an outcome that might be highly undesirable in native aquatic plant restoration efforts. While the ephydrid...and Wisconsin have also been eradicated1. The most recent invasions have appeared in Lake Cayuga, the Erie Canal at North Tonawanda, upstate New

  10. Surveys for Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla verticillata in the People’s Republic of China in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Cullen , D. T. Briese, D. J. Kriticos, W. M. Lonsdale, L. Morin, and J. K. Scott, 529-538. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO. ERDC/EL TR-17-3 15 Grodowitz M...J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 46:42-50 Manrique, V., J. P. Cuda, W. A. Overholt, D. Williams , G. Wheeler, G. 2008. Effect of host-plant genotypes on the...Review of the Literature. www.northeastans.org/docs/hydrillalitsearch12.31.12.pdf. Accessed14 April 2014. Overholt, W. A., R. Copeland, D. Williams

  11. Hexacyclic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Yu, Ai-Lin; Li, Gen-Tao; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Liu, Ji-Kai; Wang, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Five new hexacyclic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, rauvovertine A (1), 17-epi-rauvovertine A (2), rauvovertine B (3), 17-epi-rauvovertine B (4), and rauvovertine C (5) together with 17 known analogues were isolated from the stems of Rauvolfia verticillata. Compounds 1/2 and 3/4 were obtained as C-17 epimeric mixtures due to rapid hemiacetal tautomerism in solution. The structures of 1-5 were established by spectroscopic analysis and with the aid of molecular modeling. The new alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against human tumor HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480 cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Overseas Surveys (1981-1983) for Insects to Control Hydrilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    various aquatic habitats, but no hydrilla was found. Because of the Hari Raya holidays, most hotels were booked and almost a quarter of the total of 1,400...assistant. Mr. Ho spent most of morn- ing telephoning people in Malaysian Agriculture and Irrigation Departments. Because of holidays (Harl Raya ) that

  13. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  14. A new montane Scaevola from Borneo: S. Verticillata (Goodeniaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1964-01-01

    Frutex. Rami subteretes, lanato-tomentosi. Folia 4-verticillata, apice ramulorum congesta, ad axillas pilis sericeis isabellinis c. 1½ cm longis fasciculatis instructa; periolus c. ¾ cm longus, supra canaliculatus, lanatus; lamina obovato-oblonga, 5½-7 cm longa, 2½—3 cm lata, chartacea, in vivo

  15. Indole alkaloids from leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Jie; Peng, Lei; Wu, Zhi-Kun; Bao, Mei-Fen; Liu, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Cai, Xiang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Seven new indole alkaloids, rauverines A-G (1-7), and 19 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, human myeloid leukemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cells.

  16. Establishing Research and Management Priorities for Monoecious Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    this definition. Monoecious hydrilla is considered highly invasive in large reservoirs of the Mid- Atlantic states; however, widespread use of grass...drawdowns or fluctuations in water levels, high spring flows, and early spring turbidity (i.e. disturbance) as the dormant tuber bank is largely... West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky) are of particular concern, as these infestations may be a source of new and continuing introductions into

  17. An alternative for the LF model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, R.N.J.

    1996-01-01

    An alternative for the Liljencrants-Fant (LF) glottal-pulse model is presented. This alternative is derived from the Rosenberg model, so we have caned it the Rosenberg++ model. It is described by the same set of Tor R parameters as the LF model but has the advantage over the LF model that it is

  18. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  19. Nystatin LF (Aronex/Abbott).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, S; Rex, J H

    2001-04-01

    Nystatin LF (Nyotran) is a liposomal, intravenous nystatin formulation under development by Aronex, under license from the MD Anderson Cancer Research Center, as a systemic antifungal agent against strains including Aspergillus and Candida. Like amphotericin, nystatin is a polyene derivative that binds to ergosterol, a fungal cell membrane component, creating a pore in the membrane and thus killing the cell. Nystatin is an established antifungal agent, but is restricted to topical use as it is ineffective orally and severely toxic when administered iv [187583], [187589]. It has demonstrated good, broad in vitro antifungal activity against clinically relevant filamentous fungi [319465], including fungi resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B products [264505], [2869821, [287790], 1289522]. The company is also conducting a phase III trial to evaluate its efficacy against cryptococcal meningitis [305531], [334156]. Aronex filed for approval of nystatin LF in Spain in December 1997 [272986] and expected to file an NDA in the US by the end of 1999 1311208], [342003]. However, in an effort to ensure that its US and European filings contained data from the phase III cryptococcal meningitis trial in its entirety, Aronex's marketing partner requested that all the 70-day data be gathered prior to unblinding this study. The filing had initially been based on interim data at the 14- and 21-day endpoint 1344887]. In September 2000, the company anticipated an NDA filing in the US in the fourth quarter of 2001 1382861], 1387947]. In December 1997, Aronex, together with Grupo Ferrer Internacional, filed an MAA in Spain seeking approval for Nyotran for the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Aronex intended to follow the filing with additional filings in other European countries 1272986]. In 1997, a commercialization agreement was signed with Ferrer for Spain and Portugal, with Aronex intending to form other such partnerships throughout Europe and Asia 1248346]. In

  20. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla verticilata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sable N, Gaikwad S, Bonde S, Gade A, Rai M. 2012. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla verticilata. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 45-49. In the context of current drive to developed new green technology in nanomaterials, synthesis of nanoparticles is of considerable importance. There has been considerable work done in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology during the last decade due to the introduction of various protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles by using plants and microorganisms. Here we firstly report the extracellular phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs using aquatic plants Hydrilla verticilata. The characterization of the phytosynthesized Ag-NPs was done with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA, Zeta potential and SEM. The SEM micrograph revealed the synthesis of polydispersed spherical nanoparticles, with the average size of 65.55 nm. The phytofabricated Ag-NPs can be used in the field of medicine and agriculture, due to their antimicrobial potential.

  1. Distribution and chemotaxonomic significance of phenolic compounds in Spermacoce verticillata (L. G. Mey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmim C. Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Spermacoce verticillata, known as “poaia and vassourinha de botão”, is a species widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic. It is a native species, small, upright perennial, and broadly distributed throughout Brazil. Until now, few chemical studies have focused on the phenolic composition of this species. Aims: Evaluate the phytochemical profile of phenolic compounds from Spermacoce verticillata and search new compounds that have chemotaxonomic significance. Methods: Leaves of S. verticillata were extracted using distilled water. The extract (SVL was purified by several chromatography processes. Extract and compounds were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and NMR. Results: Phytochemical analysis led to identification, for the first time, of three compounds (1-3 for the specie. Chlorogenic acid (1 was identified by HPLC-DAD compared with reported in the literature. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin (2 and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3 were isolated from butanolic fraction and identified by spectroscopic analysis comparison with data reported in the literature. The flavonoid rutin is the major compound in SVL followed by kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and chlorogenic acid. Conclusions: This is the first report for these compounds (1-3 in S. verticillata. The presence of these three new compounds indicates chemical markers of the species for this genus and family. This information is extremely important because increases the resources for chemotaxonomic classification of these species.

  2. Evaluation of the purified fraction of Wilbrandia (c. f. verticillata for antitumour activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. N. Rao

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbatacins are known to produce cytotoxic and anticancer activities. Two novel norcucurbitacin glucosides (Wvl and Wv2 have recently been isolated from a purified fraction obtained from the rhizome of Wilbrandia verticillata. The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and anti-tumour activities of the norcucurbitacins. We have found a regular cytotoxicity in KB cells (Cy50 = 12µg/ml as well as a significant inhibition in the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma growth (approximately 75%.

  3. Measurement of MOSFET LF Noise Under Large Signal RF Excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    A new measurement technique is presented that allows measurement of MOSFET LF noise under large signal RF excitation. Measurements indicate that MOSFETS exhibit a reduction in LF noise when they are cycled from inversion to accummulation and that this reduction does not depend on the frequency of

  4. Pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. var. hainanensis Tsiang increase LκB-α expression and ameliorate ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, X P; Sun, X N; Wei, H; Liu, Z J; Cui, L J; Deng, T Z

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic potential of pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. var. hainanensis Tsiang in ulcerative colitis were investigated. This study showed that pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. var. hainanensis Tsiang ameliorated ulcerative colitis and were proposed to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects via increased expression of IκB-α proteins and suppressing NF-αB translocation.

  5. Verticillosides A-M: Polyoxygenated pregnane glycosides from Asclepias verticillata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan J; Binns, Franklin; Kindscher, Kelly; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2012-06-01

    As part of our ongoing effort to explore the chemical diversity of plants of the United States Midwest region, the isolation and identification of 13 pregnane glycosides named verticillosides A-M from Asclepias verticillata L. are reported. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and HRMS. The cytotoxicity of the isolates was evaluated against paired breast cell lines Hs578T (cancer) and Hs578Bst (normal), however, no significant growth inhibition was observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon-Flow-Based Modeling of Ecophysiological Processes and Biomass Dynamics of Submersed Aquatic Plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly P. H; Boyd, William A

    2007-01-01

    ...], Potamogeton pectinatus [POTAM], Hydrilla verticillata [HYDRIL], and Myriophyllum spicatum [MILFO]. These plant species are similar in growth strategy but differ significantly in morphology and physiology...

  7. Recombinant lactoferrin (Lf) of Vechur cow, the critical breed of Bos indicus and the Lf gene variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, Shashidharan; Bhasker, Salini; Mohankumar, Chinnamma

    2012-03-01

    Vechur cow, categorized as a critically maintained breed by the FAO, is a unique breed of Bos indicus due to its extremely small size, less fodder intake, adaptability, easy domestication and traditional medicinal property of the milk. Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is found predominantly in the milk of mammals. The full coding region of Lf gene of Vechur cow was cloned, sequenced and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Antibacterial activity of the recombinant Lf showed suppression of bacterial growth. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the full coding region of Lf gene of B. indicus Vechur breed is sequenced, successfully expressed in a prokaryotic system and characterized. Comparative analysis of Lf gene sequence of five Vechur cows with B. taurus revealed 15 SNPs in the exon region associated with 11 amino acid substitutions. The amino acid arginine was noticed as a pronounced substitution and the tertiary structure analysis of the BLfV protein confirmed the positions of arginine in the β sheet region, random coil and helix region 1. Based on the recent reports on the nutritional therapies of arginine supplementation for wound healing and for cardiovascular diseases, the higher level of arginine in the lactoferrin protein of Vechur cow milk provides enormous scope for further therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear low frequency (LF) waves - Comets and foreshock phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1991-01-01

    A review is conducted of LF wave nonlinear properties at comets and in the earth's foreshock, engaging such compelling questions as why there are no cometary cyclotron waves, the physical mechanism responsible for 'dispersive whiskers', and the character of a general description of linear waves. Attention is given to the nonlinear properties of LF waves, whose development is illustrated by examples of waves and their features at different distances from the comet, as well as by computer simulation results. Also discussed is a curious wave mode detected from Comet Giacobini-Zinner, both at and upstream of the bow shock/wave.

  9. Antilipolytic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of dietary Salvia triloba Lf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of dyslipidemia, and diabetes and obesity. This study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of Salvia triloba L.f. (Lamiaceae) leaves methanol extract (ME) on a high fat diet .... mg/mL DMSO), was prepared into six different.

  10. Interaction between lf electric fields and biological bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Češelkoska Vesna C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Equivalent electrodes method is used for electric field calculation in the proximity of the various biological subjects exposed to an electric field in the LF range. Several results of the electric field intensity on the body surface and numerous graphical results for equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented.

  11. Potensi bambu swat (gigantochloa verticillata sebagai material karbon aktif untuk adsorbed natural gas (ANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ngakan Ketut Putra Negara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Bambu merupakan material biomassa yang banyak diteliti, diproduksi sebagai karbon aktif dan diaplikasikan di berbagaibidang kehidupan. Namun sangat sedikit bahkan hampir tidak ditemukan referensi yang membahas kegunaan karbonaktif dari bambusebagai adsorbent untuk Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG. Penelitian ini difokuskan untukmengkarakterisasai dan menevaluasi potensi bambu swat (Gigantochloa verticillata sebagai material dasar karbon aktifuntuk aplikasi ANG. Pengujian yang dilakukan meliputi uji proximate, uji ultimate, uji komposisi kimia dan pengamatanstruktur mikro. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bambuswat memiliki kandungan lignin 22,9920%, selulosa44,2247%, volatile 88’32%, carbon 43,42%,ash 1,83%, silica (1,8664% dan nitrogen 1,7065%. Bambu swat memilikiikatan pembuluh yang terdiri atas satu ikatan pembuluh (xilem dan floem dan dua ikatan serat yang terletak di sebelahdalam dan luar dari ikatan pembuluh.Secara umum dapat dikatakan bahwa bamboo jenis ini memiliki kandungansellulosa, volatile dan karbon yang cukup tinggi serta ash, silica, hydrogen dan nitrogen yang rendah sehinggabambuswat sangat berpotensi digunakan sebagai material sumber karbon aktif.Kata kunci: Karbon aktif, bambu swat, ANG, lignin, sellulosa, analisa ultimate dan proximates Abstract: Bamboo is a biomass material widely researched, produced as activated carbon and applied in various life fields.However, very little or almost no references were found with regard to utilization of bamboo activated carbon asadsorbent for Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG. This study is concerned to characterize and evaluate potency of bambooswat (Gigantochloa verticillata as aprecursor of activated carbon for ANG application. Examinations conducted wereproximate, ultimate, chemical composisition tests and microstructure observation. The results showed that bambooswathave a lignin content 22.9920%, cellulose 44.2247%, volatile 88.32%, carbon 43.42%, ash 1.83%, silica 1.8664% andnitrogen

  12. Tryptophan decarboxylase plays an important role in ajmalicine biosynthesis in Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanhong; Chen, Rong; Chen, Min; Zhang, Haoxing; Peng, Meifang; Yang, Chunxian; Ming, Xingjia; Lan, Xiaozhong; Liao, Zhihua

    2012-07-01

    Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) converts tryptophan into tryptamine that is the indole moiety of ajmalicine. The full-length cDNA of Rauvolfia verticillata (RvTDC) was 1,772 bps that contained a 1,500-bp ORF encoding a 499-amino-acid polypeptide. Recombinant 55.5 kDa RvTDC converted tryptophan into tryptamine. The K (m) of RvTDC for tryptophan was 2.89 mM, higher than those reported in other TIAs-producing plants. It demonstrated that RvTDC had lower affinity to tryptophan than other plant TDCs. The K (m) of RvTDC was also much higher than that of strictosidine synthase and strictosidine glucosidase in Rauvolfia. This suggested that TDC might be the committed-step enzyme involved in ajmalicine biosynthesis in R. verticillata. The expression of RvTDC was slightly upregulated by MeJA; the five MEP pathway genes and SGD showed no positive response to MeJA; and STR was sharply downregulated by MeJA. MeJA-treated hairy roots produced higher level of ajmalicine (0.270 mg g(-1) DW) than the EtOH control (0.183 mg g(-1) DW). Highest RvTDC expression level was detected in hairy root, about respectively 11, 19, 65, and 109-fold higher than in bark, young leaf, old leaf, and root. Highest ajmalicine content was also found in hairy root (0.249 mg g(-1) DW) followed by in bark (0.161 mg g(-1) DW) and young leaf (0.130 mg g(-1) DW), and least in root (0.014 mg g(-1) DW). Generally, the expression level of RvTDC was positively consistent with the accumulation of ajmalicine. Therefore, it could be deduced that TDC might be the key enzyme involved in ajmalicine biosynthesis in Rauvolfia.

  13. MOSFET LF noise under Large Signal Excitation: Measurement, Modelling and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Regarding LF noise in MOSFETs, it is noted that the MOSFET is a surface channel device. Both n and p-channel devices exhibit similar low frequency (LF) noise behaviour that can be explained by a carrier number fluctuation model (section 3.5). LF noise in MOSFETs is predominantly caused by Random

  14. Determination of indole alkaloids and highly volatile compounds in Rauvolfia verticillata by HPLC-UV and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Li, Wenjing; Song, Aihua; Zhao, Chunjie

    2013-01-01

    Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. (also called Luofumu in Chinese) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for lowering blood pressure. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography assay using ultraviolet detection is described for the simultaneous measurement of the five bioactive indole alkaloids (sarpagine, yohimbine, ajmaline, ajmalicine and reserpine) in Rauvolfia. The detection of all five compounds was conducted at 280 nm. In quantitative analysis, the five compounds showed good regressions (R(2) > 0.9988) within the test ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 90.4-101.4%. In addition, a simple gas chromatography mass method using a DB-1 silica capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 µm) is described for the identification of the highly volatile compounds in Rauvolfia. In qualitative analysis, more than 39 compounds were assayed and identified using the mass function and the National Institute of Standards and Technology database search system. The results demonstrated that the combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses offered an efficient way to evaluate the quality and consistency of Rauvolfia verticillata.

  15. Uncertain Diagnosis of Fabry Disease in Patients with Neuropathic Pain, Angiokeratoma or Cornea Verticillata: Consensus on the Approach to Diagnosis and Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tol, L.; Cassiman, David; Houge, Gunnar; Janssen, Mirian C.; Lachmann, Robin H.; Linthorst, Gabor E.; Ramaswami, Uma; Sommer, Claudia; Tøndel, Camilla; West, Michael L.; Weidemann, Frank; Wijburg, Frits A.; Svarstad, Einar; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Biegstraaten, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma (AK) and/or cornea verticillata (CV) may be tested for Fabry disease (FD). Classical FD is characterised by a specific pattern of these features. When a patient presents with a non-specific pattern, the pathogenicity of a variant in the

  16. Uncertain diagnosis of fabry disease in patients with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma or cornea verticillata: consensus on the approach to diagnosis and follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, L. van der; Cassiman, D.; Houge, G.; Janssen, M.C.; Lachmann, R.H.; Linthorst, G.E.; Ramaswami, U.; Sommer, C.; Tondel, C.; West, M.L.; Weidemann, F.; Wijburg, F.A.; Svarstad, E.; Hollak, C.E.M.; Biegstraaten, M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individuals with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma (AK) and/or cornea verticillata (CV) may be tested for Fabry disease (FD). Classical FD is characterised by a specific pattern of these features. When a patient presents with a non-specific pattern, the pathogenicity of a variant in the

  17. Highly predictive support vector machine (SVM) models for anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal, acute infectious disease caused by the rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF), a zinc metalloprotease secreted by the bacilli, plays a key role in anthrax pathogenesis and is chiefly responsible for anthrax-related toxemia and host death, partly via inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) enzymes and consequent disruption of key cellular signaling pathways. Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones are capable of clearing the bacilli but have no effect on LF-mediated toxemia; LF itself therefore remains the preferred target for toxin inactivation. However, currently no LF inhibitor is available on the market as a therapeutic, partly due to the insufficiency of existing LF inhibitor scaffolds in terms of efficacy, selectivity, and toxicity. In the current work, we present novel support vector machine (SVM) models with high prediction accuracy that are designed to rapidly identify potential novel, structurally diverse LF inhibitor chemical matter from compound libraries. These SVM models were trained and validated using 508 compounds with published LF biological activity data and 847 inactive compounds deposited in the Pub Chem BioAssay database. One model, M1, demonstrated particularly favorable selectivity toward highly active compounds by correctly predicting 39 (95.12%) out of 41 nanomolar-level LF inhibitors, 46 (93.88%) out of 49 inactives, and 844 (99.65%) out of 847 Pub Chem inactives in external, unbiased test sets. These models are expected to facilitate the prediction of LF inhibitory activity for existing molecules, as well as identification of novel potential LF inhibitors from large datasets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Karakteristik Bubuk Instan Cemcem ( spondiaz pinnata lf kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Wrasiati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of tropical plant used as a traditional beverage in Bali is Kecemcem or Cemcem (Spondias pinnata (Lf Kurz or in Indonesian called Kedondong Hutan. Empirically, the beverage is mentioned for treating coughs, increasing appetite, and body refreshment. Besides used as a beverage, Cemcem leafs are also used as a flavor enhancer of fish products. The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of Cemcem instant powder produced by encapsulation using maltodextrin and dried by the thin layer drying method. Cemcem instant powder was then analyzed its content of vitamin C, total phenols, tannins, antioxidant capacity, water cntent, ash content, and solubility. The flavor compounds in Cemcem instant powder obtained in Bukit Jimbaran area are identified by GC-MS devices. The result showed that cemcem instant powder which was produced by 24 hours of maceration time has the best characteristics and potential to be developed as a natural antioxidant products. It has the highest of total phenol, tannin, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity. The content of vitamin C, total phenol, and tannin were 135.06 mg/100g, 38.95 mg GAE/g, and 11.01% respectively. The antioxidant activity of cemcem instant powder which analyzed by DPPH method was about 43.80%. There are 17 compounds detected by GC-MS, these compounds belonged alkenesalcoholsphenols compounds and esters of fatty acidsThe whole compounds were the building blocks of flavor cemcem leaves.Keywords : Characteristic of cemcem instant powder, antioxidant capacity, andflavor compounds of cemcem leaves

  19. Determinação de massa fresca, massa seca, água e cinzas totais de folhas de Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata e avaliação do processo de secagem em estufa com ventilação forçada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. BRAGA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata (Vitaceae é conhecida popularmente como insulina vegetal, cortina japonesa, uva-brava, anil trepador e cipó-pucá e utilizada na medicina popular na forma de chá das folhas no tratamento da diabetes, como antiinflamatório, antiepilético, antihipertensivo, antitérmico, antireumático, antigripal e contra infecções respiratórias. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores de massa fresca, massa seca, percentual de água e percentual de cinzas totais, visando melhoria das condições de secagem, armazenamento, dispensação e uso pela população. As folhas da espécie foram coletadas no bairro Antônio Dias, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram selecionadas, lavadas e secas em estufa com ventilação forçada à 45ºC e determinou-se as cinzas totais e perda por dessecação (através do método gravimétrico, ambos de acordo com a Farmacopéia Brasileira. Os resultados mostraram que as folhas de C. verticillata subsp. verticillata possuem alto teor de água. O processo de secagem em estufa de ventilação forçada, a temperatura de 45ºC, foi eficaz, proporcionando folhas com 11,47% de umidade e 17,99% de cinzas totais. Palavras-chave: Cissus verticillata; insulina vegetal; qualidade; gravimetria.

  20. Ex vivo intestinal adhesion of Escherichia coli LF82 in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are reported to inhabit the gut mucosa in Crohn's disease (CD), however, little is known about the importance of host factors for the interplay between AIEC and the human gut. To examine if differences in bacterial adhesion patterns are disease associated......, the AIEC-prototype strain LF82 was evaluated for its ability to adhere to ileal and colonic biopsies from CD and healthy controls (HC). Moreover, the efficacy of the non-pathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) in averting LF82 adhesion to ileal mucosa was assessed. Similar numbers of LF82 adhered to biopsies...

  1. VR versus LF: towards the limitation-free 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Tibor; Kara, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of 3D technologies shows a cyclical learning curve with a series of hypes and dead ends, with mistakes and consequences. 3D images contain significantly more information than the corresponding 2D ones. 3D display systems should be built on more pixels, or higher speed components. For true 3D, this factor is in the order of 100x, which is a real technological challenge. If not fulfilled, the capabilities of 3D systems will be compromised: headgears will be needed, or the viewers should be positioned or tracked, single-user devices, lack of parallax, missing cues, etc. The temptation is always there: why to provide all the information, just what the person absorbs that moment (subjective or objective visualization). Virtual Reality (VR) glasses have been around for more than two decades. With the latest technical improvements, VR became the next hype. 3D immersion was added as a new phenomenon; however, VR represents an isolated experience, and still requires headgears and a controlled environment. Augmented Reality (AR) in this sense is different. Will the VR/AR hype with the headgears be a dead end? While VR headsets may sell better than smart glasses or 3D TV glasses, also consider that using the technology may require a set of behavioral changes that the majority of people do not want to make. Displays and technologies that restrict viewers, or cause any discomfort will not be accepted on the long term. The newer wave of 3D is forecasted to 2018-2020, answering the need for unaided, limitation-free 3D experience. Light Field (LF) systems represent the next-generation in 3D. The HoloVizio system, having a capacity in the order of 100x, offers natural, restrictions-free 3D experience on a full field of view, enabling collaborative use for an unlimited number of viewers, even in a wider, immersive space. As a scalable technology, the display range goes from monitor-style units, through automotive 3D HUDs, screen-less solutions, up to cinema systems

  2. Possible earthquake precursors revealed by LF radio signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Among radio signals, low frequency (LF radio signals lie in the band between 30–300 kHz. Monitoring equipment with the ability to measure the electric strength of such signals at field sites, were designed and assembled in Italy. From 1993 onwards, the electric field strength of the MCO (216 kHz, France broadcasting station has been collecting measurements at two sites in central Italy that were chosen according to very low noise levels. At the end of 1996, radio signals from the CLT (189 kHz, Italy and CZE (270 kHz, Czech Republic broadcasting stations were included in the measurements. Meteorological data from central Italy were also collected over the same time period in order to study the influence of weather conditions on the experimental measurements. During the monitoring period, we observed some evident attenuation of the electric field strength in some of the radio signals at some of the receivers. The duration of the attenuation observed was several days, so it could possibly be related to particular meteorological conditions. On the other hand, this phenomenon might represent precursors of moderate (3.0 M 3.5 earthquakes that occurred near the receivers (within 50 km along the transmitter-receiver path. In this case, it is possible that the pre-seismic processes could have produced irregularities in the troposphere, such as ducts, reflecting layers and scattering zones, so that some local troposphere defocusing of the radio signals might have occurred. These observations were related only to moderate earthquakes and in these cases, suitable meteorological conditions were probably needed to observe the effect. Between February – March 1998, we observed at one measuring site, a significant increase in the CZE electric field strength. Unfortunately, we could not use the data of the other receiver in this case, due to frequent interruptions in the data set. The increase might have been a precursor of the strong seismic sequence (M = 5

  3. Atomic structure of the murine norovirus protruding domain and sCD300lf receptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Turgay; Koromyslova, Anna; Malak, Virginie; Hansman, Grant S

    2018-03-21

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in human. Noroviruses also infect animals such as cow, mice, cat, and dog. How noroviruses bind and enter host cells is still incompletely understood. Recently, the type I transmembrane protein CD300lf was recently identified as the murine norovirus receptor, yet it is unclear how the virus capsid and receptor interact at the molecular level. In this study, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the soluble CD300lf (sCD300lf) and murine norovirus capsid-protruding domain complex at 2.05 Å resolution. We found that the sCD300lf binding site is located on the topside of the protruding domain and involves a network of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. The sCD300lf locked nicely into a complementary cavity on the protruding domain that is additionally coordinated with a positive surface charge on the sCD300lf and a negative surface charge on the protruding domain. Five of six protruding domain residues interacting with sCD300lf were maintained between different murine norovirus strains, suggesting that the sCD300lf was capable of binding to a highly conserved pocket. Moreover, a sequence alignment with other CD300 paralogs showed that the sCD300lf interacting residues were partially conserved in CD300ld, but variable in other CD300 family members, consistent with previously reported infection selectivity. Overall, these data provide insights into how a norovirus engages a protein receptor and will be important for a better understanding of selective recognition and norovirus attachment and entry mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Noroviruses exhibit exquisite host-range specificity due to species-specific interactions between the norovirus capsid protein and host molecules. Given this strict host-range restriction it has been unclear how the viruses are maintained within a species between relatively sporadic epidemics. While much data demonstrates that noroviruses can interact with carbohydrates

  4. Sinopsis sobre las Hydrocharitaceae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Mumm Udo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic family Hydrocharitaceae is actually represented in Colombia by seven genera and seven species (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnobium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. A first record of Hydrilla verticillata growing spontaneously in outside conditions is made for this geographical area. A key to genera is presented, with each species briefly commented and illustrated.En Colombia la familia de plantas acuáticas Hydrocharitaceae se encuentra representada por siete géneros y siete especies (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnabium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. Para el país se registra por primera vez a Hydrilla verticillata. Adicionalmente se presenta una clave para los géneros, con las especies brevemente comentadas e ilustradas.

  5. Use of Strategic Placement of Dredged Sediments to Support Horseshoe Island in the Atchafalaya River, Louisiana: A Preliminary Ecological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    cowpea (Vigna luteola), broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia), invasive Chinese tallowtree (Triadica sebifera), rosemallow (Hibiscus lasiocarpos), and...Benth. hairypod cowpea Fabaceae N Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cowpea Fabaceae - Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle waterthyme Hydrocharitaceae I

  6. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene against Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montironi, Ivana D; Cariddi, Laura N; Reinoso, Elina B

    Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes great economic losses per year, being Streptococcus uberis the main environmental pathogen involved. The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene for S. uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. In addition, the effect of MIC on biofilm formation was analyzed. MIC values for the essential oil ranged from 14.3 to 114.5mg/ml (1.56-12.5%v/v) and MBC between 114.5 and 229mg/ml (12.5-25%v/v). MICs for limonene ranged from 3.3 to 52.5mg/ml (0.39-6.25%v/v) and MBC was 210mg/ml (25%v/v). Both compounds showed antibacterial activity and affected the biofilm formation of most of the strains tested. In conclusion, these compounds could be used as an alternative and/or complementary therapy for bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Efeitos antidiabÃtico, antioxidante, analgÃsico e antiinflamatÃrio da fraÃÃo solÃvel em metanol e tiramina isolados de Cissus Verticillata

    OpenAIRE

    Cleide de Sousa Lino

    2008-01-01

    IntroduÃÃo: A Cissus verticillata à uma planta, utilizada popularmente como antidiabÃtica e antiinflamatÃria, Objetivos: Investigar as atividades antidiabÃtica, analgÃsica, antiinflamatÃria e antioxidante da FraÃÃo SolÃvel em Metanol (FSM), FraÃÃo Rica em Tiramina (FRT) e tiramina (TIR) isolados de Cissus verticillata. Material e MÃtodos: Ratos Wistar, machos, foram tratados por via oral com a FSM (50 e 100 mg/kg), glibenclamida(GLI, 5 mg/kg), Ãgua destilada ou glicose), e o sangue coleta...

  8. VLF/LF Radio Sounding of Ionospheric Perturbations Associated with Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hayakawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is recently recognized that the ionosphere is very sensitive to seismic effects,and the detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with earthquakes, seems to bevery promising for short-term earthquake prediction. We have proposed a possible use ofVLF/LF (very low frequency (3-30 kHz /low frequency (30-300 kHz radio sounding ofthe seismo-ionospheric perturbations. A brief history of the use of subionospheric VLF/LFpropagation for the short-term earthquake prediction is given, followed by a significantfinding of ionospheric perturbation for the Kobe earthquake in 1995. After showingprevious VLF/LF results, we present the latest VLF/LF findings; One is the statisticalcorrelation of the ionospheric perturbation with earthquakes and the second is a case studyfor the Sumatra earthquake in December, 2004, indicating the spatical scale and dynamicsof ionospheric perturbation for this earthquake.

  9. A new 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase gene encoding the committed-step enzyme in the MEP pathway from Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Rong; Chen, Min; Yang, Chunxian; Wang, Qiang; Gong, Yifu

    2007-01-01

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) reductoisomerase (DXR; EC 1.1.1.267) catalyzes a committed step of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) precursors. The full-length cDNA sequence was cloned and characterized from a TIA-producing species, Rauvolfia verticillata, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The new cDNA was named as RvDXR and submitted to GenBank to be assigned with an accession number (DQ779286). The full-length cDNA of RvDXR was 1804 bp containing a 1425 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 474 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 51.3 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.88. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that RvDXR showed extensive homology with DXRs from other plant species and contained a conserved transit peptide for plastids, an extended Pro-rich region and a highly conserved NADPH-binding motif in its N-terminal region owned by all plant DXRs. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that DXRs had two groups including a plant and bacterial group; RvDXR belonged to angiosperm DXRs that were obtained from Synechocystis through gene transfer according to the phylogenetic analysis. The structural modeling of RvDXR showed that RvDXR had the typical V-shaped structure of DXR proteins. The tissue expression pattern analysis indicated that RvDXR expressed in all tissues including roots, stems, leaves, fruits and followers but at different levels. The lowest transcription level was observed in followers and the highest transcription was found in fruits of R. verticillata; the transcription level of RvDXR was a little higher in roots and stems than in leaves. The cloning and characterization of RvDXR will be helpful to understand more about the role of DXR involved in R. verticillata TIA biosynthesis at the molecular level and provides a candidate gene for metabolic engineering of the TIAs pathway in R. verticillata.

  10. The lactoferricin B-derived peptide, LfB17-34, induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Hsuan; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB), a peptide of bovine lactoferrin (LfB), exhibits multiple biological functions, including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. However, the role of LfcinB-related peptides in melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, a set of five LfcinB-related peptides was examined. We found that LfB17‑34, an 18-mer LfcinB-derived peptide, increased melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells without significantly affecting cell viability. LfB17‑34 increased in vitro tyrosinase activity and melanin content in a dose-dependent manner. The results of RT-qPCR and western blot analyses showed that LfB17‑34 increased the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Trp1). Moreover, LfB17‑34 inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk, but not p38 and Akt, and constitutively active MEK was able to reverse the LfB17-34-enhanced pigmentation, melanin content, and tyrosinase activity, suggesting a role of Erk signaling in the process of LfB17‑34-mediated pigmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that LfB17‑34 induces melanogenesis in B16F10 cells primarily through increased tyrosinase expression and activity and that LfB17‑34 could be further developed for the treatment of hypopigmentation disorders.

  11. The Terminator Time in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation as recorded by the Romanian VLF/LF radio monitoring system related to earthquake occurrence and volcano erruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, I. A.; Moldovan, A. S.; Biagi, P. F.; Ionescu, C.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Boudjada, M. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Romanian VLF/LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data is part of the European international network named INFREP. Information on electromagnetic fields' intensities created by transmitters at a receiving site are indicating the quality of the propagation along the paths between the receivers and transmitters. Studying the ionosphere's influences on the electromagnetic waves' propagation along a certain path is a method to put into evidence possible modifications of its lower structure and composition as earthquakes' precursors. The VLF/LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 and has already 3 years of testing, functioning and proving its utility in the forecast of some earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Simultaneously we monitor, in the same site with the VLF/LF receiver, the vertical atmospheric electric field and different other meteorological parameters as: temperature, pressure or rainfall. The global magnetic conditions are emphasized with the help of Daily Geomagnetic Index Kp. At a basic level, the adopted analysis consists in a simple statistical evaluation of the signals by comparing the instantaneous values to the trend of the signal. In this paper we pay attention to the terminator times in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation, which are defined as the times of minimum in amplitude (or phase) around sunrise and sunset. These terminator times are found to shift significantly just around the earthquake. In the case of Kobe earthquake, there were found significant shifts in both morning and evening terminator times and these authors interpreted the shift in terminator time in terms of the lowering of lower ionosphere by using the full-wave mode theory. A LabVIEW application which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet was developed. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data

  12. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by the Synthetic Lactoferricin Derived Peptide hLF1-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Paola; Fais, Roberta; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Tavanti, Arianna; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) was used to rescue morphogenesis in cells exposed to the peptide. The results revealed that hLF1-11 exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all C. albicans isolates tested in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. Visual inspection of treated or untreated biofilm cells with an inverted microscope revealed a significant reduction in hyphal formation by hLF1-11 treated cells, as early as 3 hours of incubation. Moreover, hLF1-11 showed a reduced activity on preadherent cells. hLF1-11 induced the down-regulation of biofilm and hyphal-associated genes, which were predominantly regulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Indeed, exogenous db-cAMP restored morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated cells. The hLF1-11 peptide significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans mainly at early stages, interfering with biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity, and affected morphogenesis through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence that hLF1-11 could represent a potential candidate for the prevention of biofilm formation by C. albicans.

  13. A novel heart rate control model provides insights linking LF-HRV behavior to the open-loop gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Hila; Bobrovsky, Ben Zion; Gabbay, Uri

    2013-09-20

    Low-frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV) at rest has already been successfully modeled as self-sustained oscillations in a nonlinear control loop, but these models fail to simulate LF-HRV decreases either during aerobic exercise or in heart failure patients. Following control engineering practices, we assume the existence of a biological excitation (dither) within the heart rate control loop that softens the nonlinearity and studied LF-HRV behavior in a dither-embedded model. We adopted the Ottesen model with some revisions and induced a dither of high-frequency stochastic perturbations. We simulated scenarios of a healthy subject at rest and during aerobic exercise (by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance) and a heart failure patient (by decreasing stroke volume). The simulations resembled physiological LF-HRV behavior, i.e., LF-HRV decreased during aerobic exercise and in the heart failure patient. The simulations exhibited LF-HRV dependency on the open-loop gain, which is related to the product of the feedback gain and the feed forward gain. We are the first to demonstrate that LF-HRV may be dependent on the open-loop gain. Accordingly, reduced open-loop gain results in decreased LF-HRV, and vice versa. Our findings explain a well-known but unexplained observed phenomenon of reduced LF-HRV both in heart failure patients and in healthy subjects performing aerobic exercise. These findings have implications on how changes in LF-HRV can be interpreted physiologically, a necessary step towards the clinical utilization of LF-HRV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Technological Innovations of Carbon Dioxide Injection in EAF-LF Steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Wu, Xuetao; Dong, Kai; Yang, Lingzhi; Liu, Runzao

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the recent innovations and improvements in carbon dioxide (CO2) injection technologies for electric arc furnace (EAF)-ladle furnace (LF) steelmaking processes have been reviewed. The utilization of CO2 in the EAF-LF steelmaking process resulted in improved efficiency, purity and environmental impact. For example, coherent jets with CO2 and O2 mixed injection can reduce the amount of iron loss and dust generation, and submerged O2 and powder injection with CO2 in an EAF can increase the production efficiency and improve the dephosphorization and denitrification characteristics. Additionally, bottom-blowing CO2 in an EAF can strengthen molten bath stirring and improve nitrogen removal, while bottom-blowing CO2 in a LF can increase the rate of desulfurization and improve the removal of inclusions. Based on these innovations, a prospective process for the cyclic utilization of CO2 in the EAF-LF steelmaking process is introduced that is effective in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the steelmaking shop.

  15. Technological Innovations of Carbon Dioxide Injection in EAF-LF Steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Wu, Xuetao; Dong, Kai; Yang, Lingzhi; Liu, Runzao

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the recent innovations and improvements in carbon dioxide (CO2) injection technologies for electric arc furnace (EAF)-ladle furnace (LF) steelmaking processes have been reviewed. The utilization of CO2 in the EAF-LF steelmaking process resulted in improved efficiency, purity and environmental impact. For example, coherent jets with CO2 and O2 mixed injection can reduce the amount of iron loss and dust generation, and submerged O2 and powder injection with CO2 in an EAF can increase the production efficiency and improve the dephosphorization and denitrification characteristics. Additionally, bottom-blowing CO2 in an EAF can strengthen molten bath stirring and improve nitrogen removal, while bottom-blowing CO2 in a LF can increase the rate of desulfurization and improve the removal of inclusions. Based on these innovations, a prospective process for the cyclic utilization of CO2 in the EAF-LF steelmaking process is introduced that is effective in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from the steelmaking shop.

  16. Characteristics of VLF/LF Sferics from Elve-producing Lightning Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, P.; Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Marshall, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning return strokes radiate an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) which interacts with the D-region ionosphere; the largest EMPs produce new ionization, heating, and optical emissions known as elves. Elves are at least six times more common than sprites and other transient luminous events. Though the probability that a lightning return stroke will produce an elve is correlated with the return stroke peak current, many large peak current strokes do not produce visible elves. Apart from the lightning peak current, elve production may depend on the return stroke speed, lightning altitude, and ionospheric conditions. In this work we investigate the detailed structure of lightning that gives rise to elves by analyzing the characteristics of VLF/LF lightning sferics in conjunction with optical elve observations. Lightning sferics were observed using an array of six VLF/LF receivers (1 MHz sample-rate) in Oklahoma, and elves were observed using two high-speed photometers pointed over the Oklahoma region: one located at Langmuir Laboratory, NM and the other at McDonald Observatory, TX. Hundreds of elves with coincident LF sferics were observed during the summer months of 2013. We present data comparing the characteristics of elve-producing and non-elve producing lightning as measured by LF sferics. In addition, we compare these sferic and elve observations with FDTD simulations to determine key properties of elve-producing lightning.

  17. Design considerations for large field particle image velocimetery (LF-PIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol, S U; Balakumar, B J

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the challenges and limitations associated with the development of a large field of view particle image velocimetry (LF-PIV) diagnostic, capable of resolving large-scale motions (>1 m per camera) in gas phase laboratory and field experiments. While this diagnostic is developed for the measurement of wakes and local inflow conditions around research wind turbines, the design considerations provided here are also relevant for the application of LF-PIV to atmospheric boundary layer, rotorcraft dynamics and large-scale wind tunnel flows. Measurements over an area of 0.75 m × 1.0 m on a confined vortex were obtained using a standard 2MP camera, with the potential for increasing this area significantly using 11MP cameras. The cameras in this case were oriented orthogonal to the measurement plane receiving only the side-scattered component of light from the particles. Scaling laws associated with LF-PIV systems are also presented along with the performance analysis of low-density, large diameter Expancel particles, that appear to be promising candidates for LF-PIV seeding. (paper)

  18. Wavelet analysis of the LF radio signals collected by the European VLF/LF network from July 2009 to April 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Contadakis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In 2008, a radio receiver that works in very low frequency (VLF; 20-60 kHz and LF (150-300 kHz bands was developed by an Italian factory. The receiver can monitor 10 frequencies distributed in these bands, with the measurement for each of them of the electric field intensity. Since 2009, to date, six of these radio receivers have been installed throughout Europe to establish a ‘European VLF/LF Network’. At present, two of these are into operation in Italy, and the remaining four are located in Greece, Turkey, Portugal and Romania. For the present study, the LF radio data collected over about two years were analysed. At first, the day-time data and the night-time data were separated for each radio signal. Taking into account that the LF signals are characterized by ground-wave and sky-wave propagation modes, the day-time data are related to the ground wave and the night-time data to the sky wave. In this framework, the effects of solar activity and storm activity were defined in the different trends. Then, the earthquakes with M ≥5.0 that occurred over the same period were selected, as those located in a 300-km radius around each receiver/transmitter and within the 5th Fresnel zone related to each transmitter-receiver path. Where possible, the wavelet analysis was applied on the time series of the radio signal intensity, and some anomalies related to previous earthquakes were revealed. Except for some doubt in one case, success appears to have been obtained in all of the cases related to the 300 km circles in for the ground waves and the sky waves. For the Fresnel cases, success in two cases and one failure were seen in analysing the sky waves. The failure occurred in August/September, and might be related to the disturbed conditions of the ionosphere in summer.

     

  19. Ileal adhesion of virulent E. coli LF82 is not enhanced in Crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke S.; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) comprise a new group of E. coli species named from their distinctive ability to adhere to and invade the intestinal epithelium. The AIEC strains have been associated to the ileal mucosa in Crohn’s disease (CD), and the impact of AIEC in the pathogenesis...... of CD has been further strengthened from the evidence that the ileum in CD harbors an abnormally high number of E. coli species. S16 2010 IBD Abstracts The aim of this study was to examine the adhesion of the AIEC reference strain, LF82, to tissue samples from ileum and colon in CD and healthy controls...... and comprised: 1) incubation of tissue (inclusive of mucous) with 107 bacteria or buffer for 1 hour, 2) removal of non-adhered bacteria by extensive washing, and 3) absolute quantification of tissue-adhered LF82 and indigenous E. coli by a pre-validated assay including quantitative real-time PCR. Selective...

  20. Indium zinc oxide films deposited on PET by LF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Lyoung; Jung, Sang Kooun; Sohn, Sang Ho; Park, Duck Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) has attracted much attention recently for use in transparent oxide films compared with the ITO film. We carried out the deposition of IZO on a polyethylene terapthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature by a low-frequency (LF) magnetron sputtering system. These films have amorphous structures with excellent electrical stability, surface uniformity and high optical transmittance. The effects of LF applied voltage and O 2 flow rate were investigated. The electrical and optical properties were studied. At optimal deposition conditions, thin films of IZO with a sheet resistance of 32 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of over 80% in the visible spectrum range were achieved. The IZO thin films fabricated by this method do not require substrate heating during the film preparation of any additional post-deposition annealing treatment. The experimental results show that films with good qualities of surface morphology, transmittance and electrical conduction can be grown by the LF magnetron sputtering method on PET which is recommendable

  1. D-region Ionospheric Imaging Using VLF/LF Broadband Sferics, Forward Modeling, and Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, J.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    The D-region of the ionosphere (60-90 km altitude) is highly variable on timescales from fractions of a second to many hours, and on spatial scales from 10 km to many hundreds of km. VLF and LF (3-30kHz, 30-300kHz) radio waves are guided to global distances by reflecting off of the ground and the D-region, making the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG). Therefore, information about the current state of the ionosphere is encoded in received VLF/LF radio waves since they act like probes of the D-region. The return stroke of lightning is an impulsive event that radiates powerful broadband radio emissions in VLF/LF bands known as `radio atmospherics' or `sferics'. Lightning flashes occur about 40-50 times per second throughout the Earth. An average of 2000 lightning storms occur each day with a mean duration of 30 minutes creating a broad spatial and temporal distribution of lightning VLF/LF sources. With careful processing, we can recover high fidelity measurements of amplitude and phase of both the radial and azimuthal magnetic field sferic components. By comparison to a theoretical EIWG propagation model such as the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) developed by the US Navy, with a standard forward modeling approach, we can infer information about the current state of the D-region. Typically, the ionosphere is parametrized to reduce the dimensionality of the problem which usually results in an electron density vs altitude profile. For large distances (Greater than 1000 km), these results can be interpreted as path-averaged information. In contrast to studies using navy transmitters to study the D-region, the full spectral information allows for more complete information and less ambiguous inferred ionospheric parameters. With the spatial breadth of lightning sources taken together with a broadly distributed VLF/LF receiver network, a dense set of measurements are acquired in a tomographic sense. Using the wealth of linear algebra and imaging techniques it is

  2. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of yearling male Pedi goats fed dietary mixture levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Ng'ambi, Jones W

    2017-06-01

    Eighteen yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.7 ± 3.1 kg were used in a 42-day trial in a 2 (Acacia karroo leaf meal levels) × 3 (levels of PEG 4000) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design to determine PEG 4000 supplementation levels for optimal productivity of indigenous Pedi goats fed different mixture levels of A. karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. grass hay. Each goat was supplemented with 0, 23 or 30 g of PEG 4000 per day in addition to dietary mixture of A. karroo and S. verticillata hay. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on nutrient intake of goats. However, a diet × PEG (P goat were optimized at PEG 4000 supplementation levels of 19.62, 19.62, 19.61 and 19.53 g/goat/day, respectively, for diets containing 20% A. karroo leaf meal. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the apparent digestibility of all nutrients. The dietary inclusion level of A. karroo leaf meal at 20% improved (P goats. Crude protein digestibility was optimized at a PEG 4000 supplementation level of 15.78 g/goat/day. Dietary mixture level and PEG 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on final weights of Pedi goats. Similar results were observed for blood urea and glucose concentrations of yearling male Pedi goats. However, daily body weight gain was higher (P goats fed 50% A. karroo leaf meal than those on 20% inclusion level. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has potential to improve the feeding value of tanninifeorus A. karroo leaf meal.

  3. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by the Synthetic Lactoferricin Derived Peptide hLF1-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Paola; Fais, Roberta; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) was used to rescue morphogenesis in cells exposed to the peptide. The results revealed that hLF1-11 exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all C. albicans isolates tested in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. Visual inspection of treated or untreated biofilm cells with an inverted microscope revealed a significant reduction in hyphal formation by hLF1-11 treated cells, as early as 3 hours of incubation. Moreover, hLF1-11 showed a reduced activity on preadherent cells. hLF1-11 induced the down-regulation of biofilm and hyphal-associated genes, which were predominantly regulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Indeed, exogenous db-cAMP restored morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated cells. The hLF1-11 peptide significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans mainly at early stages, interfering with biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity, and affected morphogenesis through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence that hLF1-11 could represent a potential candidate for the prevention of biofilm formation by C. albicans. PMID:27902776

  4. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by the Synthetic Lactoferricin Derived Peptide hLF1-11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Morici

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms. Exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP was used to rescue morphogenesis in cells exposed to the peptide. The results revealed that hLF1-11 exhibited an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by all C. albicans isolates tested in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility. Visual inspection of treated or untreated biofilm cells with an inverted microscope revealed a significant reduction in hyphal formation by hLF1-11 treated cells, as early as 3 hours of incubation. Moreover, hLF1-11 showed a reduced activity on preadherent cells. hLF1-11 induced the down-regulation of biofilm and hyphal-associated genes, which were predominantly regulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Indeed, exogenous db-cAMP restored morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated cells. The hLF1-11 peptide significantly inhibited biofilm formation by C. albicans mainly at early stages, interfering with biofilm cellular density and metabolic activity, and affected morphogenesis through the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway. Our findings provide the first evidence that hLF1-11 could represent a potential candidate for the prevention of biofilm formation by C. albicans.

  5. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli, strain LF82 disrupts apical junctional complexes in polarized epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Juan C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although bacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, mechanisms of intestinal injury and immune activation remain unclear. Identification of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC strains in IBD patients offers an opportunity to characterize the pathogenesis of microbial-induced intestinal inflammation in IBD. Previous studies have focused on the invasive phenotype of AIEC and the ability to replicate and survive in phagocytes. However, the precise mechanisms by which these newly identified microbes penetrate the epithelial lining remain to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to delineate the effects of AIEC, strain LF82 (serotype O83:H1 on model polarized epithelial monolayers as a contributor to intestinal injury in IBD. Results Infection of T84 and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney-I polarized epithelial cell monolayers with AIEC, strain LF82 led to a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance and increased macromolecular (10 kilodalton dextran flux. Basolateral AIEC infection resulted in more severe disruption of the epithelial barrier. Increased permeability was accompanied by a redistribution of the tight junction adaptor protein, zonula occludens-1, demonstrated by confocal microscopy and formation of gaps between cells, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. After 4 h of infection of intestine 407 cells, bacteria replicated in the cell cytoplasm and were enclosed in membrane-bound vesicles positive for the late endosomal marker, LAMP1. Conclusion These findings indicate that AIEC, strain LF82 disrupts the integrity of the polarized epithelial cell barrier. This disruption enables bacteria to penetrate into the epithelium and replicate in the host cell cytoplasm. These findings provide important links between microbes related to IBD, the intestinal epithelial cell barrier and disease pathogenesis.

  6. Evaluation of fatigue crack growth and fracture resistance of SA350 LF2 material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.K.; Dubey, J.S.; Chakrabarty, J.K.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the tensile and fracture mechanics properties of the SA350 LF2 carbon steel material used as the Header material in the primary heat transport (PHT) system piping of the Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). Tensile, fatigue crack growth rate and fracture toughness tests have been carried out on specimens machined from the Header of the actual PHT pipes. The effect of temperature on tensile properties has been discussed. The effect of temperature and notch orientation on fracture resistance behavior of the material and fatigue crack growth rate dependence on the notch orientation and stress ratio has also been discussed. (author)

  7. Electron density profiles in the background of LF absorption during Forbush-decrease and PSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satori, G.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the simulation of different Forbush decrease and particle precipitation effects in the D region, electron density profiles in the mid-latitudes the ionospheric absorption of low frequency (LF) radio waves was determined. The absorption variations at different frequenceis are strongly affected by the shape of the electron density profile. A structure appears which sometimes resembles the letter S (in a sloping form). Both the height (around 70 to 72 km) and the depth of the local minimum in the electron density contribute to the computed absorption changes of various degree at different frequencies. In this way several observed special absorption events can be interpreted

  8. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y D; Xu, M J; Wang, Q Q; Zhou, C X; Wang, M; Zhu, X Q; Zhou, D H

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, resulting in a great threat to human health and significant economic loss to the livestock industry. Ingestion of infectious oocysts of T. gondii from the environment is the major source of transmission. Detection of T. gondii oocysts by existing methods is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. The objective of the present study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of T. gondii oocysts in the soil and water. The DNA of T. gondii oocysts was amplified by a pair of specific primers based on the T. gondii B1 gene over 15min at a constant temperature ranging from 30°C to 45°C using RPA. The amplification product was visualized by the lateral flow (LF) strip within 5min using the specific probe added to the RPA reaction system. The sensitivity of the established assay was 10 times higher than that of nested PCR with a lower detection limit of 0.1 oocyst per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other closely related protozoan species. Fifty environmental samples were further assessed for the detection validity of the LF-RPA assay (B1-LF-RPA) and compared with nested PCR based on the B1 gene sequence. The B1-LF-RPA and nested PCR both showed that 5 out of the 50 environmental samples were positive. The B1-LF-RPA method was also proven to be sufficiently tolerant of existing inhibitors in the environment. In addition, the advantages of simple operation, speediness and cost-effectiveness make B1-LF-RPA a promising molecular detection tool for T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [BLG gene knockout and hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus in goat by TALENs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaozheng; Zhu, Mengmin; Yuan, Yuguo; Rong, Yao; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Si; Mei, Junyan; Cheng, Yong

    2016-03-01

    To knock out β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene and insert human lactoferrin (hLF) coding sequence at BLG locus of goat, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) mediated recombination was used to edit the BLG gene of goat fetal fibroblast, then as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We designed a pair of specific plasmid TALEN-3-L/R for goat BLG exon III recognition sites, and BLC14-TK vector containing a negative selection gene HSV-TK, was used for the knock in of hLF gene. TALENs plasmids were transfected into the goat fetal fibroblast cells, and the cells were screened three days by 2 μg/mL puromycin. DNA cleavage activities of cells were verified by PCR amplification and DNA production sequencing. Then, targeting vector BLC14-TK and plasmids TALEN-3-L/R were co-transfected into goat fetal fibroblasts, both 700 μg/mL G418 and 2 μg/mL GCV were simultaneously used to screen G418-resistant cells. Detections of integration and recombination were implemented to obtain cells with hLF gene site-specific integration. We chose targeting cells as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. The mutagenicity of TALEN-3-L/R was between 25% and 30%. A total of 335 reconstructed embryos with 6 BLG-/hLF+ targeting cell lines were transferred into 16 recipient goats. There were 9 pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound on day 30 to 35 (pregnancy rate of 39.1%), and one of 50-day-old fetus with BLG-/hLF+ was achieved. These results provide the basis for hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus of goat and cultivating transgenic goat of low allergens and rich hLF in the milk.

  10. Variations of the VLF/LF signals during seismic activity in Japan in November 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Levin, Boris; Chebrov, Danila; Hayakawa, Masashi; Fedun, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    The measurements of the very low and low frequency (VLF/LF) signals at the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk stations were used for the analysis in connection with two underwater earthquakes which occurred near Japan in November 2016. The first earthquake with M=6.1 (depth 42 km) happened on 11 November. The second earthquake was recorded on 21 November with M=6.9 (depth 11 km) and had series of aftershocks with M up to 5.6 (USGS/NEIC). The significant negative nighttime amplitude anomalies were found for two sub-ionospheric paths: NWC-Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and JJY-Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk during about a week in case of the first earthquake. The anomalies of signal in the path JJY-Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky were observed during 4-5 days before the second earthquake and during 3 days after it. Taking into account the possible influence of other factors which can produce perturbations in VLF/LF signals (geomagnetic storm, proton burst and the relativistic electron fluxes, as well as atmospheric parameters), also using control paths, we may conclude that observed anomalies very likely were caused by impending earthquakes.

  11. An improved asynchronous brain interface: making use of the temporal history of the LF-ASD feature vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashashati, Ali; Mason, Steve; Ward, Rabab K.; Birch, Gary E.

    2006-06-01

    The low-frequency asynchronous switch design (LF-ASD) has been introduced as a direct brain interface (BI) for asynchronous control applications. Asynchronous interfaces, as opposed to synchronous interfaces, have the advantage of being operational at all times and not only at specific system-defined periods. This paper modifies the LF-ASD design by incorporating into the system more knowledge about the attempted movements. Specifically, the history of feature values extracted from the EEG signal is used to detect a right index finger movement attempt. Using data collected from individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries and able-bodied subjects, it is shown that the error characteristics of the modified design are significantly better than the previous LF-ASD design. The true positive rate percentage increased by up to 15 which corresponds to 50% improvement when the system is operating with false positive rates in the 1-2% range.

  12. Cognitive LF-Ant: A Novel Protocol for Healthcare Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alencar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the Cognitive LF-Ant protocol for emergency reporting in healthcare wireless sensor networks. The protocol is inspired by the natural behaviour of ants and a cognitive component provides the capabilities to dynamically allocate resources, in accordance with the emergency degree of each patient. The intra-cluster emergency reporting is inspired by the different capabilities of leg-manipulated ants. The inter-cluster reporting is aided by the cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing, which can detect new emergency reporting requests and forward them. Simulations results show the decrease of average delay time as the probability of opportunistic access increases, which privileges the emergency reporting related to the patients with higher priority of resources’ usage. Furthermore, the packet loss rate is decreased by the use of cooperative modulation diversity with spectrum sensing.

  13. Exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 and its functional characterization as a yogurt additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Elisa C; Perezlindo, Marcos J; Burns, Patricia; Tabacman, Eduardo; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Binetti, Ana G

    2016-11-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2 is a strain which is able to produce high levels (approximately 1 g/l) of crude exopolysaccharide (EPS) when it is grown in optimised conditions. The aim of this work was to characterize the functional aspects of this EPS extract, focusing on its application as a dairy food additive. Our findings are consistent with an EPS extract that acts as moderate immunomodulator, modifying s-IgA and IL-6 levels in the small intestine when added to yogurt and milk, respectively. Furthermore, this EPS extract, in a dose feasible to use as a food additive, provides protection against Salmonella infection in a murine model, thus representing a mode of action to elicit positive health benefits. Besides, it contributes to the rheological characteristics of yogurt, and could function as a food additive with both technological and functional roles, making possible the production of a new functional yogurt with improved texture.

  14. SELEÇÃO DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DA ESPÉCIE Senefeldera verticillata (Vell. CROIZAT EM DOIS FRAGMENTOS FLORESTAIS DO SUL DO ESPIRITO SANTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Abreu Rodrigues Vieira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil abriga a flora mais rica do planeta, sendo a Floresta Atlântica um dos sistemas mais diversificados que compõe essa paisagem. Por outro lado, a atuação antrópica desordenada transformou esse bioma, originalmente contínuo, em um mosaico de fragmentos isolados colocando em risco a biodiversidade. A coleta de sementes de alta qualidade é muito importante para qualquer programa de produção de mudas voltado para restauração e conservação dos recursos genéticos. Dessa forma, com esse estudo objetivou-se avaliar indivíduos de Senefeldera verticillata (Vell. Croizat presentes na FLONA de Pacotuba e RPPN Cafundó (Cachoeiro de Itapemirim - Espírito Santo, como matrizes para banco de sementes. O maior DAP foi de 17,6 cm e o menor foi de 5 cm, a média foi de 8,66 cm. Todas as matrizes avaliadas encontravam-se em boas condições de sanidade e aparência fenotípica. A partir dos dados foi possível identificar árvores matrizes que servirão como banco de sementes e empregadas nos projetos de reflorestamento e recuperação de áreas degradadas da própria região.

  15. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Oliver

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  16. A statistical study on the effect of earthquakes on the ionosphere, based on the subionospheric LF propagation data in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maekawa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A superimposed epoch analysis has been undertaken, in order to find the correlation of the ionospheric perturbations with seismic activity. We take the wave path from the Japanese LF transmitter (frequency=40 kHz and an observing station of Kochi (wave path length of 770 km, and a much longer period (of five years than before, is considered. This subionospheric LF propagation can be called "an integrated measurement" in the sense that any earthquakes in the LF sensitive area just around the great-circle path can influence the observed LF signals, so that we define the "effective magnitude" (Meff by integrating the total energy from different earthquakes in the sensitive area on a current day and by converting it back into magnitude. A superimposed epoch analysis for the effective magnitude greater than 6.0 has yielded that the ionosphere is definitely disturbed in terms of both amplitude and dispersion, and that these perturbations tend to take place prior to an earthquake. The statistical z-test has also been performed, which has indicated that the amplitude is definitely depleted 2–6 days before the earthquake day and also that the dispersion is very much enhanced during the same period. This statistical study has given strong support to the existence of seismo-ionospheric perturbations for high seismic activity.

  17. DNA barcoding discriminates the noxious invasive species, floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), from non-invasive relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Duistermaat, H.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), a member of the plant family Araliaceae originating from North America, is an example of an invasive aquatic species posing serious problems to the management of waterways outside of its original distribution area in Australia and Western Europe.

  18. The Proteome of Biologically Active Membrane Vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89 Type Strain Identifies Plasmid-Encoded Putative Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Cristian; Hernández, Mauricio A; Tandberg, Julia I; Valenzuela, Karla N; Lagos, Leidy X; Haro, Ronie E; Sánchez, Patricio; Ruiz, Pamela A; Sanhueza-Oyarzún, Constanza; Cortés, Marcos A; Villar, María T; Artigues, Antonio; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the predominant bacterial pathogen affecting the Chilean salmonid industry. This bacterium is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a significant fish disease. Membrane vesicles (MVs) released by P. salmonis deliver several virulence factors to host cells. To improve on existing knowledge for the pathogenicity-associated functions of P. salmonis MVs, we studied the proteome of purified MVs from the P. salmonis LF-89 type strain using multidimensional protein identification technology. Initially, the cytotoxicity of different MV concentration purified from P. salmonis LF-89 was confirmed in an in vivo adult zebrafish infection model. The cumulative mortality of zebrafish injected with MVs showed a dose-dependent pattern. Analyses identified 452 proteins of different subcellular origins; most of them were associated with the cytoplasmic compartment and were mainly related to key functions for pathogen survival. Interestingly, previously unidentified putative virulence-related proteins were identified in P. salmonis MVs, such as outer membrane porin F and hemolysin. Additionally, five amino acid sequences corresponding to the Bordetella pertussis toxin subunit 1 and two amino acid sequences corresponding to the heat-labile enterotoxin alpha chain of Escherichia coli were located in the P. salmonis MV proteome. Curiously, these putative toxins were located in a plasmid region of P. salmonis LF-89. Based on the identified proteins, we propose that the protein composition of P. salmonis LF-89 MVs could reflect total protein characteristics of this P. salmonis type strain.

  19. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  20. A R2R3-MYB Gene LfMYB113 is Responsible for Autumn Leaf Coloration in Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Hsiang; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2017-03-01

    The regulation of autumn leaf coloration in deciduous trees has long been an enigma. Due to the fact that different coloration phenotypes may be considered when planting, more understanding of the regulation mechanism is needed. In this study, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene LfMYB113 was identified from a subtropical deciduous tree species Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance). The expression patterns of LfMYB113 in four selected phenotypes were different and were positively correlated with leaf anthocyanin content. In a 35S::LfMYB113 transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plant, both the early and late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were shown to be up-regulated. It was also shown that LfMYB113 can activate the promoter sequence of LfDFR1 and LfDFR2. Transient overexpression of LfMYB113 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed strong anthocyanin accumulation and pre-senescence; the latter was confirmed by up-regulation of senescence-associated genes. In addition, the activation of proLfSGR::YFP by LfMYB113 in transient experiments indicated that LfMYB113 may have a role in regulation of Chl degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first time a R2R3-MYB transcription factor has been functionally identified as one of the key regulators of autumn leaf coloration and autumn leaf senescence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Modelling concentrations of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in two UK rivers using LF2000-WQX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Oliver R.; Williams, Richard J.; Zhang, Zhong; Egmond, Roger van

    2010-01-01

    Current regulatory environmental exposure assessments for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D 5 ), used in a range of personal care products, are based on a number of erroneous assumptions. Using an estimated D 5 flux to waste water of 11.6 mg cap -1 d -1 , a 95.2% removal rate in Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) and a dilution factor of 10 results in modelled surface water concentrations that are up to an order of magnitude higher than concentrations observed downstream of STPs in two UK rivers. A GIS-based water quality model (LF2000-WQX) was used to predict concentrations of D 5 in two UK rivers. Assuming the STP removal rate is reasonable, a waste water flux of 2.4 mg cap -1 d -1 is needed in order to obtain a reasonable match between predicted and observed in-river concentrations. This flux is consistent with measured effluent concentrations. The results highlight major uncertainties in estimating chemical emission rates for volatile chemicals used in personal care products and suggest that measured concentrations in waste water are needed to refine exposure assessments. - Surface water modelling of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane.

  2. Evaluation of four bioestimulantes and three sustrates in the propagation of Vallea stipularis L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rosero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research consisted in evaluating four biostimulants and three substrates for the propagation of Vallea stipularis L.f. in greenhouse conditions. The biostimulants corresponded to: plant hormone rooting (B1, agrohormones 10-10-10 (B2, ESPOCH biostimulant (B3 and Gron Gibb (B4. The substrates consisted of: 50% black soil + 25% peat + 25% sand (S1; 50% black soil + 25% peat + 25% humus (S2 and 50% peat + 50% humus (S3. For the study, it was used a randomized complete design (RCD with factorial arrangement, it was determined the coefficient of variation and the Tukey test at 5% for the separation of means. The application of the biostimulants in the substrates was done at the time of planting. According to the results obtained, the best biostimulants corresponded to B1 (plant hormone rooting, applied in the seeds for 15 minutes, with which the highest emergency percentage was obtained (70.96%; with biostimulant B2 (agrohormones 10-10-10, applied for five minutes it was obtained 70.67% and with B3 (Gron Gibb 70.37%. The best substrate for emergence of plants was: 50% peat + 50% humus with 73.67% of emergence, where the highest plant height and root length were achieved, instead, the ESPOCH biostimulant (microoganisms reported a 67, 11% emergency.

  3. Exploiting LF/MF signals of opportunity for lower ionospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson-Rollins, Marc A.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a method to diagnose and track the D region ionosphere (60-100 km). This region is important for long-distance terrestrial communication and is impacted by a variety of geophysical phenomena, but it is traditionally very difficult to detect. Modern remote sensing methods used to study the D region are predominately near the very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) band, with some work also done in the high-frequency and very high frequency bands (HF/VHF, 3-300 MHz). However, the frequency band between VLF and HF has been largely ignored as a diagnostic tool for the ionosphere. In this paper, we evaluate the use of 300 kHz radio reflections as a diagnostic tool for characterizing the D region of the ionosphere. We present radio receiver data, analyze diurnal trends in the signal from these transmitters, and identify ionospheric disturbances impacting LF/MF propagation. We find that 300 kHz remote sensing may allow a unique method for D region diagnostics compared to both the VLF and HF/VHF frequency bands, due to a more direct ionospheric reflection coefficient calculation method with high temporal resolution without the use of forward modeling.

  4. Management of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. for the handicraft production in Orinoco high plains, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Isabel Mesa Castellanos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present information about the spear leaves harvest, fiber processing and trade of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. for the handicrafts production by the Sikuani people in Wacoyo indigenous Village, in Puerto Gaitán, Meta, Colombia. We made  a semi-structured interviews and workshops with harvesters, artisans and traders. During these sessions we inquired about their harvesting techniques, characteristics of harvestable individuals, distribution area of the palms, market aspects  and other uses of the species. Mauritia flexuosa, locally known as moriche, is one of the economic livelihoods for the artisans who inhabit the Wacoyo reservation. The harvest of spear leaves is carried out  in juvenile and subadult palms. The fibers are extracted from the spear leaves to manufacture handicrafts like bags, baskets, hats and hammocks. Artisans sell the products to tourists visiting the reservation, and intermediary sellers who commercialize them in the municipality center of Puerto Gaitán and Puerto Lopez, Meta. The use of M. flexuosa has the potential to become a sustainable activity, since the leaf harvest does not involve the death of the individuals.

  5. Modelling concentrations of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in two UK rivers using LF2000-WQX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Oliver R., E-mail: oliver.price@unilever.co [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre (SEAC), Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Williams, Richard J.; Zhang, Zhong [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Egmond, Roger van [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre (SEAC), Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Current regulatory environmental exposure assessments for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D{sub 5}), used in a range of personal care products, are based on a number of erroneous assumptions. Using an estimated D{sub 5} flux to waste water of 11.6 mg cap{sup -1} d{sup -1}, a 95.2% removal rate in Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) and a dilution factor of 10 results in modelled surface water concentrations that are up to an order of magnitude higher than concentrations observed downstream of STPs in two UK rivers. A GIS-based water quality model (LF2000-WQX) was used to predict concentrations of D{sub 5} in two UK rivers. Assuming the STP removal rate is reasonable, a waste water flux of 2.4 mg cap{sup -1} d{sup -1} is needed in order to obtain a reasonable match between predicted and observed in-river concentrations. This flux is consistent with measured effluent concentrations. The results highlight major uncertainties in estimating chemical emission rates for volatile chemicals used in personal care products and suggest that measured concentrations in waste water are needed to refine exposure assessments. - Surface water modelling of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane.

  6. Effect of friction stir welding on microstructure and corrosion behavior of LF6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, Faizan Ali; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, A.; Deen, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The LF6 aluminum alloy plates were joined by friction stir welding method. The tool rotational (1180 rpm) and transverse speed (0.56 mm s-1) were kept constant during welding of 4 mm thick plates. The microstructural features, hardness and tensile properties of the welded samples were determined to evaluate the structural integrity in comparison with the base metal. The electrochemical behavior of base metal (BM), thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and weld nugget zone (WNZ) was also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl solution. The microstructural study revealed significant grain refinement and agglomeration of β (Mg2Al3) intermetallic precipitates in the WNZ. The relatively higher hardness and a decrease in the ductility (3%) also assured the formation of precipitates β precipitates in the WNZ welded samples. The fracture surface of welded sample also revealed the existence of β precipitates within the elongated dimples which may be considered as the crack initiation sites. The relatively lower corrosion rate (23.68 mpy) and higher charge transfer resistance (403 Ω cm2) of BM compared to WNZ could be associated with the galvanic dissolution of Al-matrix through competitive charge transfer and relaxation (adsorption/desorption of intermediate species) processes specifically at the vicinity of the β precipitates.

  7. Suppressive effect of pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauwolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.var.hainanensis Tsiang on inflammation by regulation of NF- κ B pathway and interleukin-17 in mice with dextran sulphatesodium-induced ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xin-Pu; Sun, Xiao-Ning; Cui, Lu-Jia; Cao, Qin-Fang; Zhuang, Gui-Feng; Deng, Tao-Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Yan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauwolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.var.hainanensis Tsiang on an experimental murine colitis model. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), and mice were divided into 4 groups: control, DSS alone, DSS plus SASP, DSS plus pectic polysaccharides. The disease activity index (DAI) and histological score were observed. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α and interleukin (IL)-17 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. I κ B and NF- κ B p65 expression were assessed by western blot analysis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined by using MPO assay kit. Administration of pectic polysaccharides significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis as assessed by DAI and histological score, and resulted in down regulation of MPO activity and NF- κ B p65 expression and subsequent degradation of I κ B protein, strikingly reduced the production of TNF- a and IL-17. Pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.)Baill.var. hainanensis Tsiang exerts beneficial effects in experimental colitis and may therefore provide a useful therapeutic approach for the treatment of UC. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient concentration age dynamics of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) plantations in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Moya, J.; Murillo, R.; Portuguez, E.; Fallas, J. L.; Rios, V.; Kottman, F.; Verjans, J. M.; Mata, R.; Alvarado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. Appropriate knowledge regarding teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) nutrition is required for a better management of the plantations to attain high productivity and sustainability. This study aims to answer the following questions: How can it be determined if a teak tree suffers a nutrient deficiency before it shows symptoms? Are nutrient concentration decreases in older trees associated with age-related declines in forest productivity? Area of study. Costa Rica and Panama. Material and Methods. Nutrient concentration in different tree tissues (bole, bark, branches and foliage) were measured at different ages using false-time-series in 28 teak plantations Research highlights. Foliar N concentration decreases from 2.28 in year 1 to 1.76% in year 19. Foliar Mg concentration increases from 0.23 in year 1 to 0.34% in year 19. The foliar concentrations of the other nutrients are assumed to be constant with tree age: 1.33% Ca, 0.88% K, 0.16% P, 0.12% S, 130 mg kg{sup -}1 Fe, 43 mg kg{sup -}1 Mn, 11 mg kg{sup -}1 Cu, 32 mg kg{sup -}1 Zn and 20 mg kg{sup -}1 B. The nutrient concentration values showed can be taken as a reference to evaluate the nutritional status of similar teak plantations in the region. The concentrations of K, Mg and N could be associated with declines in teak plantation productivity as the plantation becomes older. Whether age-related changes in nutrient concentrations are a cause or a consequence of age-related declines in productivity is an issue for future research with the aim of achieving higher growth rates throughout the rotation period. (Author) 35 refs.

  9. Development and evaluation of teak (Tectona grandis L.f. taper equations in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Warner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taper refers to the general decrease in the regular outline of a solid body from its base to its tip. Taper models are used to estimate the volume and value of wood products from harvesting trees. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. is highly valued as one of the world's most preferred timbers and a teak taper equation is required to inform optimal harvesting strategies given the limited plantation resource available in Thailand. Teak taper equations were developed and evaluated based on 331 sample trees collected in 2014 from eight plantations in northern Thailand aged from 10 to 46 yr using two taper model formulations—the Kozak variable-exponent taper model and the Goodwin cubic polynomial model comprising hyperbolic and parabolic terms. Variants based on both model types were fitted using nonlinear regression analysis with diameter at breast height, total tree height and height of girth measurement as the independent variables to estimate diameter underbark at the nominated height. Goodness-of-fit and leave-one-out cross validation with lack-of-fit statistical testing combined with extensive graphical analysis of residuals were used to select the best model. A Goodwin model variant (named FIO-teak1 as the first plantation teak taper model known to be published in Thailand provided the best estimates of volume and diameter underbark. A simple case study confirmed that FIO-teak1 in combination with the Farm Forestry Toolbox software package could assist teak plantation managers in decision making associated with optimizing log grade value based on standing tree inventory data.

  10. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF KESEMEK LEAVES (Diospyros kaki L.F) USING DPPH (2,2-DIPHENYL-1 PIKRYLHYDRAZINE) METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Isnindar, Isnindar; Setyowati, Erna Prawita; Wahyuono, Subagus

    2015-01-01

    There are two groups of antioxidant resources, these are synthetic and natural antioxidants. The most important natural antioxidant is phenolic compounds that are produced naturally from plants. Phenolic Antioxidants are potent antiradical, biologically active as they are able to donate hydrogens to free radicals and break the chain of lipid oxidation reactions in the early stages. This study is aimed to search natural antioxidant compounds from the leaves persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.F) that ...

  11. Escherichia coli LF82 differentially regulates ROS production and mucin expression in intestinal epithelial T84 cells: implication of NOX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elatrech, Imen; Marzaioli, Viviana; Boukemara, Hanane; Bournier, Odile; Neut, Christel; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Luis, José; Dubuquoy, Laurent; El-Benna, Jamel; My-Chan Dang, Pham; Marie, Jean-Claude

    2015-05-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is associated with inflamed ileal lesions in Crohn's disease colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli LF82. We investigated whether such ileal bacteria can modulate ROS production by epithelial cells, thus impacting on inflammation and mucin expression. Ileal bacteria from patients with Crohn's disease were incubated with cultured epithelial T84 cells, and ROS production was assayed using the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence method. The gentamicin protection assay was used for bacterial invasion of T84 cell. The expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits, mucin, and IL-8 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blots. Involvement of NOX and ROS was analyzed using diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Among different bacteria tested, only LF82 induced an increase of ROS production by T84 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This response was inhibited by DPI and NAC. Heat- or ethanol-attenuated LF82 bacteria and the mutant LF82ΔFimA, which does not express pili type 1 and poorly adheres to epithelial cells, did not induce the oxidative response. The LF82-induced oxidative response coincides with its invasion in T84 cells, and both processes were inhibited by DPI. Also, we observed an increased expression of NOX1 and NOXO1 in response to LF82 bacteria versus the mutant LF82ΔFimA. Furthermore, LF82 inhibited mucin gene expression (MUC2 and MUC5AC) in T84 cells while increasing the chemotactic IL-8 expression, both in a DPI-sensitive manner. Adherent-invasive E. coli LF82 induced ROS production by intestinal NADPH oxidase and altered mucin and IL-8 expression, leading to perpetuation of inflammatory lesions in Crohn's disease.

  12. The effect of different fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana/pineapple leaf (PaLF)/glass hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafee, Z. M.; Khalina, A.; Norkhairunnisa, M.; Syams, Z. Edi; Liew, K. E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana-pineapple leaf (PaLF)-glass reinforced epoxy resin under tensile loading. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out on specimens with different fibre contents (30%, 40%, 50% in weight). The composite specimens consists of 13 different combinations. The effect of hybridisation between synthetic and natural fibre onto tensile properties was determined and the optimum fibre volume fraction was obtained at 50% for both banana and PaLF composites. Additional 1 layer of woven glass fibre increased the tensile strength of banana-PaLF composite up to 85%.

  13. MEMPELAJARI FISIOLOGI PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DENGAN TEHNIK RADIOISOTOP (Study in the Physiology of Environment Pollution Using Radiotracer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: 1. Perbedaan kemampuan daya serap tumbuhan air Hydrilla verticillata, Enceng gondok (Eichhomia crassipes dan Kangkung terhadap residu Malathion, menggunakan akuarium (diisi dengan air + Hydrilla Verticillata + Enceng Gondok + Kangkung + Malathion radioisotope 14C. 2. Perbandingan kadar malathion dalam jaringan ikan yang mendapat makanan Hydrilla verticilata dengan yang mendapat makanan kangkung, menggunakan: (akuarium pertama diisi air + Hydrilla Vericillata + ikan mas + Malathion radioisotope 14C; akuarium ke dua diisi air + kangkung + ikan mas + malathion radiisotop 14C. 3. Perbandingan ukuran penyerapan pada jaringan mammalia (tikus yang diberi makan jaringan ikan mas dengan yang diberi makan tumbuhan air (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. Jaringan ikan mas dan kangkung dilakukan pengabuan basah, lalu diberikan masing-masing kepada 30 ekor tikus. Kadar Malathion dari semua percobaan satu, dua dan tiga, diketahui dengan menggunakan alat pencacah Sintilator cair (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer, LSC- 753 (ALOKA”. Hasil yang didapat dibandingkan dengan menggunakan uji-t Student. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa: 1. Hydrilla Verticillata lebih efisien dari pada Enceng Gondok dan Kangkung dalam menyerap residu insektisida malathion dalam air. 2. Ikan yang diberi makan Hydrilla verticillata mengkonsentrasikan malathion lebih tinggi dari pada ikan yang diberi makan kangkung. 3. Mammalia (tikus yang mengkonsumsi daging ikan yang terkontaminasi akan mengkonsentrasikan malathion dalam tubuhnya lebih banyak dari pada tikus yang memakan sayuran (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine: 1.The comparison of absorption by aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata, water hyacinth and water spinach of Malathion insecticide residues in water, (aquarium filled with water + Hydrilla verticillata + water hyacinth + water spinach + 20 mci 14C malathion radioisotope; 2

  14. Effect of selenium-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Se-bLF) on antioxidant enzyme activities in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2011-10-01

    Cancer and many chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The potential cellular and tissue damage created by ROS has significant impact on many disease and cancer states and natural therapeutics are becoming essential in regulating altered redox states. We have shown recently that iron content is a critical determinant in the antitumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF). We found that 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) acts as a potent natural adjuvant and fortifying agent for augmenting cancer chemotherapy and thus has a broad utility in the treatment of cancer. Furthermore, we also studied the effects of iron saturated bLF's ability as an antioxidant in the human epithelial colon cancer cell line HT29, giving insights into the potential of bLF in its different states. Thus, metal saturated bLF could be implemented as anti-cancer neutraceutical. In this regard, we have recently been able to prepare a selenium (Se) saturated form of bLF, being up to 98% saturated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine how oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 epithelial colon cancer cells, and observe changes in this activity by treatments with different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo (iron free)-bLF and selenium (Se)-bLF. The states of all antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- s-transferase (GsT), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) demonstrated high levels within untreated HT29 cells compared to the majority of other treatments being used, even prior to H2O2 exposure. All enzymes showed significant alterations in activity when cells were treated with antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Se-bLF, with and/or without H2O2 exposure. Obvious indications that the Se content of the bLF potentially interacted with the glutathione (GSH)/GPx/GR/GsT associated redox system could be

  15. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf-units for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J

    1990-01-01

    The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid production and in some countries also to follow immunization of horses for production of antitoxins, has hitherto been defined by means of antitoxin preparations. A diphtheria toxoid and a tetanus toxoid preparation, both freeze-dried, were examined in an international collaborative study for their suitability to serve as reference reagents in the flocculation tests and for defining the Lf-units. It was shown that flocculation tests using the reference toxoids are very reproducible and reliable and the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization established: the toxoid called DIFT as the International Reference Reagent of Diphtheria Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 900 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule; and the toxoid called TEFT as the International Reference Reagent of Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 1000 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule.

  16. The effect of dielectric top lids on materials processing in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.W.M.; Chan, C.S.; Xu, L.; Xu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the plasma revolution began in the 1970's with the exploitation of plasma sources for anisotropic etching and processing of materials. In recent years, plasma processing has gained popularity, with research institutions adopting projects in the field and industries implementing dry processing in their production lines. The advantages of utilizing plasma sources would be uniform processing over a large exposed surface area, and the reduction of toxic emissions. This leads to reduced costs borne by manufacturers which could be passed down as consumer savings, and a reduction in negative environmental impacts. Yet, one constraint that plagues the industry would be the control of contaminants in a plasma reactor which becomes evident when reactions are conducted in a clean vacuum environment. In this work, amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films were grown on glass substrates in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor with a top lid made of quartz. Even though the chamber was kept at high vacuum (~10 −4 Pa), it was evident through secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) that oxygen contaminants were present. With the aid of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) the contaminant species were identified. The design of the LF-ICP reactor was then modified to incorporate an Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) lid. Results indicate that there were reduced amounts of contaminants present in the reactor, and that an added benefit of increased power transfer to the plasma, improving deposition rate of thin films was realized. The results of this study is conclusive in showing that Al 2 O 3 is a good alternative as a top-lid of an LF-ICP reactor, and offers industries a solution in improving quality and rate of growth of thin films. (author)

  17. Occurrence of the Microcystins MC-LW and MC-LF in Dutch Surface Waters and Their Contribution to Total Microcystin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth J. Faassen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are the most frequently found cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems. Many MC variants have been identified and variants differ in their toxicity. Recent studies showed that the variants MC-LW and MC-LF might be more toxic than MC-LR, the variant that is most abundant and mostly used for risk assessments. As little is known about the presence of these two variants in The Netherlands, we determined their occurrence by analyzing 88 water samples and 10 scum samples for eight MC variants ((dm-7-MC-RR, MC-YR, (dm-7-MC-LR, MC-LY, MC-LW and MC-LF by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. All analyzed MC variants were detected, and MC-LW and/or MC-LF were present in 32% of the MC containing water samples. When MC-LW and MC-LF were present, they contributed to nearly 10% of the total MC concentrations, but due to their suspected high toxicity, their average contribution to the total MC toxicity was estimated to be at least 45%. Given the frequent occurrence and possible high toxicity of MC-LW and MC-LF, it seems better to base health risk assessments on the toxicity contributions of different MC variants than on MC-LR concentrations alone.

  18. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/02/0156-0162. Keywords. Hydrilla verticillata; keystone species; invasive weeds; carbon sequestration; bioremediation; AVM disease. Author Affiliations. Stephen Sumithran1 P J Sanjeeva Raj. Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, KY. 40475 ...

  19. Use of phosphorus to alleviate stress induced by cadmium and zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential mechanism by which P antagonizes the toxicity of Zn and Cd was investigated in Elodea nuttallii and Hydrilla verticillata to understand the interactions between P, Cd and Zn pollutants. The two submerged macrophytes were treated with a combination of Cd (0.25 mg L-1) and Zn (1.0 mg L-1) and various ...

  20. Final Environmental Assessment Implementation of the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Avon Park Air Force Range Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    divine nightshade (Solanum nigrescens) Coast sandspur (Cenchrus incertus) Three plants — tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), cogon grass ( Imperata ...consequence on the APAFR ecosystem. However in the last 5 years, there has been an increase in the number of sites where cogon grass ( Imperata ...verticillata Hydrilla Hymenachne amplexicaulis West In mdian arsh grass Imperata cylindrica Cogon grass Lantana camara Lantana Ligustrum sinense Chinese

  1. Hypothesis: Low frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV) is an input for undisclosed yet biological adaptive control, governing the cardiovascular regulations to assure optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Uri; Bobrovsky, Ben Zion

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular regulation is considered today as having three levels: autoregulations, neural regulations and hormonal regulations. We hypothesize that the cardiovascular regulation has an additional (fourth) control level which is outer, hierarchical (adaptive) loop where LF-HRV amplitude serves as a reference input which the neural cardiovascular center detects and responses in order to maintain LF-HRV around some prescribed level. Supporting evidences: LF-HRV absence during artificial cardiac pacing may be associated with "pacemaker syndrome" which had not been sufficiently understood regardless of apparently unimpaired cardiovascular performance. The hypothesis may provide an essential basis for understanding several cardiovascular morbidities and insight toward diagnostic measures and treatments (including but not limited to adding variability to the pulse generator of artificial pacemakers to eliminate "pace maker syndrome"). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling solar flare induced lower ionosphere changes using VLF/LF transmitter amplitude and phase observations at a midlatitude site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, E. D.

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing of the ionosphere bottom using long wave radio signal propagation is a still going strong and inexpensive method for continuous monitoring purposes. We present a propagation model describing the time development of solar flare effects. Based on monitored amplitude and phase data from VLF/LF transmitters gained at a mid-latitude site during the currently increasing solar cycle no. 24 a parameterized electron density profile is calculated as a function of time and fed into propagation calculations using the LWPC (Long Wave Propagation Capability). The model allows to include lower ionosphere recombination and attachment coefficients, as well as to identify the relevant forcing X-ray wavelength band, and is intended to be a small step forward to a better understanding of the solar-lower ionosphere interaction mechanisms within a consistent framework.

  3. Helicusin E, isochromophilone X and isochromophilone XI: new chloroazaphilones produced by the fungus Bartalinia robillardoides strain LF550.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nils; Ohlendorf, Birgit; Erhard, Arlette; Bruhn, Torsten; Bringmann, Gerhard; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2013-03-12

    Microbial studies of the Mediterranean sponge Tethya aurantium led to the isolation of the fungus Bartalinia robillardoides strain LF550. The strain produced a number of secondary metabolites belonging to the chloroazaphilones. This is the first report on the isolation of chloroazaphilones of a fungal strain belonging to the genus Bartalinia. Besides some known compounds (helicusin A (1) and deacetylsclerotiorin (2)), three new chloroazaphilones (helicusin E (3); isochromophilone X (4) and isochromophilone XI (5)) and one new pentaketide (bartanolide (6)) were isolated. The structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds revealed different biological activity spectra against a test panel of four bacteria: three fungi; two tumor cell lines and two enzymes.

  4. Helicusin E, Isochromophilone X and Isochromophilone XI: New Chloroazaphilones Produced by the Fungus Bartalinia robillardoides Strain LF550

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. Imhoff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial studies of the Mediterranean sponge Tethya aurantium led to the isolation of the fungus Bartalinia robillardoides strain LF550. The strain produced a number of secondary metabolites belonging to the chloroazaphilones. This is the first report on the isolation of chloroazaphilones of a fungal strain belonging to the genus Bartalinia. Besides some known compounds (helicusin A (1 and deacetylsclerotiorin (2, three new chloroazaphilones (helicusin E (3; isochromophilone X (4 and isochromophilone XI (5 and one new pentaketide (bartanolide (6 were isolated. The structure elucidations were based on spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds revealed different biological activity spectra against a test panel of four bacteria: three fungi; two tumor cell lines and two enzymes.

  5. DNA barcoding discriminates the noxious invasive plant species, floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), from non-invasive relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DE Wiel, C C M; VAN DER Schoot, J; VAN Valkenburg, J L C H; Duistermaat, H; Smulders, M J M

    2009-07-01

    Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), a member of the plant family Araliaceae originating from North America, is an example of an invasive aquatic species posing serious problems to the management of waterways outside of its original distribution area in Australia and Western Europe. As a consequence, its import was banned in the Netherlands. It can be difficult to distinguish H. ranunculoides from other species of the genus on a morphological basis. In this regard, DNA barcoding may become a good alternative once this could be performed on a routine basis. In this study, we show that it is possible to distinguish H. ranunculoides from a series of closely related congeners by using a single plastid DNA sequence, trnH-psbA. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Córnea verticilata - marcador clínico da doença de Fabry: relato de caso Cornea verticillata - a clinical marker of Fabry disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Azeredo Cordeiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Fabry é erro inato do metabolismo dos glicoesfingolipídeos (GL, resultante da atividade deficiente da enzima alfa-galactosidase A (a-Gal, com herança ligada ao cromossomo X. O acúmulo progressivo de GL nos tecidos resulta nas manifestações clínicas da doença, mais evidentes em homens hemizigotos, e incluem angioqueratomas, acroparestesias, córnea verticilata, hipo-hidrose, envolvimento cardíaco, renal e manifestações cerebrovasculares. Foi realizada avaliação em família acometida pela doença, sendo dois pacientes do sexo feminino e três do sexo masculino. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame oftalmológico completo e dosagem da atividade da enzima a-Gal. O único achado clínico presente em todos foi a córnea verticilata. Isto demonstra o importante papel que o exame oftalmológico apresenta no diagnóstico da doença, já que as alterações oculares são tão características.Fabry's disease is a rare X-linked lisosomal storage disorder of glycosphingolipid (GL metabolism, caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A activity. The progressive accumulation of GL in tissues results in the clinical manifestations of the disease, that are more evident in hemizygous males, and include angiokeratomas, acroparesthesia, cornea verticillata, cardiac and kidney involvement, cerebrovascular manifestations. A family with Fabry's disease including 2 female patients and 3 male patients is reported. The patients were submitted to complete medical history, ophthalmological examination and alpha-galactosidase activity test. Cornea verticillata was a constant finding in all patients. This demonstrates the important role of the ophtalmological examination for the diagnosis of Fabry's disease since the eye findings are so characteristic of the disease.

  7. Rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata by recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow strip (LF-RPA) in epidemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-15

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection contributes to the formulation of strategies to eradicate this parasite. A simple and efficient diagnostic tool, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip, was used in detection of Theileria and compared to other methods that require expensive instruments and skilled personnel. Herein, we established and optimized an LF-RPA method to detect the cytochrome b gene of T. annulata mitochondrial DNA from experimentally infected and field-collected blood samples. This method has many unparalleled characteristics, including that it is rapid (clear detection in 5min at constant temperature), sensitive (the limitation of detection is at least 2pg genomic DNA), and specific (no cross-reaction with other piroplasms that infect cattle). The LF-RPA assay was evaluated via testing 17 field blood samples and comparing the results of that of a PCR, showing 100% agreement, which demonstrates the ability of the LF-RPA assay to detect T. annulata infections in small number of samples (n=17). Taken together, the results indicate that this method could be used as an ideal diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata in endemic regions with limited to fewer and local resources and could also be a potential technique for the surveillance and control of blood protozoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ho:YLF & Ho:LuLF slab amplifier system delivering 200 mJ, 2 µm single-frequency pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, HJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A single-frequency single-pass amplifier based on Ho:YLF and Ho:LuLF in a scalable slab architecture delivering up to 210 mJ at 2064 nm is demonstrated. The amplifier was end-pumped by a 1890 nm Tm:YLF slab laser and was seeded with a 69 mJ single...

  9. Nonlinear Conte-Zbilut-Federici (CZF Method of Computing LF/HF Ratio: A More Reliable Index of Changes in Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond Jr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acupuncture treatments are safe and effective for a wide variety of diseases involving autonomic dysregulation. Heart rate variability (HRV is a noninvasive method for assessing sympathovagal balance. The low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF spectral power ratio is an index of sympathovagal influence on heart rate and of cardi

  10. Identification of a 34 kDa protein altered in the LF-1 mutant as the herbicide-binding D1 protein of photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, J.; Pakrasi, H.; Seibert, M.; Arntzen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The LF-1 mutant of Scenedesmus has a complete block on the oxidizing side of its PSII reaction center. However, the reaction center as well as the reducing side of PSII is fully functional in this mutant. Compared to the wildtype (WT) the only detected protein difference in the PSII complex of LF-1 is the change in mobility of a 34 kDa protein to 36 kDa. This protein has been implicated to have a major role in Mn-binding and water-oxidation. The authors have recently shown that photoaffinity labeling of thylakoids with azido-[ 14 C]-atrazine tags the 34 kDa protein in WT and the 36 kDa protein in LF-1. It has been shown that the azido-atrazine labeled protein, called D1, functions in herbicide binding and Q/sub A/ to Q/sub B/ electron transfer on the reducing side of PSII. Polyclonal antibodies directed against the D1 protein of Amaranthus hybridus (Ohad, et al., EMBOJ 1985) were found to recognize the Scenedesmus 34 kDa (WT) and 36 kDa (LF-1) proteins. The implied dual function for the D1 protein on the reducing as well as the oxidizing side of PSII reaction center will be discussed

  11. 78 FR 66945 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment request: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study (GuLF STUDY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... GuLF STUDY is to investigate potential short- and long-term health effects associated with oil spill... non-Cleanup Workers Supplemental Mental Health 4,600 4 15/60 4,600 1,533 Telephone Questionnaire... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day...

  12. [Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on mRNA expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells after Escherichia coli LF82 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Jun; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Jiao; Wang, Ya; Chen, Peng-De; Hu, Chong-Kang; Zeng, Ling-Chao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Xi; Jiang, Xun

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection. The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E.coli LF82 treatment (0, 6, and 12 hours) groups. A microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the cells. MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth curve. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at both sides of the cell membrane was compared to evaluate the Caco-2 cell model. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of EPA on the survival rate and apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells. RT-qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells after EPA and/or E.coli LF82 treatment. ELISA was used to measure the change in the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in culture supernatant. After EPA treatment (25 and 50 μmol/L), the proliferation of Caco-2 cells was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly higher than those in the control group (PE.coli LF82 treatment groups had decreasing mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells over the time of treatment and had significantly lower mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the untreated group (PE.coli LF82 and 25 or 50 μmol/L EPA for 6 or 12 hours showed an increase in the mRNA expression of ZO-1 with the increasing concentration of EPA, as well as significantly higher mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone (PE.coli LF82 alone for 6 or 12 hours had increasing secretion of TNF-α over the time of treatment and had significantly higher secretion than the untreated

  13. The Ionospheric Precursor to the 2011 March 11 Earthquake Based upon Observations Obtained from the Japan-Pacific Subionospheric VLF/LF Network

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    Masashi Hayakawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using network observation of subionospheric VLF (very low frequency/LF (low frequency signals in Japan and in Russia, we have found a significant ionospheric perturbation prior to the recent 2011 March 11 Japan earthquake (EQ which occurred at sea proximate to the Tohoku area on the main island (Honshu of Japan was an exceptionally huge plate-type EQ. A remarkable anomaly (with a decrease in the nighttime amplitude and also with enhancement in dispersion was detected on March 5 and 6 along the propagation path from the NLK (Seattle, USA transmitter to Chofu (together with Kochi and Kasugai. We also have observed the corresponding VLF anomaly during a prolonged period of March 1 - 6, with minima in the nighttime amplitude on March 3 and 4 along the path from JJI (Miyazaki, Kyushu to Kamchatka, Russia. This ionospheric perturbation has been discussed extensively with respect to its reliability. (1 How abnormal is this VLF/LF propagation anomaly? (2 What was the temporal evolution of terminator times? (3 Were there any solar-terrestrial effects (especially the effect from geomagnetic storms on the VLF/LF propagation anomaly? (4 The effect of any other EQs and foreshock activities on the VLF/LF anomaly? (5 Were there any correlations with other related phenomena? Finally, (6 are there any other examples of a VLF/LF propagation anomaly for oceanic EQs? We then compared the temporal properties of ionospheric perturbations for this EQ with those of a huge number of inland EQs and compared the corresponding spatial scale with the former result of the same oceanic 2004 Sumatra EQ with nearly the same magnitude. Finally, the generation mechanism of those seismo-ionospheric perturbations is briefly discussed.

  14. Subionospheric VLF/LF radio waves propagation characteristics before, during and after the Sofia, Bulgaria Mw=5.6 earthquake occurred on 22 May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Nenovski, Petko; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian; Ionescu, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. On May 22nd, 2012 an earthquake with Mw=567 occurred in Bulgaria, near Sofia, inside the "sensitive" area of the INFREP VLF/LF electromagnetic network. The data collected on different frequencies, during April-May 2012 were studied using different methods of analysis: daily correlation methods, spectral approaches and terminator time techniques, in order to find out possible connections between the seismic activity and the subionospheric propagation properties of radio waves. The studies were performed with the help of a specially designed LabVIEW application, which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application performs primary, statistical correlation and spectral analysis, appends daily files into monthly and annual files and performs 3D colour-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation. Another feature of the software is the correlation of the daily recorded files for the studied frequencies by overlaying the 24 hours radio activity and taking into account the sunrise and sunset. Data are individually processed (spectral power, correlations, differentiation, filtered using bandpass, lowpass, highpass). JTFA spectrograms (Cone-Shaped Distribution CSD, Gabor, Wavelet, short-time Fourier transform STFT, Wigner-Ville Distribution WVD, Choi-Williams Distribution CWD) are used, too.

  15. Detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with Japanese earthquakes on the basis of reception of LF transmitter signals on the satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been recently reported a lot of electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes (EQs. Among these, the ground-based reception of subionospheric waves from VLF/LF transmitters, is recognized as a promising tool to investigate the ionospheric perturbations associated with EQs. This paper deals with the corresponding whistler-mode signals in the upper ionosphere from those VLF/LF transmitters, which is the counterpart of subionospheric signals. The whistler-mode VLF/LF transmitter signals are detected on board the French satellite, DEMETER launched on 29 June 2004. We have chosen several large Japanese EQs including the Miyagi-oki EQ (16 August 2005; M=7.2, depth=36 km, and the target transmitter is a Japanese LF transmitter (JJY whose transmitter frequency is 40 kHz. Due to large longitudinal separation of each satellite orbit (2500 km, we have to adopt a statistical analysis over a rather long period (such as 3 weeks or one month to have reliable data set. By analyzing the spatial distribution of JJY signal intensity (in the form of signal to noise ratio SNR during a period of 4 months including the Miyagi-oki EQ, we have found significant changes in the intensity; generally the SNR is significantly depleted before the EQ, which is considered to be a precursory ionospheric signature of the EQ. This abnormal effect is reasonably explained in terms of either (1 enhanced absorption of whistler-mode LF signals in the lower ionosphere due to the lowering of the lower ionosphere, or (2 nonlinear wave-wave scattering. Finally, this analysis suggests an important role of satellite observation in the study of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  16. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Drimys granadensis L.f. leaves from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Mauricio; Quijano, Clara; Pino, Jorge; Madriñán, Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Drimys granadensis L.f., a native plant from Colombia, has been included in the Vademecum de Plantas Medicinales de Colombia by the Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, due to its widespread use in the folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. The chemical composition of the essential oil of Drimys granadensis obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS analyses. A total of 85 components were identified, with the major compounds germacrene D (1, 14.7%), sclarene (9.5%), a-cadinol (7.3%), longiborneol acetate (2, 6.3%), drimenol (4.2%), (Z)-β-ocimene (3, 4.2%), a-pinene (4, 3.2%), and β-elemene (5, 2.7%). The essential oil was also tested against eight bacteria using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. Most of the Gram-positive bacteria tested were susceptible to the D. granadensis essential oil, while the Gram-negative bacteria tested were not.

  17. Results of subionospheric radio LF monitoring prior to the Tokachi (M=8, Hokkaido, 25 September 2003 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shvets

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of simultaneous LF subionospheric monitoring over two different propagation paths prior to the very strong Tokachi earthquake (near the east coast of Hokkaido Island, 25 September 2003 of magnitude 8.3 are presented firstly. Nighttime amplitude fluctuations of the Japanese Time Standard Transmitter (JG2AS, 40kHz signal received at Moshiri (Japan, 142°E, 44°N and at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski (Russia, 158°E, 53°N were analyzed. As a possible precursory signature we observed synchronous intensification of quasi periodical 16-day variations of the dispersion in the signals received at both observation stations before the earthquake. The strongest deviations observed as a rule were depletions of signal amplitude probably connected with increase of loss in the ionosphere by the enhancement of turbulence. This is due to dissipation of internal gravity waves (IGW at the lower ionosphere heights. A scheme for seismo-IGW-planetary waves (PW interconnection has been justified to explain the observed connection with strong earthquakes. It considers the seasonal variability in the signal.

  18. Status of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. and Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher in Gujarat State, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. PATEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. in natural ponds of Harni, Savali and Tuwa (India is known since 1956 by earlier workers. Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher was also reported in 1962 growing as wild at Savali. Available literature indicates that I. coromandeliana falls under the category of ‘near threatened’ in Asian continents and as an ‘endangered species’ at national (India level. In the current field work study, the authors could not locate the investigated species from the locations earlier documented by researchers. Few saplings of I. coromandeliana were observed at Talod and Vaktapur near Gandhinagar, a new location for the species. In contrast, E. debile appeared to be lost in wild from Gujarat. Their extinction from earlier reported locations is associated with anthropogenic pressure and thus legal action for their protection is needed. The present paper suggests further survey and habitat based studies and recommends conservation and management action plans based upon the ecology of the habitat.

  19. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Ebrahim

    Full Text Available With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa, from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa, retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01 of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further.

  20. Opportunities for Phytoremediation and Bioindication of Arsenic Contaminated Water Using a Submerged Aquatic Plant:Vallisneria natans (lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xingmei; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    The identification of plants with high arsenic hyperaccumulating efficiency from water is required to ensure the successful application of phytoremediation technology. Five dominant submerged plant species (Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara., Potamageton crispus L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) in China were used to determine their potential to remove As from contaminated water. V. natans had the highest accumulation of As among them. The characteristics of As accumulation, transformation and the effect of phosphate on As accumulation in V. natans were then further studied. The growth of V. natans was not inhibited even when the As concentration reached 2.0 mg L(-1). After 21 d of As treatment, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) reached 1300. The As concentration in the environment and exposure time are major factors controlling the As concentration in V. natans. After being absorbed, As(V) is efficiently reduced to As(III) in plants. The synthesis of non-enzymic antioxidants may play an important role under As stress and increase As detoxication. In addition, As(V) uptake by V. natans was negatively correlated with phosphate (P) uptake when P was sufficiently supplied. As(V) is probably taken up via P transporters in V. natans.

  1. Study of water dynamics in the soaking, steaming, and solid-state fermentation of glutinous rice by LF-NMR: a novel monitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Tu, Chuanhai; Rui, Xin; Gao, Yangwen; Li, Wei; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Yu; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of starchy grain is a traditional technique for food and alcoholic beverage production in East Asia. In the present study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was introduced for the elucidation of water dynamics and microstructure alternations during the soaking, steaming, and SSF of glutinous rice as a rapid real-time monitoring method. Three different proton fractions with different mobilities were identified based on the degree of interaction between biopolymers and water. Soaking and steaming significantly changed the proton distribution of the sample. The different phases of SSF were reflected by the T2 parameters. In addition, the variations in the T2 parameters were explained by the microstructure changes of rice induced by SSF. The fermentation time and T2 parameters were sigmoidally correlated. Thus, LF-NMR may be an effective real-time monitoring method for SSF in starch systems.

  2. Measurement of LF Standard-Frequency Waves JJY along the track of Shirase, the Japanese Antarctic Research Icebreaker, during JARE53-JARE54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitauchi, H.; Nozaki, K.; Ito, H.; Tsuchiya, S.; Imamura, K.; Nagatsuma, T.

    2013-12-01

    We first obtained a strong evidence of reception of the low frequency (LF) radio waves, 40 kHz and 60 kHz, of the call sign JJY by use of a newly developed, highly sensitive receiving system on board the Japanese Antarctic research icebreaker Shirase offshore East Ongul Island, East Antarctica--about 14,000 km away from those transmitting stations in Japan. The measured data sets of the electric field intensity and phase of those signals are to be analysed to examine and/or improve numerical prediction methods of field strength for long-distance propagation of LF radio waves, contributing to the Recommendation 'Prediction of field strength at frequencies below about 150 kHz' made by International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). The call sign JJY of standard frequency and time signals (SFTS) of LF 40 kHz and 60 kHz are emitted from the transmitting stations, respectively, Ohtakadoya-yama 37° 22‧ 21″ N, 140° 50‧ 56″ E in Fukushima Prefecture (eastern Japan) and Hagane-yama 33° 27‧ 56″ N, 130° 10‧ 32″ E in Saga/Fukuoka Prefecture (western Japan) by NICT. Those are widely used for calibrating frequency standard oscillators and radio-controlled clocks in Japan. Since low signal attenuation in LF radio band allows long distance communication, kilometre waves have been utilized for operations such as SFTS and military communications around the world. Therefore, there is a need to give guidance to engineers for the planning of radio services in LF band so as to avoid interference. ITU-R recommends the guidance 'Prediction of field strength at frequencies below about 150 kHz', in which a numerical prediction method is proposed to compute the electric field intensity, up to 16,000 km of long-distance propagation, away from the transmitting station. Since reliable data sets are limited for the long-distance propagation, in this study we tried to measure the field strength and phase of the LF SFTS JJY of 40 kHz and 60 kHz over 14

  3. Effect of LF 16-0687MS, a new nonpeptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, in a rat model of closed head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau, D; Chorny, I; Benkovitz, V; Artru, A; Roitblat, L; Shapira, Y

    1999-11-01

    Bradykinin is an endogenous nonapeptide which potently dilates the cerebral vasculature and markedly increases vascular permeability. These effects are mediated by B2 receptors located on the vascular endothelium. Previous experimental studies have shown that blockade of the kallikreinkinin system, which mediates the formation of bradykinin, afforded a reduction of the brain edema that developed following a cryogenic cortical lesion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of LF 16-0687MS, a novel nonpeptide B2 receptor antagonist, on cerebral edema and neurological severity score (NSS) after closed head injury to rats. LF 16-0687MS or its vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) was continuously infused at 10, 30, and 100 microg/kg/min over 23 h starting 1 h after a focal trauma to the left hemisphere was induced using a weight-drop device. The extent of edema formation was evaluated 24 h after trauma from left and right hemispheres samples by measurement of specific gravity and water content. In a separate study, a neurological severity score based on scoring of behavioural and motor functions was evaluated 1 h and over 1 week after trauma. LF 16-0687MS at 100 microg/kg/min markedly reduced the development of brain edema as indicated by a 68% increase in specific gravity (p<0.05) and a 64% decrease of water content (p<0.05) in the left hemisphere. In addition the recovery of neurological function was significantly improved by 100 microg/kg/min LF 16-0687MS from day 3 to day 7 after CHT. In a separate experiment, we also showed that LF 16-0687MS at 100 microg/kg/min given either 1 h before or 30 min after CHT did not affect mean arterial blood pressure. These results show that blockade of bradykinin B2 receptors is an effective approach to reduce cerebral edema and to improve neurological outcome after a focal contusion to the cranium.

  4. Lightning characteristics observed by a VLF/LF lightning detection network (LINET in Brazil, Australia, Africa and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Höller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes lightning characteristics as obtained in four sets of lightning measurements during recent field campaigns in different parts of the world from mid-latitudes to the tropics by the novel VLF/LF (very low frequency/low frequency lightning detection network (LINET. The paper gives a general overview on the approach, and a synopsis of the statistical results for the observation periods as a whole and for one special day in each region. The focus is on the characteristics of lightning which can specifically be observed by this system like intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground stroke statistics, vertical distributions of intra-cloud strokes or peak current distributions. Some conclusions regarding lightning produced NOx are also presented as this was one of the aims of the tropical field campaigns TROCCINOX (Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment and TroCCiBras (Tropical Convection and Cirrus Experiment Brazil in Brazil during January/February 2005, SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere and TWP-ICE (Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment during November/December 2005 and January/February 2006, respectively, in the Darwin area in N-Australia, and of AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses in W-Africa during June–November 2006.

    Regional and temporal characteristics of lightning are found to be dependent on orographic effects (e.g. S-Germany, Brazil, Benin, land-sea breeze circulations (N-Australia and especially the evolution of the monsoons (Benin, N-Australia. Large intra-seasonal variability in lightning occurrence was found for the Australian monsoon between the strong convection during build-up and break phases and the weak active monsoon phase with only minor lightning activity. Total daily lightning stroke rates can be of comparable intensity in all regions with the heaviest events found in Germany and N

  5. IHC-TM connect-disconnect in relation to sensitization and masking of a HF-tone burst by a LF tone. IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, H D

    1982-05-01

    Evidence continues to accumulate that although the outer hair cells (OHCs) of the cochlea are firmly bonded to the tectorial membrane (TM), the inner hair cells (IHCS) are not. This is the fourth in a series of papers that explores how the idea of a set of disconnected hair cells that "impact" the TM is consistent with psychophysical data. The paper extends the exploration to the masking of high-frequency (HF) tone bursts by low-frequency (LF) tones and shows that the model can explain the important features of these complex data.

  6. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  7. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  8. High concentration of human lactoferrin in milk of rhLf-transgenic cows relieves signs of bovine experimental Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, Heli; Hyvönen, Paula; Orro, Toomas; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-08-15

    Six transgenic cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) in their milk and five normal cows at the same lactation stage were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus chromogenes to study the effect of a high concentration of lactoferrin in milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci such as S. chromogenes have become very common as agents causing mild or subclinical mastitis. All transgenic cows became infected but showed no clinical signs, unlike the control cows, which developed mild clinical mastitis. Transgenic cows eliminated bacteria faster from the quarters than did the controls. Local clinical signs were milder, and the inflammatory reaction assessed by NAGase activity in the milk and by the concentration of milk amyloid A was lower in the transgenic cows. The mild response probably reflected the rapid elimination of bacteria. The milk concentration of rhLf remained constant throughout the study period, but the total concentration of bovine lactoferrin in the milk peaked in both groups at 46h post-challenge. Three cows, all in the control group, exhibited systemic acute phase response as increased concentrations of serum amyloid A in the blood circulation. Transgenic cows with a high concentration of human lactoferrin in their milk seemed to be protected from clinical disease and from prolonged inflammatory reaction, but not from experimental intramammary infection induced by S. chromogenes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of Ionospheric Anomalies related to moderate Romanian earthquakes occurred during last decade using VLF/LF INFREP and GNSS Global Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Oikonomou, Christina; Haralambous, Haris; Nastase, Eduard; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Colella, Roberto; Toma-Danila, Dragos

    2017-04-01

    Ionospheric TEC (Total Electron Content) variations and Low Frequency (LF) signal amplitude data prior to five moderate earthquakes (Mw≥5) occurred in Romania, in Vrancea crustal and subcrustal seismic zones, during the last decade were analyzed using observations from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the European INFREP (International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors) networks respectively, aiming to detect potential ionospheric anomalies related to these events and describe their characteristics. For this, spectral analysis on TEC data and terminator time method on VLF/LF data were applied. It was found that TEC perturbations appeared few days (1-7) up to few hours before the events lasting around 2-3 hours, with periods 20 and 3-5 minutes which could be associated with the impending earthquakes. In addition, in all three events the sunrise terminator times were delayed approximately 20-40 min few days prior and during the earthquake day. Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by the Partnership in Priority Areas Program - PNII, under MEN-UEFISCDI, DARING Project no. 69/2014 and the Nucleu Program - PN 16-35, Project no. 03 01

  10. A Proof of Concept to Bridge the Gap between Mass Spectrometry Imaging, Protein Identification and Relative Quantitation: MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Théron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI is a powerful tool to visualize the spatial distribution of molecules on a tissue section. The main limitation of MALDI-MSI of proteins is the lack of direct identification. Therefore, this study focuses on a MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow to link the results from MALDI-MSI with potential peak identification and label-free quantitation, using only one tissue section. At first, we studied the impact of matrix deposition and laser ablation on protein extraction from the tissue section. Then, we did a back-correlation of the m/z of the proteins detected by MALDI-MSI to those identified by label-free quantitation. This allowed us to compare the label-free quantitation of proteins obtained in LC-MS/MS with the peak intensities observed in MALDI-MSI. We managed to link identification to nine peaks observed by MALDI-MSI. The results showed that the MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow (i allowed us to study a representative muscle proteome compared to a classical bottom-up workflow; and (ii was sparsely impacted by matrix deposition and laser ablation. This workflow, performed as a proof-of-concept, suggests that a single tissue section can be used to perform MALDI-MSI and protein extraction, identification, and relative quantitation.

  11. Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on the quality of instant sea cucumber: Emphatically on water status of by LF-NMR and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mingqian; Lin, Zhuyi; Zu, Yinxue; Zhu, Beiwei; Cheng, Shasha

    2018-07-01

    Instant sea cucumber has become one popular product due to its convenience to eat, favourable taste and minimal loss of nutrients and bioactive components. However, there was rare information about the water dynamic of instant sea cucumber subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. In this study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) were employed to investigate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on water status of instant sea cucumber. Four water populations corresponding to strongly bound water, weakly bound water, immobile water and free water were observed in instant sea cucumber. With the increase of freeze-thaw cycles, the transverse relaxation time of immobile and free water increased, while the peak area of free water decreased significantly. MRI enabled the visualization of water migration of instant sea cucumber during multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles also led to significant changes of other quality properties including thawing loss, WHC, color parameters, texture and protein content, and enlarge the interspace between fiber network in microstructure. Good correlations between T 22 , A 22 , A 23 and thaw loss, WHC, L*, hardness and collagen content (0.873 ≤ r ≤ 0.958) revealed LF-NMR may be an effective real-time monitoring method of these physicochemical parameters as a non-destructive technique. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EclipseMob: Results from a nation-wide citizen science experiment on the effects of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on Low-frequency (LF) Radio Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, W. C.; Lukes, L.; Nelson, J.; Henry, J.; Oputa, J.; Kerby-Patel, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Early experiments to study the effects of a solar eclipse on radio wave propagation were done with either a limited number of sites before any theory of the ionosphere had been confirmed or involved collecting data that proved to be unusable because submissions were missing critical information such as date, time or location. This study used the 2017 solar eclipse over the continental U.S. to conduct the first wide-area (across the U.S.) low-frequency (LF) propagation study. The data collection process was crowdsourced through the engagement of students/educators, citizens, ham radio enthusiasts, and the scientific community. In order to accomplish data collection by geographically dispersed citizen scientists, the EclipseMob team designed and shared a low cost, low tool/skill DIY receiver system to collect LF data that leveraged existing cell phone technology and made the experiment more accessible to students and people with no prior experience constructing electronic systems. To support engagement, in addition to web guides (eclipsemob..org), EclipseMob supplied 150 DIY kits and provided build/Q&A webinars and events. For the experiment, participants constructed a simple receiver system consisting of a homemade antenna, a simple homemade receiver to convert the radio frequency (RF) signals to audio frequencies, and a smart phone app. Before, during, and after the eclipse, participants used their receiver systems to record transmitter signal data from WWVB located near Fort Collins, Colorado on 60.000 kHz (a U.S. frequency standard that is operated by NIST and transmits time codes). A second frequency, 55.500 kHz transmitted by a LF station in Dixon, CA was also used. By using the time, date and location features of the smart phone, the problems experienced in earlier experiments could be minimized. By crowdsourcing the observation sites across the U.S., data from a number of different short, medium and long- paths could be obtained as the total eclipse crossed

  13. Data report of ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07. Loss-of-feedwater transient with primary feed-and-bleed operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    An experiment TR-LF-07 was conducted on June 23, 1992 using the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) in the Rig of Safety Assessment-IV (ROSA-IV) Program. The ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07 simulated a loss-of-feedwater transient in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) under assumptions of primary feed-and-bleed operation and total failure of auxiliary feedwater system. A safety injection (SI) signal was generated when steam generator (SG) secondary-side collapsed liquid level decreased to 3 m. Primary depressurization was initiated by fully opening a power-operated relief valve (PORV) of pressurizer (PZR) 30 min after the SI signal. High pressure injection (HPI) system was started in loop with PZR 12 s after the SI signal, while it was initiated in loop without PZR when the primary pressure decreased to 10.7 MPa. The primary and SG secondary pressures were kept almost constant because of cycle opening of the PZR PORV and SG relief valves. The PZR liquid level began to drop steeply following the PORV full opening, which caused liquid level formation at the hot leg. The PZR and hot leg liquid levels recovered due to the HPI actuation in both loops. The primary pressure became lower than the SG secondary pressure, which resulted in the actuation of accumulator (ACC) system in both loops. The PZR and hot legs became full of liquid again after the ACC actuation. The primary feed-and-bleed operation by use of the PORV, HPI and ACC systems was effective to core cooling because of no core uncovery. The experiment was terminated when the continuous core cooling was confirmed due to the successive coolant injection from the HPI system even after the ACC termination. The obtained data would be useful to study operator actions and procedures in the PWR multiple fault events which behaviors in the PZR affect. This report summarizes the test procedures, conditions and major observation in the ROSA/LSTF experiment TR-LF-07. (author)

  14. Crowdsourcing a Spatial Temporal Study of Low Frequency (LF) Propagation Effects Due to a Total Solar Eclipse: Engaging Students and Citizens in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, N. A.; Lukes, L.; Nelson, J.; Liles, W. C.; Kerby, K. C.; Crowov, F.; Rockway, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first experiments to study the effects of a solar eclipse on radio wave propagation were done in 1912 utilizing Low Frequency (LF; 30 - 300 kHz) radio waves at a handful of sites across Europe before any theory of the ionosphere had been confirmed and even before the word "ionosphere" existed. In the 1920s, a large cooperative experiment was promoted in the U.S. by Scientific American magazine. They collected over 2000 reports of AM broadcast stations from throughout the U.S. Unfortunately, many of the submissions were unusable because they lacked critical information such as date, time or location. We propose to use the 2017 solar eclipse over the continental U.S. to conduct the first wide-area LF propagation study. To perform this study, we plan to crowdsource the collection of the data by engaging student groups, citizens, and the scientific community. The tools for the different collection stations will consist of a simple homemade antenna, a simple receiver to convert the radio frequency (RF) signals to audio frequencies and a smart phone app. By using the time, date and location features of the smart phone, the problems experienced in the Scientific American experiment will be minimized. By crowdsourcing the observation sites, a number of different short, medium and long-paths studies can be obtained as the total eclipse crosses the continental U.S. The transmitter for this experiment will be WWVB located near Fort Collins, Colorado on 60.000 kHz. This is a U.S. frequency standard that is operated by NIST and transmits time codes. A second frequency, 55.500 kHz transmitted by a LF station in Dixon, CA is also being considered for this experiment. We will present an overall strategy for recruiting participants/crowdsourcing the RF collections during the 2017 total solar eclipse. Preliminary coverage calculations will be presented for WWVB and Dixon, as well as path loss calculations that can be expected during the solar eclipse condition. We will also

  15. Culture Methodology for Experimental Investigations Involving Rooted Submersed Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    stolons or runners are best planted as intact plants (Sculthorpe 1967). Many species can be propagated from seed in addition to the above methods...J. 1984. Growth response of Myriophyllwm spicatu and Hydrilla verticillata when exposed to continuous, low concentrations of fluridone . Tech. Rept. A...aquatic plants, water, and bottom sediments. Weed Sci. 20:482-486. Sastroutomo, S. S. 1980. Dormancy and germination in axillary turions of iijiilZla

  16. Akkumulation von L-Malat und D-Lactat in Arabidopsis thaliana und Laccase/HBT-vermittelte Delignifizierung von Spartina alterniflora und Phragmites australis

    OpenAIRE

    Heil, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The current work contains two projects "Accumulation of L-malate and D-lactate in Arabidopsis thaliana" (A) "Laccase/HBT mediated delignification of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis" (B). In project A, L-malate and D-lactate accumulated in A. thaliana plants. The accumulation of L-malate is carried out by modification of the plant metabolism with the enzymes PEPC, MDH and the tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter (TDT). Gene pepci2 (Hydrilla verticillata), mdh5 (Zea mays) and tdt ...

  17. Determination of deep-level impurities and their effects on the small-single and LF noise properties of ion-implanted GaAs MESFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, S.; Kim, B.; Ghosh, P.K.; Das, M.B.; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park

    1982-01-01

    A large number of deep levels, with energies ranging from Esub(c)-0.19eV to Esub(c)-0.9eV, have been identified and characterized using ion-implanted MESFET's on undoped and Cr-doped LEC-grown semi-insulating GaAs substrates. Measurement techniques used include deep level transient (DLTS) and steady state spectroscopic (DLSS) methods. Large capture cross-section values are obtained for levels below Esub(c)-0.5eV, possibly due to high electric field. Spectral densities of LF noise with distinct bulges have been shown to be related to deep levels. In some samples, natural deep level related oscillations have been observed and their ionization energies have been determined. (author)

  18. Ionospheric turbulence from ground-based and satellite VLF/LF transmitter signal observations for the Simushir earthquake (November 15, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Francesco Biagi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Signals from very low frequency (VLF/ low frequency (LF transmitters recorded on the ground station at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and on board the French DEMETER satellite were analyzed for the Simushir earthquake (M 8.3; November 15, 2006. The period of analysis was from October 1, 2006, to January 31, 2007. The ground and satellite data were processed by a method based on the difference between the real signal at night-time and the model signal. The model for the ground observations was the monthly averaged signal amplitudes and phases, as calculated for the quiet days of every month. For the satellite data, a two-dimensional model of the signal distribution over the selected area was constructed. Preseismic effects were found several days before the earthquake, in both the ground and satellite observations.

     

  19. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity of human lactoferricin derived antitumor peptide R-DIM-P-LF11-334 on human malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Sabrina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Meditz, Katharina; Preishuber-Pflügl, Julia; Grissenberger, Sarah; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2017-09-22

    Di-peptides derived from the human host defense peptide lactoferricin were previously described to specifically interact with the negatively charged lipid phosphatidylserine exposed by cancer cells. In this study one further derivative, namely R-DIM-P-LF11-334 is shown to exhibit even increased cancer toxicity in vitro and in vivo while non-neoplastic cells are not harmed. In liposomal model systems composed of phosphatidylserine mimicking cancerous and phosphatidylcholine mimicking non-cancerous membranes the specific interaction with the cancer marker PS was confirmed by specific induction of membrane perturbation and permeabilization in presence of the peptide. In vitro studies with cell lines of human malignant melanoma, such as A375, or primary cells of human melanoma metastases to the brain, as MUG Mel1, and non-neoplastic human dermal fibroblasts NHDF revealed high cytotoxic effect of R-DIM-P-LF11-334 on melanoma cells of A375 and MUG Mel1, whereas only minor effect on the dermal fibroblasts NHDF was observed, yielding an about 20-fold killing-specificity for A375 and MUG-Mel1. The LC 50 values for melanoma A375 and MUG Mel1 were about 10 μM. Analysis of secondary structure of the peptide revealed an increase in the proportion of β-sheets exclusively in presence of the cancer mimic. Stability studies further indicated a potential adequate stability in blood or under stringent conditions. Importantly the cytotoxic effect on cancer cells was also proven in vivo in mouse xenografts of human melanoma, where peptide treatment induced strong tumor regression and in average a tumor area reduction of 85% compared to tumors of control mice without peptide treatment.

  20. Can Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 in a slow-release vaginal product be useful for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis?: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murina, Filippo; Graziottin, Alessandra; Vicariotto, Franco; De Seta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the association of 2 specific strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 (DSM 19187) and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 (DSM 21717), specifically formulated in slow-release effervescent tablets, in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. The study was a clinical trial of 58 women diagnosed with recurrent VVC (≥4 culture-confirmed episodes in a 12-mo period). All patients were given 200 mg of fluconazole orally as an induction dose for 3 alternate days during the first treatment week. Afterward, the patients were given a new product formulated in slow-release vaginal tablets containing at least 0.4 billion live cells of each of lactobacillus L. fermentum LF10 and L. acidophilus LA02 (first phase of the prophylactic period), on alternate days for 10 consecutive nights. Patients who were still free of symptoms were given 1 vaginal tablet every week for the next 10 weeks (second phase of the prophylactic period). Patients asymptomatic after the total duration of the observation phase (7 mo) were considered as responders. During the second 10-week prophylactic phase, 49 of 57 (86.0%) patients remained free of clinical recurrence, whereas symptomatic VVC occurred in 8 patients (14.0%). During the 7-month follow-up, 42 patients of 49 (85.7%) were symptom free at the end of the protocol, whereas clinical recurrences occurred in 7 women (14.3%). Overall, 42 of 58 women enrolled in the study (72.4%) experienced no clinical recurrence throughout the 7-month observation phase (responders). This study strengthens the evidence supporting the use of specific lactobacilli with well-demonstrated activities associated with the creation and maintenance of a vaginal biofilm that hinders the persistence of an infection caused by Candida.

  1. Peptide drug stability: The anti-inflammatory drugs Pep19-2.5 and Pep19-4LF in cream formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Nicole; Heinbockel, Lena; Correa, Wilmar; Gutsmann, Thomas; Goldmann, Torsten; Englisch, Uwe; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2018-03-30

    In previous years, we developed anti-infective drugs based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have been shown to effectively block severe infections and inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Besides systemic application, the occurrence of severe local infections necessitates a topical application for example in the case of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Recent investigations show that the synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptide (SALP) Pep19-2.5 (Aspidasept® I) and a variant called Pep19-4LF (Aspidasept® II) are able to supress inflammation reactions also in keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells from the skin. For topical application, a possible formulation represents the drug dispersed into a pharmaceutical cream (DAC base cream). Here, we present investigations on the stability of the peptides using this formulation in dependence on time, which includes the evaluation of the extraction procedure, the quantitative analysis of the peptides after extraction, its sensitivity to protease degradation and its ability to maintain activity against LPS-induced inflammation in vitro. We have developed an extraction procedure for the peptides with an optimum yield and showed that Pep19-2.5 is present as a dimer after extraction from the cream, whereas Pep19-4LF retains its monomeric form. Both peptides show no degradation by chymotrypsin after extraction for at least 1 h, which is indicative for an attachment of constituents of the base cream, inhibiting the cutting into peptidic part structures. The extracted peptides and in particular the dimeric Pep19-2.5 are still able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation reaction in human mononuclear cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Technological, rheological and sensory characterizations of a yogurt containing an exopolysaccharide extract from Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2, a new food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Elisa C; Perezlindo, Marcos J; Pavón, Yanina; Peralta, Guillermo H; Costa, Silvia; Sabbag, Nora; Bergamini, Carina; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Binetti, Ana G

    2016-12-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum Lf2, an autochthonous strain isolated as a non starter culture in Cremoso cheese, produces high EPS levels (~1g/L) in optimized conditions (SDM broth, pH6.0, 30°C, 72h). Technological (texture profile and rheological analysis) and sensory properties of non-fat yogurts with 300 and 600mg EPS/L were studied at 3 and 25days after manufacture. Yogurts with different EPS concentrations showed higher hardness values than the control group at both periods of time, being the only significant difference that remained stable during time. The consistency index was also higher for the treated samples at both times evaluated, being significantly different for samples with 300mg/L of EPS extract, while the flow behavior index was lower for EPS-added yogurts. The thixotropic index was lower (Psensory analysis, those yogurts with 600mg/L of EPS extract presented the highest values of consistency at 3days of storage. No considerable differences for defects (milk powder, acid, bitter and cooked milk flavors) were perceived between treated and control samples at both times evaluated. Syneresis was also studied and samples with 600mg/L of EPS extract presented the lowest syneresis values at 25days of storage, which considerably decreased with the time of storage. In conclusion, the EPS from L. fermentum Lf2, used as an additive, provided yogurt with creamy consistency and increased hardness, without the presence of unwanted defects and improving the water holding capacity of the product. All the analysis done showed the potential of this extract to be used as a technofunctional natural ingredient, and it should be considered its positive impact on health, according to previous studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

    2015-01-01

    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.

  4. Evaluation of butachlor for control of some submerged macrophytes along with its impact on biotic components of freshwater system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chattopadhyay, S. Adhikari, S. P. Adhikary, S. Ayyappan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the efficacy of the herbicide butachlor, (N-butoxymethyl-2 chloro-21, 61 diethyl acetanilide was tested against few common submerged macrophytes namely Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L. Royale, Najas (Najas minor All., Nechamandra (Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. Thwaites and Ottelia (Ottelia alismoides (L. Pers. of freshwater fish ponds. Almost complete decay of Hydrilla, Nechamandra and Ottelia was achieved at 7.5 L of active ingredient/ha/m butachlor within 15 days while the herbicide showed no negative effect on Najas. However at the same concentration of butachlor, total mortality of zooplankton and water fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana Lamarck occurred within seven days. In case of few freshwater fish species like Rohu (Labeo rohita, Channa (Channa punctatus, Anabas (Anabas testitudineus and Heteropneustes (Heteropneustes fossilis, total mortality occurred upto 90 days after application of the same dose of butachlor but fish survived beyond 120 days of herbicide application indicating degradation of the herbicides.

  5. Levantamento fitogeográfico de Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-papilionoideae com potencial produtivo para própolis vermelha no Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leão Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, de distribuição pantropical, compreende cerca de 250 espécies.  Dalbergia spp tem sido amplamente explorada para produção de própolis vermelha, que consiste em uma mistura complexa feita pelas abelhas a partir do material resinoso encontrado no tecido meristemático em várias plantas deste gênero. Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar levantamento da ocorrência da flora apícola produtora de exsudato vermelho que pode ser utilizada pelas abelhas africanizadas para produção da própolis vermelha no estado do Pará. Realizou-se o levantamento em diversos herbários que possuíam espécies de Dalbergia L.f. produtoras de exsudato vermelho no estado do Pará, juntamente com a sua distribuição. Para tanto, foram averiguadas literaturas específicas de morfologia e taxonomia que envolviam espécies de Dalbergia produtoras de exsudato vermelho localizadas no Pará. A coleta de dados foi obtida a partir da plataforma online SpeciesLink; e do acervo do Herbário IAN (Instituto Agronômico do Norte da EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental. O mapa de distribuição foi elaborado utilizando o software QGis juntamente com os dados de coleta das espécies. Foram encontrados 204 registros depositados em 21 herbários, sendo que, 175 são pertencentes à espécie Dalbergia monetaria e 29 à Dalbergia ecastaphyllum. Analisando os dados de coleta, notou-se que as espécies foram coletadas em 44 municípios do Estado do Pará, dos quais Belém e Bragança apresentaram maior quantidade de registros. A partir do levantamento realizado notou-se a predominância de Dalbergia monetaria nos registros, mostrando que esta é uma espécie que possui potencial para ser explorada. 

  6. Recent oceanic long-distance dispersal and divergence in the amphi-Atlantic rain forest genus Renealmia L.f. (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkinen, Tiina E; Newman, Mark F; Maas, Paul J M; Maas, Hiltje; Poulsen, Axel D; Harris, David J; Richardson, James E; Clark, Alexandra; Hollingsworth, Michelle; Pennington, R Toby

    2007-09-01

    Renealmia L.f. (Zingiberaceae) is one of the few tropical plant genera with numerous species in both Africa and South America but not in Asia. Based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast trnL-F DNA, Renealmia is shown to be monophyletic with high branch support. Low sequence divergence found in the two genome regions (ITS: 0-2.4%; trnL-F: 0-1.9%) suggests recent diversification within the genus. Molecular divergence age estimates give further support to the recent origin of the genus and show that Renealmia has attained its amphi-Atlantic distribution by an oceanic long-distance dispersal event from Africa to South America during the Miocene or Pliocene (15.8-2.7 My ago). Some support is found for the hypothesis that speciation in neotropical Renealmia was influenced by the Andean orogeny. Speciation has been approximately simultaneous on both sides of the Atlantic, but increased taxon sampling is required to compare the speciation rates between the New World and Old World tropics.

  7. De Novo Assembly and Genome Analyses of the Marine-Derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis Strain LF580 Unravels Life-Style Traits and Anticancerous Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Henrissat, Bernard; Arvas, Mikko; Syed, Muhammad Fahad; Thieme, Nils; Benz, J Philipp; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Record, Eric; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kempken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The marine-derived Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strain LF580 produces scopularides A and B, which have anticancerous properties. We carried out genome sequencing using three next-generation DNA sequencing methods. De novo hybrid assembly yielded 621 scaffolds with a total size of 32.2 Mb and 16298 putative gene models. We identified a large non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (nrps1) and supporting pks2 gene in the same biosynthetic gene cluster. This cluster and the genes within the cluster are functionally active as confirmed by RNA-Seq. Characterization of carbohydrate-active enzymes and major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type transporters lead to postulate S. brevicaulis originated from a soil fungus, which came into contact with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium. This marine sponge seems to provide shelter to this fungus and micro-environment suitable for its survival in the ocean. This study also builds the platform for further investigations of the role of life-style and secondary metabolites from S. brevicaulis.

  8. Development of a total hydrocarbon ordinal job-exposure matrix for workers responding to the Deepwater Horizon disaster: The GuLF STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia A; Stenzel, Mark R; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto; Huynh, Tran B; Groth, Caroline P; Kwok, Richard K; Blair, Aaron; Engel, Lawrence S; Sandler, Dale P

    2018-05-01

    The GuLF STUDY is a cohort study investigating the health of workers who responded to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The objective of this effort was to develop an ordinal job-exposure matrix (JEM) of airborne total hydrocarbons (THC), dispersants, and particulates to estimate study participants' exposures. Information was collected on participants' spill-related tasks. A JEM of exposure groups (EGs) was developed from tasks and THC air measurements taken during and after the spill using relevant exposure determinants. THC arithmetic means were developed for the EGs, assigned ordinal values, and linked to the participants using determinants from the questionnaire. Different approaches were taken for combining exposures across EGs. EGs for dispersants and particulates were based on questionnaire responses. Considerable differences in THC exposure levels were found among EGs. Based on the maximum THC level participants experienced across any job held, ∼14% of the subjects were identified in the highest exposure category. Approximately 10% of the cohort was exposed to dispersants or particulates. Considerable exposure differences were found across the various EGs, facilitating investigation of exposure-response relationships. The JEM is flexible to allow for different assumptions about several possibly relevant exposure metrics.

  9. Status of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. and Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher in Gujarat State, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. PATEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. in natural ponds of Harni, Savali and Tuwa (India is known since 1956 by earlier workers. Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher was also reported in 1962 growing as wild at Savali. Available literature indicates that I. coromandeliana falls under the category of ‘near threatened’ in Asian continents and as an ‘endangered species’ at national (India level. In the current field work study, the authors could not locate the investigated species from the locations earlier documented by researchers. Few saplings of I. coromandeliana were observed at Talod and Vaktapur near Gandhinagar, a new location for the species. In contrast, E. debile appeared to be lost in wild from Gujarat. Their extinction from earlier reported locations is associated with anthropogenic pressure and thus legal action for their protection is needed. The present paper suggests further survey and habitat based studies and recommends conservation and management action plans based upon the ecology of the habitat.

  10. Evaluation of the Toxic Effect from Eupatorium Microphyllum L.F. (Asteraceae Extracts on Aedes Aegypti Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rozo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the toxic activity ofextracts of Eupatorium microphyllum L.F. wasevaluated on 4th instar larvae of the mosquitoAedes aegypti (Linneaus, under laboratoryconditions. Aqueous extracts were utilized inconcentrations of 500 mg L-1, 1,500 mg L-1 and2,500 mg L-1 and acetone in concentrations of10 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 30 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1and50 mg L-1. The bioassays were carried out fortriplicate each one with 20 larvae, exposedfor 24 hours to 150 mL of solution. In all thebioassays were employed control groups. Inthe evaluation of the acetone extracts, a negativecontrol was employed to avoid that themortality of the larvae to occur on account ofthe solvent. The Aqueous extracts showed lowmoderate action in the mortality of larvae, lessthan 20%. On the contrary, the action of theacetone extracts was observed to 10 and 20 mgL-1with 15% of mortality, while to 30 and 40mg L-1 were registered 22 to 38% of mortality.However, to 50 mg L-1 the mortality wasof 95.4% with highly significant statisticalresults. The concentrations of the acetone extractsshowed to be the most efficient for thecontrol of the mosquitoes selected. Both typesof extracts showed toxic effect in larvae of A.aegypti, nevertheless, greater effect in theacetone extracts was observed relating to theaqueous extracts of E. microphyllum, whichconstitutes a viable alternative in the search ofnew larvicides from composed natural.

  11. Efeito do volume de tubetes e tipo de substratos na qualidade de mudas de Cryptomeria japonica (L.F. D. Don.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constâncio Bernardo dos Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A Cryptomeria japonica (L.F. D. Don. é uma espécie de grande potencial para plantios nas regiões altas e frias do Brasil. Destaca-se pelo seu rápido crescimento, boa adaptação ao clima e solo do sul do País, e boa resposta às tecnologias silviculturais, associada à qualidade e diversidade de utilização de sua matéria-prima para fábricas de celulose e papel, chapas, construções de casas, móveis, barcos e navios, entre outras. Neste trabalho, buscou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento das mudas produzidas em diferentes tipos de tubetes e de substratos. Usou-se um experimento bifatorial no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos em cinco repetições com quarenta mudas por tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que, para a produção de mudas desta espécie, o substrato de solo + vermiculita foi o que apresentou melhor crescimento das plantas, em recipiente de 120 cm3.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the international consultation incontinence questionnaire male lower urinary tract symptoms-long form (ICIQ-MLUTS-LF) in Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Mazdak, Hamid

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate male lower urinary tract symptoms long form (MLUTS-LF) questionnaire and determine its psychometric properties in Persian speaking subjects. Assessment instrument is essential for research, making diagnosis, and for evaluating the treatment outcomes in subjects with lower urinary tract disorders of either gender. Long form of MLUTS questionnaire is a robust self-report questionnaire that investigates the major aspects of lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life. After getting permission from the International Consultation International Questionnaire website, the forward and backward translation MLUTS carried out by researcher team and assess content/face/construct validity, reliability in sample of MLUTS Iranian patients and, quality rating and pilot testing. The irritating and obstructing lower urinary disorders were categorized as mild, moderate, and severe in the study sample. Twenty two subjects were suffering from urinary incontinence and most of the participants had benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.819. Correlations between the MLUTS and International prostate symptom score (IPSS) was 0.753. The MLUTS Questionnaire showed good internal consistency, content validity, and construct validity, as measured by correlation with scores on the IPSS. The Iranian version of the MLUTS questionnaire is a valid and robust instrument that can be used in clinical settings and in research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lateral Flow Urine Lipoarabinomannan Assay (LF-LAM) for Diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults: a Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na Songkhla, Munjit; Tantipong, Hutsaya; Tongsai, Sasima; Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Early diagnosis and treatment of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-positive patients is challenging. Tests based on the detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine have emerged as potential point-of-care tests for TB. However, limited data exists on their performance among HIV-TB co-infected patients from Southeast Asian countries. Methods We prospectively recruited HIV-positive adult patients with CD4 count less than or equal to 200/mm3 and symptoms suspected of active TB from two tertiary hospitals between December 2015 and March 2017. Freshly collected urine was applied to the Determine®-TB LAM Ag test strip (4 bands of graded intensity), using grade 1 cutoff. Diagnostic accuracy of urine LAM strip test were assessed against microbiological reference standard, defined as positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured from one or more clinical specimens (definite TB) or composite reference standard including definite TB and probable TB, defined as those have symptoms consistent with TB and response to anti-TB treatment. Results A total of 280 patients were enrolled. Of whom, 72 (25.7%) and 65 (23.2%) had definite and probable TB. Amongst those with definite TB, LF-LAM test gave a sensitivity of 75.0% (95% CI 63.9–83.6), specificity of 86.0% (95% CI 79.4–90.8) and accuracy of 82.3% (95% CI 76.7–86.8). When compared with the composite reference standard, the test yielded a lower sensitivity (61.3%, 95% CI 53.0–69.1) and accuracy (73.9%, 95% CI 68.5–78.7), with equal specificity. The test showed the highest sensitivity (90.5%, 95% CI 77.9–96.2) and accuracy (85.9%, 95% CI 79.2–90.7) but lower specificity (84.0%, 95% CI 75.6–89.9) in HIV-infected patients with CD4 count less than 50/mm3. The sensitivity of the combined LF-LAM or sputum microscopy was higher than that of either test alone (86.1% vs. 75.0%, 61.1%, respectively). Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was cultured in 7 out of 20 with false positive

  14. AFM Morphology Study of Si1-Y GeY:H Films Deposited by LF PE CVD from Silane-Germane with Different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, L; Kosarev, A

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of Si 1-Y Ge Y :H films in the range of Y=0.23 to 0.9 has been studied by AFM. The films were deposited by Low Frequency (LF) PE CVD at substrate temperature T s =300 C and discharge frequency f=110 kHz from silane+germane mixture with and without, Ar and H 2 dilution. The films were deposited on silicon and glass substrates. AFM images were taken and analyzed for 2 x 2 mm 2 area. All the images demonstrated ''grain'' like structure, which was characterized by the height distribution function F(H) average roughness , standard height deviation Rq, lateral correlation length L c area distribution function F(s), mean grain area , diameter distribution function F(d), and mean grain diameter . The roughness of the films monotonically increases with Y for all dilutions, but more significantly in the films deposited without dilution. L c continuously grows with Y in the films deposited without dilution, while more complex behavior L c (Y) is observed in the films deposited with H- or Ar dilution. The sharpness of F(H) characterized by curtosis γ depends on dilution and the sharpest F(H) are for the films deposited with Ar (γ=5.30,Y=0.23) and without dilution (γ=4.3, Y=0.45). Isothermal annealing caused increase of , L c in the films deposited with H- and Ar dilutions, while in the films prepared without dilution the behavior was more complex, depending on the substrates. Significant narrowing of the height distribution was observed in the films deposited with H dilution or without dilution

  15. AFM Morphology Study of Si1-Y GeY:H Films Deposited by LF PE CVD from Silane-Germane with Different

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, L; Kosarev, A

    2005-03-28

    The morphology of Si{sub 1-Y} Ge{sub Y}:H films in the range of Y=0.23 to 0.9 has been studied by AFM. The films were deposited by Low Frequency (LF) PE CVD at substrate temperature T{sub s}=300 C and discharge frequency f=110 kHz from silane+germane mixture with and without, Ar and H{sub 2} dilution. The films were deposited on silicon and glass substrates. AFM images were taken and analyzed for 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} area. All the images demonstrated ''grain'' like structure, which was characterized by the height distribution function F(H) average roughness , standard height deviation Rq, lateral correlation length L{sub c} area distribution function F(s), mean grain area , diameter distribution function F(d), and mean grain diameter . The roughness of the films monotonically increases with Y for all dilutions, but more significantly in the films deposited without dilution. L{sub c} continuously grows with Y in the films deposited without dilution, while more complex behavior L{sub c}(Y) is observed in the films deposited with H- or Ar dilution. The sharpness of F(H) characterized by curtosis {gamma} depends on dilution and the sharpest F(H) are for the films deposited with Ar ({gamma}=5.30,Y=0.23) and without dilution ({gamma}=4.3, Y=0.45). Isothermal annealing caused increase of , L{sub c} in the films deposited with H- and Ar dilutions, while in the films prepared without dilution the behavior was more complex, depending on the substrates. Significant narrowing of the height distribution was observed in the films deposited with H dilution or without dilution.

  16. Tolerance mechanisms in mercury-exposed Chromolaena odorata (l.f. R.M. King et H. Robinson, a potential phytoremediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J P Alcantara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromolaena odorata (L.f. R.M. King et H. Robinson plants were grown in Hoagland’s solutions with 0.00 ppm and 1.00 ppm Hg(NO32. The calcium, magnesium, iron, and sulfur levels in the leaves were found to be not significantly affected by presence of the uptaken Hg2+. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents of its leaves also remained within normal levels, which may indicate that the photosynthetic machinery of the Hg-exposed C. odorata was unaffected by the presence of Hg2+. The results of the ICP-AES analyses of the Hg2+ contents established the presence of Hg2+ in all the subcellular components obtained from the leaves of the Hg-treated C. odorata plants, and that the ultimate localization of Hg2+ is in the vacuoles. The findings revealed no significant differences in the degree of oxidative injury between the cells from the control and Hg-treated plants, as evidenced by the low lipid peroxidation levels obtained with the TBARS assay. The SH-containing biomolecules that were initially detected through DTNB assay manifested a predominant peak in the RP-HPLC chromatographs of both the control and Hg-treated plants, with their retention times falling within the ranges of GSH, MT, and cysteine standards. However, the concentrations of the GSH- and/or MT-like, Cys-containing biomolecules detected in the leaves of Hg-treated C. odorata plants were ten times higher than those of the control.The findings of this study suggest that the enhanced antioxidative capacity, the production of Hg-binding biomolecules, and the localization of Hg2+ ions ultimately in the vacuoles of the leaves are the mechanisms which bring about Hg2+ tolerance and homeostasis in C. odorata plant. These results indicate that C. odorata is a potentially effective phytoremediator for Hg2+.

  17. Mating System and Effective Population Size of the Overexploited Neotropical Tree (Myroxylon peruiferum L.f.) and Their Impact on Seedling Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Ellida de Aguiar; Schwarcz, Kaiser Dias; Grando, Carolina; de Campos, Jaqueline Bueno; Sujii, Patricia Sanae; Tambarussi, Evandro Vagner; Macrini, Camila Menezes Trindade; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Brancalion, Pedro Henrique Santin; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada

    2018-03-16

    The reproductive system of a tree species has substantial impact on genetic diversity and structure within and among natural populations. Such information, should be considered when planning tree planting for forest restoration. Here, we describe the mating system and genetic diversity of an overexploited Neotropical tree, Myroxylon peruiferum L.f. (Fabaceae) sampled from a forest remnant (10 seed trees and 200 seeds) and assess whether the effective population size of nursery-grown seedlings (148 seedlings) is sufficient to prevent inbreeding depression in reintroduced populations. Genetic analyses were performed based on 8 microsatellite loci. M. peruiferum presented a mixed mating system with evidence of biparental inbreeding (t^m-t^s = 0.118). We found low levels of genetic diversity for M. peruiferum species (allelic richness: 1.40 to 4.82; expected heterozygosity: 0.29 to 0.52). Based on Ne(v) within progeny, we suggest a sample size of 47 seed trees to achieve an effective population size of 100. The effective population sizes for the nursery-grown seedlings were much smaller Ne = 27.54-34.86) than that recommended for short term Ne ≥ 100) population conservation. Therefore, to obtain a reasonable genetic representation of native tree species and prevent problems associated with inbreeding depression, seedling production for restoration purposes may require a much larger sampling effort than is currently used, a problem that is further complicated by species with a mixed mating system. This study emphasizes the need to integrate species reproductive biology into seedling production programs and connect conservation genetics with ecological restoration.

  18. Tolerance mechanisms in mercury-exposed Chromolaena odorata (l.f. R.M. King et H. Robinson, a potential phytoremediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J.P. Alcantara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromolaena odorata (L.f. R.M. King et H. Robinson plants were grown in Hoagland’s solutions with 0.00 ppm and 1.00 ppm Hg(NO32. The calcium, magnesium, iron, and sulfur levels in the leaves were found to be not significantly affected by presence of the uptaken Hg2+. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents of its leaves also remained within normal levels, which may indicate that the photosynthetic machinery of the Hg-exposed C. odorata was unaffected by the presence of Hg2+. The results of the ICP-AES analyses of the Hg2+ contents established the presence of Hg2+ in all the subcellular components obtained from the leaves of the Hg-treated C. odorata plants, and that the ultimate localization of Hg2+ is in the vacuoles. The findings revealed no significant differences in the degree of oxidative injury between the cells from the control and Hg-treated plants, as evidenced by the low lipid peroxidation levels obtained with the TBARS assay. The SH-containing biomolecules that were initially detected through DTNB assay manifested a predominant peak in the RP-HPLC chromatographs of both the control and Hg-treated plants, with their retention times falling within the ranges of GSH, MT, and cysteine standards. However, the concentrations of the GSH- and/or MT-like, Cys-containing biomolecules detected in the leaves of Hg-treated C. odorata plants were ten times higher than those of the control. The findings of this study suggest that the enhanced antioxidative capacity, the production of Hg-binding biomolecules, and the localization of Hg2+ ions ultimately in the vacuoles of the leaves are the mechanisms which bring about Hg2+ tolerance and homeostasis in C. odorata plant. These results indicate that C. odorata is a potentially effective phytoremediator for Hg2+.

  19. Identification and validation of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR reference genes for gene expression analysis in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Esteban; Vasconcelos, Tarcísio Sales; Ramiro, Daniel Alves; De Martin, Valentina de Fátima; Carrer, Helaine

    2014-07-22

    Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is currently the preferred choice of the timber trade for fabrication of woody products due to its extraordinary qualities and is widely grown around the world. Gene expression studies are essential to explore wood formation of vascular plants, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique employed for quantifying gene expression levels. One or more appropriate reference genes are crucial to accurately compare mRNA transcripts through different tissues/organs and experimental conditions. Despite being the focus of some genetic studies, a lack of molecular information has hindered genetic exploration of teak. To date, qRT-PCR reference genes have not been identified and validated for teak. Identification and cloning of nine commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes from teak, including ribosomal protein 60s (rp60s), clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit family (Cac), actin (Act), histone 3 (His3), sand family (Sand), β-Tubulin (Β-Tub), ubiquitin (Ubq), elongation factor 1-α (Ef-1α), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Expression profiles of these genes were evaluated by qRT-PCR in six tissue and organ samples (leaf, flower, seedling, root, stem and branch secondary xylem) of teak. Appropriate gene cloning and sequencing, primer specificity and amplification efficiency was verified for each gene. Their stability as reference genes was validated by NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm and Delta Ct programs. Results obtained from all programs showed that TgUbq and TgEf-1α are the most stable genes to use as qRT-PCR reference genes and TgAct is the most unstable gene in teak. The relative expression of the teak cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (TgCAD) gene in lignified tissues at different ages was assessed by qRT-PCR, using TgUbq and TgEf-1α as internal controls. These analyses exposed a consistent expression pattern with both reference genes. This study proposes a first broad

  20. Research of Ant Colony Migration Strategy in LF Algorithm%LF算法中蚁群移动策略的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛永洁

    2013-01-01

    采用FM、误分类错误率和运行时间作为衡量改进的LF算法的评价指标,对算法中蚁群的不同移动策略进行研究.这些移动策略包括完全随机移动、局部记忆指导下的直接跳转、局部记忆指导下的定向随机靠近、全局记忆指导下的直接跳转、全局记忆指导下定向随机靠近和局部记忆与全局记忆共同指导下的定向随机靠近6种移动策略.针对每种策略,固定算法的其他运行参数,在UCI数据集的Iris数据和Wine数据上运行的结果表明,全局记忆指导下的定向随机靠近策略运行效果最好,而且收敛速度快,并能有效避免局部最优化的问题.%Using the FM,the misclassification error rate and running time as a measure of improved LF algorithm,the colony different mobile strategy algorithm research.These mobile strategy including completely random mobile,jump directly under the guidance of local memory,orientation under the guidance of local memory close to random,jump directly under the guidance of the global memory,global memory,under the guidance of directional random near and local memory and global memory common guiding under the directional random near the six kinds of mobile strategy.For each strategy,the operating parameters of the fixed algorithm,run on the UCI datasets Iris data and Wine data results show that the global memory under the guidance of directional random near the best strategy run effect,and the speed of convergence can effectively avoid local optimization problem.

  1. Utilizing the ultrasensitive Schistosoma up-converting phosphor lateral flow circulating anodic antigen (UCP-LF CAA) assay for sample pooling-strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Hoekstra, Pytsje T; de Dood, Claudia J; van Dam, Govert J

    2017-11-01

    Methodological applications of the high sensitivity genus-specific Schistosoma CAA strip test, allowing detection of single worm active infections (ultimate sensitivity), are discussed for efficient utilization in sample pooling strategies. Besides relevant cost reduction, pooling of samples rather than individual testing can provide valuable data for large scale mapping, surveillance, and monitoring. The laboratory-based CAA strip test utilizes luminescent quantitative up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles and a rapid user-friendly lateral flow (LF) assay format. The test includes a sample preparation step that permits virtually unlimited sample concentration with urine, reaching ultimate sensitivity (single worm detection) at 100% specificity. This facilitates testing large urine pools from many individuals with minimal loss of sensitivity and specificity. The test determines the average CAA level of the individuals in the pool thus indicating overall worm burden and prevalence. When requiring test results at the individual level, smaller pools need to be analysed with the pool-size based on expected prevalence or when unknown, on the average CAA level of a larger group; CAA negative pools do not require individual test results and thus reduce the number of tests. Straightforward pooling strategies indicate that at sub-population level the CAA strip test is an efficient assay for general mapping, identification of hotspots, determination of stratified infection levels, and accurate monitoring of mass drug administrations (MDA). At the individual level, the number of tests can be reduced i.e. in low endemic settings as the pool size can be increased as opposed to prevalence decrease. At the sub-population level, average CAA concentrations determined in urine pools can be an appropriate measure indicating worm burden. Pooling strategies allowing this type of large scale testing are feasible with the various CAA strip test formats and do not affect

  2. Evaluación del efecto tóxico de extractos de Eupatorium microphyllum L.F. (Asteraceae) sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) en condiciones de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Felio J.; Rozo, Álvaro; Zapata, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad tóxica de extractos de Eupatorium microphyllum L.F. sobre larvas de IV estadio del mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linneaus), bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Se utilizaron extractos acuosos en concentraciones del 500 mg L-1, 1.500 mg L-1 y 2.500 mg L-1 y acetónicos en concentraciones de 10 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 30 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1 y 50 mg L-1. Los bioensayos se realizaron por triplicado, cada uno con 20 larvas, expuestas durante 24 horas a 150 mL de soluci...

  3. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish

  4. lfü Livaneli’nin Mutluluk Romanı Karakterlerinin Toplumsal Cinsiyet Bağlamında İncelenmesi / Analysis of the Fictitious Characters of Zülfü Livaneli’s Novel “Bliss” in Terms of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem HASKAN AVCI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Toplum ve bireylerin hayatında her zaman var olmuş ve var olmaya devam edecek olan edebiyat ve edebi eserler, topluma özgü kültürel öğelerin anlatıldığı, ifade edildiği alanlardır. Bir edebi eser türü olarak romanlar, birçok açıdan toplumun ve o toplumdaki bireylerin özelliklerini yansıtmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye’deki farklı erkeklik ve kadınlık hallerini resmeden Zülfü Livaneli’nin mutluluk romanında yer alan karakterlerin, toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri açısından incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bir nitel araştırma yöntemi olan kültürel analiz kapsamında söylem analizi yapılmıştır. Romanda, amcası tarafından tecavüze uğrayan Meryem’in “töre” anlayışından ötürü öldürülmesinin gerektiği ve yine bu anlayıştan ötürü bu görevin, Meryem’in amcasının oğlu olan Cemal’e uygun görülmesi anlatılmaktadır. Türkiye’de kadına yönelik cinsiyet ayrımcılığını resmeden, kadının namus abidesi ve erkeğin de namus bekçisi haline getirilişini anlatan romanda, toplumsal cinsiyet rollerinin kadın ve erkek üzerinde nasıl baskı oluşturduğu yansıtılmaktadır. Bu çalışma sonucunda, romanın toplumsal cinsiyet konusuyla ilgili, özellikle Türkiye’de kadının konumu ve namus algısı ile ilgili derinlemesine bir kültürel görünüm sunduğu anlaşılmıştır. Çalışma ile Türkiye’de toplumsal cinsiyet ve toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri ele alınarak, başta bu konular ile ilgilenenler olmak üzere sosyal bilimlere ilgi duyanların, edebiyatseverlerin ve en genelde toplumun duyarlılığının artırılması amaçlanmıştır. / Literature and literary, has always been and always will continue to be in the lives of individuals and community and it’s an area for expressing intensively about community specific cultural elements. Novel, in many ways reflects individual’s and society’s characteristics as a literary work. In this study, representative of

  5. Does mechanical disturbance affect the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xu, Ying-Shou; Huang, Lin; Xue, Wei; Sun, Gong-Qi; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2014-05-01

    Submerged macrophyte communities are frequently subjected to disturbance of various frequency and strength. However, there is still little experimental evidence on how mechanical disturbance affects the performance and species composition of such plant communities. In a greenhouse experiment, we constructed wetland communities consisting of five co-occurring clonal submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara fragilis, and Myriophyllum spicatum) and subjected these communities to three mechanical disturbance regimes (no, moderate and strong disturbance). Strong mechanical disturbance greatly decreased overall biomass, number of shoot nodes and total shoot length, and increased species diversity (evenness) of the total community. It also substantially decreased the growth of the most abundant species (H. verticillata), but did not affect growth of the other four species. Our data reveal that strong disturbance can have different effects on different submerged macrophyte species and thus alters the performance and species composition of submerged macrophyte communities.

  6. Factors affecting palatability of four submerged macrophytes for grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Long; Ma, Lin; Min, Fenli; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Zhenbin; He, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Grass carp can weaken the growth and reproductive capacity of submerged macrophytes by consuming valuable tissues, but factors affecting palatability of submerged macrophytes for grass carp rarely are considered. In this study, relative consumption rate of grass carp with regard to submerged macrophytes was in the following order: Hydrilla verticillata > Vallisneria natans > Ceratophyllum demersum > Myriophyllum spicatum. Firmness of macrophytes was in the following order: M. spicatum > C. demersum > H. verticillata = V. natans, whereas shear force was M. spicatum > C. demersum > H. verticillata > V. natans. After crude extracts of M. spicatum were combined with H. verticillata, grass carp fed on fewer macrophyte pellets that contained more plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). This indicated that structure and PSMs affected palatability of macrophytes.PSMs do not contribute to reduction in palatability through inhibition of intestinal proteinases activity, but they can cause a decrease in the abundance of Exiguobacterium, Acinetobacter-yielding proteases, lipases, and cellulose activity, which in turn can weaken the metabolic capacity of grass carp and adversely affect their growth. Thus, the disadvantages to the growth and development of grass carp caused by PSMs may drive grass carp to feed on palatable submerged macrophytes with lower PSMs.

  7. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    were identified to genus and species when possible. Those that did not sporulate were placed in categories of moniliaceous (hyaline hyphae ) or...dematiaceous (dark hyphae ) Ascomycetes. Each isolate was also transferred to a one-half strength corn meal agar (Difco Inc., Detroit, Michigan) slant

  8. VARIAÇÃO BIOMÉTRICA DE DIÁSPOROS DE BURITI (Mauritia flexuosa L.f. – ARECACEAE EM VEREDAS EM DIFERENTES ESTÁGIOS DE CONSERVAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano dos Santos Matos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Veredas’ (palm swamps are phytophysiognomies of the ‘Cerrado’ biome, where the palm tree Mauritia flexuosa Lf. - buriti predominates on the tree layer; this species is considered the key resource for many animals, that use it as shelter and source of food, and also by the man who uses their leaves and fruits as raw material and food. Although, they occur in environments protected by the environmental legislation, human actions have affected the populations of ‘buritis’, by means of the decrease of individuals caused by deforestation, siltation and drainage of these areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphometric parameters of fruits and seeds of Mauritia flexuosa from six different ‘veredas’ at different conservation stages, located in the Environmental Protection Area of ‘Pandeiros’ River (north of Minas Gerais state. In total, 1,800 fruits and seeds were sampled, they were measured in length, width and thickness and, after that, they were weighed. To detect differences in morphometric measurements of fruits and seeds among the sampling areas, the analysis of variance was done. There were differences in morphometric measurements between the studied areas, in which 87.5% of the highest averages occurred in areas with the slightest anthropic interventions. This fact is possibly related to the impacts occurred, besides the genetic variations that may fall upon the individuals.

  9. Comparative analysis of seed rain of Gaiadendron punctatum (Ruiz and Pavon) G. Don (loranthaceae) and Ternstroemia meridionalis mutis ex l.f. (theaceae) at natural municipal park Rancheria (Boyaca), Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parada Quintero, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Gaiadendron punctatum (Ruiz and Pavon) G. Don and Ternstroemia meridionalis mutis ex l.f. are ornithochorous species of the high Andean forest; the first is abundant at natural municipal park Rancheria and the second rare at local level. The seed rain and fruiting phenology of G. punctatum and T. meridionalis were evaluated. Records were kept between March and December of 2010. This period included dry and wet seasons. Eight traps with a recollection surface of 1 m 2 were installed. Fruiting of G. punctatum and T. meridionalis was continued with a high percentage of unripe fruits. The higher fruiting was shown in the wet season. Both species presented seed rain during all the study. G. punctatum had higher seed rain with an average of 169/m 2 ; while t. meridionalis only 50 seeds/m 2 . Most abundance of G. punctatums seeds was recorded in the dry season, while for T. meridionalis in wet season. In spite of low seed rain for T. meridionalis it showed a high percentage of viable seeds. G. punctatum presented more propagules that could explain the high number of individuals by area. Although the number of seeds of T. meridionalis is not very high, it represents a potential for prevalence of this specie and the need of looking for factors that to block the persistence of this propagules.

  10. Effectiveness of the two microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 and Lactobacillus plantarum LP01, formulated in slow-release vaginal tablets, in women affected by bacterial vaginosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicariotto, Franco; Mogna, Luca; Del Piano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common reason for abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive-age women and one of its most important causative agents is the gram-variable bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. BV is not accompanied by significant local inflammation, whereas the "fishy odor" test is always positive. In contrast, aerobic vaginitis (AV) is predominantly associated with Escherichia coli, but Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus are also involved. Standard treatment of BV consists of oral or intravaginal antibiotics, although these are unable to spontaneously restore normal flora characterized by a high concentration of lactobacilli. The main limitation is the inability to offer a long-term defensive barrier, thus facilitating relapses and recurrences. This study was undertaken firstly to assess the ability of selected lactobacilli to in vitro antagonize G. vaginalis to determine an association with a strain able to inhibit E. coli, thus identifying a possible use in AV. The second step of the study was to conduct a human pilot trial in women affected by BV using an association of the most promising and active bacteria. For this purpose, neutralized supernatants of individual lactobacilli were tested at percentages ranging from 0.5% to 4% to determine their ability to hinder the growth of G. vaginalis American Type Culture Collection 10231. The bacterium that was able to exert the strongest inhibition was subsequently tested with Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 in a human intervention, placebo-controlled, pilot trial involving 34 female subjects (aged between 18 and 50, mean 34.7±8.9, no menopausal women) diagnosed with BV. The 2 microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 (DSM 26955) and L. plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) were delivered to the vagina by means of slow-release vaginal tablets, also containing 50 mg of tara gum. The amount of each strain was 400 million live cells per dose. The women were instructed to apply a vaginal tablet once

  11. Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has small flowers (aromatic) that are arranged in raceme and .... The fragmentation pattern spectra of ... appreciable concentration (7.17±1.04% and .... plants due to their roles in plant's defense ... environmental changes for instance saponins, ..... sugar and increases haematological and reproductive indices male rats. Afri.

  12. Biochar amendment for batch composting of nitrogen rich organic waste: Effect on degradation kinetics, composting physics and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mayur Shirish; Jambhulkar, Rohit; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2018-04-01

    Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of Hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59 °C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process. Owing to addition of 5% biochar as a bulking agent in composting mixture, the final product from composting, total nitrogen increased by 45% compared to the other trials, and air-filled porosity decreased by 39% and was found to be within recommended range from literature studies. Considering temperature, degradation rate and nitrogen transformation the amendment of 5% biochar is recommended for Hydrilla verticillata composting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Micropropagation of Clerodendrum phlomidis L.F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kher Mafatlal M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f. is an important medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, particularly its roots, which are used for various therapeutic purposes in a pulverized form. The objective of this study was to develop a standard protocol for axillary shoot proliferation and rooting of C. phlomidis for its propagation and conservation. Nodal explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium that was supplemented with one of six cytokinins: 6-benzyladenine, kinetin, thidiazuron, N6-(2-isopentenyl adenine (2iP, trans-zeatin (Zea and meta-topolin. Callus induction, which was prolific at all concentrations, formed at the base of nodal explants and hindered shoot multiplication and elongation. To avoid or reduce callus formation with the objective of increasing shoot formation, the same six cytokinins were combined with 4 μM 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA alone or in combination with 270 μM adenine sulphate (AdS. Nodal explants that were cultured on the medium supplemented with 9.12 μM Zea, 4 μM TIBA and 270 μM AdS produced significantly more and longer shoots than on medium without TIBA and AdS. Half-strength MS medium supplemented with 8.05 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid was the best medium for root formation. Most (75% in vitro rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized under natural conditions.

  14. l!f!',!!'1C' .Em

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paper is biassed towards man and the other large mammals, and towards research ... formation about the change is generated. ... some control elements to generate control actions. The .... do so, although the energy costs of flying as a form of.

  15. VARIAÇÃO BIOMÉTRICA DE DIÁSPOROS DE BURITI (Mauritia flexuosa L.f. – ARECACEAE EM VEREDAS EM DIFERENTES ESTÁGIOS DE CONSERVAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano dos Santos Matos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As veredas são fitofisionomias do bioma Cerrado, onde, no estrato arbóreo, predomina a palmeira arbórea Mauritia flexuosa L.f. - buriti, espécie considerada recurso-chave para muitos animais, que a utilizam como moradia e fonte alimentar, e também pelo próprio homem, que usa suas folhas e frutos como matéria-prima e alimento. Apesar de ocorrerem em ambientes protegidos pela legislação ambiental, ações antrópicas nas veredas têm afetado as populações do buriti, por meio da diminuição do número de indivíduos ocasionada por desmatamento, assoreamento e drenagem dessas áreas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a morfometria de frutos e sementes de buriti oriundos de seis veredas em diferentes estágios de conservação, situadas na Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Pandeiros (norte de Minas Gerais. Foram amostrados, no total, 1800 frutos e sementes, que foram mensurados em comprimento, largura, espessura e peso. Para detectar diferenças das medidas morfométricas dos frutos e das sementes entre as áreas de coleta foi feita a análise de variância. Foram observadas variações nas medidas morfométricas de frutos e sementes entre as áreas de estudo, sendo que 87,5% das maiores médias ocorreram em áreas com menores intervenções antrópicas. Esse fato, possivelmente, está relacionado aos impactos ocorridos nas veredas, além das variações genéticas que podem incidir sobre os indivíduos.

  16. The Representation of Ireland in Bertalan Szemere’s Utazás külföldön or A Journey Abroad A Study of Szemere’s Image-Forming Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintér Márta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study adds to my ongoing research into Irish-Hungarian relations in the nineteenth century. As such it is concerned with Bertalan Szemere’s representation of Ireland in his travelogue Utazás külföldön [A Journey Abroad]. It approaches Szemere’s work from the perspective of the following three questions. How does Szemere’s trip to Ireland fit into the tradition of Irish-Hungarian contacts? What urged Szemere to sail over to Ireland and extend his already long and tiring tour of Europe? And finally, what factors shaped Szemere’s image of Ireland in his travel account? A preliminary study of the conditions of Szemere’s trip and his actual account of the country has led me to the hypothesis that in the process of creating his own representation of Ireland Szemere heavily relied on external sources. I seek to answer these questions by identifying the place of Szemere’s travel account in the tradition of Hungarian-Irish contacts; by relating it to other texts on Ireland by Szemere’s Hungarian contemporaries; and by comparing it to particular reports on Ireland by European travellers. My aim is to prove that Szemere’s representation of Ireland was primarily informed and moulded by German and English sources as they were transferred to Szemere by some Hungarian periodicals. My study also emphasizes the importance of further research into the interaction of Hungarian and European discourse on Ireland in the nineteenth century.

  17. Influencia de la lateralidad dominante de la jugadora en puesto específico de base en el juego de ataque en Liga Femenina 2 [Laterality dominance of female point guard influences in the offensive patterns in LF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Manzano Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La lateralidad de la jugadora con el rol de base puede ser sólo una característica individual, o bien un factor influyente en el juego de su equipo, y por tanto, una herramienta a considerar por  parte del equipo rival. El trabajo de investigación se centra en la necesidad de reflejar si la lateralidad de una jugadora con rol de base en baloncesto, al iniciar la acción de juego (bote o pase influye de manera determinante en la toma de decisiones. El contexto de trabajo utilizado es la segunda categoría de baloncesto femenino nacional, Liga Femenina 2. En la observación han participado varios equipos de dicha categoría, con total de 10 partidos analizados y un total de 170 situaciones de juego analizadas (N=170. Para establecer las relaciones entre las variables se utilizó el Coeficiente de Contingencia. Los resultados muestran una relación estadísticamente significativa de la lateralidad de la base y el lado del campo en el que se empieza a jugar (c2(1, N=170 = 4.789, pPalabras clave: Baloncesto, Lateralidad, Base, Análisis de juego.   AbstractLaterality of the point-guard can be an individual characteristic, or in the other hand, an important factor in the offensive patterns of the team. In this way, it will be a useful information for the other team.  This research has focused in the laterality of the point guard, and it influences in the decision making. The League studied was the second female Spanish basketball league, LF2. 10 matches were observed and 170 game situations analyzed (N=170. Crosstabs Command and the Contingency Coefficient were used to establish the relationship between variables. The results shows a significant relationship between the laterality of the point guard and the side of the field where the attack begin (c2(1, N=170 = 4.789, pKey words:  Basketball, laterality, point guard, game analysis.

  18. [Influence of submerged macrophytes on phosphorus transference between sediment and overlying water in the growth period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Zhi; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Yu, Zhen-Fei; Zhou, Bei-Bei; Chen, Qiu-Min; Li, Zhen-Guo

    2012-02-01

    In order to study the process of phosphorus transfer between sediment and overlying water, Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were cultured in spring, Potamogeton crispus was cultured in winter. Changes of environmental factors and phosphorus concentrations in water and sediment were investigated. The results indicated that: submerged macrophytes could reduce all phosphorus fractions in the overlying water. Phosphorus concentrations in overlying water maintained in a relative low level in the growth period of submerged macrophytes. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 0.03-0.05, 0.04-0.12, 0.02-0.11 mg x L(-1), respectively. All phosphorus fractions in sediment were reduced. The maximum value between submerged macrophyte and control of H. verticillata, V. natans and P. crispus were 35.34, 60.67 and 25.92 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), redox potential (Eh) and pH in overlying water increased (DO 10.0-14.0 mg x L(-1), Eh 185-240 mV, pH 8.0-11.0) in the submerged macrophytes groups. Submerged macrophytes increased Eh( -140 - -23 mV) and maintained pH(7.2-8.0) in neutral range. The results indicated that submerged macrophytes affected phosphorus transferring between sediment and overlying water through increasing DO, Eh and pH in overlying water, and Eh in sediment.

  19. ALTERNATE FOOD-CHAIN TRANSFER OF THE TOXIN LINKED TO AVIAN VACUOLAR MYELINOPATHY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENDANGERED FLORIDA SNAIL KITE (ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Williams, Susan M; Wilde, Susan B

    2016-04-28

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease causing recurrent mortality of Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) and American Coots ( Fulica americana ) at reservoirs and small impoundments in the southern US. Since 1994, AVM is considered the cause of death for over 170 Bald Eagles and thousands of American Coots and other species of wild birds. Previous studies link the disease to an uncharacterized toxin produced by a recently described cyanobacterium, Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov. that grows epiphytically on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The toxin accumulates, likely in the gastrointestinal tract of waterbirds that consume SAV, and birds of prey are exposed when feeding on the moribund waterbirds. Aetokthonos hydrillicola has been identified in all reservoirs where AVM deaths have occurred and was identified growing abundantly on an exotic SAV hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata ) in Lake Tohopekaliga (Toho) in central Florida. Toho supports a breeding population of a federally endangered raptor, the Florida Snail Kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and a dense infestation of an exotic herbivorous aquatic snail, the island applesnail ( Pomacea maculata ), a primary source of food for resident Snail Kites. We investigated the potential for transmission in a new food chain and, in laboratory feeding trials, confirmed that the AVM toxin was present in the hydrilla/A. hydrillicola matrix collected from Toho. Additionally, laboratory birds that were fed apple snails feeding on hydrilla/A. hydrillicola material from a confirmed AVM site displayed clinical signs (3/5), and all five developed brain lesions unique to AVM. This documentation of AVM toxin in central Florida and the demonstration of AVM toxin transfer through invertebrates indicate a significant risk to the already diminished population of endangered Snail Kites.

  20. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  1. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  2. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  3. Bioenergy potential of eight common aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Schaumberg, G.D. (Pondicherry (Central) Univ. (IN). Salim Ali School of Ecology)

    1990-01-01

    Eight common aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphaea stellata, Azolla pinnata, Ceratopteris sp. Scirpus sp. Cyperus sp, and Utricularia reticulata were digested anaerobically to produce methane. The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, carbon to phosphorus (C/P) ratio, and the volatile solids (VS) content of the weeds varied widely. No trend between these factors and the methane yield was discernable; the possible reasons are discussed. The energy potential of the weeds per unit area of the weed crop was worked out. Natural stands of salvinia, such as the one employed in the present investigation, would yield energy (methane) of the order of 10{sup 8} Kcal/ha/yr. (author).

  4. Aquatic weeds: their implications in Indian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.; Anup Kumar, B.; Aruna Jyothi, K.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    The aquatic weed infestation of KAPS cooling water system, MAPS open reservoir, and the growth of filamentous algae and bacteria in the feed water unit of HWP (Kota), was investigated. The aquatic weeds identified were: Ceratophyllum, Elodea, Hydrilla verticillata, Najas and Vallisneria species. However, at HWP (Kota) filamentous alga (Nostoc punchiformis) and bacteria (Sphaerotilus natans) were found in plenty. The metabolic products when assayed in the form of total carbohydrate content released by weeds was 3.7 mg gm -1 biomass. The metabolic products adsorb on to the resin matrix and impaired its performance at HWP (K), enhanced bacterial growth on the resin beads and furthered resin deterioration. Besides, the growth of aquatic weeds also influenced the pH of the cooling water, thereby vitiating the water treatment programme. (author)

  5. Failure to transmit avian vacuolar myelinopathy to mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease that has been diagnosed in free-ranging birds in the southeastern United States. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been affected. Previous investigations have not determined the etiology of this disease. In November and December 2002, we attempted to induce AVM in game-farmed mallards through four, 7-day exposure trials. Mallards were housed in six groups of eight, with two of these groups serving as controls. One group was housed with AVM-affected coots; one group was tube fed daily with water from the lake where affected coots were captured; one group was tube fed daily with aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata) from the same lake; and another group was tube fed daily with sediment from the lake. No ducks exhibited clinical neurologic abnormalities consistent with AVM and no evidence of AVM was present at histopathologic examination of brain tissue. Although limitations in sample size, quantity of individual doses, frequency of dose administration, duration of exposure, and timing of these trials restrict the interpretation of the findings, AVM was not readily transmitted by direct contact, water, hydrilla, or sediment in this investigation.

  6. The distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation and water lettuce in the fresh and oligohaline tidal Potomac River, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah Hunter; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys documenting the composition of species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been conducted in the Potomac River for decades. These surveys can help managers assess the proportion of native and exotic plants in the river or can be used to determine relationships between native and exotic plants, environmental conditions, and wildlife. SAV coverage increased from 2005 to 2007 throughout the fresh and oligohaline study area. The 2007 survey documented here determined that eleven species of SAV were present. The abundance of the exotic species Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) was relatively low, and species diversity was relatively high compared to previous years. The survey also revealed a new population of the invasive, floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce). In 2007, water lettuce, the latest exotic aquatic plant to be found in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River, was most abundant in Mattawoman Creek, Charles County, Maryland. However, it was not observed in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River in the summer of 2008. An understanding of the distribution of SAV species and factors governing the abundance of native and invasive aquatic species is enhanced by long-term surveys.

  7. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants.

  9. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  10. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Li

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm. Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  11. Seleção de modelos polinomiais para representar o perfil e volume do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. Selection of polynomial models to represent the profile and volume of the bole of Tectona grandisL.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A precisão do volume de um povoamento florestal torna-se importante à medida que as empresas florestais integram verticalmente suas atividades e o resíduo da elaboração de um produto torna-se matéria-prima para outros. Os estudos realizados objetivaram avaliar a acurácia dos modelos polinomiais propostos por Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 e Goulding & Murray (1976, na estimativa dos diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. de quatro povoamentos localizados na microrregião do Baixo Rio Acre e, ainda, testar a identidade do melhor modelo polinomial, avaliando-se a adequação de manter as áreas agrupadas ou segregá-las em grupos menores ou individualmente. A base de dados foi constituída de 159 árvores cubadas rigorosamente. Na avaliação da acurácia dos modelos foram empregadas estatísticas de desvio médio, desvio padrão das diferenças, soma dos quadrados dos resíduos relativos e resíduos percentuais. O modelo Goulding & Murray (1976 gerou as melhores estimativas de diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste, seguido pelos modelos Hradetzky (1976 e Schöepfer (1966. O teste de identidade de modelo mostrou ser mais adequado realizar ajustes independentes para as áreas 1 e 4 e para o subgrupo 2 e 3.The precise estimate of the volume of a forest stand become important as forest enterprises integrate vertically their activities and the residue of the manufacture of a product becomes the raw material for the manufacture of other. The accomplished studies aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the polynomial models proposed by Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 and Goulding & Murray (1976 in the estimate of the diameters and volumes along the bole of Tectona grandis L.f from four stands situated in the Baixo Rio Acre micro region and further, to test the identity of the best polynomial model by evaluating the adequacy of maintaining the grouped areas or segregate them into smaller groups or singly. The data base was

  12. Treatment of LF slag to prevent powdering during cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorai S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphic transformation of the monoclinic β-polymorph to the orthorhombic γ-polymorph of di-calcium silicate at around 500°C during cooling results in disintegration of slag. The slag generated, during the production of thermo mechanically treated steel in ladle furnace at M/s Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, India, behaves in similar manner. An attempt has been made to prevent the crumbling of ladle furnace slag. The experiments were conducted in 10 kg air induction furnace. Various types of silica source were used to prevent the disintegration of ladle furnace slag by reducing the basicity and optimizing the additives amount. Apart from silica sources, other additives like borax and barium carbonate were also used to stabilize the β phase. Present investigation reveals that disintegration of ladle furnace slag can be prevented either by addition of 0.2% boarx or 2% barium carbonate. Dust formation can also be prevented by decreasing the ladle furnace slag basicity to about 1.7. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test, of the borax and barium carbonate treated slag samples, indicates that barium carbonate treated slag cannot be used for the dusting prevention as it contains high level of barium.

  13. 尚瑞LF-Si Ivet喇叭线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    这不过是一条名气不大、售价不高的喇叭线,但它的设计理念、用料和最重要的声音特性都值得大家尤其是工薪发烧友的关注。LF—Silver喇叭线采用“同轴分频传输”的专利结构,多股无氧铜线的绝缘材料是特富龙外皮,它们以不同的造型结构来让高、中、低频的传输分道扬镳,减少相互干扰,提高还原的真实性。从做工来说,LF—Silver无可挑剔的,

  14. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.: infiltrant in waterland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Wim J.; Holverda, Wout J.

    1996-01-01

    The appearance of the alien floating pennywort Hydrocotyle ranunculoides as an invasive weed of an urban waterway in Utrecht (the Netherlands) was the reason to do some research on the possible origin and the distribution of the weed. The plant, propagated in aquatic nurseries, probably escaped as a

  15. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.: infiltrant in waterland?

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, Wim J.; Holverda, Wout J.

    1996-01-01

    The appearance of the alien floating pennywort Hydrocotyle ranunculoides as an invasive weed of an urban waterway in Utrecht (the Netherlands) was the reason to do some research on the possible origin and the distribution of the weed. The plant, propagated in aquatic nurseries, probably escaped as a nuisance weed favoured by two successive abnormally hot summers, with little frost in-between. There are indications that the plant may withstand average Dutch winters. During the autumn of 1995 t...

  16. Insel Kos, mit zwölf Erstnachweisen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of jumping spiders were recorded for the first time for the Greek Dodecanese island of Kos. Five of these species (Euophrys rufibarbis, Heliophanus equester, Menemerus taeniatus, Phlegra lineata and Pseudicius badius are considered first records for the entire Dodecanese.

  17. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Moneoecious hydrilla in the Potomac River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    K. Van USDA/ARS 3205 SW College Avenue Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314 Dr. Howard E. Westerdahl * US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station ATTN: WESES-A...PO Box 631 Vicksburg, MS 39180-0631 * Dr. Westerdahl was primarily responsible for the development of this chapter and should be used as a point of...composition of the water system ( Westerdahl 1981). The literature is often contradictory in regard to these effects. Walker (1963) found increases in the

  18. Studies on sustainability of simulated constructed wetland system for treatment of urban waste: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Bankoti, N S; Rai, U N

    2016-03-15

    New system configurations and wide range of treatability make constructed wetland (CW) as an eco-sustainable on-site approach of waste management. Keeping this view into consideration, a novel configured three-stage simulated CW was designed to study its performance efficiency and relative importance of plants and substrate in purification processes. Two species of submerged plant i.e., Potamogeton crispus and Hydrilla verticillata were selected for this study. After 6 months of establishment, operation and maintenance of simulated wetland, enhanced reduction in physicochemical parameters was observed, which was maximum in the planted CW. The percentage removal (%) of the pollutants in three-stage mesocosms was; conductivity (60.42%), TDS (67.27%), TSS (86.10%), BOD (87.81%), NO3-N (81.28%) and PO4-P (83.54%) at 72 h of retention time. Submerged macrophyte used in simulated wetlands showed a significant time dependent accumulation of toxic metals (p ≤ 0.05). P. crispus accumulated the highest Mn (86.36 μg g(-1) dw) in its tissue followed by Cr (54.16 μg g(-1) dw), Pb (31.56 μg g(-1) dw), Zn (28.06 μg g(-1) dw) and Cu (25.76 μg g(-1) dw), respectively. In the case of H. verticillata, it was Zn (45.29), Mn (42.64), Pb (22.62), Cu (18.09) and Cr (16.31 μg g(-1) dw). Thus, results suggest that the application of simulated CW tackles the water pollution problem more efficiently and could be exploited in small community level as alternative and cost effective tools of phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mesohaline submerged aquatic vegetation survey along the U.S. gulf of Mexico coast, 2001 and 2002: A salinity gradient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, J.H.; Carter, J.; Merino, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of marine submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV; i.e., seagrass) in the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been documented, but there are nonmarine submersed or SAV species occurring in estuarine salinities that have not been extensively reported. We sampled 276 SAV beds along the gulf coast in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas in 2001 and 2002 in oligohaline to polyhaline (0 to 36 parts per thousand) waters to determine estuarine SAV species distribution and identify mesohaline SAV communities. A total of 20 SAV and algal species was identified and habitat characteristics such as salinity, water depth, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and sediment composition were collected. Fourteen SAV species occurred two or more times in our samples. The most frequently occurring species was Ruppia maritima L. (n = 148), occurring in over half of SAV beds sampled. Eleocharis sp. (n = 47), characterized with an emergent rather than submerged growth form, was a common genus in the SAV beds sampled. A common marine species was Halodule wrightii Asch. (n = 36). Nonindigenous species Myriophyllum spicatum L. (n = 31) and Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (n = 6) were present only in oligohaline water. Analyzing species occurrence and environmental characteristics using canonical correspondence and two-way indicator species analysis, we identify five species assemblages distinguished primarily by salinity and depth. Our survey increases awareness of nonmarine SAV as a natural resource in the gulf, and provides baseline data for future research. ?? 2009 by the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama.

  20. A comparison of sediment toxicity test methods at three Great Lake Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. Allen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Burnett, LouAnn C.; Henry, Mary; Hinman, Mark L.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Landrum, Peter F.; Ross, Phillipe; Tuchman, Marc

    1996-01-01

    The significance of sediment contamination is often evaluated using sediment toxicity (bioassay) testing. There are relatively few “standardized” test methods for evaluating sediments. Popular sediment toxicity methods examine the extractable water (elutriate), interstitial water, or whole (bulk) sediment phases using test species spanning the aquatic food chain from bacteria to fish. The current study was designed to evaluate which toxicity tests were most useful in evaluations of sediment contamination at three Great Lake Areas of Concern. Responses of 24 different organisms including fish, mayflies, amphipods, midges, cladocerans, rotifers, macrophytes, algae, and bacteria were compared using whole sediment or elutriate toxicity assays. Sediments from several sites in the Buffalo River, Calumet River (Indiana Harbor), and Saginaw River were tested, as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Project. Results indicated several assays to be sensitive to sediment toxicity and able to discriminate between differing levels of toxicity. Many of the assay responses were significantly correlated to other toxicity responses and were similar based on factor analysis. For most applications, a test design consisting of two to three assays should adequately detect sediment toxicity, consisting of various groupings of the following species: Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Hexagenia bilineata, Diporeia sp., Hydrilla verticillata, or Lemna minor.

  1. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and source areas, and (6) determine whether intrinsic biodegradation is occurring at these sites.The water-quality data indicate that intrinsic biodegradation is occurring at all three sites. The strongest indication of intrinsic biodegradation is the detection of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene breakdown products within and down-gradient of the source areas. The patterns of electron acceptors and metabolic by-products indicate that contaminant biodegradation has changed the prevailing geochemistry of the surficial aquifer, creating the strongly reducing conditions necessary for chlorinated solvent bio-degradation. Geochemical changes include depleted dissolved oxygen and elevated ferrous iron and methane levels relative to concentrations in uncontaminated zones of the surficial aquifer. At Fire Training Area Three and the Rubble Area Landfill sites, natural attenuation appears to be adequate for controlling the migration of the contaminant plumes. At the third site, the Liquid Waste Disposal and Receiver Station Landfills, the plume is larger and the uncertainty about the effectiveness of natural attenuation in reducing contaminant concentrations and controlling plume migration is greater. Ground-water data indicate, however, that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels were not exceeded in any point-of-compliance wells located along the Base boundary.The information presented in this report led to the development of improved conceptual models for these sites, and to the recognition of four issues that are currently unclear and may need further study. These issues include delineating the areal and vertical extent of the contaminant plumes in greater detail, determining the extent of intrinsic biodegradation downgradient of the Liquid Waste Disposal and Receiver Station Landfills, deter-mining the fate of contaminants in the ground-water discharge areas, and determining the effect of temporal variability in source concentrations and ground-water

  2. Spectral properties and laser performance of Tm, Ho: LuLF4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haiyan; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Lianhan; Hang, Yin; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Yulong; Cheng, Yan; Xiong, Jing

    2008-12-01

    LuLiF4 single crystals co-doped with thulium (5%) and holmium (0.5%), which had large size, intact shape and high optical quality, were successfully grown by the medium frequency induction heating Czochralski Technique. The absorption spectrum of the crystals showed that the main absorption peak located at 686 nm and 792nm. At room temperature, LuLiF4 single crystals co-doped with thulium (5%) and holmium (0.5%) were end-pumped by a fiber-coupled laser diode system with pumping wavelength of 795 nm. We achieved power of 50 mw continuous laser output at 2.05 μm wavelength.

  3. On the Projective Description of Weighted (LF-Spaces of Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine V. Komarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the problem of the topological or algebraic description of countable inductive limits of weighted Fréchet spaces of continuous functions on a cone. This problem is investigated for two families of weights defined by positively homogeneous functions. Weights of this form play the important role in Fourier analysis.

  4. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f O. kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion and Recommendation: In general the antimicrobial activity of the plant observed here support the tradition therapeutic claim of the society. Further study should be conducted in further evaluating its antimicrobial effectiveness and also purification of the active chemical constituents that could be responsible for its biological activity. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  5. Vitex altissima L.f of verbenaceae is a large tree of dry deciduous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spreading crown and greyish brown scaly bark (tree in the picture is a young specimen). Leaves are compound with three or five leaflets. Flowers are numerous on branched inflorescence, small and white, tinged with blue. Corolla is two-lipped and stamens 4. Fruits are small (0.8 cm) and purplish black when ripe. Timber of ...

  6. Optimization of DNA extraction for ISSR studies in Tectona grandis Lf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... genomic DNA, emphasizing screening of inexpensive, rapid and simple DNA extraction methods (Weishing et al., 1995). Yield and quality of DNA often varies among tree tissue types (Henry, 2001). Besides, purification of genomic DNA in trees is difficult due to co-extraction of high quantities of tannins, ...

  7. Stored Radioactive Material Landfill Site no. 7 (LF-7), Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    11 FIQI’i’Ut OOUC!JIC:C W(HIO ,U:I ICC~OIW. co:wtO artS Alii /IAT!OICAL GUI.:O a.u<:. liASSAOIUS:4’"T:’S W’l-iCO.l RE?I.Y TD ATTN OF1 102 FW/srr9...100 CPM j,DDO CPM /, [)C>D CPM X 1 400 CPM ~DD CPM 4bD CPM X 1 100 CPM /C’O CPM IOO CPM Log Scale 200 CPM i?-DD CPM 9-DO CPM DIGITAL SCALER READOUT

  8. Translocation studies in Loranthus (dendrophthoe falcata (L.F) using labelled 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girija, T.; Suresh Kumar, P.; Francis, Vidhu; Abraham, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope studies with 14 C indicated that 4.07 per cent of the CO 2 fixed by loranthus leaves was translocated to the nearest cocoa leaf by the second day. This revealed that there is movement of prepared nutrients from the parasite to the host. The study also revealed that systemic herbicides cannot be safely recommended for the control of loranthus. (author)

  9. Surface trapping phenomena in thermionic emission generating l/f noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanescu, A.

    1975-01-01

    A general expression of the power spectrum of''flicker noise'', involving stochastic trapping phenomena and calculated on the basis of a two parameter model, is applied in the case of thermoionic emission from cathode surface. The fluctuation of the work function over the cathode surface is interpreted as being due to a trapping process of foreign atoms by the cathode. Taking into account the very physical nature of the trapping mechanism, under self-consistent assumptions, a 1/f power spectrum is obtained in a certain range of frequency. The two parameter model removes some discrepancies involved in the preceding theories. (author)

  10. Ex vivo intestinal adhesion of Escherichia coli LF82 in Crohn’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are reported to inhabit the gut mucosa in Crohn’s disease (CD), however, little is known about the importance of host factors for the interplay between AIEC and the human gut.To examine if differences in bacterial adhesion patterns are disease associated,...

  11. Demonstration of a hybrid Ho:YLF Ho:LuLF slab laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available % at 2 ?m were selected as output couplers. The hybrid stable-unstable resonator configuration utilised a cylindrical mirror of curvature r = 449 mm in position M4 and a knife-edge mirror to couple out the laser beam. In both configurations the total...

  12. GuLF Study: The Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Scientists Press Events & Ceremonies Science & Training Videos Scientific Seminars News & Events Find out about the exciting discoveries being made by NIEHS and NIEHS-supported researchers ...

  13. Expected genetic gain in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in Cordoba (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espitia C, Miguel; Olman Murillo, G; Carlos Castillo, P

    2011-01-01

    The Cordoba department of Colombia programmed to establish 200000 ha of forest plantations by year 2025. Teak was priorized by its adaptation, wood quality and value in the asian markets. The objective of this research was to estimate the expected genetic gain, of phenotypically selected pluss trees in 5316 ha plantation in Cordoba, for diameter at breast height, commercial height, commercial volume and log quality traits. The selection based on the pheno typical evaluation of the tree candidate and its four best neighbors within a 20 m radius, qualifying, individually the first four segments of 2.5 m length. Selected trees were classified in list A as determined to be superior in both, volume and quality, according to the selection differential to all its four best neighbors. List B included those plus trees found superior only in commercial volume or in stem quality. Genetic gain was estimated by multiplying selection differential X average narrow sense heritability. We estimated a Selection Index that integrate commercial volume (60%) and stem quality (40%). From 46 selected trees, 18 were classified as plus A. In selecting and cloning the 18 best A plus trees, based on the Selection Index, we expected genetic gains of 5.52% (diameter); 17.50% (height); 41.71% (commercial volume) and 9,59% (stem quality). These results suggest an important genetic progress breeding teak in Cordoba, as long as they broaden the genetic base of the program and verify results with genetic testing in various potential production areas.

  14. VLF/LF (Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency) Reflection Properties of the Low Latitude Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-04

    pleasure for the U.S. personnel. Although it is virtually impossible to mention all the individuals who contributed, we wish to especially ... Educacional da Regiao de Blumenau (FURB), who planned the day-to-day experimental efforts and who provided valuable technical Insight and guidance to all...or more grazing incidence angle, with the trend being especially pronounced in the daytime. Figure 23 shows 20 kHz reflectiont coefficients derived

  15. Geographic distribution of lightning-induced electron pricipitation observed as VLF/LF perturbation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, U.S.; Wolf, T.G.; Carpenter, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Expected occurrence characteristics of lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) events at longitudes of the western (110 0 W) versus eastern (71 0 W) Unted States are considered from the point of view of available trapped particle flux at the edge of the loss cone. Considered from the point of view of available trapped particle flux at the edge of the loss cone. Considering published data on nighttime fluxes of >68 keV electrons observed at L≅2.5, and for ''direct'' precipitation into the northern hemisphere induced by northern hemisphere lightning, the occurrence rate and flux levels are expected to a factor of 20--200 higher in the west than in the east, assuming no significant variation in lightning source activity with longitude. Again assuming lightning sources in the north, it is predicted that at 71 0 W, ''mirrored'' precipitation into the southern hemisphere would involve precipitation fluxes 30--300 times higher than ''direct'' precipitation into the noerthern hemisphere. However, at 110 0 W and again assuming lightning in the north, southern hemisphere precipitation would tend to be limited to that small fraction of particles that were initially scattered into the northern loss cone and that were then backscattered from the northern atmosphere so as to reach the south

  16. Active implantable medical device EMI assessment for wireless power transfer operating in LF and HF bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-21

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) imposed on active implantable medical devices by wireless power transfer systems (WPTSs) is discussed based upon results of in vitro experiments. The purpose of this study is to present comprehensive EMI test results gathered from implantable-cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators exposed to the electromagnetic field generated by several WPTSs operating in low-frequency (70 kHz-460 kHz) and high-frequency (6.78 MHz) bands. The constructed in vitro experimental test system based upon an Irnich's flat torso phantom was applied. EMI test experiments are conducted on 14 types of WPTSs including Qi-compliant system and EV-charging WPT system mounted on current production EVs. In addition, a numerical simulation model for active implantable medical device (AIMD) EMI estimation based on the experimental test system is newly proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the risk of WPTSs emitting intermittent signal to affect the correct behavior of AIMDs when operating at very short distances. The proposed numerical simulation model is applicable to obtain basically the EMI characteristics of various types of WPTSs.

  17. Langt fran nordisk välfärdsmodell / Hans Norrbom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Norrbom, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Baltimaade ja Põhjala kiiret poliitilist lähenemist pärsib Baltimaade erinev ühiskonnamudel ja madalate maksudega üliliberaalne majandus. Põhjalale sarnaneb enim ajalooliselt Rootsi ja Taaniga seotud ning Soomega keelesuguluses olev Eesti

  18. De opmars van Grote waternavel (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.) in Nederland, 1996—1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Wim J.; Duistermaat, Leni (H.)

    1999-01-01

    The first local invasion of the alien subtropical aquatic Floating Pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) in urban waterways during the hot summer of 1995 seemingly ended due to a combination of mechanical removal of floating and terrestrial plant material and a subsequent severe winter. Recently

  19. De opmars van Grote waternavel (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.) in Nederland, 1996—1998

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, Wim J.; Duistermaat, Leni (H.)

    1999-01-01

    The first local invasion of the alien subtropical aquatic Floating Pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) in urban waterways during the hot summer of 1995 seemingly ended due to a combination of mechanical removal of floating and terrestrial plant material and a subsequent severe winter. Recently however the plant proved to be hardy to even severe frost when protected bij natural vegetation. As a result a large area of waterways in and around the city ’s-Hertogenbosch became covered with float...

  20. Effect of flaming on Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. survival. An initial experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van der W.J.; Michielsen, J.G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The background of this pilot experiment was to find out if treatment in nature with hydrogen peroxide would be feasible as control measure. The experiment was designed to 1. try to raise plants in containers, and 2. to observe the effect of hydrogen spraying on the plants. This would allow to

  1. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. (Grote waternavel): de stand van zaken

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, Wim J.; Holverda, Wout J.

    1996-01-01

    In het voorjaarsnummer van 1996 deden wij verslag van het spectaculaire woekeren van de Grote waternavel (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides). Gedurende de zomer en herfst van 1995 veroverde deze drijvende, oorspronkelijk uit Amerika afkomstige waterplant in recordtijd grote delen van vaarten in West- en Midden-Nederland. Zo massaal, dat bijvoorbeeld in Utrecht-Rijnsweerd de watergangen tot 4 maal toe moesten worden vrijgemaakt. Gezien de serieuze problemen die deze plant sinds enkele jaren in Austral...

  2. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f. (Grote waternavel): de stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Wim J.; Holverda, Wout J.

    1996-01-01

    In het voorjaarsnummer van 1996 deden wij verslag van het spectaculaire woekeren van de Grote waternavel (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides). Gedurende de zomer en herfst van 1995 veroverde deze drijvende, oorspronkelijk uit Amerika afkomstige waterplant in recordtijd grote delen van vaarten in West- en

  3. Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) cass.: An untapped oilseed resource for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Sangita; Kumar, Sandeep; Hussain, Zakir; Suneja, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv K.; Nizar, M.A.; Dutta, M.

    2012-01-01

    Amongst minor oilseed crops, niger has not been given considerable importance as compared to the sunflower, safflower, linseed and sesame. A study on 35 niger genotypes was conducted to evaluate their potential in terms of oil quantity, quality and biodiesel traits. Oil quality was determined by fatty acid composition for two consecutive years and the results were compared with other minor oilseed crops. Niger oil has four major fatty acids namely palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid. Genotypes which showed consistent fatty acid profile for the 2 consecutive years were also reported. Oleic and linoleic fatty acids showed high variability ranging from 23.52 to 53.05% and 32.03–58.28%, respectively. High oleic (IC372586) and linoleic acid (IC211078, IC211080 and IC259393) containing genotypes were also identified. Total unsaturated fatty acid (81.79–85.06%) was found to be higher than total saturated fatty acid (14.94–18.21%). Based on saponification number (200.16–202.16) and Iodine value (105.69–126.7 g I 2 100 g −1 ) the niger oil finds its application in various industries while cetane number confirmed the use of it as biodiesel. -- Highlights: ► High variability in oil quality. ► TUSFA higher than TSFA. ► Niger oil- a biodiesel source.

  4. Denk je zèlf! Developing a personalised virtual coach for emotional eaters using personas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, A.; Kulyk, O.; Velthuijsen, H.; Gemert-Pijnen, J.E.W.C. van; Strien, T. van; Hettinga, M.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a fast growing societal threat, causing chronic conditions, physical and psychological health problems, as well as absenteeism and large healthcare costs. Despite numerous attempts to promote physical activity and healthy diet, existing interventions do not focus on often occurring

  5. Tree-ring analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) in central India and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ON), current win- ter (DJF), pre-monsoon (MAM), monsoon (JJAS), post-monsoon (ON) and annual series of tempera- ture, rainfall and moisture index. Though the temperature is an important para- meter in photosynthesis, the correlation ...

  6. Performance of Teak (Tectona grandis L.F) wood on exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    surface splitting and checking. Its wood is therefore recommended for use as structural material in outdoor weather ... caused by UV radiation is the most damaging, however, the synergistic .... other tropical hard wood species. The effects of ...

  7. Therapeutic potential of Gnidia capitata L.F.: investigations on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... G. capitata for the treatment of certain skin conditions. The potent antioxidant activity could help control the negative effects associated with inflammatory mediators that are produced during the immune response in people that are affected by skin conditions. Keywords: Anti-acne, Anti-tyrosinase, Antibacterial, Antioxidant, ...

  8. An overview on preseismic anomalies in LF radio signals revealed in Italy by wavelet analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ermini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the electric field strength of the two broadcasting stations MCO (f=216 kHz, southeast France and CZE (f=270 kHz, Czech Republic has been sampled every ten minutes by a receiver (AS located in central Italy. Here, we review the results obtained by a detailed analysis applied to the data recorded from February 1996 up to December 2004. At first, the daytime and nighttime data were extracted and then, in the daytime data, the data collected in winter were separated from those collected in summer. On the second step the wavelet transform was applied. The results of this analysis are radio anomalies detected as earthquake precursors both for MCO and CZE data. In particular, regarding the MCO data, the main result was the appearance of a very clear anomaly during May-August 1998, at daytime and at nighttime. Such an anomaly can be considered as a precursor of a seismic sequence started on August 15, 1998 with 17 earthquakes (M=2.2-4.6 on the Reatini mountains, a seismogenic zone located 30 km far from the AS receiver along the path MCO-AS. As concerns with the CZE data, the first result was obtained from the summer daytime data and it was the appearance of a very clear anomaly during August-September 1997, that can be considered a precursor of the two earthquakes with magnitude M=5.6 and M=5.9 that occurred on September 26 in the Umbria-Marche region (Central Italy. The second result was the appearance of an anomaly during February-March 1998, at daytime and at nighttime, that can be related to the preparatory phase of the strong (M=5.1-6.0 Slovenia seismic sequence that occurred in a zone lying in the middle of the CZE-AS path.

  9. Assessment of Wetland Water Quality and Avian Diversity of a Human-Modified Floodplain Wetland on River Yamuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma MANRAL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS is an Important Bird Area, which comes under the protected area network of Uttar Pradesh with one-third area lying in the state of Delhi (India. OBS has widest flood plains along the Delhi stretch of river Yamuna and is important in conserving the ecological wealth of floodplains of the river. Rapid urbanization and industrialization and discharge of untreated wastewater into the river have resulted in deteriorated water quality. The present study focused on assessment of water quality, aquatic flora and avifaunal diversity in the OBS. Water quality was analyzed following methods of APHA. For vegetation analysis, sub-merged and free-floating plants were scooped up from five randomly selected sites. Total bird counts were conducted for water birds and species richness, evenness and Shannon-Weaver species diversity indices were calculated. Results indicate that the organic load is very high in the wetland as evident from low levels of dissolved oxygen (2.26 ± 1.62 mg/l and high Biological and Chemical Oxygen Demands (15.20 ± 3.75 mg/l, 44.60 ± 12.07 mg/l. Nine species of free-floating and submerged plants were recorded; Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum dominated both deep and shallow water areas. 52 species of waterbirds including four near-threatened species viz., Anhinga melanogaster, Mycteria leucocephala, Threskiornis melanocephalus and Aythya nyroca were recorded. OBS provides opportunities for conservation in a metropolitan area, thus, appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its ecological integrity.

  10. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were continued during 1977 to 1978 on the growth and yields in culture of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae. Partial control of epiphytes was achieved by nutrient removal, shading, and/or biological agents. For the first time, a single clone of the alga was grown continuously throughout the year without replacement. Yields in large (2600 1) aluminum tanks averaged 21.4 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day, equivalent to 31 tons/acre.year (15.5 ash-free dry wt tons/acre.year). Growth of Gracilaria and other seaweeds in Vexar-mesh baskets in natural habitats and in the oceanic waters of a power plant cooling water intake canal were unsuccessful. Productivity of the freshwater macrophytes Lemna minor (common duckweed), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Hydrilla verticillata have now been measured throughout the year with mean yields of 3.7, 24.2 and 4.2 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day (5.4, 35.3, and 6.1 dry tons/acre.year) respectively. Yields of duckweed and water hyacinths in the Harbor Branch Foundation culture units have averaged roughly three times those of the same species growing in highly-eutrophic natural environments. The yields of several other species of freshwater plants were investigated. Only the pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) appears to approach the productivity of water hyacinth on the basis of preliminary measurements. Chopped water hyacinths and unprocessed Gracilaria have both been successfully fermented to methane in anaerobic digesters and the liquid digester residues recycled to produce more of the same plants.

  11. TRACER PATHWAY DARI INSEKTISIDA MALATHION DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP ORGAN HATI DAN OTAK TIKUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to settle on the pathway of insecticide contamination in the aquatic environment forwarding toward aquatic plants and animals by using radioisotope 14C labelled malathion. Then by using the same labelled malathion, its pathway to the mammals, i.e. mice, was also determined. The first step of the research was aimed to detect the pathway of malathion residues in water moving toward aquatic plants i.e. Hydrilla verticillata and aquatic animals i.e. fishes. Subsequently, in the second step of the research, the pathway of this labelled malathion from aquatic animals (fish to mammals (mice. Then, in the third step of this research, the influence of polluting dose of malathion 96 EC, which wasfrequently found in vegetables in Indonesia, on the mammals’ organ i.e. liver and brain of mice. All of the treatments’ results were compared to the controls’ using Student t-test. Analysis of the results showed that the residual insecticide can be absorbed by the aquatic plans and then entered the fish body through food chain, and also through the gills, skin, scales. Furthermore, it was substantiated that the mammals obtained residual malathion through its food chain, that is, when the fishes were eaten by the mice or other mammals. The concentration of the insecticide observed, malathion, absorbed by water plants, fish organ and mice organ found to be different. This study also proved that the concentration dose of malathion found in vegetables in Indonesia can cause abnormality in the livers of the mice, if it was taken consecutively for 60 days. It was also shown in this study that the brains of the treated mice did not show any significant abnormality.

  12. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  13. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  14. Occurrence of green alga Ernodesmisverticillata (Kuetzing) Boergesen at Malvan (Maharashtra coast)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Agadi, V.V.

    of marine algal resources of the Maharashtra Coast, a green marine algal species was collected and identified as E. verticillata. From the literature it was observed that E. verticillata has not so far been reported from the Indian coast...

  15. In vitro propagation via organogenesis and synthetic seeds of Urginea altissima (L.f.) Baker: a threatened medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Ponnusamy; Kumari, Aloka; Van Staden, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Efficient in vitro propagation systems via organogenesis and synthetic seeds were developed for the first time for conservation and commercial propagation from leaf or longitudinal thin cell layer (lTCL) leaf or shoot-tip explants of Urginea altissima . Various plant growth regulators and phloroglucinol were used in semi-solid and liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium to establish multiplication of shoots and roots for in vitro regeneration. Of the various treatments, the highest number of shoots (17.4 per lTCL leaf explant) was obtained on liquid MS medium supplemented with 10 µM meta -Topolin ( m T) and 2 µM benzyladenine followed by transferal to semi-solid MS media. The shoot tips were encapsulated with liquid MS medium plus 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride. Adventitious shoot regeneration (91.0%; 12.6 shoots per synthetic seed) of synthetic seeds was achieved on semi-solid MS medium supplemented with 10 µM m T and 2 µM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) after 15 days of storage in darkness at 25 ± 2 °C. Regenerated shoots rooted (9.8 roots per shoot; 6.5 cm long) efficiently when transferred to 5 µM indole-3-butyric acid and 2.5 µM NAA. All the plantlets were successfully acclimatized (100%) in a vermiculite:soil (1:1 v/v) mixture in the greenhouse.

  16. Comportamiento de rodal artificial de Mauritia flexuosa (aguaje) L.f. con fines de manejo sostenido Iquitos-Perú;

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo Cruz, William

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el Centro de Investigación y Enseñanza Forestal de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana, ubicado en la localidad de Puerto Almendras distrito de San Juan, provincia de Maynas, región Loreto. Tuvo como objetivo general la evaluación de rodal artificial de 2 ha de aguaje de veintiún años de edad instalada con fines de manejo sostenido con diferentes distanciamientos de 3x3m; 4x4m; 5x5m y 6x6m; los parámetros ev...

  17. Zwölf Grundformen des Lehrens eine allgemeine Didaktik auf psychologischer Grundlage, Medien und Inhalte didaktischer Kommunikation, der Lernzyklus

    CERN Document Server

    Aebli, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Hans Aebli verbindet psychologische Erkenntnisse aus der neueren Zeit mit der Erkenntnis seiner Vorbilder: Jean Piaget, John Dewey, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi; Psychologen und Pädagogen, deren Einsichten allgemein neu diskutiert werden. Das Buch beweist unmittelbar den Wert einer fundierten didaktischen Theorie und es zeigt, wie sie sich in der Praxis des Unterrichtens einsetzen läßt.

  18. An antimicrobial alkaloid and other metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. An endophytic fungus isolated from Mauritia flexuosa L.f

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Soares, Elzalina Ribeiro; Silva, Felipe Moura Araujo da; Almeida, Richardson Alves de; Souza, Afonso Duarte Leao de, E-mail: hectorkoolen@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Medeiros, Livia Soman de; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima de [Escola Superior de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The alkaloid glandicoline B (1) and six other compounds: ergosterol (2), brassicasterol (3), ergosterol peroxide (4), cerevisterol (5), mannitol (6) and 1-O-{alpha}-D-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from Penicillium sp. strain PBR.2.2.2, a fungus from Mauritia flexuosa roots. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by spectral analysis. MeOH extract of the fungal mycelium at 500 {mu}g mL{sup -1} exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the compound 1 at 100 {mu}g mL{sup -1} was active against S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The relationship between the bioactive properties of the fungus PBR.2.2.2 and those achieved for glandicoline B, as well the potential of this substance as bacteriide is discussed. (author)

  19. Computer-Based Study of MCP-Coupled Active Filters for Structures Like FLF, SCF, CBQ, and LF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Bhushan Mital

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of the realization of low sensitivity narrow BP active filter implementing multiple critical pole approximation methods. Coupled active filter structures are also studied.

  20. Investigation of correlation of LF power modulation of light in natural and artificial illumination situations and acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeberg, Florian P.; Gutzmann, Holger L.; Weyer, Cornelia; Weiß, Jürgen; Dörfler, Joachim; Hahlweg, Cornelius F.

    2014-09-01

    The present paper is a follow up of a paper presented in 2013 at the Novel Optical Systems conference in the session on Optics and Music. It is derived from an ongoing study on the human perception of combined optical and acoustical periodical stimuli. Originating from problems concerning artificial illumination and certain machinery with coherent optical and acoustical emissions there are effects to be observed which are interesting in the context of occupational medicine. It seems, that acoustic stimuli in the frequency range of the flicker fusion and below might lead to unexpected perceptible effects beyond those of the single stimuli. The effect of infrasound stimuli as a whole body perception seems to be boosted. Because of the difficulties in evaluation of physical and psychological effects of such coherent stimuli in a first step we question if such coherence is perceivable at all. Further, the problem of modulation of optical signals by acoustical signal is concerned. A catalogue of scenarios and 'effects to look for' including measurement concepts is presented and discussed.

  1. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.): A preferred timber for shipbuilding in India as evidenced from shipwrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Shashikala, S.; Sardar, A.A.

    , India was pirated by Captain Kidd, and subsequently wrecked off the southeast coast of the Dominican Republic in 1699. Indiana University, USA, carried out exploration to locate Cara Merchant. This communication presents a comparative study...

  2. An antimicrobial alkaloid and other metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. An endophytic fungus isolated from Mauritia flexuosa L.f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Soares, Elzalina Ribeiro; Silva, Felipe Moura Araujo da; Almeida, Richardson Alves de; Souza, Afonso Duarte Leao de; Medeiros, Livia Soman de; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima de

    2012-01-01

    The alkaloid glandicoline B (1) and six other compounds: ergosterol (2), brassicasterol (3), ergosterol peroxide (4), cerevisterol (5), mannitol (6) and 1-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from Penicillium sp. strain PBR.2.2.2, a fungus from Mauritia flexuosa roots. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by spectral analysis. MeOH extract of the fungal mycelium at 500 μg mL -1 exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the compound 1 at 100 μg mL -1 was active against S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The relationship between the bioactive properties of the fungus PBR.2.2.2 and those achieved for glandicoline B, as well the potential of this substance as bacteriide is discussed. (author)

  3. Alva Myrdal och svenskt familjeplaneringsbistånd : Affinitet mellan välfärdsideologi och principerna bakom befolkningskontroll

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Around the 1950s an explosive population growth started in the Third World. Parallel with the population growth a global network grew up advocating population control and limited population growth. Sweden had a unique place in that network through a pioneering role promoting the issue in the UN organization. During the 20th century Sweden was a pioneer country in terms of initiatives for population control. Ceylon family planing pilot project was something new in a time when other donors cons...

  4. Modeling of the L.F. turbulent spectrum during ohmic discharges, auxiliary heating and disruptions in Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truc, A.

    1983-07-01

    The spectrum of low frequency turbulence in the TFR tokamak, as observed along a central chord by a CO 2 laser light diffusion diagnostic, appears to be representable by four monomial branches joining to three vertices. This schematic representation permits to follow more easily the evolution of the turbulence during the life of the plasma, including the ohmic regime, the transitions to auxiliary heating and the minor and major disruptions

  5. Produktive und reflexive Kompetenzen im Umgang mit Farbe bei Kindern im Alter von zehn bis zwölf Jahren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapp, K.A.

    2017-01-01

    In the broad research field on children’s paintings the analysis of color is often neglected, so that findings on how children are using color are sparse. This study tries to fill this gap partially by empirically examining the use of color through a number of receptive, productive and reflexive

  6. Air-jet sprayer and spray gun in the pesticide spray coverage of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) trees

    OpenAIRE

    Higashibara, Leandro Riyuiti; Dutra, Viviane; Saab, Otavio Jorge Grigoli Abi; Takahashi, Hideaki Wilson; Neves, Carmen Sílvia Vieira Janeiro

    2013-01-01

    A cultura do caquizeiro vem crescendo em importância no Brasil e, com o aumento do cultivo, tem havido também incremento dos problemas relacionados a doenças e pragas. A pulverização de agrotóxicos é o método mais utilizado na prevenção e no controle desses problemas e a principal forma de aplicação é a pulverização hidráulica com auxílio de fluxo de ar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variação da taxa de aplicação e do repasse na parte interna das plantas em pulverização co...

  7. Application of equivalent electrodes method to analysis of interaction between ELF-LF electric fields and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceselkoska, Vesna C.; Velickovic, Dragutin M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the use of equivalent electrodes method, numerical method, based on surface-charge equation to quantify the interaction of low frequencies electric fields with various models of human body. The evaluation of the electric field intensity on the body surface is performed for a realistic model of the human body. Several examples for different postures of the model are given. (Author)

  8. A method for finding D-region electron density distributions from lf broadband pulse measurements. Telecommunications research and engineering report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieder, B.; Espeland, R.H.

    1972-11-01

    A Loran-C transmitter is used as the signal source for the experiment. In the experiment, both the normal and abnormal components of the pulses reflected from the ionosphere are measured, and the reflection coeffeicients are determined as a function of frequency through Fourier analysis of both the groundwave and the skywave signals. The resultant data are then compared with reflection coefficients calculated from a series of test D-region electron density profiles

  9. State of South Carolina Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    of a diquat and copper sulfate pentahydrate herbicide combination for hydrilla control was carried out by Yeo et. al. (1974). The copper was applied at...effective combination to control egeria and hydrilla (Gangstad, 1976). A diquat- copper sulfate combination is more effective in controlling hydrilla than the... copper resulting from the use of algacides or herbicides basic copper carbonate (malachite), copper sulfate , and copper tri- ethanolamine to control

  10. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Chetta S; Grodowitz, Michael J; Nibling, Fred

    2005-01-01

    .... In 2001 and 2003, surveys were conducted starting below Amistad Reservoir to immediately below Falcon Reservoir to assess the distribution and expansion of the hydrilla infestations and document...

  11. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande, 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Chetta S; Grodowitz, Michael J; Nibling, Fred

    2005-01-01

    .... In 2004, surveys were conducted starting below Amistad Reservoir to immediately below Falcon Reservoir to assess the distribution and expansion of hydrilla infestations and document the presence...

  12. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Low Rio Grande

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Chetta S; Grodowitz, Michael J; Nibling, Fred

    2005-01-01

    .... In 2001 and 2003, surveys were conducted starting below Amistad Reservoir to immediately below Falcon Reservoir to assess the distribution and expansion of the hydrilla infestations and document...

  13. Aquatic macrophytes in the large, sub-tropical Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Paulo Mormul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, rapid assessment surveys have become an important approach for measuring aquatic ecosystem biodiversity. These methods can be used to detect anthropogenic impacts and recognize local or global species extinctions. We present a floristic survey of the aquatic macrophytes along the Brazilian margin of the Itaipu Reservoir conducted in 2008 and compare this with a floristic survey conducted ten years earlier. We used ordination analysis to determine whether assemblage composition differed among reservoir arms. Macrophyte species were sampled in each of the 235 sampling stations using a boat, which was positioned inside three places of each macrophyte stand to record species and search for small plants. We also collected submerged plants using a rake with the boat moving at constant velocity for ten minutes. We assigned individual macrophyte species to life form and identified representative species for each life form. A total of 87 macrophyte taxa were identified. The "emergent" life forms contained the highest number of species, followed by "rooted submerged" life forms. The extensive survey of macrophytes undertaken in September 2008 recorded more species than a survey conducted between 1995 and 1998. This could be due to changes in water physico-chemistry, disturbances due to water drawdown and the long period between surveys, which may have allowed natural colonization by other species. Additionally, differences in the classification systems and taxonomic resolution used in the surveys may account for differences in the number of species recorded. Assemblage composition varied among the arms and was affected by underwater radiation (as measured using a Secchi disk and fetch. Five non-native species were found. Two of these non-native species (Urochloa subquadripara and Hydrilla verticillata are of special concern because they have a high frequency of occurrence and occupy large marginal areas of the reservoir. Future

  14. Uptake of Different Forms of Nitrogen and Phosphorus by Three Aquatic Plants%3种水生植物对不同形态氮·磷吸收的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小霞; 黄晓典; 赵超; 彭少华; 韩磊

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨水蓼、浮萍和黑藻在水体氮、磷去除中的应用价值.[方法]在室内培养条件下,比较这3种水生植物对不同形态和浓度氮、磷的吸收效果.[结果]3种植物发挥最大N、P吸收效果的水体N、P浓度分别为1和5 mg/L.经10 d的培养,3种水生植物对铵态氮和硝态氮的去除率均达50%以上,其中浮萍对铵态氮的去除率高达63.6%;3种水生植物对磷的去除以正磷酸盐最佳,焦磷酸盐次之,偏磷酸盐最差.浮萍对这3种形态磷的去除效果均最好,去除率分别为94.7%、85.6%和70.9%.[结论]浮萍可以作为一种净化植物,可以有效地降低水中铵态氮和不同形态磷浓度.%[Objective]The nitrogen and phosphorus absorption in water by Polygonum hydropiper L. , Hydrilla verticillata (L. f. ) Royle and Lemna minor L. were studied. [Method]The uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus with different forms and concentrations by three aquatic plants was evalulated under laboratary conditions. [Result]The concentrations of N and P in water which made the plants achieve the hightest uptake of the two elements were 1 and 5 mg/L, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N and N03-N by three plants were over 50% after 10 days treatment, and the highest removal rate (63.6% ) for NH4-N was found in Lemna minor L. Among the different forms of phosphorus, the removal efficiency by plants was followed as orthophosphate > pyrophosphate > metaphosphate. Lemna minor L. had the best removal rate for three forms of phosphorus, with a removal rate of 94.7% , 85.6% and 70.9% , respectively. [Conclusion]Lemna minor L. was an idea plant for efficient removal of NH4-N and different forms of phosphorus in water.

  15. Aquatic macrophytes in the large, sub-tropical Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormul, Roger Paulo; Ferreira, Fernando Alves; Michelan, Thaisa Sala; Carvalho, Priscilla; Silveira, Marcio José; Thomaz, Sidinei Magela

    2010-12-01

    In the last three decades, rapid assessment surveys have become an important approach for measuring aquatic ecosystem biodiversity. These methods can be used to detect anthropogenic impacts and recognize local or global species extinctions. We present a floristic survey of the aquatic macrophytes along the Brazilian margin of the Itaipu Reservoir conducted in 2008 and compare this with a floristic survey conducted ten years earlier. We used ordination analysis to determine whether assemblage composition differed among reservoir arms. Macrophyte species were sampled in each of the 235 sampling stations using a boat, which was positioned inside three places of each macrophyte stand to record species and search for small plants. We also collected submerged plants using a rake with the boat moving at constant velocity for ten minutes. We assigned individual macrophyte species to life form and identified representative species for each life form. A total of 87 macrophyte taxa were identified. The "emergent" life forms contained the highest number of species, followed by "rooted submerged" life forms. The extensive survey of macrophytes undertaken in September 2008 recorded more species than a survey conducted between 1995 and 1998. This could be due to changes in water physico-chemistry, disturbances due to water drawdown and the long period between surveys, which may have allowed natural colonization by other species. Additionally, differences in the classification systems and taxonomic resolution used in the surveys may account for differences in the number of species recorded. Assemblage composition varied among the arms and was affected by underwater radiation (as measured using a Secchi disk) and fetch. Five non-native species were found. Two of these non-native species (Urochloa subquadripara and Hydrilla verticillata) are of special concern because they have a high frequency of occurrence and occupy large marginal areas of the reservoir. Future surveys should be

  16. Aquatic macrophytes in the large, sub-tropical Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Paulo Mormul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, rapid assessment surveys have become an important approach for measuring aquatic ecosystem biodiversity. These methods can be used to detect anthropogenic impacts and recognize local or global species extinctions. We present a floristic survey of the aquatic macrophytes along the Brazilian margin of the Itaipu Reservoir conducted in 2008 and compare this with a floristic survey conducted ten years earlier. We used ordination analysis to determine whether assemblage composition differed among reservoir arms. Macrophyte species were sampled in each of the 235 sampling stations using a boat, which was positioned inside three places of each macrophyte stand to record species and search for small plants. We also collected submerged plants using a rake with the boat moving at constant velocity for ten minutes. We assigned individual macrophyte species to life form and identified representative species for each life form. A total of 87 macrophyte taxa were identified. The "emergent" life forms contained the highest number of species, followed by "rooted submerged" life forms. The extensive survey of macrophytes undertaken in September 2008 recorded more species than a survey conducted between 1995 and 1998. This could be due to changes in water physico-chemistry, disturbances due to water drawdown and the long period between surveys, which may have allowed natural colonization by other species. Additionally, differences in the classification systems and taxonomic resolution used in the surveys may account for differences in the number of species recorded. Assemblage composition varied among the arms and was affected by underwater radiation (as measured using a Secchi disk and fetch. Five non-native species were found. Two of these non-native species (Urochloa subquadripara and Hydrilla verticillata are of special concern because they have a high frequency of occurrence and occupy large marginal areas of the reservoir. Future

  17. A contingent valuation study of buriti ( Mauritia flexuosa L.f. in the main region of production in Brazil: is environmental conservation a collective responsibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlaine R. Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The immature leaves of the buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa are widely harvested in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão, for the production of handicrafts, which are sold to locals and tourists. The increasing demand for these artisanal goods is stimulating the emergence of an informal market for immature buriti leaves, leading to an intensification of their extraction and resulting in negative effects on local buriti palm populations and the ecosystem. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the environmental value of the buriti palm tree based on the maximum willingness to pay (WTP for its conservation, using the contingent valuation method. Among the respondents, 99.74% reported that the palm species should be protected and the majority of them (65.75% agreed to pay for its conservation (annual WTP R$ 179.49 ± 222.05. Multivariate analysis revealed that the WTP was not influenced by the socio-economic profile of the respondents. The main reasons for non-WTP are related to dissatisfaction with the government and the belief that financial contributions would not solve problems of environmental damage. Overall, the evaluated population believes that environmental conservation is not an obligation of the government or that of the population, but is a collective responsibility.

  18. Astrocytes require insulin-like growth factor I to protect neurons against oxidative injury [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2lf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Genis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a proposed mechanism in brain aging, making the study of its regulatory processes an important aspect of current neurobiological research. In this regard, the role of the aging regulator insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I in brain responses to oxidative stress remains elusive as both beneficial and detrimental actions have been ascribed to this growth factor. Because astrocytes protect neurons against oxidative injury, we explored whether IGF-I participates in astrocyte neuroprotection and found that blockade of the IGF-I receptor in astrocytes abrogated their rescuing effect on neurons. The protection mediated by IGF-I against oxidative stress (H2O2 in astrocytes is probably needed for these cells to provide adequate neuroprotection. Indeed, in astrocytes but not in neurons, IGF-I helps decrease the pro-oxidant protein thioredoxin-interacting protein 1 and normalizes the levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, IGF-I cooperates with trophic signals produced by astrocytes in response to H2O2 such as stem cell factor (SCF to protect neurons against oxidative insult. After stroke, a condition associated with brain aging where oxidative injury affects peri-infarcted regions, a simultaneous increase in SCF and IGF-I expression was found in the cortex, suggesting that a similar cooperative response takes place in vivo. Cell-specific modulation by IGF-I of brain responses to oxidative stress may contribute in clarifying the role of IGF-I in brain aging.

  19. Mental health indicators associated with oil spill response and clean-up: cross-sectional analysis of the GuLF STUDY cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Richard K; McGrath, John A; Lowe, Sarah R; Engel, Lawrence S; Jackson, W Braxton; Curry, Matthew D; Payne, Julianne; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-12-01

    Adverse mental health effects have been reported following oil spills but few studies have identified specific responsible attributes of the clean-up experience. We aimed to analyse the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (Gulf of Mexico) disaster on the mental health of individuals involved in oil spill response and clean-up. We used data from the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study, a cohort of workers and volunteers involved in oil spill clean-up after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. We included 8968 workers (hired after completing training for oil spill response and clean-up) and 2225 non-workers (completed training but were not hired) who completed a Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and four-item Primary Care PTSD Screen to assess for probable depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicators. Participants were recruited between March 28, 2011, and March 29, 2013. The mental health indicators were assessed at home visits done between May 12, 2011, and May 15, 2013. We used regression models to analyse the effect of potentially stressful job experiences, job type, and total hydrocarbon exposure on mental health indicators. Oil spill response and clean-up work was associated with increased prevalence of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1·22, 95% CI 1·08-1·37) and PTSD (PR 1·35, 95% CI 1·07-1·71). Among workers, individuals who reported smelling oil, dispersants, or cleaning chemicals had an elevated prevalence of depression (1·56, 1·37-1·78) and PTSD (2·25, 1·71-2·96). Stopping work because of the heat was also associated with depression (1·37, 1·23-1·53) and PTSD (1·41, 1·15-1·74), as was working as a commercial fisherman before the spill (1·38, 1·21-1·57; and 2·01, 1·58-2·55, respectively). An increase in exposure to total hydrocarbons appeared to be associated with depression and PTSD, but after taking into account oil spill job experiences, only the association between the highest amount of total hydrocarbons and PTSD remained (1·75, 1·11-2·76). Oil spill clean-up workers with high amounts of total hydrocarbon exposure or potentially stressful job experiences had an increased prevalence of depression and PTSD. These findings provide evidence that response and clean-up work is associated with adverse psychological effects and suggest the need for mental health services both before and after the event. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund and the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental health indicators associated with oil spill response and clean-up: cross-sectional analysis of the GuLF STUDY cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Kwok, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Adverse mental health effects have been reported following oil spills but few studies have identified specific responsible attributes of the clean-up experience. We aimed to analyse the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (Gulf of Mexico disaster on the mental health of individuals involved in oil spill response and clean-up. Methods: We used data from the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study, a cohort of workers and volunteers involved in oil spill clean-up after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. We included 8968 workers (hired after completing training for oil spill response and clean-up and 2225 non-workers (completed training but were not hired who completed a Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and four-item Primary Care PTSD Screen to assess for probable depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD indicators. Participants were recruited between March 28, 2011, and March 29, 2013. The mental health indicators were assessed at home visits done between May 12, 2011, and May 15, 2013. We used regression models to analyse the effect of potentially stressful job experiences, job type, and total hydrocarbon exposure on mental health indicators. Findings: Oil spill response and clean-up work was associated with increased prevalence of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1·22, 95% CI 1·08–1·37 and PTSD (PR 1·35, 95% CI 1·07–1·71. Among workers, individuals who reported smelling oil, dispersants, or cleaning chemicals had an elevated prevalence of depression (1·56, 1·37–1·78 and PTSD (2·25, 1·71–2·96. Stopping work because of the heat was also associated with depression (1·37, 1·23–1·53 and PTSD (1·41, 1·15–1·74, as was working as a commercial fisherman before the spill (1·38, 1·21–1·57; and 2·01, 1·58–2·55, respectively. An increase in exposure to total hydrocarbons appeared to be associated with depression and PTSD, but after taking into account oil spill job experiences, only the association between the highest amount of total hydrocarbons and PTSD remained (1·75, 1·11–2·76. Interpretation: Oil spill clean-up workers with high amounts of total hydrocarbon exposure or potentially stressful job experiences had an increased prevalence of depression and PTSD. These findings provide evidence that response and clean-up work is associated with adverse psychological effects and suggest the need for mental health services both before and after the event. Funding: National Institutes of Health (NIH Common Fund and the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

  1. Efeito do volume de tubetes e tipos de substratos na qualidade de mudas de cryptomeria japonica (l.f. d. don.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constâncio Bernardo dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. D. Don. is a species of great potential for planting in elevated and cold regions of Brazil. It is remarkable for its fast growth, good adaptation to the climate and soil of Southern Brazil, and it also shows a good response to silvicultural technologies. In addition, it is notable for the quality and diversity of its raw material usage for the industries of pulp and paper, plywood, construction of houses, furniture, boats, ships, etc. The experimental plan was bifactorial in the entirely randomized design with 8 treatments, 5 repetitions with 40 seedlings per treatment. The results indicated that for the production of seedlings of this species, the substrate soil + vermiculite showed the best development of the seedlings in 120 cm3 containers.

  2. Engaging plant anatomy and local knowledge on the buriti palm ( Mauritia flexuosa L.f.: Arecaceae): the microscopic world meets the golden grass artisan's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Rebeca V. R.; Scatena, Vera L.; Eichemberg, Mayra T.; Sano, Paulo T.

    2018-03-01

    Considering that both Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems share a common ground—observations of the natural world—the dialogue between them should not only be possible, but fruitful. Local communities whose livelihoods depend on traditional uses of the local biodiversity not only develop knowledge about nature, making several uses of such knowledge, but, with that process, several inquiries about nature can be raised. Here we present our experience with the engagement of Western Science with golden grass artisan's knowledge about the buriti palm ( M. flexuosa). We applied 25 semi-directive interviews, combined with field diary and participative observation, in two quilombola communities from Jalapão region (Central-Brazil). One of the inquiries that emerged from the artisan's perspectives was about the differences between male and female buriti palms' fiber. We then engaged both local and scientific perspectives regarding this issue using plant anatomy as a dialogue instrument. Here we describe this experience and resort to Paulo Freire's ideas on dialogue to argue that, to integrate Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems in a collaborative and contextualized perspective, the research should be faced as a mutual learning practice.

  3. Productos del mercado artesanal en la ciudad de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana elaborados con especies de bosques de Mauritia flexuosa L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lorena Franco Arango

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los productos forestales no maderables (PFNMs han tomado fuerza como alternativa para la conservación de ecosistemas y la generación de ingresos económicos en las poblaciones asociadas. Se presenta un mayor interés sobre los productos que provienen de bosques oligárquicos (poco diversos y con alta densidad relativa, especialmente los dominados por palmas, como por ejemplo los bosques de Mauritia flexuosa (aguajales, cananguchales o buritizales. En el mercado artesanal de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana se identificaron 68 productos provenientes de nueve especies de plantas del canaguchal, teniendo las palmas (Astrocaryum chambira, Euterpe precatoria, M. flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua y Socratea exorrhiza el mayor potencial comercial. Los productos más frecuentes fueron las mochilas de fibras de A. chambira (chambira y los precios de venta más altos correspondieron a las esculturas de Brosimum rubescens (palo de sangre. No existen estadísticas oficiales de este mercado, ni entes del Estado que regulen y orienten la producción y comercialización de los productos que se extraen del bosque. No obstante, los PFNMs representan una alternativa para diversificar las oportunidades productivas de los pobladores de la región.

  4. 75 FR 62132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...-term health effects associated with oil spill clean-up activities and exposures surrounding the... heat, and possibly to stress due to widespread economic and lifestyle disruption. Exposures range from negligible to potentially significant, however, potential long-term human health consequences are largely...

  5. Developing a personalised virtual coach 'Denk je zèlf!' For emotional eaters through the design of emotion-enriched personas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, A.; Kulyk, O.; Velthuijsen, H.; Gemert-Pijnen, J.E.W.C. van; Strien, T. van

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a fast-growing societal threat, causing chronic conditions, physical and psychological health problems, as well as sickness absence and heavy healthcare costs. Despite numerous attempts to promote physical activity and healthy diet, existing interventions do not focus on the common

  6. Developing a personalised virtual coach ‘Denk je zèlf!’ for emotional eaters through the design of emotion-enriched personas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, Aranka; Kulyk, Olga; Velthuijsen, Hugo; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette; van Strien, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a fast-growing societal threat, causing chronic conditions, physical and psychological health problems, as well as sickness absence and heavy healthcare costs. Despite numerous attempts to promote physical activity and healthy diet, existing interventions do not focus on the common

  7. Prediction of Starch, Soluble Sugars and Amino Acids in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Hyperspectral Imaging, Dielectric and LF-NMR Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Handling and processing of potatoes is performed in increasingly large and more automated facilities, and the industry calls for more automated machinery for quality assessment and sorting by concentration of starch, soluble sugars, protein, amino acids etc. of the potato tubers. The present study...... cultivars were simultaneously sampled for analyses of content and scanned by the five different scanning methods. The resulting multivariate dataset was used to estimate the prediction ability of the individual scanning methods on starch-related parameters, selected simple sugars, selected amino acids......, conductivity of pressed cell sap and cell sizes. Results showed that most types of spectral analyses had relatively high potential for predicting the starch-related parameters and medium potential for predicting the concentration of the reducing sugars fructose and glucose. Most methods showed medium potential...

  8. Diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de Mauritia flexuosa L.f. “aguaje” de la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Angulo-Quintanilla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa es una especie vegetal amazónica que forma extensas poblaciones denominadas “aguajales”. Como los pobladores amazónicos emplean varios órganos de M. flexuosa para suplir sus necesidades y con fines comerciales, se está ejerciendo un gran impacto negativo sobre esta especie. A pesar de ello, a la fecha no se conoce la diversidad genética de esta especie en la Amazonía peruana. Consecuentemente, los planes de manejo para la especie serían limitados sin este tipo de información. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de M. flexuosa aledañas a la carretera Iquitos-Nauta. Las hojas se colectaron en seis zonas contiguas a la carretera Iquitos–Nauta. El ADN purificado con protocolos estándares fue amplificado mediante la técnica de ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD con dos cebadores aleatorios.  En total se generaron 28 amplicones RAPD (26 polimórficos y 2 monomórficos. Dentro de los aguajales la diversidad genética fue tres veces mayor (75±19 % que la diversidad genética entre las seis poblaciones de M. flexuosa (25±19 %. La diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones varió de 0,0 a 0,6. Los aguajales que se agruparon en clados en el dendrograma por su mayor similitud genética tuvieron proximidad geográfica. La similitud genética entre las poblaciones de M. flexuosa depende de la distancia geográfica, de tal manera que las poblaciones con más similitud genética están más próximas entre sí que las que tienen menos similitud genética.

  9. Chemical characterization and oxidative stability of the oils from three morphotypes of Mauritia flexuosa L.f, from the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three morphotypes of aguaje Mauritia flexuosa were tested, classified by the color of their mesocarpium: “color”, “shambo” and “amarillo”, collected from different areas near the city of Iquitos, Peru. Also, physical-chemical analyses of the mesocarpium were performed, such as the characterization of fatty acids by gas chromatography, determination of β- carotene y α – tocopherol by high efficiency liquid chromatography system in normal and reverse phase and the determination of oxidation induction time in the Rancimat apparatus. Proximate, mineral and fatty acid analyses were done on the seeds. The aguaje mesocarpium is rich in oleic oil (“amarillo”: 75.63% ± 0.31, β-carotene (“amarillo”: 342.42ug/g ± 0.71 and α- tocopherol (“color”: 685.81mg/L ± 1.04, plus the morphotype “color” has a superior oxidation induction time compared to other morphotypes with 6.91 ± 0.01. The aguaje seed contains significant amounts of ω6 (linoleic oil in “shambo” with 36.04 ± 0.09%. The results indicate that these oils, regardless their classification, contain important chemical compounds that give them a special nutritive value.Se estudiaron tres morfotipos de aguaje Mauritia flexuosa L. f., clasificados por el color del mesocarpio: “color”, “shambo” y “amarillo”, recogidos de localidades cercanas a la ciudad de Iquitos- Perú. Del mismo modo a partir del mesocarpio se realizaron los análisis fisicoquímicos, la caracterización de los ácidos grasos por cromatografía gaseosa, la determinación de β-caroteno y α– tocoferol por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia (HPLC fase reversa y normal y la determinación del tiempo de inducción de la oxidación en el equipo de Rancimat. A partir de la semilla se realizaron los análisis centesimales, de minerales y ácidos grasos. Los mesocarpios de aguaje son ricos en ácido oleico (amarillo: 75.63% ± 0.31, β-caroteno (amarillo: 342.42 ug/g ± 0.71 y α- tocoferol (color: 685.81mg/L ± 1.04, y además el morfotipo “color” tiene un tiempo de inducción superior a los otros morfotipos con 6.91 ± 0.01, asimismo en la semilla de aguaje se encuentran cantidades considerables de ω6 (ácido linoleico en “shambo” con 36.04 ± 0.09%. Los resultados obtenidos nos indican que estos aceites independientemente de la clasificación que se le asigne contienen importantes compuestos químicos que le brindan un altor valor nutricional.

  10. Diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de Mauritia flexuosa L.f. “aguaje” de la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Angulo Quintanilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa es una especie vegetal amazónica que forma extensas poblaciones denominadas “aguajales”. Como los pobladores amazónicos emplean varios órganos de M. flexuosa para suplir sus necesidades y con fines comerciales, se está ejerciendo un gran impacto negativo sobre esta especie. A pesar de ello, a la fecha no se conoce la diversidad genética de esta especie en la Amazonía peruana. Consecuentemente, los planes de manejo para la especie serían limitados sin este tipo de información. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de M. flexuosa aledañas a la carretera Iquitos-Nauta. Las hojas se colectaron en seis zonas contiguas a la carretera Iquitos–Nauta. El ADN purificado con protocolos estándares fue amplificado mediante la técnica de ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD con dos cebadores aleatorios.  En total se generaron 28 amplicones RAPD (26 polimórficos y 2 monomórficos. Dentro de los aguajales la diversidad genética fue tres veces mayor (75±19 % que la diversidad genética entre las seis poblaciones de M. flexuosa (25±19 %. La diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones varió de 0,0 a 0,6. Los aguajales que se agruparon en clados en el dendrograma por su mayor similitud genética tuvieron proximidad geográfica. La similitud genética entre las poblaciones de M. flexuosa depende de la distancia geográfica, de tal manera que las poblaciones con más similitud genética están más próximas entre sí que las que tienen menos similitud genética.

  11. 75 FR 77880 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... excessive heat, and possibly to stress due to widespread economic and lifestyle disruption. Exposures range... for other languages developed as appropriate) who performed oil-spill clean-up-related work (``exposed... should begin in late 2010, with telephone interviews and the baseline home visits conducted within 18...

  12. Qualification of the LF-eddy current technique for the inspection of stainless steel cladding and applications on the reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.; Becker, R.; Lucht, B.; Mohr, F.; Hartwig, K.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the re-inspection of the reactor pressure vessel of the nuclear power plant, the low-frequency-eddy current technique was implemented during the 1995 outage. Since then, this inspection technique and the testing equipment have seen steady further development. Therefore, optimization of the entire testing system, including qualification based on the 1995 results, was conducted. The eddy current testing system was designed as a ten-channel test system with sensors having separate transmitter and receiver coils. The first qualification of the testing technique and sensors was performed using a single-channel system; a second qualification was then carried out using the new testing electronics. The sensor design allows for a simultaneous detection of surface and subsurface flaws. This assumes that testing is performed simultaneously using four frequencies. Data analysis and evaluation are performed using a digital multi-frequency regression analysis technique The detection limits determined using this technique led to the definition of the following recording limits for testing in which the required signal-to-noise ratio of 6 dB was reliably observed. - Detection of surface connected longitudinal and transverse flaws: - notch, 3 mm deep and 10 mm long, for weave bead cladding; - notch, 2 mm deep and 20 mm long, for strip weld cladding. - Detection of embedded planar longitudinal and transverse flaws: - ligament of 7 mm for 8 mm clad thickness and 3 mm; - ligament for 4 mm clad thickness, notch starting at the carbon steel base material with a length of 20 mm. - Detection of embedded volumetric longitudinal and transverse flaws: - 3 mm diameter side-drilled hole (SDH) for 8 mm clad thickness; ligament, 4 mm. For 4 mm clad thickness: diameter, 2 mm SDH; ligament, 2 mm. All SDHs are 55 mm deep

  13. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  14. A synopsis of the genus Enicostema Bl., nom. cons. (Gentianaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1968-01-01

    In 1759 Linnaeus described an American species under Gentiana, as G. verticillata. In 1781 his son recorded (Suppl. 174) a specimen from India leg. D. D. Fabricius under the same name, without reference to the earlier G. verticillata, and gave a full description. Whether this was just a new record

  15. Stemodia L. (Scrophulariaceae, a Newly Naturalized Genus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shou Liang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stemodia verticillata (Mill. Hassl. (Scrophulariaceae was found in the lowlands of northern Taiwan. This represents a new naturalization not only for this species but also for the genus on this island. A taxonomic account of S. verticillata is treated in this study. A line-drawing, distribution map and photographs of this species are also provided to aid in identification.

  16. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus, Justicia insularis, ewe, follicle, LH. RESUME. Dans le cadre de la caractérisation de l'activité biologique d'ADHJ (extrait aqueux du mélange de feuilles d'Aloe bttettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus, Justicia insularis localement utilisé pour régulariser ...

  17. Estresse salino na germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de niger (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f. Cass. Salt stress on seeds germination and seedlings development of niger (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f. Cass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Baptista Gordin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo de salinização dos solos e das águas subterrâneas e superficiais é um dos mais importantes problemas de degradação ambiental. O niger é uma herbácea anual com potencial para a produção de biodiesel, cujo comportamento em condições salinas ainda é desconhecido. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de niger submetidos a diferentes sais e concentrações. Os tratamentos utilizados corresponderam a três sais: cloreto de potássio (KCl, cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 e cloreto de sódio (NaCl, associados a quatro potenciais osmóticos (-0,3; -0,6; -0,9 e -1,2 MPa. As sementes de niger semeadas diretamente sobre substrato umedecido com água destilada constituíram o controle. O efeito da salinidade na germinação das sementes foi avaliado pela porcentagem, tempo médio e índice de velocidade. As plântulas foram analisadas quanto ao comprimento da parte aérea e raiz e massas fresca e seca de plântulas inteiras. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constituindo-se de um fatorial 3x5 (sais x potenciais osmóticos com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. As sementes de niger são sensíveis a salinidade. A exposição ao NaCl, KCl e CaCl2 a partir do potencial osmótico de -0,3 MPa reduz o poder germinativo e o crescimento de plântulas. Os sais inibem a germinação de sementes do niger no potencial de -1,2 MPa.The soil, and subterranean and superficial water saltiness process is one of the most important environment degradation problems. Niger is an annual herbaceous with biodiesel production potential, which seeds behavior is unknown in saline conditions. In this way, this work aimed to evaluate the niger seeds germination and initial seedlings growth submitted to different salt solutions. The treatments used constituted of three types of salts: NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 at four osmotic potentials (-0.3; -0.6; -0.9 e -1.2 MPa. The niger seeds sowed directly on substrate water moistured constituted the control treatment. The saline effects on seeds germination were evaluated though germination percentage, germination medium time and germination speed index. The Niger seedlings were analyzed through the shoot and root length and fresh and dried mass seedlings. The statistic design used was entirely casualized, constituted by a factorial 3x5 (salts x osmotic potentials with four repetitions of 50 seeds. The Niger seeds are salinity sensitive. Seeds exposition to NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 reduces the germinative ability and the seedlings growth at -0.3 MPa. The salt solutions inhibit the Niger seeds germination at -1.2 MPa.

  18. Turboatomizador e repasse com pistola manual na cobertura de pulverização de agrotóxicos em caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L.f. Air-jet sprayer and spray gun in the pesticide spray coverage of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f. trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Riyuiti Higashibara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do caquizeiro vem crescendo em importância no Brasil e, com o aumento do cultivo, tem havido também incremento dos problemas relacionados a doenças e pragas. A pulverização de agrotóxicos é o método mais utilizado na prevenção e no controle desses problemas e a principal forma de aplicação é a pulverização hidráulica com auxílio de fluxo de ar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variação da taxa de aplicação e do repasse na parte interna das plantas em pulverização com pistola manual, na cobertura de calda das folhas. A pulverização foi realizada em plantas de caquizeiro com 17 anos, utilizando-se equipamento composto de trator e pulverizador turboatomizador. A aplicação foi realizada com duas velocidades de avanço do equipamento, o que promoveu diferentes taxas de aplicação. Para a realização do repasse, utilizou-se pistola manual acoplada ao mesmo equipamento. Para a avaliação da cobertura, utilizou-se calda preparada com corante fluorescente dissolvido em água. Foram coletadas folhas nas posições externa e interna das plantas. Posteriormente, em sala escura e com iluminação ultravioleta para destacar a área atingida pelo corante fluorescente, as superfícies abaxial e adaxial de cada folha foram fotografadas com câmera digital. Cada imagem gerada foi submetida à análise pelo software SIARCS 3.0, resultando em porcentagem de cobertura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subsubdivididas com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial (taxas alta e baixa de aplicação, com e sem repasse manual, localizações interna e externa da folha na planta. Foi avaliada a cobertura das superfícies abaxial e adaxial das folhas. Houve interação significativa entre tratamentos (taxa de aplicação e repasse manual, posição e superfície das folhas. A maior taxa de aplicação promoveu aumento significativo da cobertura na superfície abaxial das folhas, independentemente da posição destas na planta (interna ou externa. Houve efeito do repasse com pistola na cobertura da superfície abaxial das folhas situadas na posição interna, mas não na externa à planta. Considerando que a maioria dos agentes causadores de danos fitossanitários inicia a ocorrência na superfície abaxial das folhas, pode-se concluir que o repasse manual foi mais eficiente do que o aumento da taxa de aplicação, visando à cobertura nas folhas posicionadas no interior da planta.Persimmon crop is growing in importance in Brazil, and with the increase of the production area there also has been an increase in the problems related to diseases and pests. For the control and prevention of these problems, most often it is used pesticides spray, and one of the main techniques is the spray with the aid of air flow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of changes in the application rate and transfer with a spray gun on the leaves mixture coverage. The spraying was performed using tractor and air flow sprayer. The application was performed with two forward speeds of the equipment, leading to different application rates. The transfer was made with a spray gun attached to the same equipment. For the assessment of the coverage it was used a mixture prepared with fluorescent tracer dissolved in water. Leaves were collected in the inside and outside of the tree. Later, in dark room with ultraviolet lighting to highlight the area affected by the fluorescent tracer, the upper and lower surfaces of each leaf were photographed with a digital camera. Each image was subjected to analysis generated by software SIARCS 3.0, resulting in percentage of coverage. It was used a randomized block design with subdivided parcels with four replications, being the treatments in a 2x2x2 factorial scheme (high or low application rate, with or without transfer, inside or outside the tree. The evaluations were made in the upper and lower leaf surfaces. There was significant interaction between treatments (application rate and spray gun transfer, leaf position and surface. High application rate promoted a significant increase in the coverage of the lower leaves, regardless the site in the plant (inside or outside. The inside leaves had a better coverage with the spray gun transfer. As most of the agents of plant damage begin to occur in the lower surface of leaves, it can conclude that the spray gun transfer was more effective to cover the leaves inside the plant than increasing the application rate.

  19. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    ... (Mydophyllum spice turn) and hydrilla (Hyddlla verticfflata). These species, which account for more that two thirds of all noxious aquatic weed acreage in the United States, have similar characteristics...

  20. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (17th) Held at Sacramento, California on 16-18 November 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    inhibit the germination of lettuce seeds (Baltrop and Martin 1983). Several observations are pertinent: (1) the effect is concentration dependent; (2) the...formulations of dichlobenil and fluridone were evaluated for control of hydrilla regrowth from rootstocks and from germinating tubers. Hydrilla tubers were...Carriers for Controlled Release of Fluridone -R. L. Dunn, Southern Research Institute Birmingham, Alabama 10:55 a.m. Herbicide Evaluation Program -T. K. Van

  1. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    monocultures in many areas. In 2001 and 2003, surveys were conducted starting below Amistad Reservoir to immediately below Falcon Reservoir to assess...management programs to inhibit further new infestations locally and downstream. In 2001, 20 sites on the Rio Grande River were surveyed from Amistad Reservoir...the 2001 survey, hydrilla was found in Amistad Reservoir and below Falcon Reservoir. In August 2002, hydrilla fragments were observed in plant

  2. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Low Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    many areas. In 2001 and 2003, surveys were conducted starting below Amistad Reservoir to immediately below Falcon Reservoir to assess the...River were surveyed from Amistad Reservoir to Anzulduas Dam for the presence of hydrilla and other invasive aquatic weed species (Grodowitz et al...to difficulties in accessing the river. During the 2001 survey, hydrilla was found in Amistad Reservoir and below Falcon Reservoir. In August 2002

  3. Application of Elovich equation on uptake kinetics of 137Cs by living freshwater macrophytes - a short duration laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaison, T.J.; Patra, A.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Application of Elovich equation on uptake kinetics of 137 Cs by two living macrophytes during controlled experiments on short duration exposure is studied. Compliance to 2 nd order kinetics indicates the mechanism could be chemi-sorption, involving polar functional groups present on the extracelluar surface of the macrophytes. Data analysis suggests that Myriophyllum s. exhibits faster adsorption rate than Hydrilla v. As Myriophyllum s. exhibits better kinetics than Hydrilla v., former could be a better natural adsorbing media for 137 Cs. (author)

  4. Influence de l'extrait aquueux de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence de l'extrait aquueux de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus et Justicia insularis sur la fertilité et quelques parametres biochemiques de la reproduction chez la rate.

  5. Multibeam collection for NF-09-06-LF: Multibeam data collected aboard Nancy Foster from 2009-06-24 to 2009-07-01, Unknown Port to Unknown Port

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Türk Fermente Sucuğundan İzole Edilen Laktobasillerin Hidrojen Peroksit ve Hidrojen Sülfür Oluşturma Özelliklerinin Saptanması

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Haydar

    2015-01-01

    This study was made with aim to determine H2O2 and H2S forming properties of some lactobacilli (L. sake, L curvatus, L. plantarum)isolated from Turkish fermented sausages. H2O2 forming properties of lactobacilli were determined in MRS-Pyrolusit agar and MRS-ABTS- Peroxidase agar while, H2S forming properties were determined in Lead Acetate agar, Lysine Iron agar and Triple Sugar Iron agar. The 49 strains (77.7%) in MRS-Pyrolusit agar, 52 strains (82.5%) in MRS-ABTS-Peroxidase agar were reacte...

  7. Multibeam collection for NF-10-11-LF: Multibeam data collected aboard Nancy Foster from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-10, Charleston, SC to Charleston, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, M.; Hilchie, A.L.; Haney, E.F.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Hyndman, M.E.; Hancock, R.E.W.; Vogel, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits

  9. A Taxonomy for Radio Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2007-01-01

    Location Fingerprinting (LF) is a promising location technique for many awareness applications in pervasive computing. However, as research on LF systems goes beyond basic methods there is an increasing need for better comparison of proposed LF systems. Developers of LF systems are also lacking...

  10. Inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin B on Enterobacter sakazakii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori

    2008-03-01

    The susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii, a food-borne pathogen, to several metal-bound forms of bovine lactoferrin (LF), pepsin-hydrolyzed LF (LF-hyd), and LF-derived peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B) was tested. MIC and MBC testing revealed that 4 strains of E. sakazakii show susceptibility to apo- and Cu-LF, LF-hyd, and LFcin B, but not to Fe-LF, similarly to Escherichia coli. A growth curve test indicated that E. sakazakii was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by apo-LF at 0.5 to 8 mg/ml. Even after being heated at 80 degrees C, LF at above 1 mg/ml inhibited the bacterial growth. These results suggest that bovine LF-related compounds may be useful for the inhibition of E. sakazakii in foods.

  11. P J Sanjeeva Raj

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 13 Issue 7 July 2008 pp 648-654 General Article. Oysters in a New Classification of Keystone Species · P J Sanjeeva Raj · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 18 Issue 2 February 2013 pp 156-162 General Article. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticilata · Stephen Sumithran P J Sanjeeva Raj · More Details Fulltext ...

  12. Decomposition characteristics of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes and their potential application as carbon resource in constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; He, Shengbing; Zhou, Weili; Gu, Jianya; Huang, Jungchen; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2017-12-01

    Decomposition of aquatic macrophytes usually generates significant influence on aquatic environment. Study on the aquatic macrophytes decomposition may help reusing the aquatic macrophytes litters, as well as controlling the water pollution caused by the decomposition process. This study verified that the decomposition processes of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes (water hyacinth, hydrilla and cattail) could exert significant influences on water quality of the receiving water, including the change extent of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, etc. The influence of decomposition on water quality and the concentrations of the released chemical materials both followed the order of water hyacinth > hydrilla > cattail. Greater influence was obtained with higher dosage of plant litter addition. The influence also varied with sediment addition. Moreover, nitrogen released from the decomposition of water hyacinth and hydrilla were mainly NH 3 -N and organic nitrogen while those from cattail litter included organic nitrogen and NO 3 - -N. After the decomposition, the average carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) in the receiving water was about 2.6 (water hyacinth), 5.3 (hydrilla) and 20.3 (cattail). Therefore, cattail litter might be a potential plant carbon source for denitrification in ecological system of a constructed wetland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Geology of Burma (Myanmar): An Annotated Bibliography of Burma’s Geology, Geography and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Eichornia-Crassipes; Ephydatia-Fluviatilis; Hydrilla; Imperata ; Inle; Intha; Shan; Utricularia. Abstract: cultural data on the people and a bibliography...characterized by dipterocarpus Bibliography of Burman Earth Science September 2008 71 tuberculatus and associated plants; the other by imperata . The

  14. Hydrothermal processing of biomass from invasive aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. James Catallo; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hydrothermal (HT) treatment of three invasive aquatic plants (i.e., Lemna sp., Hydrilla sp., and Eichhornia sp.) with respect to the generation of semi-volatile hydrocarbon product mixtures and biomass volume reduction. Identical HT treatments yielded similar semi-...

  15. CDKL5 regulates flagellar length and localizes to the base of the flagella in Chlamydomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Lai-Wa; Ranum, Paul T.; Lefebvre, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The length of Chlamydomonas flagella is tightly regulated. Mutations in four genes—LF1, LF2, LF3, and LF4—cause cells to assemble flagella up to three times wild-type length. LF2 and LF4 encode protein kinases. Here we describe a new gene, LF5, in which null mutations cause cells to assemble flagella of excess length. The LF5 gene encodes a protein kinase very similar in sequence to the protein kinase CDKL5. In humans, mutations in this kinase cause a severe form of juvenile epilepsy. The LF5 protein localizes to a unique location: the proximal 1 μm of the flagella. The proximal localization of the LF5 protein is lost when genes that make up the proteins in the cytoplasmic length regulatory complex (LRC)—LF1, LF2, and LF3—are mutated. In these mutants LF5p becomes localized either at the distal tip of the flagella or along the flagellar length, indicating that length regulation involves, at least in part, control of LF5p localization by the LRC. PMID:23283985

  16. In trans complementation of lethal factor reveal roles in colonization and dissemination in a murine mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Lowe

    Full Text Available Lethal factor (LF is a component of the B. anthracis exotoxin and critical for pathogenesis. The roles of LF in early anthrax pathogenesis, such as colonization and dissemination from the initial site of infection, are poorly understood. In mice models of infection, LF-deficient strains either have altered dissemination patterns or do not colonize, precluding analysis of the role of LF in colonization and dissemination from the portal of entry. Previous reports indicate rabbit and guinea pig models infected with LF-deficient strains have decreased virulence, yet the inability to use bioluminescent imaging techniques to track B. anthracis growth and dissemination in these hosts makes analysis of early pathogenesis challenging. In this study, the roles of LF early in infection were analyzed using bioluminescent signature tagged libraries of B. anthracis with varying ratios of LF-producing and LF-deficient clones. Populations where all clones produced LF and populations where only 40% of clones produce LF were equally virulent. The 40% LF-producing clones trans complimented the LF mutants and permitted them to colonize and disseminate. Decreases of the LF producing strains to 10% or 0.3% of the population led to increased host survival and decreased trans complementation of the LF mutants. A library with 10% LF producing clones could replicate and disseminate, but fewer clones disseminated and the mutant clones were less competitive than wild type. The inoculum with 0.3% LF producing clones could not colonize the host. This strongly suggests that between 10% and 0.3% of the population must produce LF in order to colonize. In total, these findings suggest that a threshold of LF must be produced in order for colonization and dissemination to occur in vivo. These observations suggest that LF has a major role in the early stages of colonization and dissemination.

  17. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 2. First Year Poststocking Results. Volume VII. A Model for Evaluation of the Response of the Lake Conway, Florida, Ecosystem to Introduction of the White Amur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Ecol. 6:311-338. 175. Widmer, C., T. Kittel, and P. J. Richardson. 1975. A survey of the biological limnology of Lake Titicaca . Verh. Internat. Verein...170 Lake Titicaca 175 0.293 Lake Tahoe 170 0.035 Submersed Plants Hydrila verticillata 1290 Ceratophyllum demersum 4831 Myriophylure spicatum 2097

  18. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology - Vol 3, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... et de I'oestrogenicite de I'extrait aqueux du melange de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus et Justicia insularis chez la rate immature · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PB Telefo, MT Pellicer-Rubio, P Moundipa, FM Tchouanguep, ...

  19. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 1, No 3 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence de l'extrait aquueux de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus et Justicia insularis sur la fertilité et quelques parametres biochemiques de la reproduction chez la rate. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PB Telefo ...

  20. Ogar, Ironya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogar, Ironya. Vol 11, No 5 (2017) - Articles Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata cultivated in Calabar Cross River State, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utu-Baku, Ashang Bonifice. Vol 11, No 5 (2017) - Articles Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata cultivated in Calabar Cross River State, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anosike, Chikaodili. Vol 11, No 5 (2017) - Articles Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata cultivated in Calabar Cross River State, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  3. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. Copyright

  4. Physico-chemical properties of different forms of bovine lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkhim, Huma; Bansal, Nidhi; Grøndahl, Lisbeth; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2013-12-01

    Three forms of bovine lactoferrin (Lf), apo-, native- and holo- with 0.9%, 12.9% and 99.7% iron content, respectively, were characterised for their physico-chemical properties. Colour, surface tension, thermal properties, particle charge and rheological behaviour of Lf were found to be affected by the form of Lf. The surface tension of Lf tends to decrease with decrease in iron content. The Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that all forms of Lf had similar secondary structures while the tertiary structure was different for holo-Lf. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) analysis showed that the apo- and holo-Lf in aqueous solution displayed thermal denaturation temperatures of 71±0.2 and 91±0.5 °C, respectively, suggesting that the iron saturation of Lf tends to increase its thermal stability. The study of particle charge properties (ζ-potential) in 1 mM KCl salt solution showed that apo-Lf reached the net charge of zero in the pH range 5.5-6.5 whereas native and holo-Lf in the pH range 8.0-9.0. The apparent viscosity of 1% (wt/wt) solution of the different forms of Lf showed no difference between apo- and native-Lf (≈1.4 mPas) while the value was significantly higher (2.38 mPas) for holo-Lf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dicty_cDB: VSJ688 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ASNMYYCYHLKKHEIATTQPSTTGLLFFNNYFKTNQFLLYNINQ*nlflki Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: fsfeyvlllsfket*ncnns...tfnnwsfil**lf*nksifii*y*sikfifknlfl*kk-- - ---fsfeyvlllsfket*ncnnstfnnwsfil**lf*nksifii*y*s

  6. Evaluación de una plantación de mauritia flexuosa l.f. (aguaje) con fines de manejo sostenido en el centro de investigación y enseñanza forestal puerto almendras, iquitos - Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Gómez, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The present work developed in the Forestries Faculty of the Amazonía Peruana's University Nacional, He evaluated 2 plantation there is of 16- years sea current of once was installed with handling ends sustained with different separations. The parameters evaluados went : individuals's number with and without stipes, total and partial height, inclination and orientation angle of turning of the leaves, alive leaves, heavy loss of life and survival number and also the ground where the plantation...

  7. 77 FR 14312 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... International, Inc. Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Honeywell International, Inc. ALF502L-2C; ALF502R-3; ALF502R-3A; ALF502R-5; LF507-1F; and LF507-1H turbofan...; ALF502R-3A; ALF502R-5; LF507-1F; and LF507-1H turbofan engines, installed on airplanes of U.S. registry...

  8. 77 FR 32009 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Honeywell International, Inc. ALF502L-2C; ALF502R-3; ALF502R-3A; ALF502R-5; LF507-1F; and LF507-1H turbofan...; ALF502R-3A; ALF502R-5; LF507-1F; and LF507- 1H turbofan engines, installed on airplanes of U.S. registry...

  9. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio; Hilchie, Ashley L; Haney, Evan F; Bolscher, Jan G M; Hyndman, M Eric; Hancock, Robert E W; Vogel, Hans J

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits broad-spectrum anticancer activity, while a similar peptide derived from human LF (hLF) is not as active. In this work, several peptides derived from the N-terminal regions of bLF and hLF were studied for their anticancer activities against leukemia and breast-cancer cells, as well as normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cyclized LFcinB-CLICK peptide, which possesses a stable triazole linkage, showed improved anticancer activity, while short peptides hLF11 and bLF10 were not cytotoxic to cancer cells. Interestingly, hLF11 can act as a cell-penetrating peptide; when combined with the antimicrobial core sequence of LFcinB (RRWQWR) through either a Pro or Gly-Gly linker, toxicity to Jurkat cells increased. Together, our work extends the library of LF-derived peptides tested for anticancer activity, and identified new chimeric peptides with high cytotoxicity towards cancerous cells. Additionally, these results support the notion that short cell-penetrating peptides and antimicrobial peptides can be combined to create new adducts with increased potency.

  10. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrandij, T.; Ligtenberg, Antoon J.; Nazmi, K.; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Bikker, Floris J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide

  11. 76 FR 73489 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...-1F, and LF507-IH turbofan engines. This AD requires removing from service certain second stage high... International Inc. ALF502L-2C, ALF502R-3, ALF502R-3A, ALF502R-5, LF507-1F, and LF507-IH turbofan engines, with...

  12. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of the Leaf and Bark Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of the leaf and bark extracts of Tarchonanathus campharatus.. Methods: The antioxidant activity of the aqueous leaf extract (Aq LF), methanol leaf extract (MET LF), dichloromethane leaf extract (DCM LF), methanol bark extract (MET BK), dichloromethane bark ...

  13. Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Delivery of Lactoferrin in Glioma using Chitosan Nanoparticles: Cellular Location Dependent-Action of Lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf

    2018-05-23

    Lactoferrin (Lf) exerts anti-cancer effects on glioma, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear. Despite possessing a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), Lf was found to allocate only in the cytoplasm of glioma 261. Lf was therefore loaded into nuclear and cytoplasmic targeted nanoparticles (NPs) to determine whether nuclear delivery of Lf would enhance its anti-cancer effect. Upon treatment with 300 and 800 µg/mL Lf loaded chitosan NPs, nuclear targeted Lf-NPs showed 1.3 and 2.7 folds increase in cell viability, whereas cytoplasmic targeted Lf-NPs at 300 µg/mL decreased cell viability by 0.8 folds in comparison to free Lf and controls. Results suggest that the cytotoxicity of Lf on glioma is attributable to its cytoplasmic allocation. Nuclear delivery of Lf induced cell proliferation rather than cytotoxicity, indicating that the mode of action of Lf in glioma is cell location dependent. This calls for caution about the general use of Lf as an anti-cancer protein. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Quantification of specific E. coli in gut mucosa from Crohn's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Struve, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    We here present a method based on qRT-PCR to quantify E. coli LF82 in intestinal human samples. Two different primer-probe sets were designed to detect LF82, and a third to target total E. coli. The assay showed high robustness and specificity for detection of LF82 in the presence of intestinal...

  15. 76 FR 67730 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ..., President, Application Type: Name Change/Trade Name Change Lion Transport, Inc. dba Amex Logistics (NVO... Individual), Caetano R. Lopes, Vice President, Application Type: Add NVO Service Eztrans Logistics Ltd. (NVO... Type: New OFF License LF Freight USA LLC dba LF Logistics dba LF Freight dba IDS Logistics USA, dba IDS...

  16. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  17. Environmental Factors Influencing Blooms of a Neurotoxic Stigonematalan Cyanobacterium Responsible for Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    models provide insights into predicting the seasonal prevalence of Stigonematales in reservoirs. The findings in this technical note suggest that...cultures contained elevated levels of BMAA (Bidigare et al. 2009). There is still no evidence that mammals can contract AVM. Beavers (Castor...discovered in JSTL in 1994, is the most prevalent SAV species. Prior to the introduction of hydrilla, the lake did not support a substantial community

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Lactoferrin on Growth and Biofilm Formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2009-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding antimicrobial protein present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluids, and it is possibly associated with host defense against oral pathogens, including periodontopathic bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of LF-related agents on the growth and biofilm formation of two periodontopathic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which reside as biofilms in the subgingival plaque. The planktonic growth of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was suppressed for up to 5 h by incubation with ≥130 μg/ml of human LF (hLF), iron-free and iron-saturated bovine LF (apo-bLF and holo-bLF, respectively), and ≥6 μg/ml of bLF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B); but those effects were weak after 8 h. The biofilm formation of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia over 24 h was effectively inhibited by lower concentrations (≥8 μg/ml) of various iron-bound forms (the apo, native, and holo forms) of bLF and hLF but not LFcin B. A preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia was also reduced by incubation with various iron-bound bLFs, hLF, and LFcin B for 5 h. In an examination of the effectiveness of native bLF when it was used in combination with four antibiotics, it was found that treatment with ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and minocycline in combination with native bLF for 24 h reduced the amount of a preformed biofilm of P. gingivalis compared with the level of reduction achieved with each agent alone. These results demonstrate the antibiofilm activity of LF with lower iron dependency against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia and the potential usefulness of LF for the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases and as adjunct therapy for periodontal diseases. PMID:19451301

  19. Comparative analysis of virulence traits between a Legionella feeleii strain implicated in Pontiac fever and a strain that caused Legionnaires' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changle; Saito, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Tamami; Amako, Kazunobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    Legionella strains of the same species and serogroup are known to cause Legionnaires' disease (a potentially fatal atypical pneumonia) or Pontiac fever (a mild, flu-like disease), but the bacterial factors that define these dramatic differences in pathology have not been elucidated. To gain a better understanding of these factors, we compared the characteristics of Legionella feeleii strains that were isolated from either a sample of freshwater implicated in an outbreak of Pontiac fever (ATCC 35072, serogroup 1, LfPF), or a patient with Legionnaires' disease (ATCC 38549, serogroup 2, LfLD). Growth of LfPF and LfLD in BYE broth was slower than the positive control, Legionella pneumophila strain JR32. However, LfLD grew faster than LfPF at 42 °C. After in vitro infection to J774 murine or U937 human macrophage cell lines and A549 human lung epithelial cell line, LfLD showed a higher cell infection rate, stronger internalization by host cells, and greater cytotoxicity than that of LfPF. Large amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 were secreted by human host cells after infection with LfLD, but not with LfPF. LfLD possessed mono-polar flagellum while LfPF was unflagellated. When LfLD was cultured at 25, 30 and 37 °C, the bacteria had higher motility rate at lower temperatures. Based on our results, this is the first study that showed distinct characteristics between LfPF and LfLD, which may give important leads in elucidating differences in their virulence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel LDL-mimic nanocarrier for the targeted delivery of curcumin into the brain to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanfei; Asghar, Sajid; Gao, Shiya; Su, Zhigui; Song, Jue; Huo, Meirong; Meng, Weidong; Ping, Qineng; Xiao, Yanyu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a novel low density lipoprotein (LDL)-mimic nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) modified with lactoferrin (Lf) and loaded with curcumin (Cur) was designed for brain-targeted delivery, and its effect on controlling the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rats was evaluated. NLC with the composition resembling the lipid portion of LDL was prepared by using solvent evaporation method. Lf was adsorbed onto the surface of NLC via electrostatic interaction to yield Lf modified-NLC (Lf-mNLC) as the LDL-mimic nanocarrier. In order to make sure more Lf was adsorbed on the surface of NLC, negatively charged carboxylated polyethylene glycol (100) monostearate (S100-COOH) was synthesized and anchored into NLC. Different levels of S100-COOH (0-0.02 mmol) and Lf modified NLC (0.5-2.5 mg/mL of Lf solution) were prepared and characterized. The uptake and potential cytotoxicities of different preparations were investigated in the brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). An AD model of rats was employed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Lf-mNLC. The results indicate that Lf-mNLC with a high level of Lf showed the maximum uptake in BCECs (1.39 folds greater than NLC) as cellular uptake of Lf-mNLC by BCECs was found to be mediated by the Lf receptor. FRET studies showed Cur still wrapped inside NLC after uptake by BCECs, demonstrating stability of the carrier as it moved across the BBB. Ex vivo imaging studies exposed Lf-mNLC could effectively permeate BBB and preferentially accumulate in the brain (2.78 times greater than NLC). Histopathological evaluation confirmed superior efficacy of Lf-mNLC in controlling the damage associated with AD. In conclusion, Lf-mNLC is a promising drug delivery system for targeting therapy of brain disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lactoferrin and prematurity: a promising milk protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is the major whey protein in milk, with multiple beneficial health effects including direct antimicrobial activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and iron homeostasis. Oral Lf supplementation in human preterm infants has been shown to reduce the incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In preclinical models of antenatal stress and perinatal brain injury, bovine Lf protected the developing brain from neuronal loss, improved connectivity, increased neurotrophic factors, and decreased inflammation. It also supported brain development and cognition. Further, Lf can prevent preterm delivery by reducing proinflammatory factors and inhibiting premature cervix maturation. We review here the latest research on Lf in the field of neonatology.

  2. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ortíz-Estrada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf. We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar Kd. However, averages of 9.45 × 105 and 6.65 × 106 binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  3. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortíz-Estrada, Guillermo; Calderón-Salinas, Víctor; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; León-Sicairos, Nidia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe) for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf) and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf). We performed growth kinetics analyses of trophozoites in B-holo-Lf and throughout several consecutive transfers. The virulent parasites showed higher growth and tolerance to iron than nonvirulent parasites. Both amoeba variants specifically bound B-holo-Lf with a similar K d . However, averages of 9.45 × 10(5) and 6.65 × 10(6) binding sites/cell were found for B-holo-Lf in nonvirulent and virulent amoebae, respectively. Virulent amoebae bound more efficiently to human and bovine holo-Lf, human holo-transferrin, and human and bovine hemoglobin than nonvirulent amoebae. Virulent amoebae showed two types of B-holo-Lf binding proteins. Although both amoebae endocytosed this glycoprotein through clathrin-coated vesicles, the virulent amoebae also endocytosed B-holo-Lf through a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Both amoeba variants secreted cysteine proteases cleaving B-holo-Lf. These data demonstrate that the B-Lf endocytosis is more efficient in virulent amoebae.

  4. Radioprotection of mice by lactoferrin against irradiation with sublethal X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Kim, Hee-Sun; Kakuta, Izuru

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a host defense protein, lactoferrin (LF), contained in exocrine secretions such as milk, on radiation disorder was investigated. A total of 25 C3H/He mice in each of two groups were maintained with 0.1% LF-added and LF-free diets, respectively, for one month. The mice were then treated with single whole-body X-ray irradiation at a sublethal dose (6.8 Gy), and the survival rate after irradiation was investigated. The survival rate at 30 d after irradiation was relatively higher in the LF group than in the control group (LF-free), (85 and 62%, respectively). The body weight 15 d after X-ray irradiation was also significantly greater in the LF group than in the control group. The hemoglobin level and hematocrit value were higher in the LF group at 5 d before X-ray irradiation. Another 52 mice underwent whole-body X-ray irradiation at the sublethal dose (6.8 Gy), and then LF was intraperitoneally injected once at 4 mg/animal to half of them. The survival rate in LF-treated mice 30 d after irradiation was 92%, significantly higher than in mice treated with saline (50%) (P = 0.0012). In addition, LF showed hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in vitro. These findings suggest that LF may inhibit radiation damage. (author)

  5. Heparin-immobilized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as a lactoferrin delivery system for improving osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Yun, Young-Pil; Kim, Hak-Jun; Lee, Deok-Won; Shim, Kyu-Sik; Jeon, Daniel I; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to fabricate lactoferrin (LF)-carrying hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp NPs) to enhance osteogenic differentiation of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs). HAp NPs were modified with heparin-dopamine (Hep-DOPA) (Hep-HAp) and further immobilized with LF (LF/Hep-HAp). Heparin immobilization on HAp NPs prevented aggregation of HAp NPs in aqueous solution and prolonged the release of LF from LF/Hep-HAp NPs. In vitro studies of rADSCs have demonstrated that LF-Hep/HAp NPs significantly increase alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and both mRNA expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) in comparison with HAp and Hep-HAp NPs. These results suggest that LF/Hep-HAp NPs can effectively induce osteogenic differentiation of rADSCs. (paper)

  6. Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. (Diaporthales, Cryphonectriaceae) pathogenic to Proteaceae in the South Western Australian Floristic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Colin; Burgess, Treena I

    2013-07-01

    Morphological and DNA sequence characteristics of a pathogenic fungus isolated from branch cankers in Proteaceae of the South West Australian Floristic Region elucidated a new genus and species within Cryphonectriaceae (Diaporthales). The pathogen has been isolated from canker lesions in several Banksia species and Lambertia echinata subsp. citrina, and is associated with a serious decline of the rare B. verticillata. Lack of orange pigment in all observed structures except cirrhi, combined with pulvinate to globose black semi-immersed conidiomata with paraphyses, distinguishes the canker fungus from other genera of Cryphonectriaceae. This was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ITS regions, β-tubulin, and LSU genes. The fungus (sexual morph unknown) is described as Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. Lesions in seedlings of Banksia spp. following wound inoculation and subsequent recovery confirm Koch's postulates for pathogenicity. This pathogen of native Proteaceae is currently an emerging threat, particularly toward B. baxteri and B. verticillata.

  7. Ash characteristics and plant nutrients in some aquatic biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; Pandit, Ankita; George, Joshy; Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Selvi, Vetrivel; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic biomasses are explored as potential fuel source for direct combustion because of their faster growth and no land requirement. The energy density and the ash characteristics of the aquatic biomasses are to be evaluated for their suitability for energy extraction. In the study, four aquatic plant samples namely Eichornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticilleta, Lemna minor, Spirogyra spp were collected from a pond in Digwadih Campus of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad. The biomasses were air dried, powdered and ashed at different temperatures. Volatile C was relatively lower in Spirogyra and Hydrilla (53 %) than Eichornia (62.6 %) or Lemna (59.7 %), whereas fixed C was higher for Eichornia and Lemna (about 10 %) and lower for Hydrilla (1 %). Ultimate analysis showed that the carbon content was in the order Eichornia > Lemna > Spirogyra > Hydrilla. The IR spectra of each raw biomass is compared to their respective ashes obtained at different temperatures (500-900°C). With increase in ashing temperature from 500-900°C there is gradual breakdown of the cellulosic structure hence, peaks around 2900-2800cm-1 caused by aliphatic C-H vibration tends to disappear slowly in ash. More number of peaks appears at lower wavenumbers in ashes of all the biomass samples indicating towards increased percentage of inorganic ion species. Considerable enrichment of SiO2 is validated with prominent peaks at 1100-900 cm-1 in all the ashes. Lemna and Spirogyra has a similar ash composition (Si > Al > Ca > K), whereas, Ca was higher in Hydrilla (Si > Ca > K > Al). Eichornia (Si > K > Ca > Al) has higher K and Ca than Al. SiO2 and Al2O3 were higher in Spirogyra, while SiO2 and CaO in Eichornia and Hydrilla. K first increased from 500-700/800⁰C, and then decreased from 800-900⁰C. Cl is lost slowly in ash from 500-700/800⁰C and then by a drastic reduction from 800-900⁰C. S is enhanced in ash at all temperatures although the change is quite small. Most of the Cl

  8. Pembuatan Arang 4 Jenis Bambu dengan Cara Timbun

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayati, Tjutju

    1990-01-01

    A study on charcoal manufacture using pit method was carried out 4 bamboo species from West Java, namely andong (Gigantochloa verticillata Munro), ater (Gigantochloa ater Kurz), bitung (Dendrocalamus asper Back) and tali (Giganiochloa apus Kurz). The charcoal produced which was completed after 2 days, were then subjected to chemical analysis. The analysis consist of specific gravity, moisture content, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon. In addition to the abou...

  9. Comparisons of host mitochondrial, nuclear and endosymbiont bacterial genes reveal cryptic fig wasp species and the effects of Wolbachia on host mtDNA evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasp species usually display a highly specific one-to-one association. However, more and more studies have revealed that the "one-to-one" rule has been broken. Co-pollinators have been reported, but we do not yet know how they evolve. They may evolve from insect speciation induced or facilitated by Wolbachia which can manipulate host reproduction and induce reproductive isolation. In addition, Wolbachia can affect host mitochondrial DNA evolution, because of the linkage between Wolbachia and associated mitochondrial haplotypes, and thus confound host phylogeny based on mtDNA. Previous research has shown that fig wasps have the highest incidence of Wolbachia infection in all insect taxa, and Wolbachia may have great influence on fig wasp biology. Therefore, we look forward to understanding the influence of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA evolution and speciation in fig wasps. Results We surveyed 76 pollinator wasp specimens from nine Ficus microcarpa trees each growing at a different location in Hainan and Fujian Provinces, China. We found that all wasps were morphologically identified as Eupristina verticillata, but diverged into three clades with 4.22-5.28% mtDNA divergence and 2.29-20.72% nuclear gene divergence. We also found very strong concordance between E. verticillata clades and Wolbachia infection status, and the predicted effects of Wolbachia on both mtDNA diversity and evolution by decreasing mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusions Our study reveals that the pollinating wasp E. verticillata on F. microcarpa has diverged into three cryptic species, and Wolbachia may have a role in this divergence. The results also indicate that Wolbachia strains infecting E. verticillata have likely resulted in selective sweeps on host mitochondrial DNA.

  10. The primary study of the radiosensitive effect on the H460 cell line by human lactotransferrin high expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Wang Yan; Du Liqing; Yang Qingshan; Wang Yueying; Fan Feiyue

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible radiosensitive effect of human Lactotransferrin (hLF) high expression in lung cancer cell, we hereby constructed and transfected a recombinant vector pBC1 containing exogenous hLF gene. Methods: Firstly the recombinant plasmid pBC1-hLF was transferred into H460 and the hLF expression was evaluated by western blotting. Then we test the cell viability, apoptosis and clone formation after radiation along with the standard hLF treatment control. Results: The results showed that the hLF gene had been successfully transfect into H460 cells and hLF high expression can reduce the clone formation after radiation (P<0.01), and inhibit the cell proliferation with induced apoptosis (P<0.01). And the sensitization ratio of hLF treated and pBC1-hLF transfected were 1.29, 1.59. Conclusion: Our primary data shows that hLF high expression can radio sensitize the H460 cell in vitro. (authors)

  11. Role of UV-inducible proteins in repair of various wild-type Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedliakova, M.; Slezarikova, V.; Brozmanova, J.; Masek, F.; Bayerova, V.

    1980-01-01

    3 wild-type strains of E. coli, namely K12 AB2497, B/r WP2 and 15 555-7, proficient in excision and post-replication repair, differ markedly in their UV resistance. To elucidate this difference, the influence was investigated of induction by application of inducing fluence (IF) before lethal fluence (LF) on repair processes after LF. In cells distinguished by low UV resistance (E. coli 15 555-7; E. coli B/r WP2), dimer excision was less complete in cultures irradiated with IF + LF than in cultures irradiated with LF only. The highly resistant E. coli K12 AB2497 performed complete excision both after IF + LF or after LF alone. All 3 types of cell survived better after IF + LF than after LF only. Because, in most strains so far investigated, the application of IF reduced dimer excision and increased survival, dimer excision per se does not appear important for survival. We conclude that the rate and completeness of dimer excision can serve as a measure of efficiency of the excision system whose action is necessary for repair of another lesion. Cells of all investigated strains could not resume DNA replication and died progressively when irradiated with LF and post-incubated with chloramphenicol (LF CAP + ). Thus, it appears that inducible proteins are necessary for repair in all wild-type E. coli cells given with potentially lethal doses of UV irradiation. (orig.)

  12. Bovine lactoferrin decreases cholera-toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice by ganglioside interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton P Rivera

    Full Text Available Secretory diarrhea caused by cholera toxin (CT is initiated by binding of CT's B subunit (CTB to GM1-ganglioside on the surface of intestinal cells. Lactoferrin, a breast milk glycoprotein, has shown protective effect against several enteropathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of bovine-lactoferrin (bLF on CT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice, and the interaction between bLF and CT/CTB with the GM1-ganglioside receptor. Fluid accumulation induced by CT was evaluated in the mouse ileal loop model using 56 BALB/c mice, with and without bLF added before, after or at the same time of CT administration. The effect of bLF in the interaction of CT and CTB with GM1-ganglioside was evaluated by a GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. bLF decreased CT-induced fluid accumulation in the ileal loop of mice. The greatest effect was when bLF was added before CT (median, 0.066 vs. 0.166 g/cm, with and without bLF respectively, p<0.01. We conclude that bLF decreases binding of CT and CTB to GM1-ganglioside, suggesting that bLF suppresses CT-induced fluid accumulation by blocking the binding of CTB to GM1-ganglioside. bLF may be effective as adjunctive therapy for treatment of cholera diarrhea.

  13. Mammary mechanisms for lactoferrin: interactions with IGFBP-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumrucker C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf is an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammary secretions but synthesized by many tissues. Bovine mammary tissue secretes microg/ml mass of Lf in milk, but during involution and prepartum periods, 20-80 mg per ml concentrations may be observed. While a number of functions have been ascribed to lactoterrin, only the antimicrobial and lymphocyte interactions have compelling experimental evidence of support. We report a new finding that lactoferrin binds to insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 and not to other mammary secreted IGFBPs (IGFBP-2, -4. and -5. Furthermore, bovine Lf(bLf is found associated with membranes of mammary cells. We demonstrate that bovine Lf competes with IGF for binding to IGFBP-3 with ED50 competition of 3 microg per ml and displacement of 1 mg per ml to monomeric bLf. The tetrameric form that is favored by high concentrations of Lf and calcium, does not appear to bind IGFBP-3. Both IGFBP-3 and Lf have nuclear localization sequences that are reported to he key components of nuclear localization of proteins. We demonstrate that extracellular IGFBP-3 binds to membrane Lf and that Lf is the key to the entry of IGFBP-3 to mammary cellular nucleus. Additionally, we have shown that the internalization of Lf requires the presence of retinoids that also induces both IGFBP-3 and Lf synthesis in primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells. We hypothesize a new role for Lf in the regulation and integration into the IGF System.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 in the ligamentum flavum from lumbar spinal canal stenosis patients with and without diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Guanyu; Watanabe, Kota; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is one of the most common spinal disorders in the elderly, and ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy is an important cause of LSCS. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) can degrade fibrillar collagens and elastic microfibrils, and is involved in inflammation and fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of MMP13 in the LF from LSCS patients with diabetes mellitus [DM (+)] with that in the LF from patients without DM [DM (-)] and to analyze the relationship among DM, MMP13 expression, and LF hypertrophy. LFs from 11 DM (+) and 24 DM (-) LSCS patients were analyzed in this study. Histology analysis using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stain was performed for each LF. The expression of MMP13 was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The thickness of LF was measured by CT. In the LF from DM (+) LSCS patients, the elastic fibers were more disorganized and had lower volumes than in the LF from DM (-) LSCS patients, while more fibrotic tissue was observed in the LF from DM (+) than from DM (-) LSCS patients. MMP13 expression was significantly higher in the LF from DM (+) LSCS patients (0.46±0.61 vs. 0.05±0.09, P=0.002). The LF from the DM (+) LSCS patients was significantly thicker than that from the DM (-) LSCS patients (5.0±0.9 vs. 3.1±0.8 mm, P<0.01), and the thickness was correlated with the expression of MMP13 (correlation coefficient=0.43, P=0.01, Pearson's correlation test). DM-related MMP13 expression can be one of the factors contributing to fibrosis and hypertrophy of the LF. Further research on the mechanism of this process may lead to new therapies for LF hypertrophy. (author)

  15. Effect of the ionic strength of pulsed electric field treatment medium on the physicochemical and structural characteristics of lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qian; Roginski, Hubert; Williams, Roderick P W; Wooster, Tim J; Versteeg, Cornelis; Wan, Jason

    2010-11-24

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (35 kV cm(-1) for 19.2 μs using bipolar 2 μs pulses) was conducted on bovine lactoferrin (LF; 0.4 mg mL(-1)) prepared in simulated milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF), at concentrations between 0.2× and 2× normal strength, with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.17 to 1.04 S m(-1). The physicochemical and structural characteristics (LF content by a spectrophotometric and an ELISA method, surface hydrophobicity, electrophoretic mobility, far-UV circular dichroism spectra, and tryptophan fluorescence) of LF dissolved in SMUF of all strengths tested were not changed after PEF treatment. The PEF treatment of LF in 0.2 strength SMUF did not cause the release of LF-bound ferric ion into the aqueous phase, with a concentration of LF-bound iron being the same as that of the untreated LF control (174 μg L(-1)). However, in treatment media with higher ionic strengths, ferric ion was released from the LF molecule into the aqueous phase. The concentration of LF-bound iron decreased from 174 μg L(-1) for the LF treated in 0.2 strength SMUF to 80 μg L(-1) for that treated in double-strength SMUF. The results suggest that the PEF-induced iron depletion of LF does not appear to cause an appreciable conformational change in LF molecules. PEF treatment could be developed as a novel physical way to produce iron-depleted LF, as an alternative to the existing chemical method.

  16. Immunolocalization of lactoferrin in surgically resected pigmented skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Tuccari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf expression was determined immunohistochemically in 57 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bioptic samples obtained from an equal number of patients treated by surgery to remove pigmented skin lesions (nevi = 23; melanoma = 12; vulgaris and seborrhoeic warts = 12; basal cell carcinoma = 10; in addition, 10 specimens of normal skin were studied as control. On 3 ?m thick sections, depigmentation and antigen retrieval procedures were performed. The Lf immunoreactivity was revealed by a rabbit anti-human Lf. Quantification of Lf immunoreactivity was performed using an intensity-distribution (ID score. Melanocytic cells, regardless of their benign or malignant nature, were consistently stained, with no significant differences in the Lf IDscore between melanomas or nevi. A different intensity of Lf immunoreactivity was encountered in superficial portions of warts, exclusively inside squamous epithelial cells arranged in sheets or whorls of keratin. On the contrary, basal cell carcinomas were always unstained, while a slight Lf positivity was found in focal keratinized areas present in two tumours showing baso-squamous differentiation. The Lf immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and only occasionally in the nucleus. The biological meaning of Lf in these cases of human skin specimens remains unexplained, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the defense system against tumours, or alternatively, may be used by cells requiring iron availability for their turnover. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of Lf in melanocytic lesions might be also related to a Lf-melanin interaction. Finally, the involvement of Lf in skin squamous non-neoplastic elements could be related to its role as one of the molecules modulating an unspecific inflammatory or anti-oxidant response.

  17. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  18. Light-front quantization of field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Prem P. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincare algebra and the LF spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory, regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons. (author). 20 refs.

  19. Light-front quantization of field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1996-07-01

    Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincare algebra and the LF spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory, regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons. (author). 20 refs

  20. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Iglesias-Figueroa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf, an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly.

  1. Interference of the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B with the action of various antibiotics against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorland, L H; Osbakk, S A; Perstølen, T; Ulvatne, H; Rekdal, O; Svendsen, J S; Gutteberg, T J

    1999-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, lactoferricin, can be generated upon gastric pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin. We have examined the interaction of lactoferricin of bovine origin, Lf-cin B, with the antibiotics penicillin G, vancomycin, gentamicin, colistin, D-cycloserine and erythromycin against E. coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. We demonstrated synergism between Lf-cin B and erythromycin against E. coli, and partial synergism between Lf-cin B and penicillin G, vancomycin and gentamicin against E. coli. Only penicillin G acted in partial synergism with Lf-cin B against S. aureus. Lf-cin B antagonized vancomycin and gentamicin against S. aureus in low concentration. We conclude that Lf-cin B may facilitate the uptake of antibiotics across the cell envelope.

  2. Understanding the cryptic nature of Lassa fever in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Rory; Moses, Lina M; Redding, David W; Jones, Kate E

    2017-09-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is increasingly recognized by global health institutions as an important rodent-borne disease with severe impacts on some of West Africa's poorest communities. However, our knowledge of LF ecology, epidemiology and distribution is limited, which presents barriers to both short-term disease forecasting and prediction of long-term impacts of environmental change on Lassa virus (LASV) zoonotic transmission dynamics. Here, we synthesize current knowledge to show that extrapolations from past research have produced an incomplete picture of the incidence and distribution of LF, with negative consequences for policy planning, medical treatment and management interventions. Although the recent increase in LF case reports is likely due to improved surveillance, recent studies suggest that future socio-ecological changes in West Africa may drive increases in LF burden. Future research should focus on the geographical distribution and disease burden of LF, in order to improve its integration into public policy and disease control strategies.

  3. Binding and Endocytosis of Bovine Hololactoferrin by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Ort?z-Estrada, Guillermo; Calder?n-Salinas, V?ctor; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; Le?n-Sicairos, Nidia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that requires iron (Fe) for its metabolic function and virulence. Bovine lactoferrin (B-Lf) and its peptides can be found in the digestive tract after dairy products are ingested. The aim of this study was to compare virulent trophozoites recently isolated from hamster liver abscesses with nonvirulent trophozoites maintained for more than 30 years in cultures in vitro regarding their interaction with iron-charged B-Lf (B-holo-Lf). We performed growth ...

  4. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J.; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Bikker, Floris J.

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17–30 and LFampin265–284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria w...

  5. Long-term effects of psychosocial factors of home and work on biomarkers of stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Kristiansen, Jesper; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    LF/HF. In work, lack of control was associated with low LnTP, and lack of support was associated with an increased LnLF/HF ratio. For men, high social status was associated with low LnTP, low LnHF and high LnCortisol. Greater number of hours spent doing housework was associated with both low LnLF/HF and low Ln...

  6. Human lactoferrin stimulates skin keratinocyte function and wound re-epithelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Wu, J J; Ma, Q; Cui, T; Andreopoulos, F M; Gil, J; Valdes, J; Davis, S C; Li, J

    2010-07-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLF), a member of the transferrin family, is known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies on various nonskin cell lines indicate that hLF may have a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation. To study the potential role of hLF in wound re-epithelialization. The effects of hLF on cell growth, migration, attachment and survival were assessed, with a rice-derived recombinant hLF (holo-rhLF), using proliferation analysis, scratch migration assay, calcein-AM/propidium iodide staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method, respectively. The mechanisms of hLF on cell proliferation and migration were explored using specific pathway inhibitors. The involvement of lactoferrin receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was examined with RNA interference technique. An in vivo swine second-degree burn wound model was also used to assess wound re-epithelialization. Studies revealed that holo-rhLF significantly stimulated keratinocyte proliferation which could be blocked by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 1 inhibitor. Holo-rhLF also showed strong promoting effects on keratinocyte migration, which could be blocked by either inhibition of the MAPK, Src and Rho/ROCK pathways, or downregulation of the LRP1 receptor. With cells under starving or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate exposure, the addition of holo-rhLF was found greatly to increase cell viability and inhibit cell apoptosis. Additionally, holo-rhLF significantly increased the rate of wound re-epithelialization in swine second-degree burn wounds. Our studies demonstrate the direct effects of holo-rhLF on wound re-epithelialization including the enhancement of keratinocyte proliferation and migration as well as the protection of cells from apoptosis. The data strongly indicate its potential therapeutic applications in wound healing.

  7. Mapping the epitopes of a neutralizing antibody fragment directed against the lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis and cross-reacting with the homologous edema factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Thullier

    Full Text Available The lethal toxin (LT of Bacillus anthracis, composed of the protective antigen (PA and the lethal factor (LF, plays an essential role in anthrax pathogenesis. PA also interacts with the edema factor (EF, 20% identity with LF to form the edema toxin (ET, which has a lesser role in anthrax pathogenesis. The first recombinant antibody fragment directed against LF was scFv 2LF; it neutralizes LT by blocking the interaction between PA and LF. Here, we report that scFv 2LF cross-reacts with EF and cross-neutralizes ET, and we present an in silico method taking advantage of this cross-reactivity to map the epitope of scFv 2LF on both LF and EF. This method identified five epitope candidates on LF, constituted of a total of 32 residues, which were tested experimentally by mutating the residues to alanine. This combined approach precisely identified the epitope of scFv 2LF on LF as five residues (H229, R230, Q234, L235 and Y236, of which three were missed by the consensus epitope candidate identified by pre-existing in silico methods. The homolog of this epitope on EF (H253, R254, E258, L259 and Y260 was experimentally confirmed to constitute the epitope of scFv 2LF on EF. Other inhibitors, including synthetic molecules, could be used to target these epitopes for therapeutic purposes. The in silico method presented here may be of more general interest.

  8. Antibacterial effects of lactoferricin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorland, L H; Ulvatne, H; Andersen, J; Haukland, H H; Rekdal, O; Svendsen, J S; Gutteberg, T J

    1999-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide, lactoferricin, can be generated upon gastric pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin. We have examined the inhibitory efficacy of lactoferricin of bovine origin (Lf-cin B) on Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus with or without a cell wall. We found that spheroplasts and protoplasts had a lower MIC than their counterparts with a cell wall. We also compared the efficacies of Lf-cin B (17-31) made of all L-amino acids and all D-amino acids. The peptide made of all D-amino acids was more active than the corresponding L-enantiomer. Furthermore, we examined the influence of Lf-cin B on the motility of E. coli and the influence of temperature on the susceptibility of bacteria exposed to Lf-cin B. Bacteria exposed to sub-MIC of Lf-cin B lost their motility. Bacteria exposed to Lf-cin B at 20 degrees C were more sensitive to Lf-cin B than when exposed at 37 degrees C. These findings indicate that the cell envelope is a limiting step for Lf-cin B to exert its antibiotic effect. We cannot rule out a receptor-mediated first step for Lf-cin B (17-31).

  9. Attenuation of massive cytokine response to the staphylococcal enterotoxin B superantigen by the innate immunomodulatory protein lactoferrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, J L; Kasper, K J; Leon-Ponte, M; Herfst, C A; Yue, D; Brintnell, W C; Mazzuca, D M; Heinrichs, D E; Cairns, E; Madrenas, J; Hoskin, D W; McCormick, J K; Haeryfar, S M M

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a pyrogenic exotoxin and a potent superantigen which causes massive T cell activation and cytokine secretion, leading to profound immunosuppression and morbidity. The inhibition of SEB-induced responses is thus considered a goal in the management of certain types of staphylococcal infections. Lactoferrin (LF) is a multi-functional glycoprotein with both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. In addition, LF is known to have potent immunomodulatory properties. Given the anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties of this protein, we hypothesized that LF can modulate T cell responses to SEB. Here, we report that bovine LF (bLF) was indeed able to attenuate SEB-induced proliferation, interleukin-2 production and CD25 expression by human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4 transgenic mouse T cells. This inhibition was not due to bLF's iron-binding capacity, and could be mimicked by the bLF-derived peptide lactoferricin. Cytokine secretion by an engineered SEB-responsive human Jurkat T cell line and by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors was also inhibited by bLF. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized property of LF in modulation of SEB-triggered immune activation and suggest a therapeutic potential for this naturally occurring protein during toxic shock syndrome. PMID:19659771

  10. Untersuchungen an Eisen- und Lanthanoidhaltigen Koordinationsclustern mit Triazolat- sowie Semiquinonato-Liganden

    OpenAIRE

    Kriese, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Magnetische Untersuchungen an Lanthanoiddimeren mit Semiquinonato-Liganden. Gemischtvalente Eisen-Koordinationsclustern. Lanthanoid-Koordinationscluster mit zwölf Lanthanoiden aber mit verschiedenen Clusterladungen.

  11. Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Haitian immigrants and the risk of re-emergence of lymphatic filariasis in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Fidelis da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a public health problem in Haiti. Thus, the emigration of Haitians to Brazil is worrisome because of the risk for LF re-emergence. METHODS: Blood samples of Haitian immigrants, aged ≥18 years, who emigrated to Manaus (Brazilian Amazon, were examined using thick blood smears, membrane blood filtration, and immunochromatography. RESULTS: Of the 244 immigrants evaluated, 1 (0.4% tested positive for W. bancrofti; 11.5% reported as having received LF treatment in Haiti. CONCLUSIONS: The re-emergence of LF in Manaus is unlikely, due to its low prevalence and low density of microfilaremia among the assessed Haitian immigrants.

  12. Effect of lactoferrin on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Peng, Lei; Zi Xu, Hua; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2012-03-01

    Many in vitro studies of the analysis of the lactoferrin (LF) effect on cells have been reported. However, no study has yet investigated the effect of LF on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LF on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells. The hADSCs were cultured in an osteogenic medium with 0, 10, 50 and 100 μg/ml LF, respectively. hADSC proliferation was analysed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, von Kossa staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was significantly increased by LF in a dose-dependent manner from days 4 to 14. Cells cultured with 100 μg/ml LF presented a higher activity compared with the control. The deposition of calcium was increased after the addition of LF. The mRNA expression of type I collagen (COL-I), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and RUNX2 increased markedly as a result of LF treatment. We have shown for the first time that LF could promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs, which could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  13. Serum disposition of bovine lactoferrin after oral and anal administration and its proteolytic cleavage by gastric transit in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Stefano; Caputo, Anna R

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown an immunomodulatory effect of orally administered bovine lactoferrin (LF) in fish, but the process of digestion was not characterized. In the present study, we investigated the fate of bovine LF after oral and anal administration, and studied the appearance of intact LF in the bloodstream and its proteolytic attack during the gastric transit in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) held at 9 degrees C and 18 degrees C. Data obtained showed the presence of intact bovine LF in the bloodstream only after anal administration in fish held at 18 degrees C and the presence of several peptides derived from bovine LF in the gastric content. Immunoblotting analysis showed that only a part of bovine LF-derived peptides reacted with the applied anti-bovine LF antibody. The concentration of intact bovine LF, after 30 min of administration, in the gastric content of fish reared at 18 degrees C, being extremely low, if any, led us to suspect that the immunoregulatory effect of dietary bovine LF shown in fish by several authors is not due to the intact form but to bioactive fragments, originated by the proteolytic attack during the gastric transit, as demonstrated in higher vertebrates.

  14. [Development and comparative evaluation of up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow assay for rapid detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfeng; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Yong; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Chengbin; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    To develop an up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow (UPT-LF) assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp.and make the comparison with BioThreat Alert (BTA) test strips (Tetracore Inc., USA). Using up-converting phosphor nano-particles (UCP-NPs) as the bio-marker, three double-antibody-sandwich model based UPT-LF strips including Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF, Brucella-UPT-LF were prepared and its sensitivity, accuracy, linearity and specificity were determined by detecting 10(10), 10(9), 10(8), 10(7), 10(6), 10(5) and 0 CFU/ml series of concentrations of Y.pestis, B.anthracis, Brucella standards and other 27 kinds of 10(9) CFU/ml series of contrations of bacteria strains.Furthermore, the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of bacteria standards and simulated sample detection were compared between UPT-LF and BTA system. The detection limit of Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF and Brucella-LF was 10(5) CFU/ml. The CV of series of bacteria concentrations was ≤ 15%, and the r between lg (T/C-cut-off) and lg (concentration) was 0.996,0.998 and 0.999 (F values were 1 647.57, 743.51 and 1 822.17. All the P values were Brucella-LF were excellent, while that of Anthrax-UPT-LF was a little bit regretful because of non-specific reaction with two isolates of B. subtilis and one B.cereus. On-site evaluation showed the detection time of UPT-LF for all Y.pestis, B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp.was 33, 36 and 37 min, while BTA was 115, 115 and 111 min, which revealed the higher detection speed and sensitivity of UPT-LF comparing with BTA. The negative rate of two methods for blank standard was both 5/5, the sensitivity of UPT-LF for Y.pestis,B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp. was all 10(5) CFU/ml, then BTA was 10(6), 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively. The detection rate of UPT-LF for all three bacteria analog positive samples was 16/16, while BTA for B.anthracis was 7/16 only. The good performance

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSF280 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available slated Amino Acid sequence qi*KHCIKLTFIKKK--- ---SNSKVVVIWING*hhlkfvillmvligksiemvvlllliviviqlplislilqlelv q...lf pvefksipliaitlghidttsadatgtnvyqqtrvdvqainvtx Frame B: snlktly*infy*kk--- ---SNSKVVVIWING*hhlkfvillmvligksiem

  16. UMTRA ground water sampling techniques: Comparison of the traditional and low flow methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the potential changes in water quality data that may occur with the conversion from MBV (multiple bore volume) to LF (low flow) sampling and provides two examples of how such a change might impact Project decisions. The existing scientific literature on LF sampling is reviewed and the new LF data from three UMTRA Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites are evaluated seeking answers to the questions posed above. Several possible approaches, that the UMTRA Project may take to address issues unanswered by the literature are presented and compared, and a recommendation is offered for the future direction of the LF conversion effort

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHH309 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GGTAAAGGNATGCAAAACTGTAAAAATTAAATAACTCTTTT sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence scspstgcvntpiscddknpctvdscnns...p*tvnvmtfvtlvnvvkiqenvitdkkivmiiiqkqlivaiprlvnvltnhimlsqvvli *slv*lvvslvvvqevkxcktvkik*lf Frame C: scspstgcvntpiscddknpctvdscnns

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLC789 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kaq**ffslfrsssckregilrifkkynilfrsckske*ntlsslslis kcfiql*ekclg*wfnriktfv**ifrlyg**lcnnsityfrmycigwlnlif*sitn...lf*nvwfn lenvglpsw*skaq**ffslfrsssckregilrifkkynilfrsckske*ntlsslslis kcfiql*ekclg*wfnriktfv**ifrlyg**lcnnsi

  19. Storage Stability of Dried Microsclerotia of the Biological Control Pathogen Mycoleptodiscus Terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    packed in polyethylene bags, and stored at 4 ºC on 3/6/07, 5/15/07, 6/13/07, and 7/11/07. Dry material was shipped overnight in refrigerated...into plastic weigh boats for aquarium efficacy testing on hydrilla (see below) and for spore production bioassays. After use, the polyethylene bags were...Introduction to Fungi . 3rd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. NOTE: The contents of this technical note are not to be used for advertising

  20. US Department of Agriculture/Corps of Engineers Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Research. Annual Report for FY 1982. Biological and Chemical Control Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    pollen. Fruits and seeds have not yet been observed in the United States. Pollination . Although the female hydrilla flower has been abundant at many U.S...The flowers can only be pollinated in the air. The female flower reaches the water surface by elongation of the hypanthium (flower "stalk"). The petals...Both the experimental herbicides N-252 and S-734 were effective against waterhyacinth at the treatment rate of 5.6 kg/ha (Table 30). Water lettuce was

  1. [The role of lactoferrin in the proper development of newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk contain, in addition to nutritional constituents, also proteins crucial for the normal development of the offspring. Lactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of iron-binding proteins and exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial and immunotropic properties. LF is particularly resistant to proteolytic degradation in alimentary tract, in contrast to other milk proteins, e.g. casein. In any case, LF-derived peptides also possess potent antibacterial activities. LF is absorbed from the intestine by means of specific receptors located on brush border cells. Administered orally, LF stimulates both local and systemic immune response. LF plays a role in the absorption of nutrients. The protein can deliver such metal ions as iron, manganese, and zinc and facilitate the absorption of sugars. LF stimulates the proliferation of gut endothelial cells and the growth of gut-associated lymphatic follicles. This property suggests the possibility of applying LF in premature infants and patients with damaged intestinal mucus. LF controls the proper composition of the gut microflora. It suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria while promoting the multiplication of nonpathogenic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Newborns fed an artificial diet develop harmful microflora (Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, Escherichia). The non-pathogenic microflora ensures low pH, produces some vitamins, increases the activity of NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages, promotes the production of protective immunoglobulins, and lowers the risk of allergies. In studies on mice, LF was found to be protective in bacteremia and endotoxemia. The protein stimulates the activity of reticulo-endothelial system cells and elicits myelopoiesis, thus increasing the killing and clearance of bacteria. In the model of experimental endotoxemia, LF inhibits the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive forms of oxygen. LF can also promote the differentiation of T

  2. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  3. Bovine lactoferrin counteracts Toll-like receptor mediated activation signals in antigen presenting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Puddu

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LF, a key element in mammalian immune system, plays pivotal roles in host defence against infection and excessive inflammation. Its protective effects range from direct antimicrobial activities against a large panel of microbes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, to antinflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we show that monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs generated in the presence of bovine LF (bLF fail to undergo activation by up-modulating CD83, co-stimulatory and major histocompatibility complex molecules, and cytokine/chemokine secretion. Moreover, these cells are weak activators of T cell proliferation and retain antigen uptake activity. Consistent with an impaired maturation, bLF-MD-DC primed T lymphocytes exhibit a functional unresponsiveness characterized by reduced expression of CD154 and impaired expression of IFN-γ and IL-2. The observed imunosuppressive effects correlate with an increased expression of molecules with negative regulatory functions (i.e. immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 and programmed death ligand 1, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3. Interestingly, bLF-MD-DCs produce IL-6 and exhibit constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation. Conversely, bLF exposure of already differentiated MD-DCs completely fails to induce IL-6, and partially inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR agonist-induced activation. Cell-specific differences in bLF internalization likely account for the distinct response elicited by bLF in monocytes versus immature DCs, providing a mechanistic base for its multiple effects. These results indicate that bLF exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by skewing monocyte differentiation into DCs with impaired capacity to undergo activation and to promote Th1 responses. Overall, these bLF-mediated effects may represent a strategy to block excessive DC activation upon TLR-induced inflammation, adding

  4. Enhancement of endotoxin neutralization by coupling of a C12-alkyl chain to a lactoferricin-derived peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Antibacterial peptide acylation, which mimics the structure of the natural lipopeptide polymyxin B, increases antimicrobial and endotoxin-neutralizing activities. The interaction of the lactoferricin-derived peptide LF11 and its N-terminally acylated analogue, lauryl-LF11, with different chemotypes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS Re, Ra and smooth S form) was investigated by biophysical means and was related to the peptides' biological activities. Both peptides exhibit high antibacterial activity against the three strains of Salmonella enterica differing in the LPS chemotype. Lauryl-LF11 has one order of magnitude higher activity against Re-type, but activity against Ra- and S-type bacteria is comparable with that of LF11. The alkyl derivative peptide lauryl-LF11 shows a much stronger inhibition of the LPS-induced cytokine induction in human mononuclear cells than LF11. Although peptide–LPS interaction is essentially of electrostatic nature, the lauryl-modified peptide displays a strong hydrophobic component. Such a feature might then explain the fact that saturation of the peptide binding takes place at a much lower peptide/LPS ratio for LF11 than for lauryl-LF11, and that an overcompensation of the negative LPS backbone charges is observed for lauryl-LF11. The influence of LF11 on the gel-to-liquid-crystalline phase-transition of LPS is negligible for LPS Re, but clearly fluidizing for LPS Ra. In contrast, lauryl-LF11 causes a cholesterol-like effect in the two chemotypes, fluidizing in the gel and rigidifying of the hydrocarbon chains in the liquid-crystalline phase. Both peptides convert the mixed unilamellar/non-lamellar aggregate structure of lipid A, the ‘endotoxic principle’ of LPS, into a multilamellar one. These data contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of the peptide-mediated neutralization of endotoxin and effect of lipid modification of peptides. PMID:15344905

  5. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  6. Effect of low frequency magnetic fields on melanoma: tumor inhibition and immune modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Yunzhong; Du, Leilei; Mou, Yongbin; Xu, Zhenjun; Weng, Leihua; Du, Youwei; Zhu, Yanan; Hou, Yayi; Wang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that the low frequency magnetic fields (LF-MF) inhibited gastric and lung cancer cell growth. We suppose that exposure to LF-MF may modulate immune function so as to inhibit tumor. We here investigated whether LF-MF can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of melanoma and influence immune function. The effect of MF on the proliferation, cell cycle and ultrastracture of B16-F10 in vitro was detected by cell counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Lung metastasis mice were prepared by injection of 2 × 10 5 B16-F10 melanoma cells into the tail vein in C57BL/6 mice. The mice were then exposed to an LF-MF (0.4 T, 7.5 Hz) for 43 days. Survival rate, tumor markers and the innate and adaptive immune parameters were measured. The growth of B16-F10 cells was inhibited after exposure to the LF-MF. The inhibition was related to induction of cell cycle arrest and decomposition of chromatins. Moreover, the LF-MF prolonged the mouse survival rate and inhibited the proliferation of B16-F10 in melanoma metastasis mice model. Furthermore, the LF-MF modulated the immune response via regulation of immune cells and cytokine production. In addition, the number of Treg cells was decreased in mice with the LF-MF exposure, while the numbers of T cells as well as dendritic cells were significantly increased. LF-MF inhibited the growth and metastasis of melanoma cancer cells and improved immune function of tumor-bearing mice. This suggests that the inhibition may be attributed to modulation of LF-MF on immune function and LF-MF may be a potential therapy for treatment of melanoma

  7. Final report Task Order Number B239641 between the Regents of the University of California and Institute of Experimental Physics task 1: Conceptual design. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galakhov, I.V.; Kirillov, G.A.; Murugov, V.M.

    1994-11-01

    The current worldwide developmental status of high power lasers and pumping systems for laser ignition facilities is presented. Design philosophies of pulsed power systems for laser fusion (LF) research facilities are discussed. A conceptual design of the facility pulsed power systems is discussed in detail. In conclusion, a thorough analysis of current worldwide LF research is given

  8. An explicit formula for a star product with separation of variables

    OpenAIRE

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    For a star product with separation of variables * on a pseudo-Kaehler manifold we give a simple closed formula of the total symbol of the left star multiplication operator L_f by a given function f. The formula for the star product f * g can be immediately recovered from the total symbol of L_f.

  9. Prevalence de l'hypertension arterielle et des principaux facteurs de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence de l'hypertension arterielle et des principaux facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire en milieu professionnel a Lome. ... La definition de lfhypertension arterielle retenue etait celle de lfOMS et JNC VI (TA . 140/90 mmHg. Un examen clinique et un bilan minimal de lfOMS etaient realises pour chaque travailleur.

  10. Comparing low frequency heart rate variability and preejection period: Two sides of a different coin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, A.D.; Willemsen, G.; Houtveen, J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the ratio of heart rate variability in the low- (LF) and high- (HF) frequency bands may capture variation in cardiac sympathetic control. Here we tested the temporal stability of the LF/HF ratio in 24-h ambulatory recordings and compared this ratio to the preejection

  11. Community dermatology in practice: Control of morbidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected disease of the poor, prevalent in 78 countries. ... the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) several years ago. The first objective is to ... In India there is no major public health intervention against filariasis. However, for ... found to have insufficient knowledge of LF when assessed ...

  12. Bovine and human lactoferricin peptides: chimeras and new cyclic analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, M.; McDonald, L.J.; Haney, E.F.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Vogel, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important antimicrobial and immune regulatory protein present in neutrophils and most exocrine secretions of mammals. The antimicrobial activity of LF has been related to the presence of an antimicrobial peptide sequence, called lactoferricin (LFcin), located in the N-terminal

  13. Lactobacillus plantarum- Bifidobacterium longum and Strept

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... The kinetics of acidification (pH and lactic acid production) gave significant values (p < 0.01) for .... milk LF1 and LF2 was noted after coagulation (p < 0, 05). It was noted that .... Sugar and acid contents in soymilk. Int. Dairy J.

  14. Organ bacteriological dynamics in Heterobranchus bidorsalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary intake of Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their combination on selected tissue bacteriology of Heterobranchus bidorsalis juveniles was investigated. Ten experimental diets at 41.0% crude protein were prepared to include Lf1 (basal diet + 10¹cfu/mL Lactobacillus fermentum), Lf2 ...

  15. Measurement of the Low Frequency Noise of MOSFETs under Large Signal RF Excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2002-01-01

    A measurement technique [1] is presented that allows measurement of MOSFET low frequency (LF) noise under large signal RF (Radio Frequency) excitation. Measurements indicate that MOSFETS exhibit a reduction in LF noise when they are cycled from inversion to accummulation and that this reduction does

  16. Low frequency sounds in dwellings : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Frits (G P)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the level and spectral distribution of low frequency (LF) sounds in dwellings. Measurements of broad and narrow hand sound levels have been made in 36 Dutch dwellings in 1998. In 19 dwellings there were complaints about LF noise, in 17 others no

  17. The luminosity function and formation rate history of GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmani, C.; Avila-Reese, V.; Ghisellini, G.; Tutukov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The isotropic luminosity function (LF) and formation rate history (FRH) of long GRBs is by the first time constrained by using jointly both the observed GRB peak-flux and redshift distributions. Our results support an evolving LF and a FRH that keeps increasing after z = 2. We discuss some interesting implications related to these results

  18. Fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis can be discriminated from healthy controls by the recordings of a newly developed measurement system (FAMOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Bilberg, Arne; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    FAMOS indicate that fatigued MS patients have reduced standard deviation (SD) of the heart rate (HR) during the short-term memory test, reduced high frequency (HF) component power spectrum (representing parasympathetic activation) at rest after walk test, and higher ratio of low frequency (LF) to HF (LF...

  19. Human Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Anatomy for Epidural Anesthesia: Reviewing a 3D MR-Based Interactive Model and Postmortem Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reina, Miguel A.; Lirk, Philipp; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The ligamentum flavum (LF) forms the anatomic basis for the loss-of-resistance technique essential to the performance of epidural anesthesia. However, the LF presents considerable interindividual variability, including the possibility of midline gaps, which may influence the performance of epidural

  20. Self-assembled polymersomes conjugated with lactoferrin as novel drug carrier for brain delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Pang, Zhiqing; Lu, Wei; Yin, Qi; Gao, Huile; Jiang, Xinguo

    2012-01-01

    To develop a novel brain drug delivery system based on self-assembled poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) polymersomes conjugated with lactoferrin (Lf-POS). The brain delivery properties of Lf-POS were investigated and optimized. Three formulations of Lf-POS, with different densities of lactoferrin on the surface of polymersomes, were prepared and characterized. The brain delivery properties in mice were investigated using 6-coumarin as a fluorescent probe loaded in Lf-POS (6-coumarin-Lf-POS). A neuroprotective peptide, S14G-humanin, was incorporated into Lf-POS (SHN-Lf-POS); a protective effect on the hippocampuses of rats treated by Amyloid-β(25-35) was investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. The results of brain delivery in mice demonstrated that the optimized number of lactoferrin conjugated per polymersome was 101. This obtains the greatest blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability surface area(PS) product and percentage of injected dose per gram brain (%ID/g brain). Immunohistochemistry revealed the SHN-Lf-POS had a protective effect on neurons of rats by attenuating the expression of Bax and caspase-3 positive cells. Meanwhile, the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) had been increased compared with negative controls. These results suggest that lactoferrin functionalized self-assembled PEG-PLGA polymersomes could be a promising brain-targeting peptide drug delivery system via intravenous administration.

  1. A novel protein tyrosine phosphatase like phytase from Lactobacillus fermentum NKN51: Cloning, characterization and application in mineral release for food technology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rekha; Kumar, Piyush; Kaushal, Vandana; Das, Rahul; Kumar Navani, Naveen

    2018-02-01

    A novel protein tyrosine phosphatase like phytase (PTPLP), designated as PhyLf from probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum NKN51 was identified, cloned, expressed and characterized. The recombinant PhyLf showed specific activity of 174.5 U/mg. PhyLf exhibited strict specificity towards phytate and optimum temperature at 60 °C, pH 5.0 and ionic strength of 100 mM. K m and K cat of PhyLf for phytate were 0.773 mM and 84.31 s -1 , respectively. PhyLf exhibited high resistance against oxidative inactivation. PhyLf shares no homology, sans the active site with reported PTLPs, warranting classification as a new subclass. Dephytinization of durum wheat and finger millet under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions using PhyLf enhanced the bioaccessibility of mineral ions. Probiotic origin, phytate specificity, resistance to oxidative environment and gastric milieu coupled with ability to release micronutrients are unique properties of PhyLf which present a strong case for its use in ameliorating nutritional value of cereals and animal feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tips for deciphering and quick calculation of radiation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenco, M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Radiation spectra from ultra-relativistic electrons in thin [Tll lf(ω)] and thick [Tgg lf(ω)] targets are discussed. The method of simplified averaging is described by examples of Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect and radiation at doughnut scattering. General infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic properties of radiation spectra are discussed.

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum- Bifidobacterium longum and Strept

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... α-NH2 released in μM/mg) and total proteins (in µg/mg) gave significant values (p < 0.05) for LF2 when compared to LF1. ... INTRODUCTION. Throughout .... samples was performed under denaturing conditions as described.

  4. Detekce, identifikace a typizace dermatofytů molekulárně genetickými metodami

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čmoková, A.; Hamal, P.; Svobodová, L.; Hubka, Vít

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), s. 175-186 ISSN 1803-6597 Grant - others:Universita Karlova(CZ) 1344214; 1. LF UK(CZ) LF_2014/021 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : detection * mycosis * dermatophytes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Correction of dyslipidemia resulting from high fat diets with purified anthocyanins from blueberry or strawberry but not in context of the complete berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male C57BL/6 mice received diets with either 10% of kcal from fat (LF), a high fat diet [45% (HF45) or 60% (HF60) kcal from fat]. In the first study the diets were prepared with or without freeze dried powders from whole blueberries (BB) and strawberries (SB). In the 2nd study, a LF or HF60 diet was...

  6. Bovine lactoferrin regulates cell survival, apoptosis and inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and preterm pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Stensballe, Allan; Bendixen, Emøke; Sangild, Per T; Chatterton, Dereck E W

    2016-04-29

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) may modulate neonatal intestinal inflammation. Previous studies in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) indicated that moderate bLF doses enhance proliferation whereas high doses trigger inflammation. To further elucidate cellular mechanisms, we profiled the porcine IEC proteome after stimulation with bLF at 0, 0.1, 1 and 10g/L by LC-MS-based proteomics. Key pathways were analyzed in the intestine of formula-fed preterm pigs with and without supplementation of 10g/L bLF. Levels of 123 IEC proteins were altered by bLF. Low bLF doses (0.1-1g/L) up-regulated 11 proteins associated with glycolysis, energy metabolism and protein synthesis, indicating support of cell survival. In contrast, a high bLF dose (10g/L) up-regulated three apoptosis-inducing proteins, down-regulated five anti-apoptotic and proliferation-inducing proteins and 15 proteins related to energy and amino acid metabolism, and altered three proteins enhancing the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway. In the preterm pig intestine, bLF at 10g/L decreased villus height/crypt depth ratio and up-regulated the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and HIF-1α, indicating elevated intestinal apoptosis and inflammation. In conclusion, bLF dose-dependently affects IECs via metabolic, apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. It is important to select an appropriate dose when feeding neonates with bLF to avoid detrimental effects exerted by excessive doses. The present work elucidates dose-dependent effects of bLF on the proteomic changes of IECs in vitro supplemented with data from a preterm pig study confirming detrimental effects of enteral feeding with the highest dose of bLF (10g/L). The study contributes to further understanding on mechanisms that bLF, as an important milk protein, can regulate the homeostasis of the immature intestine. Results from this study urge neonatologists to carefully consider the dose of bLF to supplement into infant formula used for preterm neonates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  7. Influence of limit-feeding and time of day of feed availability to growing calves on growth performance and feeding behavior in cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto, L D; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Islas, A; Swanson, K C

    2017-11-01

    Objective swere to determine the effects of limit-feeding and time of feed access in cold weather on growth performance and feeding behavior of growing calves fed a corn silage-based diet. Sixty-six steers (BW = 317 ± 5.3 kg) and 30 heifers (BW = 239 ± 7.6 kg) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment: 1) ad libitum feed intake (AL), 2) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the daytime (0601-1759 h; LF-D), 3) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the nighttime (1800-0559 h; LF-N), and 4) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis, split 1/2 in the daytime and 1/2 in the nighttime (LF-S). Feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored over 84 d using the Insentec feeding system. Average daily gain, DMI, and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.002) in the AL group compared with others. Dry matter intake was not different ( = 0.17) when comparing the LF-D with the LF-N groups. Average daily gain and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.05) when comparing the LF-N group to the LF-D group, and were not different ( ≥ 0.51) when comparing the LF-S group with the mean of the LF-D and LF-N groups. Number of visits and meals per d was greater ( ≤ 0.001) in the LF-N than the LF-D group. Feed intake per visit was not different ( = 0.55) when comparing the AL group and others, and tended to be greater ( = 0.06) in the LF-D than the LF-N group. Feed intake per meal was greater ( Feed intake per minute (eating rate) was not influenced by treatment. In conclusion, limit-feeding at 80% of ad libitum intake decreased ADG and G:F. Limit-feeding in the nighttime as compared to limit-feeding in the daytime improves growth performance and increases feeding activity (number of visits and meals per d) which could be because of increased heat production to help maintain body temperature and thus reduce maintenance energy requirements.

  8. Modal structure of variations in the tropical climate system. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, T.P.; Graham, N.

    1992-01-01

    Simulations with ocean and atmospheric general circulation models and a hybrid coupled model reproduce well the observed features of variability in the low frequency (LF) mode described in Part I. The model results show the origins of the LF to be in the ocean and suggest this phenomenon is a natural mode of the tropical Pacific Basin. Air-sea interactions amplify the ocean mode by a factor of 5-6 so it obtains climatological importance. These same interactions introduce the LF to the atmosphere. The physical processes responsible for these results are presented. The LF mode of interannual variability is not directly driven by the annual cycle. But it does depend importantly on the fact that the ocean-atmosphere coupling strength vary with respect to the annual cycle. The LF mode appears to be rather sharply peaked in wave number space but broadbanded in frequency space. (orig.)

  9. Urban lymphatic filariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.

    2013-01-01

    parasite species causing LF in humans, only Wuchereria bancrofti has been documented to have a significant potential for urban transmission. This is primarily because one of its vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus, thrives and proliferates excessively in crowded city areas with poor sanitary, sewerage...... impact. However, with rapid and unplanned growth of cities in the developing world, there is a need also to consider LF transmission and control in urban settings. Here, we review currently available knowledge on urban LF and the environmental and socio-economic basis for its occurrence. Among the three...... and drainage facilities. For this reason, urban LF also often shows a marked focality in distribution, with most cases clustered in areas inhabited by the less privileged city populations. More knowledge on urban LF is needed, in particular on its socio-economic and human behavioural context, on the potential...

  10. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  11. Procrastination as a Fast Life History Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Bin Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed that procrastination—the purposive delay of an intended course of action—is a maladaptive behavior. However, by drawing on an evolutionary life history (LF approach, the present study proposes that procrastination may be an adaptive fast LF strategy characterized by prioritizing immediate benefits with little regard to long-term consequences. A total of 199 undergraduate students completed measures of procrastination and future orientation and the Mini-K scale, which measures the slow LF strategy. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as predicted, procrastination was negatively associated with a slow LF strategy both directly and indirectly through the mediation of future orientation. These results define the fast LF origin of procrastination.

  12. Evaluation of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis in Three Senegalese Districts Treated for Onchocerciasis with Ivermectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana O Wilson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF are co-endemic in many areas. Current efforts to eliminate both diseases are through ivermectin-based mass drug administration (MDA. Years of ivermectin distribution for onchocerciasis may have interrupted LF transmission in certain areas. The Kédougou region, Senegal, is co-endemic for LF and onchocerciasis. Though MDA for onchocerciasis started in 1988, in 2014 albendazole had not yet been added for LF. The objective of this study was to assess in an integrated manner the LF and onchocerciasis status in the three districts of the Kédougou region after ≥10 years of ivermectin-based MDA. The study employed an African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC onchocerciasis-related methodology. In the three districts, 14 villages close to three rivers that have Simulium damnosum breeding sites were surveyed. Convenience sampling of residents ≥5 years old was performed. Assessment for LF antigenemia by immunochromatographic testing (ICT was added to skin snip microscopy for onchocerciasis. Participants were also tested for antibodies against Wb123 (LF and Ov16 (onchocerciasis antigens. In two districts, no participants were ICT or skin snip positive. In the third district, 3.5% were ICT positive and 0.7% were skin snip positive. In all the three districts, Wb123 prevalence was 0.6%. Overall, Ov16 prevalence was 6.9%. Ov16 prevalence among children 5-9 years old in the study was 2.5%. LF antigenemia prevalence was still above treatment threshold in one district despite ≥10 years of ivermectin-based MDA. The presence of Ov16 positive children suggested recent transmission of Onchocerca volvulus. This study showed the feasibility of integrated evaluation of onchocerciasis and LF but development of integrated robust methods for assessing transmission of both LF and onchocerciasis are needed to determine where MDA can be stopped safely in co-endemic areas.

  13. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin exert antitumor activities on human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) by activating various signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rulan; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is present at high concentrations in milk. Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a peptide fragment generated by pepsin proteolysis of bovine lactoferrin (bLf). LfcinB consists of amino acid residues 17-41 proximal to the N-terminus of bLf and a disulfide bond between residues 19 and 36, forming a loop. Both bLf and LfcinB have been demonstrated to have antitumor activities. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in developed countries. We hypothesized that bLf and LfcinB exert antitumor activities on colon cancer cells (HT-29) by triggering various signaling pathways. bLf and LfcinB significantly induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells but not in normal human intestinal epithelial cells, as revealed by the ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay. The LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay showed that both bLf and LfcinB reduced the viability of HT-29 cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated that bLf, cyclic LfcinB, and linear LfcinB exerted antitumor activities by differentially activating diverse signaling pathways, including p53, apoptosis, and angiopoietin signaling. Immunoblotting results confirmed that both bLf and LfcinBs increased expression of caspase-8, p53, and p21, critical proteins in tumor suppression. These results provide valuable information regarding bLf and LfcinB for potential clinical applications in colon cancer therapy.

  14. Oral lactoferrin protects against experimental candidiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliyagounder, K; Alsaedi, W; Alabdulmohsen, W; Markowitz, K; Fine, D H

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of human lactoferrin (hLF) in protecting the oral cavities of mice against Candida albicans infection in lactoferrin knockout (LFKO(-/-)) mice was compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We also aim to determine the protective role of hLF in LFKO(-/-) mice. Antibiotic-treated immunosuppressed mice were inoculated with C. albicans (or sham infection) by oral swab and evaluated for the severity of infection after 7 days of infection. To determine the protective role of hLF, we added 0·3% solution of hLF to the drinking water given to some of the mice. CFU count, scoring of lesions and microscopic observations were carried out to determine the severity of infection. LFKO(-/-) I mice showed a 2 log (P = 0·001) higher CFUs of C. albicans in the oral cavity compared to the WT mice infected with C. albicans (WTI). LFKO(-/-) I mice given hLF had a 3 log (P = 0·001) reduction in CFUs in the oral cavity compared to untreated LFKO(-/-) I mice. The severity of infection, observed by light microscopy, revealed that the tongue of the LFKO(-/-) I mice showed more white patches compared to WTI and LFKO(-/-) I + hLF mice. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that more filiform papillae were destroyed in LFKO(-/-) I mice when compared to WTI or LFKO(-/-) I + hLF mice. Human LF is important in protecting mice from oral C. albicans infection. Administered hLF may be used to prevent C. albicans infection. Human LF, a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein can be used as a therapeutic active ingredient in oral healthcare products against C. albicans. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Validating a Local Failure Risk Stratification for Use in Prospective Studies of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Tucker, Kai N.; Bekelman, Justin E.; Herr, Harry W.; Lerner, Seth P.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To inform prospective trials of adjuvant radiation therapy (adj-RT) for bladder cancer after radical cystectomy, a locoregional failure (LF) risk stratification was proposed. This stratification was developed and validated using surgical databases that may not reflect the outcomes expected in prospective trials. Our purpose was to assess sources of bias that may affect the stratification model's validity or alter the LF risk estimates for each subgroup: time bias due to evolving surgical techniques; trial accrual bias due to inclusion of patients who would be ineligible for adj-RT trials because of early disease progression, death, or loss to follow-up shortly after cystectomy; bias due to different statistical methods to estimate LF; and subgrouping bias due to different definitions of the LF subgroups. Methods and Materials: The LF risk stratification was developed using a single-institution cohort (n=442, 1990-2008) and the multi-institutional SWOG 8710 cohort (n=264, 1987-1998) treated with radical cystectomy with or without chemotherapy. We evaluated the sensitivity of the stratification to sources of bias using Fine-Gray regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results: Year of radical cystectomy was not associated with LF risk on univariate or multivariate analysis after controlling for risk group. By use of more stringent inclusion criteria, 26 SWOG patients (10%) and 60 patients from the single-institution cohort (14%) were excluded. Analysis of the remaining patients confirmed 3 subgroups with significantly different LF risks with 3-year rates of 7%, 17%, and 36%, respectively (P<.01), nearly identical to the rates without correcting for trial accrual bias. Kaplan-Meier techniques estimated higher subgroup LF rates than competing risk analysis. The subgroup definitions used in the NRG-GU001 adj-RT trial were validated. Conclusions: These sources of bias did not invalidate the LF risk stratification or substantially change the model's LF estimates.

  16. Prebiotic effects of bovine lactoferrin on specific probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Wen; Liu, Zhen-Shu; Kuo, Tai-Chen; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Li, Zhe-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a natural iron-binding protein and it has been suggested to be a prebiotic agent, but this finding remains inconclusive. This study explores the prebiotic potential of bLf in 14 probiotics. Initially, bLf (1-32 mg/mL) treatment showed occasional and slight prebiotic activity in several probiotics only during the late experimental period (48, 78 h) at 37 °C. We subsequently supposed that bLf exerts stronger prebiotic effects when probiotic growth has been temperately retarded. Therefore, we incubated the probiotics at different temperatures, namely 37 °C, 28 °C, room temperature (approximately 22-24 °C), and 22 °C, to retard or inhibit their growth. As expected, bLf showed more favorable prebiotic activity in several probiotics when their growth was partially retarded at room temperature. Furthermore, at 22 °C, the growth of Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. delbrueckii, L. acidophilus, B. angulatum, B. catenulatum, and L. paraplantarum were completely blocked. Notably, these probiotics started regrowing in the presence of bLf (1-32 mg/mL) in a significant and dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, bLf significantly increased the growth of Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. rhamnosus, and L. paracasei (BCRC 17483; a locally isolated strain) when their growth was retarded by incubation at 22 °C. In conclusion, bLf showed inconsistent prebiotic activity in the 14 probiotics at 37 °C, but revealed strong prebiotic activity in 10 probiotic strains at 22 °C. Therefore, this study enables determining additional roles of Lf in probiotic strains, which can facilitate developing novel combinational approaches by simultaneously using Lf and specific probiotics.

  17. Techos verdes y el confort térmico en Angostillo, Veracruz, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Melgarejo, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Se diseñó un prototipo de techo verde con enredaderas tropicales y se evaluó el confort térmico brindado por éste en viviendas de una zona rural tropical. Con base en entrevistas a viveristas de la región centro de Veracruz y un recorrido de campo, se preseleccionaron cinco especies Mandevilla sanderi, Solandra maxima, Passiflora edulis, Thunbergia alata y Cissus verticillata. Se evaluó la adaptabilidad de éstas al ambiente sobre techos modelo en condiciones de campo, midiendo sus tasas de cr...

  18. Terpenes of Salvia species leaf oils: chemosystematic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Coassini Lokar, Laura; Moneghini, Mariarosa

    2017-01-01

    Wild specimens of Salvia L. were collected in three different moments of anthesis and their volatile leaf oils were analyzed by GC/GCMS. The quantitative terpene composition is very variable with the anthesis. S. bertolonii is the richest species in a-thujone. S. officinalis is characterized by high percentages of 1,8 cineole, 4-terpineol, isorboneol and a -bisabolol. In S. verticillata high percentages of borneol and {3-cariophyllene are present. In the three species a-thujone was always mor...

  19. Lactoferrin inhibits dexamethasone-induced chondrocyte impairment from osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of FASL, FAS, and Caspase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Yihui; Xue, Huaming; Francis, Wendy; Davies, Andrew P.; Pallister, Ian; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Xia, Zhidao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Dex exerts dose-dependant inhibition of HACs viability and induction of apoptosis. •Dex-induced impairment of chondrocytes was attenuated by rhLF. •ERK and FASL/FAS signaling are involved in the effects of rhLF. •OA patients with glucocorticoid-induced cartilage damage may benefit from treatment with rhLF. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (Dex) is commonly used for osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, Dex also has many side effects following repeated use over prolonged periods mainly through increasing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Lactoferrin (LF) exerts significantly anabolic effect on many cells and little is known about its effect on OA chondrocytes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether LF can inhibit Dex-induced OA chondrocytes apoptosis and explore its possible molecular mechanism involved in. MTT assay was used to determine the optimal concentration of Dex and recombinant human LF (rhLF) on chondrocytes at different time and dose points. Chondrocytes were then stimulated with Dex in the absence or presence of optimal concentration of rhLF. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated using MTT and LIVE/DEAD assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by multi-parameter apoptosis assay kit using both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), FAS, FASL, and Caspase-3 (CASP3) at the mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The optimal concentration of Dex (25 μg/ml) and rhLF (200 μg/ml) were chosen for the following experiments. rhLF significantly reversed the detrimental effect of Dex on chondrocytes proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. In addition, rhLF significantly prevented Dex-induced down-regulation of ERK and up-regulation of FAS, FASL, and CASP3. These findings demonstrated that rhLF acts as

  20. Lactobacillus fermentum Suo Attenuates HCl/Ethanol Induced Gastric Injury in Mice through Its Antioxidant Effects

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    Huayi Suo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo on HCl/ethanol induced gastric injury in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research mice and explain the mechanism of these effects through the molecular biology activities of LF-Suo. The studied mice were divided into four groups: healthy, injured, LF-Suo-L and LF-Suo-H group. After the LF-Suo intragastric administration, the gastric injury area was reduced compared to the injured group. The serum MOT (motilin, SP (substance P, ET (endothelin levels of LF-Suo treated mice were lower, and SS (somatostatin, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide levels were higher than the injured group mice. The cytokine IL-6 (interleukin 6, IL-12 (interleukin 12, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α and IFN-γ (interferon-γ serum levels were decreased after the LF-Suo treatment. The gastric tissues SOD (superoxide dismutase, GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase, NO (nitric oxide and activities of LF-Suo treated mice were increased and MDA (malondialdehyde activity was decreased compared to the injured group mice. By the RT-PCR assay, LF-Suo raised the occludin, EGF (epidermal growth factor, EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor, Fit-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, IκB-α (inhibitor kappaB-α, nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase, eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT (catalase mRNA or protein expressions and reduced the COX-2, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappaB, and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions in gastric tissues compared to the gastric injured group mice. A high concentration (1.0 × 109 CFU/kg b.w. of LF-Suo treatment showed stronger anti-gastric injury effects compared to a low concentration of (0.5 × 109 CFU/kg b.w. of LF-Suo treatment. LF-Suo also showed strong survival in pH 3.0 man-made gastric juice and hydrophobic properties. These results indicate that LF-Suo has potential use as

  1. Lactoferrin inhibits dexamethasone-induced chondrocyte impairment from osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of FASL, FAS, and Caspase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Yihui [Department of Orthopaedics, Yangpu District Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, 450 Tengyue Road, Shanghai (China); Xue, Huaming [Department of Orthopaedics, Yangpu District Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, 450 Tengyue Road, Shanghai (China); Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Francis, Wendy [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Davies, Andrew P. [Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Moriston Hospital, Swansea (United Kingdom); Pallister, Ian; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Xia, Zhidao, E-mail: zhidao.xia@gmail.com [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Dex exerts dose-dependant inhibition of HACs viability and induction of apoptosis. •Dex-induced impairment of chondrocytes was attenuated by rhLF. •ERK and FASL/FAS signaling are involved in the effects of rhLF. •OA patients with glucocorticoid-induced cartilage damage may benefit from treatment with rhLF. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (Dex) is commonly used for osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, Dex also has many side effects following repeated use over prolonged periods mainly through increasing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Lactoferrin (LF) exerts significantly anabolic effect on many cells and little is known about its effect on OA chondrocytes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether LF can inhibit Dex-induced OA chondrocytes apoptosis and explore its possible molecular mechanism involved in. MTT assay was used to determine the optimal concentration of Dex and recombinant human LF (rhLF) on chondrocytes at different time and dose points. Chondrocytes were then stimulated with Dex in the absence or presence of optimal concentration of rhLF. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated using MTT and LIVE/DEAD assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by multi-parameter apoptosis assay kit using both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), FAS, FASL, and Caspase-3 (CASP3) at the mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The optimal concentration of Dex (25 μg/ml) and rhLF (200 μg/ml) were chosen for the following experiments. rhLF significantly reversed the detrimental effect of Dex on chondrocytes proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. In addition, rhLF significantly prevented Dex-induced down-regulation of ERK and up-regulation of FAS, FASL, and CASP3. These findings demonstrated that rhLF acts as

  2. Significant decline in lymphatic filariasis associated with nationwide scale-up of insecticide-treated nets in Zambia

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    M. Nsakashalo-Senkwe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a mosquito-borne disease, broadly endemic in Zambia, and is targeted for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC to at-risk populations. Anopheline mosquitoes are primary vectors of LF in Africa, and it is possible that the significant scale-up of malaria vector control over the past decade may have also impacted LF transmission, and contributed to a decrease in prevalence in Zambia. We therefore aimed to examine the putative association between decreasing LF prevalence and increasing coverage of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs for malaria vector control, by comparing LF mapping data collected between 2003–2005 and 2009–2011 to LF sentinel site prevalence data collected between 2012 and 2014, before any anti-LF MDA was started. The coverage of ITNs for malaria was quantified and compared for each site in relation to the dynamics of LF. We found a significant decrease in LF prevalence from the years 2003–2005 (11.5% CI95 6.6; 16.4 to 2012–2014 (0.6% CI95 0.03; 1.1; at the same time, there was a significant scale-up of ITNs across the country from 0.2% (CI95 0.0; 0.3 to 76.1% (CI95 71.4; 80.7 respectively. The creation and comparison of two linear models demonstrated that the geographical and temporal variation in ITN coverage was a better predictor of LF prevalence than year alone. Whilst a causal relationship between LF prevalence and ITN coverage cannot be proved, we propose that the scale-up of ITNs has helped to control Anopheles mosquito populations, which have in turn impacted on LF transmission significantly before the scale-up of MDA. This putative synergy with vector control has helped to put Zambia on track to meet national and global goals of LF elimination by 2020.

  3. Removal of Escherichia coli via low frequency electromagnetic field in riverbank filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Rossitah; Abustan, Ismail; Rizal Arshad, Mohd; Mokhtar Kamal, Nurul Hana

    2018-04-01

    The removal of Escherichia coli (E. coli) via low frequency of electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) with different magnetic field was studied. LF-EMF is known as a high magnetic susceptibility method, which could affect E. coli growth without the usage of chemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of E. coli by using LF-EMF in water abstraction for the riverbank filtration (RBF) application. The effect of LF-EMF with the intensity of 2 to 10mT and 50Hz on coiled column of 1mm copper wire at 1 to 6 hours was assessed. The removal of E. coli after exposing to LF-EMF on the column model was measured using most probable number (MPN/100mL) and colonies forming unit (CFU/100mL) methods. Water flows into the column were varied up to 6 hours and with flowrate of 100 mL/min. Experimental results demonstrate that 100% of E. coli was removed at 8mT after 6 hours exposure. The magnetic field at 10mT removed 100% of E. coli after 4 hours exposure. The results obtained in this study proved that the LF-EMF was efficient in E. coli removal from RBF system. These finding indicated that the LF-EMF intensities and time of exposure can affect the removal of E. coli.

  4. [Nutritional components and sub-chronic toxicity of genetically modified rice expressing human lactoferrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichun; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2012-01-01

    To compare the nutritional components of genetically modified rice expressing human lactoferrin (hLf) with its parental rice, and to observe the sub-chronic toxicity of hLf rice. The nutritional components of hLf rice and its parental rice were determined by the National Standard Methods. Eighty weanling Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups based on their gender and body weight: group A (hLf rice high-dose group with 71.45% rice), group B (hLf rice medium-dose group with 35. 725% rice), group C (parental rice group with 71.01% rice) and group D (AIN-93G diet group), and the latter two groups were used as the control. Body weight, dietary intake, blood routine test, blood biochemical examination, organ coefficient, bone density and the pathology of organs were investigated at the end of a 90-day feeding experiment. Except for human lactoferrin and Fe, there was no difference of main nutritional components, minerals and vitamins between groups. The differences of some indicators of blood routine (WBC, HGB, RBC and MCH), blood biochemistry (AST and GLU), organ coefficient and bone density between group A and B (hLf rice) with group C (parental rice) or group D (AIN-93G) were significant, while no difference of other indicators. Although some differences were observed, all indicators were still in the normal reference range. Therefore, there was no sign of toxic and adverse effects for hLf rice on rats.

  5. Inhibition of HSV cell-to-cell spread by lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Sandvik, Kjersti; Andersen, Jeanette H; Hancock, Robert E W; Gutteberg, Tore J

    2008-09-01

    The milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) has multiple functions, including immune stimulation and antiviral activity towards herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2); antiviral activity has also been reported for the N-terminal pepsin-derived fragment lactoferricin (Lfcin). The anti-HSV mode of action of Lf and Lfcin is assumed to involve, in part, their interaction with the cell surface glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate, thereby blocking of viral entry. In this study we investigated the ability of human and bovine Lf and Lfcin to inhibit viral cell-to-cell spread as well as the involvement of cell surface glycosaminoglycans during viral cell-to-cell spread. Lf and Lfcin from both human and bovine origin, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Inhibition of cell-to-cell spread by bovine Lfcin involved cell surface chondroitin sulfate. Based on transmission electron microscopy studies, human Lfcin, like bovine Lfcin, was randomly distributed intracellularly, thus differences in their antiviral activity could not be explained by differences in their distribution. In contrast, the cellular localization of iron-saturated (holo)-Lf appeared to differ from that of apo-Lf, indicating that holo- and apo-Lf may exhibit different antiviral mechanisms.

  6. Altered luminosity functions for relativistically beamed objects. II - Distribution of Lorentz factors and parent populations with complex luminosity functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urry, C.M.; Padovani, P.

    1991-01-01

    In a previous paper, Urry and Shafer (1984) showed that the observed luminosity function (LF) of objects that have part or all of their emission relativistically beamed was a double power law, flat at the faint end and steep at the bright end, so that the ratio of beamed sources to parents was a strong function of luminosity. These calculations are extended here for more realistic LFs required for actual tests of a unified theory of AGN. The observed LF of the beam-dominated objects is generally flatter than the parent LF, so that the number density ratio is a strong function of luminosity and can easily be greater than unity at high luminosities, even for gradual low-luminosity cutoffs in the parent LF. Several characteristic break points can be identified depending on the details of the parent LF. The calculations can be used to test unified theories by predicting the observed LF for aligned objects from the LF of the proposed parent population. 6 refs

  7. Characterization of Ladle Furnace Slag from Carbon Steel Production as a Potential Adsorbent

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    Ankica Rađenović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising type of steel slag for applications is the ladle furnace (LF slag, which is also known as the basic slag, the reducing slag, the white slag, and the secondary refining slag. The LF slag is a byproduct from further refining molten steel after coming out of a basic oxygen furnace (BOF or an electric arc furnace (EAF. The use of the LF slag in further applications requires knowledge of its characteristics. The LF slag characterization in this paper has been performed using the following analytical methods: chemical analysis by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD, surface area properties by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods, surface chemistry by infrared absorption (FTIR spectroscopy, and morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that the main compounds are calcium, silicon, magnesium, and aluminium oxides, and calcium silicates under their various allotropic forms are the major compounds in the LF slag. Surface area properties have shown that the LF slag is a mesoporous material with relatively great BET surface area. The ladle furnace slag is a nonhazardous industrial waste because the ecotoxicity evaluation by its eluate has shown that the LF slag does not contain constituents which might in any way affect the environment harmfully.

  8. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

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    Ming-Ying Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very few studies investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis patients using heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Methods. Eleven patients with allergic rhinitis and 13 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 40 years old, were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on clinical history, symptoms, and positive Phadiatop test. Electrocardiographic recordings on the sitting and supine positions were obtained for HRV analysis. Results. In the supine position, there were no significant statistical differences in very-low-frequency power (VLF, ≤0.04 Hz, low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz, high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz, and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF between the patient and control groups. The mean RR intervals significantly increased, while LF% and LF/HF significantly decreased in the patient group in the sitting position. Moreover, mean RR intervals, LF, and LF/HF, which were significantly different between the two positions in the control group, did not show a significant change with the posture change in the patient group. Conclusion. These suggest that patients with allergic rhinitis may have poor sympathetic modulation in the sitting position. Autonomic dysfunction may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis.

  9. Preparation and antimicrobial action of three tryptic digested functional molecules of bovine lactoferrin.

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    Nilisha Rastogi

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin is an 80 kDa bilobal, iron binding glycoprotein which is primarily antimicrobial in nature. The hydrolysis of lactoferrin by various proteases in the gut produces several functional fragments of lactoferrin which have varying molecular sizes and properties. Here, bovine lactoferrin has been hydrolyzed by trypsin, the major enzyme present in the gut, to produce three functional molecules of sizes approximately 21 kDa, 38 kDa and 45 kDa. The molecules have been purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and identified using N-terminal sequencing, which reveals that while the 21 kDa molecule corresponds to the N2 domain (21LF, the 38 kDa represents the whole C-lobe (38LF and the 45 kDa is a portion of N1 domain of N-lobe attached to the C-lobe (45LF. The iron binding and release properties of 21LF, 38LF and 45LF have been studied and compared. The sequence and structure analysis of the portions of the excision sites of LF from various species have been done. The antibacterial properties of these three molecules against bacterial strains, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes were investigated. The antifungal action of the molecules was also evaluated against Candida albicans. This is the first report on the antimicrobial actions of the trypsin cleaved functional molecules of lactoferrin from any species.

  10. Human lactoferrin increases Helicobacter pylori internalisation into AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coray, Dorien S; Heinemann, Jack A; Tyrer, Peter C; Keenan, Jacqueline I

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori has high global infection rates and can cause other undesirable clinical manifestations such as duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC). Frequencies of re-infection after therapeutic clearance and rates of DU versus GC vary geographically and differ markedly between developed and developing countries, which suggests additional factors may be involved. The possibility that, in vivo, lactoferrin (Lf) may play a subtle role in modulating micronutrient availability or bacterial internalisation with implications for disease etiology is considered. Lf is an iron binding protein produced in mammals that has antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. Some bacteria that regularly colonise mammalian hosts have adapted to living in high Lf environments and we investigated if this included the gastric pathogen H. pylori. We found that H. pylori was able to use iron from fully iron-saturated human Lf (hLf) whereas partially iron-saturated hLf (apo) did not increase H. pylori growth. Instead, apo-hLf increased adherence to and internalisation of bacteria into cultured epithelial cells. By increasing internalisation, we speculate that apo-human lactoferrin may contribute to H. pylori's ability to persistence in the human stomach, an observation that potentially has implications for the risk of H. pylori-associated disease.

  11. The Effect of Massage Therapy on Autonomic Activity in Critically Ill Children

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    Ling Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Our main objective was to describe the effect of foot and hand (F&H massage on the autonomic nervous system (ANS activity in children hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU; the secondary objectives were to assess the relationship between ANS function and the clinical severity and to explore the effects of repeated massage sessions on the ANS. Methods. Design was a descriptive experimental study. Intervention was single or six session(s of F&H massage. ANS function was assessed through the frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability. Main metrics included high and low frequency power (HF and LF, HF + LF, and LF/HF ratio. Results. Eighteen children participated in the study. A strong Spearman’s correlation (ρ=-0.77 was observed between HF + LF and clinical severity. During massage, the parasympathetic activity (measured by HF increased significantly from baseline (P=0.04 with a mean percentage increase of 75% (95% CI: 20%∼130%. LF increased by 56% (95% CI: 20%∼92% (P=0.026. Repeated sessions were associated with a persistent effect on HF and LF which peaked at the second session and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. HF + LF is positively correlated with clinical severity. F&H massage can improve the ANS activity and the effect persists when repeated sessions are offered.

  12. Two splice variants of the bovine lactoferrin gene identified in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J M; Wang, Z Y; Ju, Z H; Wang, C F; Li, Q L; Sun, T; Hou, Q L; Hang, S Q; Hou, M H; Zhong, J F

    2011-12-21

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a member of the transferrin family; it plays an important role in the innate immune response. We identified novel splice variants of the bLF gene in mastitis-infected and healthy cows. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and clone sequencing analysis were used to screen the splice variants of the bLF gene in the mammary gland, spleen and liver tissues. One main transcript corresponding to the bLF reference sequence was found in three tissues in both healthy and mastitis-infected cows. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the LF gene's main transcript were not significantly different in tissues from healthy versus mastitis-infected cows. However, the new splice variant, LF-AS2, which has the exon-skipping alternative splicing pattern, was only identified in mammary glands infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Sequencing analysis showed that the new splice variant was 251 bp in length, including exon 1, part of exon 2, part of exon 16, and exon 17. We conclude that bLF may play a role in resistance to mastitis through alternative splicing mechanisms.

  13. Effects of lactoferrin feeding on growth, feed intake and health of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Maria L; Prgomet, Christian; Sauerwein, Helga; Pfaffl, Michael W; Broz, Jiri; Schwarz, Frieder J

    2007-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) exhibits a broad spectrum of anti-microbial properties and may have regulatory functions in the immune system. In the present study, 40 calves (20 males, 20 females) were used to examine the effects of supplemental bovine LF added to colostrum and milk replacer (at 0.16%) on health, weight development and feed intake during a 70-day experimental period. The calves were allocated to a treatment group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20); the groups were balanced in terms of sex, live weight and date of birth. Body weight and feed intake were measured at regular intervals. Blood and colostrum samples were collected to determine the content of IgG. In addition, colostrum and milk replacer samples were analysed for their LF concentrations. Significantly higher IgG values were observed in the LF treated than in the control group during the entire feeding experiment from week 2 to week 6. Calves receiving LF had less days of disease with less serious cases of diarrhoea than the control group. Body weight and feed intake were not significantly different between the treatments; in male calves LF-treated animals tended towards higher weight gains. This study indicates that LF is advantageous for health and may therefore be a beneficial supplement in the diets for neonatal calves.

  14. Surface area and volume determination of subgingival calculus using laser fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J

    2014-03-01

    Visible red (655 nm) laser fluorescence (LF) devices are currently used for identifying deposits of subgingival calculus on the root surfaces of teeth during dental examination and treatment; however, it is not known how the fluorescence readings produced by commercially available LF systems correlate to the nature of the deposits. This laboratory study explored the correlation between LF digital readings and the surface area and volume of subgingival calculus deposits on teeth. A collection of 30 extracted human posterior teeth with various levels of subgingival deposits of calculus across 240 sites were used in a clinical simulation, with silicone impression material used to replicate periodontal soft tissues. The teeth were scored by two examiners by using three commercial LF systems (DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent Pen and KEY3). The silicone was removed, and the teeth were removed for photography at × 20 magnification under white or ultraviolet light. The surface area, thickness, and volume were calculated, and both linear least squares regression and nonlinear (Spearman's rank method) correlation coefficients were determined. Visible red LF digital readings showed better correlation to calculus volume than to surface area. Overall, the best performance was found for the KEY3 system (Spearman coefficient 0.59), compared to the Classic DIAGNOdent (0.56) and the DIAGNOdent Pen (0.49). These results indicate that while visible red LF systems vary somewhat in performance, their LF readings provide a useful estimation of the volume of subgingival calculus deposits present on teeth.

  15. Apoptotic effects of bovine apo-lactoferrin on HeLa tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, Carla; Brisdelli, Fabrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Bozzi, Argante; Carnicelli, Veronica; Di Giulio, Antonio; Lizzi, Anna Rita

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), a cationic iron-binding glycoprotein of 80 kDa present in body secretions, is known as a compound with marked antimicrobial activity. In the present study, the apoptotic effect of iron-free bovine lactoferrin (apo-bLf) on human epithelial cancer (HeLa) cells was examined in association with reactive oxygen species and glutathione (GSH) levels. Apoptotic effect of iron-free bovine lactoferrin inhibited the growth of HeLa cells after 48 hours of treatment while the diferric-bLf was ineffective in the concentration range tested (from 1 to 12.5 μM). Western blot analysis showed that key apoptotic regulators including Bax, Bcl-2, Sirt1, Mcl-1, and PARP-1 were modulated by 1.25 μM of apo-bLf. In the same cell line, apo-bLf induced apoptosis together with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, caspase activation, and a significant drop of NAD + . In addition, apo-bLf-treated HeLa cells showed a marked increase of reactive oxygen species level and a significant GSH depletion. On the whole, apo-bLf triggered apoptosis of HeLa cells upon oxygen radicals burst and GSH decrease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Inhibition of Hyphal Growth of Azole-Resistant Strains of Candida albicans by Triazole Antifungal Agents in the Presence of Lactoferrin-Related Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Shigeru; Teraguchi, Susumu; Hayasawa, Hirotoshi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    1998-01-01

    The effects of bovine lactoferrin (LF) or the LF-derived antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B (LFcin B) on the growth of Candida albicans hyphae, including those of three azole-resistant strains, were investigated by a crystal violet staining method. The hyphae of two highly azole-resistant strains were more susceptible to inhibition by LF or LFcin B than the azole-susceptible strains tested. One moderately azole-resistant strain was defective in the formation of hyphae and showed a susceptibility to LF greater than that of the susceptible strains but a susceptibility to LFcin B similar to that of the susceptible strains. The highly azole-resistant strain TIMM3317 showed trailing growth in the presence of fluconazole or itraconazole, while the extent of growth was reduced by the addition of LF or LFcin B at a sub-MIC. Thus, the addition of LF or LFcin B at a sub-MIC resulted in a substantial decrease in the MICs of fluconazole and itraconazole for two highly azole-resistant strains; e.g., the MIC of fluconazole for TIMM3317 was shifted from >256 to 0.25 μg/ml by LF, but the MICs were not decreased for the susceptible strains. The combination effects observed with triazoles and LF-related compounds in the case of the two highly azole-resistant strains were confirmed to be synergistic by the fractional inhibitory concentration index. These results demonstrate that for some azole-resistant C. albicans strains, LF-related compounds combined with triazoles can inhibit the growth of hyphae, an important form of this organism in pathogenesis. PMID:9660988

  17. Uptake of ingested bovine lactoferrin and its accumulation in adult mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Romy; Debbabi, Hajer; Blais, Anne; Dubarry, Michel; Rautureau, Michèle; Boyaka, Prosper N; Tome, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with antimicrobial and immunoregulatory properties, which is found in milk, other external secretions, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The present study examined the time course of uptake and the pattern of tissue accumulation of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) following intragastric intubation of a single dose to adult naïve mice or to mice daily fed bLf for 4 weeks. Following ingestion, bLf was transferred from the intestine into peripheral blood in a form with intact molecular weight (80 kDa) and localized within 10 to 20 min after oral administration in the liver, kidneys, gall bladder, spleen, and brain of both groups of mice. Immunoreactive bLf could also be detected in the luminal contents of the stomach, small intestine and colon 1 h after intragastric intubation. Interestingly, serum and tissue accumulation of bLf was approximately 50% lower in mice chronically fed this protein than in those given only the single oral dose. Furthermore, significant levels of bLf-specific IgA and IgG antibodies as well as bLf-containing IgA- and IgG immune complexes were detected in mice chronically fed bLf but not in those fed only once. Taken together, these results indicate that bLf resists major proteolytic degradation in the intestinal lumen and is readily absorbed in an antigenic form in blood and various mouse tissues. Chronic ingestion of lactoferrin reduces its uptake, probably through mechanisms such as immune exclusion, which minimize potential harmful reactions to food products.

  18. Novel recombinant human lactoferrin: differential activation of oxidative stress related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K; Zimecki, Michał; Wise, Jasen; Płoszaj, Paulina; Mirza, Shaper; Kruzel, Mark; Hwang, Shen-An; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2013-12-01

    Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammalian exocrine secretions, is an important component of the host defense system. It is also a major protein of the secondary granules of neutrophils from which is released upon activation. Due to its potential clinical utility, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been produced in various eukaryotic expression systems; however, none of these are fully compatible with humans. Most of the biopharmaceuticals approved by the FDA for use in humans are produced in mammalian expression systems. The Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) have become the system of choice for proteins that require post-translational modifications, such as glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to scale-up expression and purification of rhLF in a CHO expression system, verify its glycan primary structure, and assess its biological properties in cell culture models. A stable CHO cell line producing >200mg/L of rhLF was developed and established. rhLF was purified by a single-step cation-exchange chromatography procedure. The highly homogenous rhLF has a molecular weight of approximately 80 kDa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis revealed N-linked, partially sialylated glycans at two glycosylation sites, typical for human milk LF. This novel rhLF showed a protective effect against oxidative stress in a similar manner to its natural counterpart. In addition, rhLF revealed a modulatory effect on cellular redox via upregulation of key antioxidant enzymes. These data imply that the CHO-derived rhLF is fully compatible with the native molecule, thus it has promise for human therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapeutic Effect of Activated Carbon-Induced Constipation Mice with Lactobacillus fermentum Suo on Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayi Suo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR (Institute of Cancer Research mice. ICR mice were orally administered with lactic acid bacteria for 9 days. Body weight, diet intake, drinking amount, defecation status, gastrointestinal transit and defecation time, and the serum levels of MTL (motilin, Gas (gastrin, ET (endothelin, SS (somatostatin, AChE (acetylcholinesterase, SP (substance P, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide were used to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Suo on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. The normal, control, 100 mg/kg bisacodyl treatment, LB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus-, LF-Suo (L- and LF-Suo (H-treated mice showed the time to the first black stool defecation at 90, 218, 117, 180, 155 and 137 min, respectively. By the oral administration of LB-, LF-Suo (L, LF-Suo (H or bisacodyl (100 mg/kg, the gastrointestinal transit was reduced to 55.2%, 72.3%, 85.5% and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice, respectively. In contrast to the control mice, the serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Suo (p < 0.05. By the RT-PCR (reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays, LF-Suo increased the c-Kit, SCF (stem cell factor, GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and decreased TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, NOS (nitric oxide synthase expressions of small intestine tissue in mice. These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria has preventive effects on mouse constipation and LF-Suo demonstrated the best functional activity.

  20. Passive vaccination with a human monoclonal antibody: generation of antibodies and studies for efficacy in Bacillus anthracis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vor dem Esche, Ulrich; Huber, Maria; Zgaga-Griesz, Andrea; Grunow, Roland; Beyer, Wolfgang; Hahn, Ulrike; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2011-07-01

    A major difficulty in creating human monoclonal antibodies is the lack of a suitable myeloma cell line to be used for fusion experiments. In order to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization, the human mouse heteromyeloma cell line CB-F7 was evaluated. Using this cell line, we generated human monoclonal antibodies against Bacillus anthracis toxin components. Antibodies against protective antigen (PA) and against lethal factor (LF) were obtained using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from persons vaccinated with the UK anthrax vaccine. PBL were fused with the cell line CB-F7. We obtained several clones producing PA specific Ig and one clone (hLF1-SAN) producing a monoclonal antibody (hLF1) directed against LF. The LF binding antibody was able to neutralize Anthrax toxin activity in an in vitro neutralization assay, and preliminary in vivo studies in mice also indicated a trend towards protection. We mapped the epitope of the antibody binding to LF by dot blot analysis and ELIFA using 80 synthetic LF peptides of 20 amino acid lengths with an overlapping range of 10 amino acids. Our results suggest the binding of the monoclonal antibody to the peptide regions 121-150 or 451-470 of LF. The Fab-fragment of the antibody hLF1 was cloned in Escherichia coli and could be useful as part of a fully human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of Anthrax infections. In general, our studies show the applicability of the CB-F7 line to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for vaccination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Bovine lactoferrin binds oleic acid to form an anti-tumor complex similar to HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Mai; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Hui Yuan; Ren, Fa Zheng

    2014-04-04

    α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) can bind oleic acid (OA) to form HAMLET-like complexes, which exhibited highly selective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Considering the structural similarity to α-LA, we conjectured that lactoferrin (LF) could also bind OA to obtain a complex with anti-tumor activity. In this study, LF-OA was prepared and its activity and structural changes were compared with α-LA-OA. The anti-tumor activity was evaluated by methylene blue assay, while the apoptosis mechanism was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blot. Structural changes of LF-OA were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The interactions of OA with LF and α-LA were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). LF-OA was obtained by heat-treatment at pH8.0 with LD50 of 4.88, 4.95 and 4.62μM for HepG2, HT29, and MCF-7 cells, respectively, all of which were 10 times higher than those of α-LA-OA. Similar to HAMLET, LF-OA induced apoptosis in tumor cells through both death receptor- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways. Exposure of tryptophan residues and the hydrophobic regions as well as the loss of tertiary structure were observed in LF-OA. Besides these similarities, LF showed different secondary structure changes when compared with α-LA, with a decrease of α-helix and β-turn and an increase of β-sheet and random coil. ITC results showed that there was a higher binding number of OA to LF than to α-LA, while both of the proteins interacted with OA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploration of protein-OA complexes. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of the major sudden stratospheric warming event of 2009 on the subionospheric very low frequency/low frequency radio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S.; Hobara, Y.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Schnoor, P. W.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents effects of the major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event of 2009 on the subionospheric very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) radio signals propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Signal amplitudes from four transmitters received by VLF/LF radio networks of Germany and Japan corresponding to the major SSW event are investigated for possible anomalies and atmospheric influence on the high- to middle-latitude ionosphere. Significant anomalous increase or decrease of nighttime and daytime amplitudes of VLF/LF signals by ˜3-5 dB during the SSW event have been found for all propagation paths associated with stratospheric temperature rise at 10 hPa level. Increase or decrease in VLF/LF amplitudes during daytime and nighttime is actually due to the modification of the lower ionospheric boundary conditions in terms of electron density and electron-neutral collision frequency profiles and associated modal interference effects between the different propagating waveguide modes during the SSW period. TIMED/SABER mission data are also used to investigate the upper mesospheric conditions over the VLF/LF propagation path during the same time period. We observe a decrease in neutral temperature and an increase in pressure at the height of 75-80 km around the peak time of the event. VLF/LF anomalies are correlated and in phase with the stratospheric temperature and mesospheric pressure variation, while minimum of mesospheric cooling shows a 2-3 day delay with maximum VLF/LF anomalies. Simulations of VLF/LF diurnal variation are performed using the well-known Long Wave Propagating Capability (LWPC) code within the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to explain the VLF/LF anomalies qualitatively.

  3. Subjective relevance of objective measures for spatial impression (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lily M.; Gade, Anders Christian

    2000-01-01

    Several objective measures have been proposed to describe the feeling of spatial impression in concert halls, including Lateral Energy Fraction (LF) and Interaural Cross-Correlation Coefficient (IACC). However, previous studies have shown that LF and IACC values did not highly correlate with each...... other at individual seat positions in real halls [J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 3525–3535 (1994)]. To investigate the listener envelopment aspect of spatial impression further, subjective paired-comparison tests have been run using signals which have various values for LF, early IACC (from 5...

  4. Metaiodobenzylguanidine and heart rate variability in heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Chinori; Shouda, Sakae; Mikami, Tadashi; Uehara, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Keiko; Tawarahara, Kei; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Matoh, Fumitaka; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    1998-01-01

    It is assumed that the low-frequency power (LF) of heart rate variability (HRV) increases with progress of congestive heart failure (CHF), therefore positively correlating with cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) washout. It is demonstrated here that HRV, including normalized LF, correlated inversely with MIBG washout and positively with the ratio of heart-to-mediastinum MIBG activity in controls and CHF patients, whereas these correlations were not observed within CHF patients. Thus MIBG washout may increase and HRV including normalized LF may decrease with CHF, although the HRV and MIBG measures may not similarly change in proportion to the severity of the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in CHF. (author)

  5. Studies on anticancer activities of lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Cui Ming; Wong, Jack Ho; Xia, Jiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-09-01

    This review mainly summarizes results of recent studies on the anticancer activity of the multifunctional protein lactoferrin (Lf) and its derived peptide lactoferricin (Lfcin). The basic information on Lf and Lfcin, such as their sources, structures, and biological properties which favor their antitumor activity is introduced. The major anticancer mechanisms of Lf and Lfcin including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis, antimetastasis, immune modulation and necrosis are discussed. Other information from in vivo studies employing a mouse model is also provided. In addition, the roles of talatoferrin and delta lactoferrin, as well as improvement in drug delivery will be covered.

  6. Optical design and development of a snapshot light-field laryngoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuaishuai; Jin, Peng; Liang, Rongguang; Gao, Liang

    2018-02-01

    The convergence of recent advances in optical fabrication and digital processing yields a generation of imaging technology-light-field (LF) cameras which bridge the realms of applied mathematics, optics, and high-performance computing. Herein for the first time, we introduce the paradigm of LF imaging into laryngoscopy. The resultant probe can image the three-dimensional shape of vocal folds within a single camera exposure. Furthermore, to improve the spatial resolution, we developed an image fusion algorithm, providing a simple solution to a long-standing problem in LF imaging.

  7. Radiation effects of protons and 60Co γ rays on CMOS operational amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wu; Ren Diyuan; Guo Qi; Yu Xuefeng; Yan Rongliang

    1997-01-01

    Radiation effects of 60 Co γ ray and 4,7 and 30 MeV protons on LF 7650 CMOS operational amplifier were investigated. The damage mechanism of LF7650 was discussed. It is indicated that the mobility reduction of major carrier caused by ionizing and displacement damage is the chief mechanism causing the failure of CMOS operational amplifier irradiated by protons, and that is why the degradation of LF 7650 caused by protons is much more serious than that caused by 60 Co γ ray. In addition, a comparison of proton radiation effects on CMOS operational amplifier and MOSFET showed a significant difference in mechanism

  8. ANALYSIS OF LOW-FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS FOR THE SOUTH CHINA SEA SUMMER MONSOON IN 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国强; 朱乾根

    2003-01-01

    With NCEP/NCAR reanalysis daily data and SST for 1998, the paper investigates the features of summer monsoon low-frequency oscillation (LFO) over the South China Sea (SCS). Results show that SCS summer monsoon onset is enhanced because of its LFO. Low-frequency (LF) low-level convergence (divergence) region of SCS is in the LF positive (negative) rainfall area. LFO of the SCS region migrates from south to north in the meridian and from west to east in zonal direction. LF divergence of SCS is vertically compensating to each other between high and low level.

  9. The effect of three different diets on risk factors for CVD. With focus on whole grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Tenna

    2009-01-01

    , as assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared to the CTR diet (p=0.002). The LF diet resulted in a near significantly higher increase in lean body mass compared to the MUFA diet (p=0.052). Intake of WG (95g, 66g and 4g/10MJ in the MUFA, LF and CTR group respectively......) significantly differed between all groups; with the LF group not reaching the expected officially recommended intake (RI). A higher intake of WG resulted in a significantly lower increase in BW (p=0.041), fat mass (p=0.045), fasting insulin (pHOMA-IR (p

  10. Dielectric properties of gadolinium molybdate in low- and infralow frequency electric fields. Diehlektricheskie svojstva molibdata gadoliniya v nizko- i infranizkochastotnykh ehlektricheskikh polyakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiyarova, N M; Gorin, S V; Dontsova, L I; Shil' nikov, A V; Shuvalov, L A [Volgogradskij Inzhenerno-Stroitel' nyj Inst., Volgograd (Russian Federation) AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Kristallografii

    1992-10-01

    Temperature dependences of complex dielectric permittivity of gadolinium molybdate (GMO) in low- (LF) and infralow-frequency (ILF) electric fields with 0.1 V[center dot]cm[sup -1] amplitude within 0.25-10[sup 4] Hz frequency range are studied. Substantial effect of the crystal prehistory on LF and ILF dielectric properties and domain structure state is revealed. An anomalous reduction of complex dielectric permittivity accompanied by the occurrence of the Debye LF-dispersion of permittivity is detected under the sample cooling from a nonpolar phase.

  11. Dielectric properties of gadolinium molybdate in low- and infralow frequency electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiyarova, N.M.; Gorin, S.V.; Dontsova, L.I.; Shil'nikov, A.V.; Shuvalov, L.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1992-01-01

    Temperature dependences of complex dielectric permittivity of gadolinium molybdate (GMO) in low- (LF) and infralow-frequency (ILF) electric fields with 0.1 V·cm -1 amplitude within 0.25-10 4 Hz frequency range are studied. Substantial effect of the crystal prehistory on LF and ILF dielectric properties and domain structure state is revealed. An anomalous reduction of complex dielectric permittivity accompanied by the occurrence of the Debye LF-dispersion of permittivity is detected under the sample cooling from a nonpolar phase

  12. Metaiodobenzylguanidine and heart rate variability in heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Chinori; Shouda, Sakae; Mikami, Tadashi; Uehara, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Keiko [Hamamatsu Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). School of Medicine; Tawarahara, Kei; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Matoh, Fumitaka; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    1998-10-01

    It is assumed that the low-frequency power (LF) of heart rate variability (HRV) increases with progress of congestive heart failure (CHF), therefore positively correlating with cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) washout. It is demonstrated here that HRV, including normalized LF, correlated inversely with MIBG washout and positively with the ratio of heart-to-mediastinum MIBG activity in controls and CHF patients, whereas these correlations were not observed within CHF patients. Thus MIBG washout may increase and HRV including normalized LF may decrease with CHF, although the HRV and MIBG measures may not similarly change in proportion to the severity of the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in CHF. (author)

  13. Emerging trends in Lassa fever: redefining the role of immunoglobulin M and inflammation in diagnosing acute infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branco Luis M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa fever (LF is a devastating hemorrhagic viral disease that is endemic to West Africa and responsible for thousands of human deaths each year. Analysis of humoral immune responses (IgM and IgG by antibody-capture ELISA (Ab-capture ELISA and Lassa virus (LASV viremia by antigen-capture ELISA (Ag-capture ELISA in suspected patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH Lassa Fever Ward (LFW in Sierra Leone over the past five years is reshaping our understanding of acute LF. Results Analyses in LF survivors indicated that LASV-specific IgM persists for months to years after initial infection. Furthermore, exposure to LASV appeared to be more prevalent in historically non-endemic areas of West Africa with significant percentages of reportedly healthy donors IgM and IgG positive in LASV-specific Ab-capture ELISA. We found that LF patients who were Ag positive were more likely to die than suspected cases who were only IgM positive. Analysis of metabolic and immunological parameters in Ag positive LF patients revealed a strong correlation between survival and low levels of IL-6, -8, -10, CD40L, BUN, ALP, ALT, and AST. Despite presenting to the hospital with fever and in some instances other symptoms consistent with LF, the profiles of Ag negative IgM positive individuals were similar to those of normal donors and nonfatal (NF LF cases, suggesting that IgM status cannot necessarily be considered a diagnostic marker of acute LF in suspected cases living in endemic areas of West Africa. Conclusion Only LASV viremia assessed by Ag-capture immunoassay, nucleic acid detection or virus isolation should be used to diagnose acute LASV infection in West Africans. LASV-specific IgM serostatus cannot be considered a diagnostic marker of acute LF in suspected cases living in endemic areas of West Africa. By applying these criteria, we identified a dysregulated metabolic and pro-inflammatory response profile conferring a poor

  14. Emerging trends in Lassa fever: redefining the role of immunoglobulin M and inflammation in diagnosing acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luis M; Grove, Jessica N; Boisen, Matt L; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Goba, Augustine; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambu; Grant, Donald S; Garry, Robert F

    2011-10-24

    Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating hemorrhagic viral disease that is endemic to West Africa and responsible for thousands of human deaths each year. Analysis of humoral immune responses (IgM and IgG) by antibody-capture ELISA (Ab-capture ELISA) and Lassa virus (LASV) viremia by antigen-capture ELISA (Ag-capture ELISA) in suspected patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) Lassa Fever Ward (LFW) in Sierra Leone over the past five years is reshaping our understanding of acute LF. Analyses in LF survivors indicated that LASV-specific IgM persists for months to years after initial infection. Furthermore, exposure to LASV appeared to be more prevalent in historically non-endemic areas of West Africa with significant percentages of reportedly healthy donors IgM and IgG positive in LASV-specific Ab-capture ELISA. We found that LF patients who were Ag positive were more likely to die than suspected cases who were only IgM positive. Analysis of metabolic and immunological parameters in Ag positive LF patients revealed a strong correlation between survival and low levels of IL-6, -8, -10, CD40L, BUN, ALP, ALT, and AST. Despite presenting to the hospital with fever and in some instances other symptoms consistent with LF, the profiles of Ag negative IgM positive individuals were similar to those of normal donors and nonfatal (NF) LF cases, suggesting that IgM status cannot necessarily be considered a diagnostic marker of acute LF in suspected cases living in endemic areas of West Africa. Only LASV viremia assessed by Ag-capture immunoassay, nucleic acid detection or virus isolation should be used to diagnose acute LASV infection in West Africans. LASV-specific IgM serostatus cannot be considered a diagnostic marker of acute LF in suspected cases living in endemic areas of West Africa. By applying these criteria, we identified a dysregulated metabolic and pro-inflammatory response profile conferring a poor prognosis in acute LF. In addition to suggesting that the

  15. Long-lasting insecticidal nets are synergistic with mass drug administration for interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Eigege

    Full Text Available In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF. The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission.

  16. Observación de Propágulos en los géneros Ernodesmis y Struvea Observación de Propágulos en los géneros Ernodesmis y Struvea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnetter Reinhard

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In Ernodesmis verticillata (Kützing B¢rgesen and Struvea anastomosans (Harvey Piccone & Grunow in Piccone cultures carried out under laboratory conditions, mainly at temperatures lower than those occurring normally at the collection site (coast near Cartagena, Colombia the formation of propagula (exogenous aplanospores was observed. The propagulum formation is considered as an answer to extreme conditions. The propagulum production permits a vegetative reproduction of the algae without the loss of cells of the mother thallus as it happens by the formation of zoospores or endogenous aplanospores. En cultivos de laboratorio de Ernodesmis verticillata (Kützing B¢rgesen y Struvea anastomosans (Harvey Piccone & Grunow in Piccone se observó el desarrollo de propágulos (aplanósporas exógenas predominantemente a temperaturas por debajo de las que ocurren normalmente en la región del origen del material (costa cerca de Cartagena, Colombia. La formación de propágulos se considera como una respuesta a condiciones extremas. La producción de propágulos permite una reproducción vegetativa de las algas sin pérdida de células del talo madre como es el caso si se forman zoosporas o aplanósporas endógenas.

  17. Pollination success following loss of a frequent pollinator: the role of compensatory visitation by other effective pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Allysa C.; Mitchell, Randall J.; Chamberlain, Evan R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pollinator abundance is declining worldwide and may lower the quantity and quality of pollination services to flowering plant populations. Loss of an important pollinator is often assumed to reduce the amount of pollen received by stigmas of a focal species (pollination success), yet this assumption has rarely been tested experimentally. The magnitude of the effect, if any, may depend on the relative efficiency of the remaining pollinators, and on whether the loss of one pollinator leads to changes in visitation patterns by other pollinators. To explore how a change in pollinator composition influences pollination of Asclepias verticillata, we excluded bumble bees from plots in large and small populations of this milkweed species. We then quantified pollinator visitation rates, pollen export and pollen receipt for control plots and for plots where bumble bees were experimentally excluded. We found that exclusion of bumble bees did not reduce pollen receipt by A. verticillata flowers. Visitation by Polistes wasps increased markedly following bumble bee exclusion, both in small populations (186 % increase) and in large populations (400 % increase). Because Polistes wasps were as efficient as bumble bees at pollen transfer, increased wasp visitation offset lost bumble bee pollination services. Thus, loss of a frequent pollinator will not necessarily lead to a decline in pollination success. When pollinator loss is followed by a shift in the composition and abundance of remaining pollinators, pollination success will depend on the net change in the quantity and quality of pollination services. PMID:28798863

  18. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Herrera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (- menthone, R (+ pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was the most toxic ( LC50: 116.6 µl /L air characterized by a high percentage of menthone (40.1% and pulegone (43.7%. All ketones showed insecticidal activity against S. zeamais. However, pulegone (LC50: 11.8 µl/L air, R- carvone (LC50: 17.5 µl/L air, S-carvone (LC50: 28.1 µl/L air and E-Z-ocimenone (LC50: 42.3 µl/L air were the most toxic. These ketones are a,b-unsaturated carbonyl. This feature could play a fundamental role in the increase of insecticidal activity against S. zeamais.

  19. Profiling polyphenol composition by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn and the antibacterial activity of infusion preparations obtained from four medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Borhane E C; Barros, Lillian; Boumehira, Ali Z; Bachari, Khaldoun; Heleno, Sandrina A; Alves, Maria Jose; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-01-24

    The infusions of Thymus pallescens Noë, Saccocalyx satureioides Coss. et Dur., Ptychotis verticillata Briq. and Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. have been used as medicinal remedies for many diseases in Algerian folk medicine. These species have also been well documented as rich sources of phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds with wide diversified chemical structures, which exhibit far-ranging biological activities. Thus, the phenolic compound profile of the aqueous extracts, obtained by infusing, of the mentioned species was obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and their antibacterial activity was evaluated against clinical isolates. Several phenolic acids were identified and quantified, particularly caffeic acid derivatives along with glycosylated flavonoids. T. pallescens and S. satureioides contain 13 phenolic compounds, where rosmarinic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid present, while L. guyonianum presented myricetin-3-O-glucoside and myricetin-O-rhamnoside as the main compounds among the eight detected molecules. P. verticillata presented a profile of ten phenolic compounds, where 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, followed by the flavone luteolin-3-O-glucoside. The antibacterial activity of the infusions ranged between 2.5 and 20 mg mL -1 (MIC values), and L. guyonianum showed the highest activity against all of the tested bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most sensitive and resistant strains, respectively. Thus, the studied plant species are sources of natural antibacterial substances that can be used to fight against pathogenic microorganisms.

  20. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  2. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin interfere with intracellular trafficking of Herpes simplex virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, A K; Jenssen, H; Moniri, M Roshan; Hancock, R E W; Panté, N

    2009-01-01

    Although both lactoferrin (Lf), a component of the innate immune system of living organisms, and its N-terminal pepsin cleavage product lactoferricin (Lfcin) have anti-herpes activity, the precise mechanisms by which Lf and Lfcin bring about inhibition of herpes infections are not fully understood. In the present study, experiments were carried out to characterize the activity of bovine Lf and Lfcin (BLf and BLfcin) against the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. In comparison to the untreated infected control cells, both the BLf- and BLfcin-treated cells showed a significant reduction in HSV-1 cellular uptake. The few virus particles that were internalized appeared to have a delayed intracellular trafficking. Thus, in addition to their interference with the uptake of the virus into host cells, Lf and Lfcin also exert their antiviral effect intracellularly.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactoferrin-Related Peptides and Applications in Human and Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Bruni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs represent a vast array of molecules produced by virtually all living organisms as natural barriers against infection. Among AMP sources, an interesting class regards the food-derived bioactive agents. The whey protein lactoferrin (Lf is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays a significant role in the innate immune system, and is considered as an important host defense molecule. In search for novel antimicrobial agents, Lf offers a new source with potential pharmaceutical applications. The Lf-derived peptides Lf(1–11, lactoferricin (Lfcin and lactoferrampin exhibit interesting and more potent antimicrobial actions than intact protein. Particularly, Lfcin has demonstrated strong antibacterial, anti-fungal and antiparasitic activity with promising applications both in human and veterinary diseases (from ocular infections to osteo-articular, gastrointestinal and dermatological diseases.

  4. Membrane dynamics in the intrinsic light-front coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragone, C.; Restuccia, A.; Torrealba, R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors study the dynamics of the membrane, using internal light-front (LF) coordinates. The set of constraints, although equivalent to the standard one, is different. The intrinsic LF gauge is defined. Four additional, alternative gauge-fixing conditions are analyzed. Two of them polynomialize the system, while the other two are convenient for studying the initial-value problem. In particular, one of them is also extrinsically (i.e., in the ambient space) light-front. In this gauge, the system is shown to be consistently reduced to attain a canonical form in terms of pure transverse variables. Two constraints on these variables still hold, clearly showing the presence, as they must, of D - 3 degrees of freedom. Finally, the initial-value problem in this intrinsic-extrinsic. LF gauge is solved. Although the paper is based on the first-order action, the LF-Hamiltonian approach is discussed too

  5. Electrodiagnostic evaluation of median nerve conduction in Type II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-12-29

    Dec 29, 2015 ... Type II diabetes mellitus patients that were asymptomatic for peripheral neuropathy: a case control study. Owolabi LF 1*, Adebisi S2, ... degree of abnormality and monitoring the clinical course of the disease. Symptoms of DN ...

  6. Development of a time-trend model for analyzing and predicting case-pattern of Lassa fever epidemics in Liberia, 2013-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, Babasola O; Odigie, Eugene A; Lawani, Mike; Ojo, Johnson F

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to develop a case-pattern model for Lassa fever (LF) among humans and derive predictors of time-trend point distribution of LF cases in Liberia in view of the prevailing under-reporting and public health challenge posed by the disease in the country. A retrospective 5 years data of LF distribution countrywide among humans were used to train a time-trend model of the disease in Liberia. A time-trend quadratic model was selected due to its goodness-of-fit (R2 = 0.89, and P Liberia, on which a predictive model was developed. We proposed a computationally feasible two-stage space-time permutation approach to estimate the time-trend parameters and conduct predictive inference on LF in Liberia.

  7. Light Trapping with Silicon Light Funnel Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Prajapati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon light funnels are three-dimensional subwavelength structures in the shape of inverted cones with respect to the incoming illumination. Light funnel (LF arrays can serve as efficient absorbing layers on account of their light trapping capabilities, which are associated with the presence of high-density complex Mie modes. Specifically, light funnel arrays exhibit broadband absorption enhancement of the solar spectrum. In the current study, we numerically explore the optical coupling between surface light funnel arrays and the underlying substrates. We show that the absorption in the LF array-substrate complex is higher than the absorption in LF arrays of the same height (~10% increase. This, we suggest, implies that a LF array serves as an efficient surface element that imparts additional momentum components to the impinging illumination, and hence optically excites the substrate by near-field light concentration, excitation of traveling guided modes in the substrate, and mode hybridization.

  8. Low-frequency scaling of the standard and mixed magnetic field and Müller integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bogaert, Ignace; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The standard and mixed discretizations for the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) and the Müller integral equation (MUIE) are investigated in the context of low-frequency (LF) scattering problems involving simply connected scatterers

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHE829 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dsl**sx*frlw*rf*m*n*t*wfpmlcpfrkttpttt*xm**xmpxrp*m* s*stckrmmrccp*tttxmxfkmsxkt*m*sxplx*rmlcxxxpr*mfixmsxrp...xm*s* stwkrmxrccp*ttxkmxixmsxkt*m*nqsxw*rmlc*kxx*lf Frame B: lfnfifnhsn*kknnn*ls*

  10. Lung sound analysis can be an index of the control of bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terufumi Shimoda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The E/I LF measurement obtained by LSA is useful as an indicator of changes in airway obstruction and inflammation and can be used for monitoring the therapeutic course of bronchial asthma patients.

  11. In vivo assessment of muscle fascicle length by extended field-of-view ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noorkoiv, M; Stavnsbo, A; Aagaard, Per

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability and validity of in vivo vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle length (L(f)) assessment by extended field-of-view ultrasonography (EFOV US). Intraexperimenter and intersession reliability of EFOV US were tested. Further, L(f) measured from EFOV US images were...... compared to L(f) measured from static US images (6-cm FOV) where out-of-field fascicle portions were trigonometrically estimated (linear extrapolation). Finally, spatial accuracy of the EFOV technique was assessed by comparing L(f) measured on swine VL by EFOV US to actual measurements from digital...... and by dissective assessment (digital photographs) in isolated swine VL was 0.84% ± 2.6% with an ICC of 0.99 (CI = 0.94-1.00). These results show that EFOV US is a reliable and valid method for the measurement of long muscle fascicle in vivo. Thus EFOV US analysis was proven more accurate for the assessment...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: 3q29 microduplication syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schmidt KR, Tervo R, Escobar LF, Friedrich CA, McDonald M, Campbell L, Ming JE, Zackai EH, Bejjani ... 10 All Bulletins Features What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: 3q29 microdeletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schmidt KR, Tervo R, Escobar LF, Friedrich CA, McDonald M, Campbell L, Ming JE, Zackai EH, Bejjani ... 10 All Bulletins Features What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  14. The immune response of horses to tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, B C; Knoetze, P C

    1979-12-01

    An intramuscular injection of 8-16 Lf tetanus toxoid in water-in-oil emulsion protected adult horses against tetanus for at least 128 weeks. A booster dose of 8 Lf toxoid in aqueous solution protected them for a further period of at least 3 1/2 years. Colostral immunity protected foals for at least 10 weeks. An intramuscular injection of 8 Lf toxoid in water-in-oil emulsion given to foals from immune dams when they were 10-18 weeks old did not elicit any antibody response. They did respond, however, to a booster injection of 8 Lf toxoid in aqueous solution given 12 weeks after the first dose. New-born foals were shown to be inherently unable to respond to an injection of tetanus toxoid.

  15. Quality of low-fat meatballs containing Legume flours as extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Yıldız-Turp, Gülen; Abrodímov, Kiyalbek

    2005-05-01

    Meatballs were extended with blackeye bean flour (BBF), chickpea flour (CF), lentil flour (LF) and rusk (R) at level of 10%. Raw and cooked meatballs were analyzed for moisture, fat, protein and ash content. Cooking properties and colour parameters were evaluated. BBF and LF resulted in greater cooking yield, fat retention and moisture retention values. Meatballs extended with LF were lighter than other samples. Meatballs formulated with BBF had the lowest reduction in diameter. Meatballs with BBF and CF had higher water holding capacity (WHC) than other treatment groups. All meatballs incorporating legume flours were tougher (lower penetration values) than the R treatment. According to sensory evaluation results all meatball treatments had high acceptability and received high scores (6.8 and above). Meatballs with BBF and CF had lower TBA values than meatballs with LF and R at 3rd month of frozen storage at -18°C.

  16. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  17. Bactericidal effect of bovine lactoferrin and synthetic peptide lactoferrin chimera in Streptococcus pneumoniae and the decrease in luxS gene expression by lactoferrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León-Sicairos, N.; Angulo-Zamudio, U.A.; Vidal, J.E.; López-Torres, C.A.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Nazmi, K.; Reyes-Cortes, R.; Reyes-López, M.; de la Garza, M.; Canizalez-Román, A.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for nearly one million child deaths annually. Pneumococcus causes infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and sepsis. The human immune system includes antibacterial peptides and proteins such as lactoferrin (LF), but its activity

  18. Autonomic nervous system activity in purebred Arabian horses evaluated according to the low frequency and high frequency spectrum versus racing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Janczarek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional excitability influences horses’ performance in sports and races. The aim of the study was to analyse whether the balance of the autonomic system which can occur when sympathetic system activity is at various levels might impact the horses’ racing performance. The study was carried out on 67 purebred Arabian horses trained for racing. The following indices were analysed: low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF, and the ratio of spectrum power at low frequencies to high frequencies (LF/HF. The autonomic nervous system activity was measured × 3 during the training season, at three-month intervals. Each examination included a 30-min measurement at rest and after a training session. The racing performance indices in these horses were also analysed. Better racing results were found in horses with enhanced LF/HF. The worst racing results were determined in horses with low LF.

  19. Malnutrition: A Deterrent to Human Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy E.; Found, R. Elaine

    1971-01-01

    Authors discuss the effects of malnutrition on retardation of mental development and intellectual capacity. Research findings on undernourished experimental animals are cited as well as studies involving children suffering the effects of malnutrition in infancy. (Editor/LF)

  20. Dicty_cDB: SHF556 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sqvvli*slv*lvvslvvvqevkviaklvkik*lf Frame C: iihvpsmpvlnqqvllipqsm*miitnvqlihvpkkvv*lilqsilmitmpvplipahhq lv...fpipq*tvmiiinvl*ihvqtqlvv*ilqltvtivihvp*thaiiqlvv*tlqsmlmi iihvpsmpvpnqqvllipqsm*mittnvqlmhvpkxvv*lipqsilmitmpvqlmhvqkx vv*lilxsilmit

  1. SEX DIFFERENCES OF VLF100 AND VLF50 SPECTRUM OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS OF YOUNG AGE AND OLDER SUBJECTS WITH VASCULAR PATHOLOGY IN TERMS OF SEVEN-TEST, HYPERVENTILATION AND ORTHOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Арнольд Наумович Флейшман

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion. The results of sex differences of the new VLF100 and VLF50 indicators and their interconnection with LF and HF were essential to the study of autonomic provision in the body, characterizing central mechanisms of regulation.

  2. The predictive capacity of hypersympathicotonia in post-stroke patients with III stage hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Voloshyna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of neuropeptide Y plasma concentration and LF/ HF ratio in post-stroke hypertensive patients has been done. The prognostic significance of sympathetic nervous system activity markers for complications development was established.

  3. Lunar Flashlight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Flashlight (LF) is an innovative cubesat mission sponsored by NASA’s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division to be launched on the Space Launch System...

  4. The mutagenic testing of different brands of commonly used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... neuronal membranes, thus causing paralysis. ... GF = Glucose fermenting, NGF = Not glucose fermenting, LF = Lactose fermenting, NLF = Not Lactose ... metabolic activation by phenobarbitone 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days which.

  5. Elusiyan et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(1):27-33

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    -276. 22. Sticher O, Afifi-Yazar FU. (1979). Minecoside and verminoside, two new iridoid glucosides from Veronica officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae). Helvetica Chimica Acta, 62 (56): 535-539. 23. Tietze LF. (1983). Secologanin, a biogenetic key ...

  6. Tissue-specific interactions between nuclear proteins and the aminopeptidase N promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kärnström, U; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1991-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is a metallopeptidase found in many tissues. Aminopeptidase N activity is high in the small intestinal mucosa, moderate in the liver, and low in the spleen. Using DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from these tissues, three cis...... elements (DF, LF-B1, UF) were identified in the aminopeptidase N promoter. The DF region (-53 to -30) interacts with the ubiquitously expressed transcription factor Sp1. The LF-B1 region (-85 to -58) interacts with the liver transcription factor LF-B1 (HNF-1) which was detected as well in nuclei from small...... intestinal mucosa. The UF region (-112 to -90) interacts with nuclear factors which seem to be expressed differentially in the liver and the small intestine. Transfection of promoter deletions into HepG2 cells showed that the LF-B1 region is necessary for high expression of the aminopeptidase N gene in liver...

  7. Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information and resources, including Create My Quit Plan , smartphone apps , and text message programs Call the NCI ... 2017. Hatsukami DK, Stead LF, Gupta PC. Tobacco addiction. Lancet 2008; 371(9629):2027–2038. [PubMed Abstract] ...

  8. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  9. SOIL NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS AND ROLE OF LIGHT FRACTION ORGANIC MATTER IN FOREST SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depletion of soil organic matter through cultivation may alter substrate availability for microbes, altering the dynamic balance between nitrogen (N) immobilization and mineralization. Soil light fraction (LF) organic matter is an active pool that decreases upon cultivation, and...

  10. Predictive Values of Electroencephalography (EEG) in Epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive Values of Electroencephalography (EEG) in Epilepsy Patients with Abnormal Behavioural Symptoms. OR Obiako, SO Adeyemi, TL Sheikh, LF Owolabi, MA Majebi, MO Gomina, F Adebayo, EU Iwuozo ...

  11. Improving the performance of hysteresis direct torque control of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hysteresis direct torque control (HDTC) of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor ... response, and improved the quality of the current waveforms. Luukko ..... LF , however, the cost and size of the AF increases, and therefore suitable ...

  12. Immunization of pregnant cows with Shiga toxin-2 induces high levels of specific colostral antibodies and lactoferrin able to neutralize E. coli O157:H7 pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Adriana; Sacerdoti, Flavia; Seyahian, E Abril; Amaral, Maria Marta; Fiorentino, Gabriela; Fernandez Brando, Romina; Vilte, Daniel A; Mercado, Elsa C; Palermo, Marina S; Cataldi, Angel; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina

    2018-03-20

    E. coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen responsible for bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ability of colostral IgG obtained from Stx2-immunized cows to prevent against E. coli O157:H7 infection and Stx2 cytotoxicity. Hyperimmune colostrum (HC) was obtained from cows intramuscularly immunized with inactivated Stx2 or vehicle for controls. Colostral IgG was purified by affinity chromatography. Specific IgG antibodies against Stx2 and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) levels in HC and the corresponding IgG (HC-IgG/bLF) were determined by ELISA. The protective effects of HC-IgG/bLF against Stx2 cytotoxicity and adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 and its Stx2-negative mutant were analyzed in HCT-8 cells. HC-IgG/bLF prevention against E. coli O157:H7 was studied in human colon and rat colon loops. Protection against a lethal dose of E. coli O157:H7 was evaluated in a weaned mice model. HC-IgG/bLF showed high anti-Stx2 titers and high bLF levels that were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effects of Stx2 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, HC-IgG/bLF avoided the inhibition of water absorption induced by E. coli O157:H7 in human colon and also the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O157:H7Δstx2 in rat colon loops. Finally, HC-IgG/bLF prevented in a 100% the lethality caused by E. coli O157:H7 in a weaned mice model. Our study suggests that HC-IgG/bLF have protective effects against E. coli O157:H7 infection. These beneficial effects may be due to specific anti-Stx2 neutralizing antibodies in combination with high bLF levels. These results allow us to consider HC-IgG/bLF as a nutraceutical tool which could be used in combination with balanced supportive diets to prevent HUS. However further studies are required before recommendations can be made for therapeutic and clinical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Risk Stratification to Predict Local-Regional Failures in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder After Radical Cystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Brian C.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; He Jiwei; Keefe, Stephen M.; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin E.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Vaughn, David J.; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LF) following radical cystectomy (RC) plus pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) with or without chemotherapy for invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma are more common than previously reported. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LF but currently has no defined role because of previously reported morbidity. Modern techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest in RT. We assessed the risk of LF and determined those factors that predict recurrence to facilitate patient selection for future adjuvant RT trials. Methods and Materials: From 1990-2008, 442 patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma at University of Pennsylvania were prospectively followed after RC plus PLND with or without chemotherapy with routine pelvic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One hundred thirty (29%) patients received chemotherapy. LF was any pelvic failure detected before or within 3 months of distant failure. Competing risk analyses identified factors predicting increased LF risk. Results: On univariate analysis, pathologic stage ≥pT3, <10 nodes removed, positive margins, positive nodes, hydronephrosis, lymphovascular invasion, and mixed histology significantly predicted LF; node density was marginally predictive, but use of chemotherapy, number of positive nodes, type of surgical diversion, age, gender, race, smoking history, and body mass index were not. On multivariate analysis, only stage ≥pT3 and <10 nodes removed were significant independent LF predictors with hazard ratios of 3.17 and 2.37, respectively (P<.01). Analysis identified 3 patient subgroups with significantly different LF risks: low-risk (≤pT2), intermediate-risk (≥pT3 and ≥10 nodes removed), and high-risk (≥pT3 and <10 nodes) with 5-year LF rates of 8%, 23%, and 42%, respectively (P<.01). Conclusions: This series using routine CT and MRI surveillance to detect LF confirms that such failures are relatively common in

  14. A Novel Risk Stratification to Predict Local-Regional Failures in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder After Radical Cystectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Brian C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas J. [Department of Urology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); He Jiwei [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Keefe, Stephen M. [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Vaughn, David J. [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John P., E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LF) following radical cystectomy (RC) plus pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) with or without chemotherapy for invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma are more common than previously reported. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LF but currently has no defined role because of previously reported morbidity. Modern techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest in RT. We assessed the risk of LF and determined those factors that predict recurrence to facilitate patient selection for future adjuvant RT trials. Methods and Materials: From 1990-2008, 442 patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma at University of Pennsylvania were prospectively followed after RC plus PLND with or without chemotherapy with routine pelvic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One hundred thirty (29%) patients received chemotherapy. LF was any pelvic failure detected before or within 3 months of distant failure. Competing risk analyses identified factors predicting increased LF risk. Results: On univariate analysis, pathologic stage {>=}pT3, <10 nodes removed, positive margins, positive nodes, hydronephrosis, lymphovascular invasion, and mixed histology significantly predicted LF; node density was marginally predictive, but use of chemotherapy, number of positive nodes, type of surgical diversion, age, gender, race, smoking history, and body mass index were not. On multivariate analysis, only stage {>=}pT3 and <10 nodes removed were significant independent LF predictors with hazard ratios of 3.17 and 2.37, respectively (P<.01). Analysis identified 3 patient subgroups with significantly different LF risks: low-risk ({<=}pT2), intermediate-risk ({>=}pT3 and {>=}10 nodes removed), and high-risk ({>=}pT3 and <10 nodes) with 5-year LF rates of 8%, 23%, and 42%, respectively (P<.01). Conclusions: This series using routine CT and MRI surveillance to detect LF confirms that such failures are relatively common

  15. Patterns of Failure After Radical Cystectomy for pT3-4 Bladder Cancer: Implications for Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Abhinav V. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Pariser, Joseph J.; Pearce, Shane M. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Weichselbaum, Ralph R. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Norm D.; Steinberg, Gary D. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: In patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, local-regional failure (LF) has been reported to occur in up to 20% of patients following radical cystectomy. The goals of this study were to describe patterns of LF, as well as assess factors associated with LF in a cohort of patients with pT3-4 bladder cancer. This information may have implications towards the use of adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologic T3-4 N0-1 bladder cancer were examined from an institutional radical cystectomy database. Preoperative demographics and pathologic characteristics were examined. Outcomes included overall survival and LF. Local-regional failures were defined using follow-up imaging reports and scans, and the locations of LF were characterized. Variables were tested by univariate and multivariate analysis for association with LF and overall survival. Results: A total of 334 patients had pT3-4 and N0-1 disease after radical cystectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Of these, 46% received perioperative chemotherapy. The median age was 71 years old, and median follow-up was 11 months. On univariate analysis, margin status, pT stage, and pN stage, were all associated with LF (P<.05), however, on multivariate analysis, only pT and pN stages were significantly associated with LF (P<.05). Three strata of risk were defined, including low-risk patients with pT3N0 disease, intermediate-risk patients with pT3N1 or pT4N0 disease, and high-risk patients with pT4N1 disease, who had a 2-year incidence of LF of 12%, 33%, and 72%, respectively. The most common sites of pelvic relapse included the external and internal iliac lymph nodes (LNs) and obturator LN regions. Notably, 34% of patients with LF had local-regional only disease at the time of recurrence. Conclusions: Patients with pT4 or N1 disease have a 2-year risk of LF that exceeds 30%. These patients may be the most likely to benefit from local adjuvant therapies.

  16. Lymphatic filariasis in Peninsular Malaysia: a cross-sectional survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Mansor, Marzida; Kassim, Mustafa

    2014-11-27

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of permanent disability in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Malaysia is one of the countries in which LF is an endemic disease. Five rounds of the mass drug administration (MDA) program have been conducted in Malaysia as part of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) by year 2020. This study investigated the level of awareness of LF and the MDA program in a population living in an endemic area of the country. A descriptive cross-sectional survey that involved 230 respondents (≥15 years old) living in the LF endemic communities of Terengganu state in Peninsular Malaysia was performed. Demographic, socioeconomic, and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) data of the respondents were obtained using pre-tested questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0. More than 80% of the respondents were aware of LF and the common symptoms of the disease. Moreover, about 70% of the respondents that were aware of LF indicated that it is a problematic disease. Approximately 77% of the respondents indicated that filariasis is transmitted by mosquitoes. Two-thirds of respondents preferred hospital treatment for illness; however, only 12% had participated and/or received treatment for LF during an MDA program. Only 35% of the respondents that participated in this research were aware of the MDA program that had taken place in the area. None of the respondents had knowledge of the drug used in the treatment of LF. The findings from this research indicated that there was no significant association between LF awareness and with gender, age group, educational status, occupation, or socio-economic status of the respondents (P >0.05). A good proportion of the respondents are aware of LF, its mode of transmission and symptoms, however they demonstrated a poor knowledge of MDA which took place in the study area. For greater understanding of LF in the Malaysian population, there is a

  17. A systematic review of factors that shape implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silumbwe, Adam; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Halwindi, Hikabasa; Jacobs, Choolwe; Zgambo, Jessy; Dambe, Rosalia; Chola, Mumbi; Chongwe, Gershom; Michelo, Charles

    2017-05-22

    Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF) elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities. This review therefore seeks to document facilitators and barriers to implementation of MDA for LF in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic search of databases PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar was conducted. English peer-reviewed publications focusing on implementation of MDA for LF from 2000 to 2016 were considered for analysis. Using thematic analysis, we synthesized the final 18 articles to identify key facilitators and barriers to MDA for LF programme implementation. The main factors facilitating implementation of MDA for LF programmes were awareness creation through innovative community health education programmes, creation of partnerships and collaborations, integration with existing programmes, creation of morbidity management programmes, motivation of community drug distributors (CDDs) through incentives and training, and management of adverse effects. Barriers to implementation included the lack of geographical demarcations and unregistered migrations into rapidly urbanizing areas, major disease outbreaks like the Ebola virus disease in West Africa, delayed drug deliveries at both country and community levels, inappropriate drug delivery strategies, limited number of drug distributors and the large number of households allocated for drug distribution. Mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes should design their implementation strategies differently based on specific contextual factors to

  18. A systematic review of factors that shape implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Silumbwe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities. This review therefore seeks to document facilitators and barriers to implementation of MDA for LF in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A systematic search of databases PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar was conducted. English peer-reviewed publications focusing on implementation of MDA for LF from 2000 to 2016 were considered for analysis. Using thematic analysis, we synthesized the final 18 articles to identify key facilitators and barriers to MDA for LF programme implementation. Results The main factors facilitating implementation of MDA for LF programmes were awareness creation through innovative community health education programmes, creation of partnerships and collaborations, integration with existing programmes, creation of morbidity management programmes, motivation of community drug distributors (CDDs through incentives and training, and management of adverse effects. Barriers to implementation included the lack of geographical demarcations and unregistered migrations into rapidly urbanizing areas, major disease outbreaks like the Ebola virus disease in West Africa, delayed drug deliveries at both country and community levels, inappropriate drug delivery strategies, limited number of drug distributors and the large number of households allocated for drug distribution. Conclusion Mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes should design their implementation

  19. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Simulation for M4 Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE ................................................. 34 APPENDIX C: ANALYSIS OF MARKSMANSHIP PERFORMANCE DATA TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL...machine guns and anti- armour weapons. In these simulators, firers aim a modified weapon at a target image on a screen. When the firer pulls the trigger...investigate predictors of live-fire LF6 qualification. Specifically, we examined the utility of LF6 simulator scores and trainee demographic data as

  20. Fibonacci difference sequence spaces for modulus functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldip Raj

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we introduce Fibonacci difference sequence spaces l(F, Ƒ, p, u and  l_∞(F, Ƒ, p, u by using a sequence of modulus functions and a new band matrix F. We also make an effort to study some inclusion relations, topological and geometric properties of these spaces. Furthermore, the alpha, beta, gamma duals and matrix transformation of the space l(F, Ƒ, p, u are determined.