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Sample records for hydrangea macrophylla cultivars

  1. Micropropagation and Tissue Culture of Hydrangea macrophylla for Mutagenesis, Ploidy Manipulation, and Possible Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have established parameters for efficient in vitro germination of open pollinated seeds from 17 Hydrangea macrophylla and 2 Hydrangea paniculata cultivars. All tested hydrangea seed had a confirmed light requirement for germination to occur, and contrary to some prior reports, we discovered that ...

  2. An update on Hydrangea macrophylla genomics progress using next generation sequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrangea macrophylla was in cultivation in Japan and China long before it was introduced to England and France in the late 19th to early 20th century. Modern breeding work began in Europe in the early 1900’s, resulting in the development of over 300 cultivars prior to the beginning of the second Wo...

  3. A new flavonol glycoside from Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Seringe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei

    2010-01-01

    A new kaempferol glycoside, named kaempferol 3-O-[6"-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6'"-O-α-L-rhamnopy ranosyl-2""-O-α-L-rharnnopyranosyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Seringe. Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques including MS, IR, UV, and 2D NMR.

  4. Anti-malarial activity of leaf-extract of hydrangea macrophylla, a common Japanese plant.

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    Kamei K

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available To find a new anti-malarial medicine derived from natural resources, we examined the leaves of 13 common Japanese plants in vitro. Among them, a leaf-extract of Hydrangea macrophylla, a common Japanese flower, inhibited the parasitic growth of Plasmodium falciparum. The IC50 of Hydrangea macrophylla leaf extract to Plasmodium falciparum was 0.18 microg/ml. The IC50 to NIH 3T3-3 cells, from a normal mouse cell line, was 7.2 microg/ml. Thus, selective toxicity was 40. For the in vivo test, we inoculated Plasmodium berghei, a rodent malaria parasite, to ddY mice and administered the leaf-extract of Hydrangea macrophylla (3.6 mg/0.2 ml orally 3 times a day for 3 days. Malaria parasites did not appear in the blood of in the treated mice, but they did appear in the control group on day 3 or 4 after inoculation with the parasites. When leaf extract was administered to 5 mice 2 times a day for 3 days, malaria parasites did not appear in 4 of the mice but did appear in 1 mouse. In addition, the leaf-extract was administered orally 3 times a day for 3 days to Plasmodium berghei infected mice with a parasitemia of 2.7%. In the latter group, malaria parasites disappeared on day 3 after initiating the treatment, but they appeared again after day 5 or 6. Although we could not cure the mice entirely, we confirmed that the Hydrangea macrophylla leaf extract did contain an anti-malarial substance that can be administered orally.

  5. Armazenamento refrigerado de três cultivares de hortênsia cultivadas em vaso Three potted hydrangea cultivars storaged in low temperature

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    Graciela Sonego

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. RS, no período de agosto de 1993 a janeiro de 1995. Os objetivos foram verificar o efeito do armazenamento a 2°C sobre a duração do cultivo da hortênsia - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser. e fornecer subsídios para o desenvolvimento da cultura da hortênsia, através da caracterização fenométrica das cultivares disponíveis na região. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, constituído por um esquema bifatorial 6x3, cujos tratamentos constaram de seis períodos de armazenamento a frio (zero, duas, três, quatro, cinco e seis semanas, em câmara frigorífica a 2°C e três cultivares de hortênsia (Rústica, Branca e Decorativa. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que as cultivares Rústica e Decorativa mostraram-se indiferentes ao armazenamento a 2°C, enquanto que a cultivar Branca atrasou o florescimento, em cerca de dois meses. Por sua vez. as três cultivares possuem potencial para a produção em vasos e são caracterizadas pelas diferenças de diâmetro da inflorescência, ciclo de florescimento e ciclo total da cultura.The experiment was conducted at the Department of Fitotecnia, in the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, from August 1993 to January 1995. The purposes were to verify the effect of cold storage in the lenght of cultivation of hydrangea - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser, and to obtain informations on the development of the hydrangea culture, through the fenometric characterization of the cultivars available in the region. It was conducted in completely randomized design, with five replications. The experiment was a 6 x 3 bifactorial whose treatments were six cold storage periods (zero, two, three, four, five and six weeks in a cold chamber in a temperature of 2°C and three hydrangea cultivars (cv. Rustic, White and Decorative. The results showed no influence of the 2°C storage

  6. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Aluminum-Tolerance Pathways in the Al-Accumulating Species Hydrangea macrophylla and Marker Identification.

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    Haixia Chen

    Full Text Available Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a well known Al-accumulating plant, showing a high level of aluminum (Al tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for detoxification of Al and the roles of Al in blue hydrangea sepals have been reported, the molecular mechanisms of Al tolerance and accumulation are poorly understood in hydrangea. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-response genes in the roots and leaves of hydrangea by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. The assembly of hydrangea transcriptome provides a rich source for gene identification and mining molecular markers, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR. A total of 401,215 transcripts with an average length of 810.77 bp were assembled, generating 256,127 unigenes. After annotation, 4,287 genes in the roots and 730 genes in the leaves were up-regulated by Al exposure, while 236 genes in the roots and 719 genes in the leaves were down-regulated, respectively. Many transporters, including MATE and ABC families, were involved in the process of Al-citrate complex transporting from the roots in hydrangea. A plasma membrane Al uptake transporter, Nramp aluminum transporter was up-regulated in roots and leaves under Al stress, indicating it may play an important role in Al tolerance by reducing the level of toxic Al. Although the exact roles of these candidate genes remain to be examined, these results provide a platform for further functional analysis of the process of detoxification of Al in hydrangea.

  7. Shoot organogenesis in leaf explants of Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Hyd1’ and assessing genetic stability of regenerants using ISSR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Huang, L.L.; Reinhoud, P.; Jongsma, M.A.; Wang, C.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, an in vitro regeneration protocol of Hydrangea macrophylla 'Hyd1' was developed. Effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on shoot regeneration were investigated jointly with selecting optimal basal media and cefotaxime concentrations. The highest frequency of shoot or

  8. 八仙花水培营养液的筛选试验%Studies on Nutrient Solution of Hydroponic Hydrangea macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永生; 石关顺; 向松; 彭尽晖

    2011-01-01

    以八仙花为试验材料,选用5种通用型营养液进行筛选试验,结果表明,不同营养液处理对八仙花植株生长发育和开花性状的影响不同,综合考虑各营养液对八仙花生长发育和开花性状各项指标的影响,认为处理Ⅲ(日本园试配方)较适合八仙花的生长.%Five kinds of nutrient solution for hydroponic Hydrangea macrophylla were screened through experiments, the results showed that different nutrient solution treatments had different influences on the growth, development and flowering traits of H. macrophylla, among them treatment Ⅲ (Japanese garden test formula) was more suitable for the growth of H. macrophylla.

  9. Influência de diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos na propagação assexuada de hortênsia [Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser.] Influence of different types of stem cuttings and substrates on the asexual reproduction of hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser.

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    Petterson Baptista da Luz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A hortênsia (Hydrangea macrophylla é um arbusto semilenhoso de 1,0 a 2,5 m de altura, de folhagem e florescimento decorativos, muito utilizados como flor de vaso e planta para paisagismo. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o enraizamento de estacas de três partes da planta: apical, mediana e basal; em três tipos de substratos: terra, areia e vermiculita, para a formação de mudas. As estacas foram retiradas das plantas matrizes e divididas em segmentos apical, mediano e basal, os quais foram colocados para enraizar em bandejas de isopor, nos substratos areia, terra e vermiculita, em estufa com nebulização. As estacas que apresentaram melhor qualidade de raízes foram as originadas da parte basal do ramo, sendo que o melhor enraizamento foi observado nas estacas colocadas em areia. As estacas obtidas de diferentes partes da planta não se diferenciaram quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento e quanto ao número de brotos formados. Já os substratos que proporcionaram o maior número de brotações foram a areia e a terra. Algumas estacas apresentaram formação de flores, ocorrendo com maior freqüência nas estacas apicais, sem efeito dos substratos. A areia foi o substrato que proporcionou os melhores resultados quanto à qualidade das raízes e porcentagem de enraizamento. O substrato terra foi superior apenas para o número de brotos por estaca, porém não diferenciou estatisticamente da areia. Mudas formadas de estaca da parte basal da planta se mostraram com qualidade superior.The Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a semi-ligneous shrub measuring 1.0m to 2.5m in height with decorative foliage and flat-topped or rounded clusters of white, pink, or blue flowers widely used as vase or pot flower as well as landscaping plant. The objective of this research work was to study the rooting of stem cuttings obtained from three different parts of the plant: apical, median and basal portions of the stems, in three different

  10. Hepatoprotective Role of Hydrangea macrophylla against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Mitochondrial-Dependent Oxidative Stress via the Inhibition of MAPK/Caspase-3 Pathways

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    Md Rashedunnabi Akanda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 has been recognized as a worldwide health concern. Hydrangea macrophylla (HM is used as traditional Chinese medicine possessing antioxidant activities. The study was performed to investigate the therapeutic role and underlying molecular mechanism of HM on NaAsO2-induced toxicity in human liver cancer (HepG2 cells and liver in mice. The hepatoprotective role of HM in HepG2 cells was assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. Histopathology, lipid peroxidation, serum biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and Western blot analyses were performed to determine the protective role of HM against NaAsO2 intoxication in liver tissue. In this study, we found that co-treatment with HM significantly attenuated the NaAsO2-induced cell viability loss, intracellular ROS, and LDH release in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hepatic histopathology, lipid peroxidation, and the serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were notably improved by HM. HM effectively downregulated the both gene and protein expression level of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade. Moreover, HM well-regulated the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax/B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 ratio, remarkably suppressed the release of cytochrome c, and blocked the expression of the post-apoptotic transcription factor caspase-3. Therefore, our study provides new insights into the hepatoprotective role of HM through its reduction in apoptosis, which likely involves in the modulation of MAPK/caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  11. [Chemical constituents from Hydrangea paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Yang, Jingzhi; Li, Chuangjun; Zhang, Dongming

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the chemical constituents of the plant of Hydrangea paniculata and provide reference for the study of the bioactive substances, we isolated nine compounds from the dried branches of H. paniculata. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) and chemical methods. These compounds were identified as skimmin (1), isotachioside (2), 8-methoxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy coumarin glycoside (3), scopolin (4), 1-(alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6) -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy) - 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzene (5), apiosylskimmin (6), umbelliferone (7), scopoletin (8), 7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin (9). Compounds 1 - 7 were isolated from H. paniculata for the first time.

  12. Cultivars

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    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  13. Some adaptational peculiarities of introduced species of the genus Hydrangea

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    V. N. Kuchma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Among studied the Hydrangea L. genus the species, which most adapted to the environment of steppe conditions, were developed. H. cinerea Stall. and H. bretschneider Dipp. are recommended for use in laying out of parks, etc.

  14. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

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    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  15. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae

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    Ludy Cristina Pabon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae were isolated and characterized as (S-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1, (S-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2, (S-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3 and (S-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4; alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well.

  16. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique, E-mail: lcpabonb@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  17. Silviculture enhances the recovery of overexploited mahogany Swietenia macrophylla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, C.C.; Peña-Claros, M.; Staak, van der D.; Ohlson-kiehn, K.; Sterck, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Big leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla is the most valuable timber species in the tropics but its future as a commercial timber species is at risk. This study evaluates whether recovery of overexploited mahogany populations is enhanced by actively managing the species and its surrounding forest. We

  18. Environ: E00054 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00054 Sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16) Crude drug d-Phyllodulcin [CPD:C10274], Phyllodu...lcin-8-O-beta-D-glucose, Thunberinol A,B,C,F, Phyllodulcin monomethylether, Hydrangea-glucoside A, B, C Hydrange...a macrophylla [TAX:23110] Same as: D06680 Hydrangeaceae (hydrangea family) Sweet hydrangea leaf ...

  19. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  20. Effect of nitrogen rate and irrigation frequency on plant growth and nutrient uptake of container-grown Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of high quality container-grown nursery plants requires adequate but not excessive nutrients and water during production. Given the knowledge that N is the most important nutrient element for plant growth and that it is often the limiting factor, nursery growers tend to apply high lev...

  1. 不同光照强度对八仙花开花的影响%Effects of Different Light Intensity on the Blossom of Hydrangea macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 刘超; 钟汉东

    2014-01-01

    以八仙花品种“梦幻粉”为试材,研究50%遮阳、70%遮阳、室内大厅及全光照射不同光照强度对八仙花花色、花序、花朵及花瓣的大小、观花期的长短等多方面的影响.结果表明:八仙花花期在遮光率50%遮阳网遮盖条件下,有良好的观赏效果和较长的观赏期.

  2. Anatomia foliar de Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. e R. macrophylla Benth. (Rubiaceae Leaf anatomy of Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. and R. macrophylla Benth. [Rubiaceae

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    André Mantovani

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados sobre a anatomia das folhas de Rudgea decipiens e R. macrophylla (Rubiaceae. Ambas ocorrem na Floresta de Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro. As folhas são hipostomáticas, com estômatos do tipo paralelocítico, dotadas de mesofilo dorsiventral, feixes vasculares do tipo colateral, papilas na epiderme abaxial e cutícula estriada. Em R. macrophylla, destaca-se a ocorrência de estômatos peculiares.Anatomical characteristics of Rudgea decipiens and R. macrophylla leaves were examined. The two species grow in Floresta da Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro municipality. The leaves are hipostomatics, with parallelocytic stomata, dorsiventral mesophyll, colateral vascular bundles, papillae on the lower surface and striate cuticle. The stomata show peculiar aspects in R. macrophylla.

  3. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

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    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  4. A NEW KAURANE DITERPENE FROM THE LEAVES OF CALLICARPA MACROPHYLLA VAHL.

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    Vinay Kumar Verma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of leaves of Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., yielded a new compound 16α-hydroxy- 17-isopropylidino-3-oxo-phyllocladane along with calliterpenone and its monoacetate.

  5. Estudo fitoquímico da madeira de Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae Phytochemical study of the wood from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

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    João Henrique G. Lago

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the crude ethanol extract from wood of G. macrophylla was submitted to liquid/liquid partition between hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH. Each phase was individually chromatographed over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 or Amberlite XAD-2 to give eight terpene derivatives, such as five sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene oxide, guai-6-en-10β-ol, spathulenol, aromadendrane-4β,10α-diol and aloaromadendrane-4α,10β-diol as well as three triterpenoids (cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(R*-diol, cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(S*-diol, and cicloart-23E-ene-3β,25-diol. Additionally, were isolated three fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic and stearic, two steroids (sitosterol and stigmasterol and sacarose. The structures of all these compounds were characterized by spectrometric analysis, mainly mass spectrometry and NMR and comparison of these data described in the literature.

  6. Phytochemical study of the wood from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae); Estudo fitoquimico da madeira de Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Roque, Nadia F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    In the present work, the crude ethanol extract from wood of G. macrophylla was submitted to liquid/liquid partition between hexane, CH){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, EtOAc and n-BuOH. Each phase was individually chromatographed over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 or Amberlite XAD-2 to give eight terpene derivatives, such as five sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene oxide, guai-6-en-10 beta-ol, spathulenol, aromadendrane-4 beta,10 alpha-diol and aloaromadendrane-4 alpha,10 beta-diol) as well as three triterpenoids (cicloart-24-ene-3 beta,23(R*)-diol, cicloart-24-ene-3 beta,23(S*)-diol, and cicloart-23E-ene-3 beta,25-diol). Additionally, were isolated three fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic and stearic), two steroids (sitosterol and stigmasterol) and sacarose. The structures of all these compounds were characterized by spectrometric analysis, mainly mass spectrometry and NMR and comparison of these data described in the literature. (author)

  7. BARLEY CULTIVARS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-13

    Jun 13, 1993 ... models were each based on several parametric statistics: 1. Thevarianceofacultivaracrossenvironments. This approach uses the variance of a cultivar ... The predicted yield values areadjusted ... Subsistence farmers risks.

  8. HPLC Fingerprint and LC-TOF-MS Analysis on Extract from Roots of Gentiana macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Qi; SHANG Ping-ping; ZHANG Yong-min; JIA Na; HE Jiao; ZHAO Wen-na; SUN Wen-ji

    2012-01-01

    Objective Establishing a fingerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality.Methods RP-HPLC was developed for fingerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G macrophylla roots from different sources.LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the fingerprint.Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides.Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS.Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data.Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identification and comprehensive evaluation of G macrophylla.

  9. Triterpenes and the Antimycobacterial Activity of Duroia macrophylla Huber (Rubiaceae

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    Daiane Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Duroia macrophylla popularly known as “cabeça-de-urubú,” “apuruí,” or “puruí-grande-da-mata” occurs in the Amazon Forest. Its leaves and branches were collected twice and extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. All extracts were subjected to phytochemical investigation and terpenes and flavonoids were found in all dichloromethane and methanol extracts, respectively. Methanol extracts from both branches (1st collection and leaves (2nd collection presented hydrolyzed tannins, yet alkaloids were only detected in the dichloromethane and methanol extracts from branches at the 2nd collection. Phenol compounds were found in both dichloromethane extracts’ collections. The action of every extract was assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RMPr, H37Rv, and INHr strains, showing that the dichloromethane extract from leaves (1st collection has the major biological activity, with a MIC of 6.25 μg/mL for the INHr strain, 25.0 μg/mL for the RMPr strain, and ≤6.25 μg/mL for the H37Rv strain. The chromatographic fractioning of the dichloromethane extract from leaves (1st collection yielded the isolation of two triterpenes: oleanolic and ursolic acids, which were identified by NMR analysis and reported for the first time in the Duroia genus.

  10. Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Gingerbread Plum (Neocarya macrophylla Seeds

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    Tidjani Amza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla seeds, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed the following composition: moisture 10.57 and 10%, ash 4.43 and 6.43%, fat 47.28 and 2.14%, crude protein 20.37 and 61.71%, carbohydrates 8.64 and 12.10% and crude fiber 8.70 and 7.37% for Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (GPSF and Defatted Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (DGPSF respectively. Oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids with 47.15, 19.10 and 17.64% respectively. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.72% of total fatty acids. The main saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic, with minute amounts of arachidic. Magnesium, potassium and calcium were the predominant elements present in the seeds. Copper, iron and manganese were also detected in appreciable amounts. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural Organization/W orld Health Organization (FAO/WHO for humans. The results of the present investigation showed that gingerbread plum seeds are a rich source of many important nutrients that appear to have a very positive effect on human health.

  11. Inhibitory effects of Swietenia macrophylla on myotoxic phospholipases A2

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    Jaime A. Pereañez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract of the leaves of Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae, led to several fractions. As a result, sample Sm13-16, 23 had the most promising activity against phospholipases A2 (PLA2, Asp49 and Lys49 types. This fraction inhibited PLA2 activity of the Asp49 PLA2, when aggregated substrate was used. On the other hand, this activity was weakly neutralized when monodispersed substrate was used. In addition, Sm13-16, 23 inhibited, in a dose dependent manner, the cytotoxicity, myotoxicity and edema induced by PLA2s, as well as the anticoagulant activity of Asp49 PLA2. Overall, this fraction exhibited a better inhibition of the toxic activities induced by the Lys49 PLA2than those caused by the Asp49 PLA2. The spectral data of Sm13-16, 23 suggested the presence of aromatic compounds (UV λ max (nm 655, 266, and 219; IR λ max KBr (cm-1: ~ 3600-3000 (OH, 2923.07 and 1438.90 (C-H, 1656.69 (C = O, 1618.63 and 1607.67 (C-O, 1285.47772.60. We suggest that phenolic compounds could interact and inhibit the toxins by several mechanisms. Further analysis of the compounds present in the active fraction could be a relevant contribution in the treatment of accidents caused by snake envenomation.

  12. Triterpenes and the Antimycobacterial Activity of Duroia macrophylla Huber (Rubiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Daiane; Carrion, Lillian Lucas; Ramos, Daniela Fernandes; Salomé, Kahlil Schwanka; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Barison, Andersson; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Duroia macrophylla popularly known as “cabeça-de-urubú,” “apuruí,” or “puruí-grande-da-mata” occurs in the Amazon Forest. Its leaves and branches were collected twice and extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. All extracts were subjected to phytochemical investigation and terpenes and flavonoids were found in all dichloromethane and methanol extracts, respectively. Methanol extracts from both branches (1st collection) and leaves (2nd collection) presented hydrolyzed tannins, yet alkaloids were only detected in the dichloromethane and methanol extracts from branches at the 2nd collection. Phenol compounds were found in both dichloromethane extracts' collections. The action of every extract was assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RMPr, H37Rv, and INHr strains), showing that the dichloromethane extract from leaves (1st collection) has the major biological activity, with a MIC of 6.25 μg/mL for the INHr strain, 25.0 μg/mL for the RMPr strain, and ≤6.25 μg/mL for the H37Rv strain. The chromatographic fractioning of the dichloromethane extract from leaves (1st collection) yielded the isolation of two triterpenes: oleanolic and ursolic acids, which were identified by NMR analysis and reported for the first time in the Duroia genus. PMID:23509750

  13. Changes of gentiopicroside synthesis during somatic embryogenesis in Gentiana macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Yu; Chen, Qian-Liang; Xu, Dan; Hao, Jian-Guo; Schläppi, Michael; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2009-12-01

    IN VITRO plant regeneration of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and determination of gentiopicroside content during somatic embryogenesis are described in the present work. The highest percentage of embryogenic callus formation was observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). Calli were subcultured on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 1.0 mg/L BA and 500 mg/L lactalbumin hydrolysate (LH) at intervals of 25 days. A higher frequency of somatic embryo maturation was achieved on MS medium containing B5 vitamins (MB) supplemented with different concentrations of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and BA than with a combination of NAA and kinetin (KT). Addition of AgNO(3) improved maturation of somatic embryos while thidiazuron (TDZ) promoted vitrification. The gentiopicroside contents of embryogenic calli and globular-, heart-, torpedo-, and cotyledon-shaped embryoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gentiopicroside was not detectable in embryogenic calli, but in all types of somatic embryos. The highest gentiopicroside content was observed in cotyledon-shaped embryoids, reaching more than 12 mg/g dry weight.

  14. Hydrangea-like magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles through thiol-inducing assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Zhang, Junjun; Song, Shaokun; Xiong, Chuanxi; Dong, Lijie

    2017-01-01

    Magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), recognized as an emerging class of materials, have drawn much attention because of their potential applications. Due to surface functionalization and thiol-metal bonds, a simple method has been put forward for fabricating hydrangea-like magneto-fluorescent Fe3O4-SH@QD NPs, through assembling thiol-modified Fe3O4 NPs with sub-size multi-layer core/shell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs. After a refined but controllable silane hydrolysis process, thiol-modified Fe3O4 was fabricated, resulting in Fe3O4-SH@QD NPs with QDs, while preventing the quenching of the QDs. As a result, the core Fe3O4 NPs were 18 nm in diameter, while the scattered CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were 7 nm in diameter. The resultant magneto-fluorescent Fe3O4-SH@QD NPs exhibit efficient fluorescence, superparamagnetism at room temperature, and rapid response to the external field, which make them ideal candidates for difunctional probes in MRI and bio-labels, targeting and photodynamic therapy, and cell tracking and separation.

  15. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; E. Cuevas; A.E. Lugo; E. Terezo; J. Jimenez-Osornio; P.A. Macario-Mendoza; P. Montanez

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N) of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Mexico) and South America (State of Para, Brazil). The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large...

  16. Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zalabani, Soheir M; El-Askary, Hesham I; Mousa, Ola M; Issa, Marwa Y; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2012-02-01

    The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite.

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydrangea-Like F-Doped Titania Microspheres for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Carbamazepine under UV and Visible Light Irradiation

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    Miaomiao Ye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrangea-like F-doped TiO2 microspheres have been synthesized on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal process using potassium titanium oxalate as the titanium source, ammonium fluoride and hydrogen peroxide as the etchant. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated using carbamazepine as the target organic molecule under UV and visible light irradiation. Structural characterization indicates that the hydrangea-like TiO2 microspheres, with an average diameter of 2.80 μm, are composed of numerous anatase TiO2 petals. Moreover, it is found that both the NH4F and H2O2 dosages have important effects on the formation of the hydrangea-like structures. In addition, photocatalytic experiments show that the hydrangea-like TiO2 microspheres calcined at 500°C exhibit high photocatalytic efficiency under both UV and visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the successful fluorine doping, good crystallinity, and the unique nanostructures.

  18. Hypsipyla grandella em Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla: Situação Atual e Perspectivas Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla: Current Situation and Perspectives

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    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A madeira de mogno, Swietenia macrophylla King, é valorizada no mercado internacional por sua beleza e durabilidade para fins nobres, como mobiliários e decoração. Quaisquer tentativas de plantios comerciais dessa espécie de modo a reduzir a pressão exercida pela sua exploração seletiva invariavelmente fracassam devido à incidência da broca do ponteiro do mogno, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller. Embora alguns trabalhos tenham obtido relativo sucesso em apresentar técnicas de controle sob aspectos pontuais, ainda não foi estabelecida uma estratégia de manejo integrado que seja prática, econômica e eficiente para H. grandella no Brasil. Este trabalho tem como objetivo rever e atualizar informações sobre o inseto e seu hospedeiro, além de indicar as áreas de pesquisa mais promissoras para o seu controle em plantios de S. macrophylla no País. As estratégias de controle de H. grandella mais recomendadas são o uso da resistência da planta, manejo silvicultural, uso de semioquímicos e controle biológico, nas quais há necessidade de incentivos a pesquisas de longo prazo. Ensaios de resistência natural de procedências de S. macrophylla devem ser incentivados, devido às extensas áreas com reservas naturais no Brasil.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.59.45

    The mahogany wood, Swietenia macrophylla King, is valued in the international trade market for
    its beauty and durability for noble uses like furniture and decoration. Any attempt of commercial plantation of
    this specie to diminish the pressure made by its selective exploration fail due to the incidence of the mahogany
    shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller. Although some works have had relative success in presenting control
    techniques over the punctual aspects, a strategy of economic, an economic strategy for efficient and integrated
    management practice was not established yet for H. grandella in Brazil. This study objective is to update

  19. In vitro organogenesis in Albizia guachapele, Cedrella odorata and Swietenia macrophylla (Fabaceae, Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Cerdas, Lisette; Dufour, Magali; Villalobos, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of adventitious buds was achieved from hypocotyl explanls of Albizia guachapele (Guayaquil) and Cedrella odorata (Spanish cedar), and from epicotyl explants from Swietenia macrophylla (Honduran Mahogany). Seeds were obtained from CATIB's Latin American Fores! Seed Bank and genninated under aseptic conditions .. Four explants were cultured in each Petri dish on half strength modified Murashige and Skoog basal medium, and five concentrations of BA (benzyladenine) were studied; A. g...

  20. GC/MS profiling, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of Smilax macrophylla leaves

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    Muhammad Zubair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study has been designed to appraise the antioxidant, antimicrobial and haemolytic potential of Smilax macrophylla leaves. The n-hexane fraction was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer which revealed the presence of 38 compounds. All examined extracts and fractions of plant leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity. The haemolytic effect of the plant was found to be in a range of 3.41–8.48%. S. macrophylla leaves contained substantial level of total phenolic contents (2.2–6.2 Gallic acid equivalent mg/g and total flavonoid contents (1.2–4.5 Catechin, mg/g of dry plant matter. Leaf extract and fractions also exhibited a good antioxidant potential when measured by DPPH radical scavenging assay (Inhibitory concentration 50% = 33.4–72.3 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of plant extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. Significant (p < 0.05 variations were observed in the results. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaf extracts and fractions, exhibit considerable total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and scavenging power, along with more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. Considering these results, S. macrophylla could be used as a source for the exploration of new antimicrobial, antioxidant agents, functional food and nutraceutical applications.

  1. Evaluation of antifungal, antimycobacterial and larvicide activity of the Duroia macrophylla and D. saccifera

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    Ana Júlia Reis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bachground and objective: The wide Amazonian biodiversity has been identified as a source of natural product candidates to various pharmacological activities, particularly in combating infectious diseases. Some species, such as the genus Duroia, belonging to the Rubiaceae family, has been characterized by the production of secondary metabolites with important biological properties, but there are few studies with species of this genus. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic activity of D. macrophylla and D. saccifera extracts by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum larvicide concentration. Methods: Were collected plant materials of the D. macrophylla and D. saccifera in Forest Reserve A. Ducke in Manaus AM, from which were prepared dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts and determined the minimum inhibitory concentration and larvicidal concentration. Results: With regard to D. saccifera¸ extracts the dichloromethane extract of the branches was the most active against the fungal species and mycobacterial strains evaluated. On the other hand, the methanol and dichloromethane extract of the D. macrophylla leaves, were most active against Candida sp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively, but none of the six evaluated extracts showed antiparasitic activity against Toxocara canis. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of these Amazonian plants for the development of new therapies in the treatment of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and candidiasis.

  2. The Components of Flemingia macrophylla Attenuate Amyloid β-Protein Accumulation by Regulating Amyloid β-Protein Metabolic Pathway

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    Yun-Lian Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae is a popular traditional remedy used in Taiwan as anti-inflammatory, promoting blood circulation and antidiabetes agent. Recent study also suggested its neuroprotective activity against Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the effects of F. macrophylla on Aβ production and degradation were studied. The effect of F. macrophylla on Aβ metabolism was detected using the cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells N2a transfected with human Swedish mutant APP (swAPP-N2a cells. The effects on Aβ degradation were evaluated on a cell-free system. An ELISA assay was applied to detect the level of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42. Western blots assay was employed to measure the levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE. Three fractions of F. macrophylla modified Aβ accumulation by both inhibiting β-secretase and activating IDE. Three flavonoids modified Aβ accumulation by activating IDE. The activated IDE pool by the flavonoids was distinctly regulated by bacitracin (an IDE inhibitor. Furthermore, flavonoid 94-18-13 also modulates Aβ accumulation by enhancing IDE expression. In conclusion, the components of F. macrophylla possess the potential for developing new therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles at Apricot kernel shell substrate using Salvia hydrangea extract: Catalytic activity for reduction of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Bahar; Bordbar, Maryam; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-03-15

    For the first time the extract of the plant of Salvia hydrangea was used to green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Apricot kernel shell as an environmentally benign support. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell as an effective catalyst was prepared through reduction of Pd(2+) ions using Salvia hydrangea extract as the reducing and capping agent and Pd NPs immobilization on Apricot kernel shell surface in the absence of any stabilizer or surfactant. According to FT-IR analysis, the hydroxyl groups of phenolics in Salvia hydrangea extract as bioreductant agents are directly responsible for the reduction of Pd(2+) ions and formation of Pd NPs. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized catalyst was used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl Orange (MO), Methylene Blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB), and Congo Red (CR) at room temperature. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell showed excellent catalytic activity in the reduction of these organic dyes. In addition, it was found that Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity

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    Nneoma E. Akaniro-Ejim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to ameliorate abnormal physiological processes and be aptly applied in folklore for the treatment of maladies occasioned by infectious agents. Consequently, saponins from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla were evaluated for antibacterial properties, as these herbs are used in folk medicine. Dried pulverized plant materials were defatted, and solvents with varying polarity were applied at varying ratios for the extraction of saponins. Phyto-chemistry was in accordance with standard methods, while an antibacterial assay was made through the agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Phytochemical quantitation showed high concentrations of tannins, 231 ± 0.6 CE/g, and saponins, 58% from V. doniana. Similarly, P. macrophylla stem bark extract also showed high concentrations of tannins, 309 ± 2.42 CE/g, alkaloids, 71% ± 0.5%, and saponins, 87% ± 3.4%. The ethanol extracts of V. doniana inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11775 and a clinical strain with inhibition zone ranges of 15.5 ± 2.12 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against leaf extracts and 20.0 ± 1.41 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm against stem bark extracts. Conversely, saponin extract from V. doniana showed a broad spectrum of activity, as it inhibited both Gram-negative and -positive test strains, E. coli clinical strain (20.0 ± 1.41 mm, P. aeruginosa clinical strain (18.5 ± 0.71 mm, E. coli ATCC 11775 (17.0 ± 0 mm, and S. aureus clinical strain (13.0 ± 1.41 mm. However, a broad spectrum was similarly achieved with P. macrophylla extracts, as all test bacteria genus was susceptible. Saponin fractions showed a high potency and broad spectrum antibacterial activity and thus a validation of the folklore applications and the potential for use as a drug or drug scaffold.

  5. Nutrients and bioactive compounds content of Baillonella toxisperma, Trichoscypha abut and Pentaclethra macrophylla from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John; Kaaya, Archileo; Okia, Clement; Tieguhong, Juius C; Baidu-Forson, Jojo J

    2015-07-01

    Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut are important foods for communities living around forests in Cameroon. Information on the nutritional value and bioactive content of these foods is required to establish their contribution to the nutrition and health of the communities. Samples of the three foods were obtained from four villages in east and three villages in south Cameroon. The foods were analyzed for proximate composition, minerals and bioactive content using standard chemical analysis methods. T. abut was found to be an excellent source of bioactive compounds; flavonoids (306 mg/100 g), polyphenols (947 mg/100 g), proanthocyanins (61.2 mg/100 g), vitamin C (80.05 mg/100 g), and total oxalates (0.6 mg/100 g). P. macrophylla was found to be a rich source of total fat (38.71%), protein (15.82%) and total fiber (17.10%) and some bioactive compounds; vitamin E (19.4 mg/100 g) and proanthocyanins (65.0 mg/100 g). B. toxisperma, was found to have high content of carbohydrates (89.6%), potassium (27.5 mg/100 g) and calcium (37.5 mg/100 g). Flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E are the main bioactive compounds in these forest foods. The daily consumption of some of these fruits may coffer protection against some ailments and oxidative stress. Approximately 200 g of either B. toxisperma or P. macrophylla, can supply 100% iron and zinc RDAs for children aged 1-3 years, while 300 g of the two forest foods can supply about 85% iron and zinc RDAs for non-pregnant non-lactating women. The three foods provide 100% daily vitamins C and E requirements for both adults and children. The results of this study show that Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut can considerably contribute towards the human nutrient requirements. These forest foods also contain substantial levels of health promoting phytochemicals notably flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E. These foods therefore have

  6. Electrophysiological responses of female and male Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) to Swietenia macrophylla essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Fernandes, João B; Corrêa, Arlene G; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Vieira, Paulo C; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ohashi, Orlando S

    2003-09-01

    The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella, is one of the most economically important Neotropical forest pest insects because it attacks valuable timber of the Meliaceae. Despite detailed information on the life cycle of H. grandella, factors influencing attack by the shoot borer are not well known. Electroantennogram studies of borer antennae indicate that both female and male moths elicited significant antennal responses to essential oil of the terminal shoots, mature and senescent leaves, in three concentrations. Gamma-himachalene, germacrene D, germacrene A, cadina-1,4-diene, hexadecanoic acid, and ethyl hexadecanoate appeared in all essential oils from Swietenia macrophylla. Germacrene-D and gamma-himachalene were also present in the active essential oil of Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. These findings suggest that these compounds play a role in attracting H. grandella to oviposit on the leaves of these plants. The GC-EAD of essential oil from S. macrophylla mature leaves to female H. grandella antennae led to the identification of beta-caryophyllene as the main constituent responsible for the antennae response.

  7. ANXIOLYTIC AND ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF FLEMINGIA MACROPHYLLA IN RODENTS

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    CH. BHARGAVI, B. VENKATARAMANA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic and anti epileptic activity of ethonolic extract of Flemingia macrophylla by using different extract concentrations in rodents. Anxiolytic activity of FME was estimated by using Elevated plus maze test and light-dark model along with Mono Amino Oxidase enzyme levels in mice and the anticonvulsant activity of FME was estimated in rats by using MES , PTZ methods and those showing response were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group-I (Normal, Group-II (Diazepam 2mg/ Kg , p.o , Group-III (FME 20mg/Kg in mice, 100mg/Kg in rats, p.o, Group-IV(FME 50mg/Kg in mice, 200mg/Kg , p.o. Animals treated with FME had shown a significant increase in enzyme levels and significant decrease in anxiety and onset of convulsions when compared with the diazepam treated animals. The ethanolic extract of Flemingia macrophylla afforded significant protection against anxiety and epilepsy. The activity may be due to the presense of flavonoids& glycosides.

  8. Hydrangeas-like Bi2WO6: facile synthesis, visible-light driven photocatalysis and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongtao; Liu, Fangfang; Li, Xiaohui; Li, Fenfen; Sui, Xiaomei

    2012-08-01

    Hydrangeas-like Bi2WO6 powders were synthesized successfully by salt-ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal process, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), respectively. Bi, W and O elements were contained in the product, which could be tested by EDS. The crystal structure of the catalyst was orthorhombic phase (JCPDS card no.73-1126). And the band gap was estimated to be 2.56 eV from the onset of UV-Vis absorption spectra of the catalyst. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of the products were investigated on the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). It demonstrated that photocatalysts exhibited excellent visible-light driven photocatalytic performance. And the target residue was less than 1% in 20 min under Xenon lamp irradiation. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were used to explore the electronic and optical properties of Bi2WO6. And the theoretical calculations could illustrate the photocatalytic performance of Bi2WO6 powders under visible light irradiation.

  9. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic contents of Salvia urmiensis Bunge and Salvia hydrangea DC. ex Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Bahadori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Salvia species are important because of their medicinal, traditional and economical uses. They are used traditionally for treatment of several diseases. The genus Salvia is represented in the Iranian flora by 61 species of which, 17 are endemic.  In the present study, the phytochemical and biological effects of two Iranian Salvia species have been evaluated. Methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals scavenging activities of extracts of Salvia urmiensis Bunge and Salvia hydrangeawere evaluated. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents and brine shrimp lethality potential of the extracts were also determined. Results: Compared to podophyllotoxin (LC50 =42 µg/mL, the ethyl acetate extract of S. hydrangea demonstrated a significant cytotoxicity (LC50=36 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extract of S. urmiensis was found to have significant antioxidant properties with IC50 value of 10.0±0.2 µg/mL. All tested extracts showed moderate to high flavonoid and phenolic contents. Conclusion: Findings showed that these plants contain important metabolites and could be suggested for discovery of biologically active natural compounds.

  10. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  11. Licanol, um novo flavanol, e outros constituintes de Licania macrophylla Benth

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    Fernando Antônio de Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of L. macrophylla Benth led to the isolation of a new flavanol named licanol: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin-3'-O-α-L-rhamnoside, along with nine known compounds, identified as: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin, pheophytin A, 13²-hydroxy-(13²-S-pheophytin A, pheophytin B, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol-β-O-glucoside, betulinic alcohol and oleanolic acid. The structures were established based on IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectrometric data analysis with the aid of 2D techniques. The methanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark as well as the compounds licanol, 13²-hidroxi-(13²-S-feofitina A, and betulinic alcohol demonstrated antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains.

  12. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

    The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

  13. The essential oils of the Greek endemic Satureja horvatii ssp. macrophylla in relation to bioclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardioti, Antonia; Hanlidou, Effie; Lanaras, Tom; Kokkini, Stella

    2010-08-01

    The essential oils of the Greek endemic Satureja horvatii subsp. macrophylla collected from 36 areas (among them, 23 are included in twelve sites of the EU network NATURA 2000) belonging to different bioclimatic types were studied. The total essential-oil content is negatively related to the altitude. The variation of the essential oil composition follows a geographical pattern, which is related to the bioclimatic belts along the taxon's range. Carvacrol dominates in areas with Mediterranean and Submediterranean bioclimate (mainly in the S and C part of the taxon's distribution), linalool or trans-sabinene hydrate, and/or borneol in the Submediterranean or Temperate Axeric bioclimates (in the N part of distribution), whereas thymol is found as main oil constituent in all three bioclimates.

  14. Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Activity of Flemingia macrophylla and Glycine tomentella Roots

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    Bor-Sen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of the water extract of Flemingia macrophylla root (WEFM were investigated. The results showed that WEFM exhibited radical scavenging and reducing activities, as well as ferrous ion chelating property. In addition, WEFM also protected phospholipids against oxidation, indicating that WEFM could protect biomolecules from oxidative damage. Meanwhile, in the range of 50–100 μg/mL, the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of WEFM increased with an increase in sample concentration and was superior to that of the water extract of Glycine tomentella root (WEGT. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to determine the phenolic components, revealing that daidzin, daidzein, genistin, and genistein were present in WEFM and WEGT. Acting as an antioxidant and a tyrosinase inhibitor, these bioactive constituents could contribute to the protective effects of WEFM. Overall, the results showed that WEFM might serve as a natural antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor.

  15. In vitro multiplication of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae from juvenile shoots

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    Eliane de Souza Schottz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King is an important species for timber production that is considered the most valuable in the world. For this reason its exploitation is indiscriminate and leads this species to the risk of extinction. Moreover, mahogany is difficult to regenerate naturally and, when used in reforestation programs, plants are severely damaged by the shoot-borer (Hypsipyla grandella Zellar. This work aimed at developing the multiplication stage of micropropagation of Swietenia macrophylla King using juvenile material. After desinfestation, seeds were germinated in MS solid culture medium. Shoot formation from seeds occurred during five months, giving 5.54 nodal segments per seed. These explants were excised, each containing one axillary bud, and transferred on multiplication media. Four experiments with cytokinins were conducted, using media supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (2.5 to 50.0 μM, 2- isopentenyladenine (2-iP (0; 1.1 to 8.8 μM, combinations of BAP (0; 2.5 to 50.0 μM and 2-iP (2.2 μM. For the first treatments the basal culture medium was MS medium and in the last one MS and QL media were used in separate experiments. When BAP was tested alone, the maximum point of multiplication rate average was obtained on medium containing 23.61 μM, while 2-iP did not induce bud multiplication. On QL culture medium supplemented with the combinations of BAP (0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0 e 20.0 μM and 2-iP (2.2 μM, there was no multiplication. The maximum point of multiplication rate average was 5.7 μM, obtained when the MS culture medium was supplemented with 18.51 μM BAP and 2.2 μM 2-iP.

  16. Acute oral toxicity studies of Swietenia macrophylla seeds in Sprague Dawley rats

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    Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae seeds (SMS; commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg. Aim: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw in sprague dawley (SD rats. Materials and Methods: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats′ general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach; the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs were observed. Results: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period. Conclusion: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.

  17. Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; D'Angelo, J. A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Cleal, C.J.; Keefe, D.

    2010-01-01

    In Canada's Sydney Coalfield, specimens of the extinct Carboniferous seed fern Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Brongniart) invariably show preservation stages intermediate between compression and fossilized-cuticle, even concerning a single pinnule. In this interdisciplinary approach, we study a ca. 300 to 350 mm long fossilized-cuticle-preserved frond section of M. macrophylla (Brongniart) that represents about one third of the length of a frond that was originally 1 m long. Size and preservation allow us to study the phytochemistry of the cuticle biomacropolymers over the length of the frond to assess what impact, if any, results would have on Carboniferous palaeophytochemotaxonomy. For comparison, the phytochemistry of compressions with their extracted cuticles from the same species and the same sample locality is also investigated. We use solid- and liquid-state, semi-quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical characterization of the frond.Based on our results, we infer an essentially uniform phytochemistry over the fossilized-cuticle frond, suggesting that only a single pinnule needs to be analyzed to get an overall phytochemical picture of the frond, which has been our long-time working hypothesis. We distinguish between phytochemistry and cutinization. The latter is much less pronounced above than below the frond dichotomy, and we suggest a palaeoecological cause, rather than differing pathways of organic matter transformation. Moreover, cuticles below and above the frond dichotomy have essentially the same epidermal pattern, but those from below have features that may have been an adaptation to prevent stomatal flooding during the tropical, rainy season.This study suggests that chemically the fossilized-cuticle is more similar to the compression than to the cuticle obtained from that compression of the same species which invites reevaluation of the classical compression concept. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia, B1P 6L2 (Canada); D' Angelo, Jose A. [IANIGLA, CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n Parque Gral. San Martin (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405-2208 (United States); Cleal, Christopher J. [Department of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology, National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3NP (United Kingdom); Keefe, Dale [Molecular Spectroscopy Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-11-01

    In Canada's Sydney Coalfield, specimens of the extinct Carboniferous seed fern Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Brongniart) invariably show preservation stages intermediate between compression and fossilized-cuticle, even concerning a single pinnule. In this interdisciplinary approach, we study a ca. 300 to 350 mm long fossilized-cuticle-preserved frond section of M. macrophylla (Brongniart) that represents about one third of the length of a frond that was originally 1 m long. Size and preservation allow us to study the phytochemistry of the cuticle biomacropolymers over the length of the frond to assess what impact, if any, results would have on Carboniferous palaeophytochemotaxonomy. For comparison, the phytochemistry of compressions with their extracted cuticles from the same species and the same sample locality is also investigated. We use solid- and liquid-state, semi-quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical characterization of the frond. Based on our results, we infer an essentially uniform phytochemistry over the fossilized-cuticle frond, suggesting that only a single pinnule needs to be analyzed to get an overall phytochemical picture of the frond, which has been our long-time working hypothesis. We distinguish between phytochemistry and cutinization. The latter is much less pronounced above than below the frond dichotomy, and we suggest a palaeoecological cause, rather than differing pathways of organic matter transformation. Moreover, cuticles below and above the frond dichotomy have essentially the same epidermal pattern, but those from below have features that may have been an adaptation to prevent stomatal flooding during the tropical, rainy season. This study suggests that chemically the fossilized-cuticle is more similar to the compression than to the cuticle obtained from that compression of the same species which invites reevaluation of the classical compression concept. (author)

  19. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF POLYPHENOLIC EXTRACTS OF BETULA PENDULA, SALIVA HYDRANGEA AND CRATAEGUS CURVISEPALA, AS WELL AS VITAMIN C, ON THE EXTENT OF GLYCOSYLATION OF ALBUMIN, INSULIN AND HEMOGLOBIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIGHEH ASGARY

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine diseases spreading rapidly in the world. Diabetes complications are classified to acute and chronic. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of all body proteins, such as hemoglobin, albumin is the main cause of pathogenesis in chronic complications of diabetes. As glycosylation reaction of proteins is an oxidative reaction it seems that antioxidants, such as vitamin C, inhibit the reaction and, therefore, chronic complications of diabetes. In the present study inhibitory effects of polyphenolic extracts of Betula pendula, Saliva hydrangea and Crataegus curvisepala, as well as vitamin C, on the extent of glycosylation of albumin, insulin and hemoglobin was investigated. Methods: Polyphenolic extracts of the mentioned plants were prepared in three different concentrations; 3.6, 1.8, and 0.9 mg/ml also vitamin C solutions were prepared in 5 concentrations: 0.5, 5, 10, 50 and 500 µg/ml. Results: The highest extent of glycosylation inhibition of albumin and insulin was due to S.hydrangea by 100% and 97% respectively, and that of hemoglobin was due to a.pendula, by 80%. Vitamin C in its highest concentration inhibit glycosylation of insulin, albumin and hemoglobin by 100%, 93%, and 58% respectively (P < 0.05. Discussion: Based on the findings, it seems that these plants prevent chronic complications of diabetes.

  20. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Saturno – triticale cultivar

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    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The triticale cultivar BRS Saturno was developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation inpartnership with the Fundação Pró-Sementes de Apoio à Pesquisa. It is the result of a cross between the genotypes PFT 512 and CEP28 – Guará, adapted to the environmental conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil.

  1. Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. and Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don: A comparative review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyade, Mahendra S; Kasote, Deepak M; Vaikos, Nityanand P

    2014-04-11

    Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. and Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don are two vital medicinal plant species (family: Apocynaceae). In India, the therapeutic use of Alstonia scholaris has been described in both codified and non-codified drug systems for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, gastrointestinal troubles, cancer and in many other ailments. Other species, Alstonia macrophylla has been used in conventional medicines in Thailand, Malaysia and Philippines as a general tonic, aphrodisiac, anticholeric, antidysentery, antipyretic, emmenagogue, and vulnerary agents. In India, Alstonia macrophylla is used as a substitute for Alstonia scholaris in various herbal pharmaceutical preparations. However, one certainly cannot evaluate the truthfulness of a practice (i.e. in scientific terms). In this article we discuss and summarize comparative data about traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity of Alstonia scholaris and Alstonia macrophylla. Moreover, in order to unfold future research opportunities, lacunae in the present knowledge are also highlighted. Literature about Alstonia scholaris and Alstonia macrophylla was collected by using electronic and library search. Additionally, referred books on traditional medicine and ethnopharmacology were also utilized for receiving traditional records about both the plant species. Both Alstonia scholaris and Alstonia macrophylla are rich in different types of bioactive alkaloids. So far, broad spectrum of in vitro and in vivo biological and pharmacological activities have been reported to both the species. Amongst them, antimicrobial and anticancer activities were promising. The use of Alstonia macrophylla as a substitute for Alstonia scholaris is not at all justifiable as both the species are distinct from each other in their phytochemistry and pharmacology. Further detail chemical fingerprinting and metabolic studies of these two species are warranted to prevent their mutual adulteration most importantly

  2. Determinación de necesidades nutrimentales para las especies Swietenia macrophylla y Cupressus lusitanica en prueba de invernadero

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    A. Paniagua Vásquez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los requerimientos nutrimentales de Swietenia macrophylla y Cupressus lusitanica en un Inceptisol y Ultisol provenientes de la región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica, en una prueba de invernadero utilizando una metodología que involucra tres pasos fundamentales: a análisis preliminar de la muestra original, b estudios de Sorción, c técnicas de invernadero. La muestra del suelo se recolectó en sitios representativos a una profundidad de 0-25 cm. En Inceptisol los requerimentos para Sweitenia macrophylla en orden según las pruebas de invernadero fueron: P> Cu> B> Fe> N, para Cupressus lusitanica fueron: P> K> Mn> Cu> Zn> Fe. En Ultisol los requerimentos nutrimentales para Sweitenia macrophylla fueron: B> Fe> Mn> Zn> N> P> K> Cu. Es importante considerar que son los elementos menores los que tienen mayor respuesta a la aplicación, con las variables de crecimiento los mayores valores se obtuvieron en orden K> N> P, para Cupressus lusitanica resultados fueron: N> P> Mn> Fe> Zn. Con las variables de crecimiento los mayores valores se obtuvieron en orden K> N> P.

  3. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Swietenia macrophylla KING (MELIACEAE A PARTIR DE MATERIAL JUVENIL

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    Eliane de Souza Schottz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King is an important species for timber production that is considered the most valuable in the world. For this reason its exploitation is indiscriminate and leads this species to the risk of extinction. Moreover, mahogany is difficult to regenerate naturally and, when used in reforestation programs, plants are severely damaged by the shoot-borer (Hypsipyla grandella Zellar. This work aimed at developing the multiplication stage of micropropagation of Swietenia macrophylla King using juvenile material. After desinfestation, seeds were germinated in MS solid culture medium. Shoot formation from seeds occurred during five months, giving 5.54 nodal segments per seed. These explants were excised, each containing one axillary bud, and transferred on multiplication media. Four experiments with cytokinins were conducted, using media supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (2.5 to 50.0 μM, 2-isopentenyladenine (2-iP (0; 1.1  to 8.8 μM, combinations  of  BAP (0; 2.5 to 50.0 μM and 2-iP (2.2 μM. For the first treatments the basal culture medium was MS medium and in the last one MS and QL media were used in separate experiments. When BAP was tested alone, the maximum point of multiplication rate average was obtained on medium containing 23.61 µM, while 2-iP did not induce bud multiplication. On QL culture medium  supplemented  with  the  combinations  of  BAP  (0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0 e 20.0 μM   and  2-iP (2.2 μM, there was no multiplication. The maximum point of multiplication rate average  was  5.7 µM, obtained when the MS culture medium was supplemented with 18.51 µM BAP and 2.2  µM  2-iP.

  4. Protocolo para la micropropagación de Furcraea macrophylla Baker

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    Martínez María A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Del género Furcraea hacen parte especies textiles de gran importancia en los mercados nacionales e internacionales, tanto por las características de la fibra como por el contenido de precursores de hormonas, corticoides, azúcares, ácidos grasos y biopesticidas que se encuentran en sus jugos. En esta investigación se desarrolló un protocolo para la micropropagación de Furcraea macrophylla B. a partir de ápices caulinares procedentes de bulbillos. Los cultivos in vitro se realizaron en medio MS modificado y suplementado con BA, TDZ, KIN y 2-IP en forma individual o en combinación con 2,69 μM de ANA. Después de 12 semanas de iniciados los cultivos, en la mayoría de los tratamientos ensayados los explantes desarrollaron brotes axilares. 100% de los brotes producidos enraizaron después de 30 d en medio MS modificado suplementado con  11,42 μM de AIA, con 2,46 μM de AIB o en ausencia de reguladores de crecimiento. Después de la etapa de endurecimiento, 94% de las plántulas sobrevivieron en condiciones ex vitro. El protocolo establecido para la  micropropagación de F. macrophylla es un procedimiento efectivo con el que se podría suplir la demanda comercial de material vegetal seleccionado, en óptimo estado fitosanitario, en periodos relativamente  cortos y a bajos costos.

  5. Functional characterization of Citrus macrophylla BOR1 as a boron transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon, Paola; Aquea, Felipe; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2013-11-01

    Plants have evolved to develop an efficient system of boron uptake and transport using a range of efflux carriers named BOR proteins. In this work we isolated and characterized a boron transporter of citrus (Citrus macrophylla), which was named CmBOR1 for its high homology to AtBOR1. CmBOR1 has 4403 bp and 12 exons. Its coding region has 2145 bp and encodes for a protein of 714 amino acids. CmBOR1 possesses the molecular features of BORs such as an anion exchanger domain and the presence of 10 transmembrane domains. Functional analysis in yeast indicated that CmBOR1 has an efflux boron transporter activity, and transformants have increased tolerance to excess boron. CmBOR1 is expressed in leaves, stem and flowers and shows the greatest accumulation in roots. The transcript accumulation was significantly increased under boron deficiency conditions in shoots. In contrast, the accumulation of the transcript did not change in boron toxicity conditions. Finally, we observed that constitutive expression of CmBOR1 was able to increase tolerance to boron deficiency conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that CmBOR1 is a xylem loading boron transporter. Based on these results, it was determined that CmBOR1 encodes a boric acid/borate transporter involved in tolerance to boron deficiency in plants.

  6. The Root Extract of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Alleviates Cardiac Apoptosis in Lupus Prone Mice.

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    Chih-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available The roots of the perennial herb Gentiana macrophylla Pall. (GM are known as Qinjiao, which has been used for centuries to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, little is known about the effects of GM on cholesterol-aggravated cardiac abnormalities in SLE, and the mechanisms thereof. This study investigates whether GM exhibits anti-apoptotic effects, focusing on the left ventricle (LV of NZB/W F1 mice fed with high-cholesterol diet. The morphology and apoptotic status of ventricular tissues were determined by microscopy and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. Levels of apoptotic biomarkers were determined by immunoblotting. The results thus obtained revealed that GM significantly reduced the cholesterol-aggravated apoptosis of LV in NZB/W F1 mice by suppressing both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Additionally, GM significantly increased the cardiac insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 survival signaling and anti-apoptotic proteins in LV tissues. Accordingly, GM is considered to be beneficial in alleviating cholesterol-aggravated cardiac damage in SLE, and therefore constitute an alternative treatment for SLE patients with cardiac abnormalities.

  7. Effect of overnight temperature on leaf photosynthesis in seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGCheng-Jun; CarlosHenriqueB.deA.Prado; ZUYuan-Gang; GUOJia-Qiu; CarlosCesarRonquim; LeonnardoLopesFerreira

    2003-01-01

    After exposure of one-year old seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla to an overnight temperature (13 ℃, 19 ℃, 25 ℃,31 ℃ or 35 ℃), the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was researched through measuring photosynthetic light-response curves at360μmol·mol-1 CO2, and photosynthetic CO2-response curves at light-saturated intensity (1500 μmol·mol-1·m-2·s-1). The optimal temperature for photosynthesis measured at 360μmol·mol-1 CO2 was from 25 ℃ to 31 ℃, but which was from 31℃ to 35 ℃ at saturating CO2 concentration. At temperature of below 25 ℃, the decline in Pn was mainly due to the drop in carboxylation effi-cfency (Ce), while as temperature was over 31 ℃, the reduction in Pn resulted from both decrease in Ce and increase in leaf respiration. The CO2-induced stimulation of photosynthesis was strongly inhibited at temperatures below 13 ℃. The results showed that, the leaf photosynthesis of tropical evergreen plants should not be accelerated at low temperature in winter season with elevated CO2 concentration in the future.

  8. Kinetic analysis of the thermostability of peroxidase from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds

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    Sabinus Oscar Onyebuchi EZE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A major problem in the storage and marketing of processed African oil bean seeds is its high deterioration rates due to the undesirable activity of peroxidases. The effect of heat treatment on the activity of peroxidase (POD from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds was studied over a range of 30°C to 80°C. A simple first-order reaction which assumes a biphasic thermoinactivation curves was used to study the denaturation of this enzyme. Results suggested that peroxidase is a stable enzyme with a Z-value as low as 0.0147. This indicates that it is more sensitive to increase in temperature than to the duration of the heat treatment making high temperature short time treatment a technique to be used for its inactivation. The results of the thermodynamic investigations indicated that the oxidation reactions were: (a not spontaneous (ΔG > 0 for peroxidase at 323oK, and at all the temperatures (2 slightly endothermic (ΔH > 0 at 323 K and (3 reversible (ΔS < 0 at all the temperatures under study.

  9. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  10. In Vitro Cytoprotective Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Swietenia macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Sônia; Sá, Paulo; Lopes, Dielly; Costa, Edmar; Yamada, Elizabeth; e Silva, Consuelo; Arruda, Mara; Souza, Jesus; da Silva, Milton

    2015-10-16

    Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) is a highly valued timber species, whereas the leaves are considered to be waste product. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in aqueous extracts from mahogany leaves by comparing retention times and mass spectra data with those of authentic standards using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Polyphenols play an important role in plants as defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens and have potent antioxidant properties. In terms of health applications, interest has increased considerably in naturally occurring antioxidant sources, since they can retard the progress of many important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The antioxidant capacities of two aqueous extracts, M1 (decoction) and M2 (infusion), were measured using TEAC and Folin-Ciocalteau methods. Additionally, M1 was used in order to investigate its potential cytoprotective effects on an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, by using primary cerebellar cultures exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg). Under experimental sub-chronic conditions (72 h), concomitant exposure of the same cultures to MeHg and M1 extract resulted in a statistically significant increase in cell viability in all three concentrations tested (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL), strongly suggesting that due to its high content of antioxidant compounds, the M1 extract provides significant cytoprotection against the MeHg-induced in vitro neurotoxicity.

  11. Genetic diversity in mesoamerican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), assessed using RAPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, A C; Navarro, C; Lowe, A J; Newton, A C; Hernández, M; Wilson, J; Cornelius, J P

    1999-12-01

    Swietenia macrophylla King, a timber species native to tropical America, is threatened by selective logging and deforestation. To quantify genetic diversity within the species and monitor the impact of selective logging, populations were sampled across Mesoamerica, from Mexico to Panama, and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Ten decamer primers generated 102 polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and interpopulation variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). Populations from Mexico clustered closely together in the dendrogram and were distinct from the rest of the populations. Those from Belize also clustered closely together. Populations from Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras, however, did not cluster closely by country but were more widely scattered throughout the dendrogram. This result was also reflected by an autocorrelation analysis of genetic and geographical distance. Genetic diversity estimates indicated that 80% of detected variation was maintained within populations and regression analysis demonstrated that logging significantly decreased population diversity (P = 0.034). This study represents one of the most wide-ranging surveys of molecular variation within a tropical tree species to date. It offers practical information for the future conservation of mahogany and highlights some factors that may have influenced the partitioning of genetic diversity in this species across Mesoamerica.

  12. On the Conjunction of China-Vietnam Border Hydrangea Culture and the National Fitness Program%中越边境绣球文化与全民健身的契合及发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林峰; 王成科

    2013-01-01

    With a long history, hydrangea culture has rich content and sound foundation in the boarder area of China and Vietnam. To develop hydrangea culture in National Fitness Program being carried out has great significance to improve the health level of boarder area people, to improve their spirit conditions and inherit their ethnic sports culture.%  绣球文化历史悠久,内容丰富,在中越边境地区具有广泛的群众基础。在全民健身计划实施的过程中发展绣球运动,对提高中越边境各族人民健康水平、提高民族精神面貌与少数民族体育文化传承有着重要社会意义。

  13. Influence of Container Mulches on Irrigation and Nutrient Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted in 2005 and repeated in 2006 to determine the influence of mulch products and controlled release fertilizer (CRF) placement on irrigation and nutrition requirements of container-grown crops. Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla 'Fasan' and 'Endless Summer') were grown in 2.7...

  14. Seed reserves partition and light compensation point of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King seedlings growth under low photosynthetic active radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pires de Lemos Filho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the dry mass partition of the seed reserves during the initial growth of Swietenia macrophylla seedlings, in the dark, and at low levels of photosynthetically active radiation: 0.125; 3.12 and 52 µ mol.m-2.s-1. After 50 days, the dry mass of the seed reserves did not differ with treatments, but the total dry mass and leaf area were higher in the seedlings under higher light treatment. No difference in root/shoot ratio was observed between treatments, but the leaf area ratio was lower at higher light. Only the seedlings grown at 52 µ mol.m-2.s-1 showed a positive dry mass increase in relation to the mobilized seed reserves. With the values of the net increase of the seedling mass, a linear equation was adjusted in relation to the light levels, permitting to determine 3.76 µ mol.m-2.s-1 as the seedling light compensation point. These results explain the shade tolerance of the S. macrophylla seedlings.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a partição da massa seca das reservas das sementes durante o crescimento de plântulas de Sietenia macrophylla , no escuro e sob baixos níveis de radiação fotossintéticamente ativa: 0,125; 3,12 e 52µ mol.m-2.s-1. Após 50 dias a massa seca das reservas das sementes não diferiram com os diferentes tratamentos de luz. Não foi observado diferenças na razão raíz/parte aérea, mas a razão área foliar foi menor no maior nível de luz. Somente as plântulas crescidas a 52 µ mol.m-2.s-1 mostraram um incremento positivo na massa seca em relação às reservas mobilizadas da semente. Uma equação linear foi ajustada entre o incremento líquido de massa seca das plântulas e níveis de luz, permitindo determinar 3,76 µ mol.m-2.s-1 como ponto de compensação de luz das plântulas. Esses resultados explicam a tolerância à sombra das plântulas de S. macrophylla

  15. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  16. Progeny test analysis and population differentiation of mesoamerican mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Navarro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de experimentos de progenies (familias de una colección Mesoamericana de caoba (Swietenia macrophylla. El desarrollo de progenies de árboles madre de polinización abierta de caoba, Swietenia macrophylla, fue evaluado en 3 ensayos establecidos en la Zona Norte de Costa Rica. Los de Upala y Lagartera (Los Chiles incluyen familias originarias de Costa Rica, mientras que el de Laberinto (Los Chiles presenta material de 6 países centroamericanos y México. Se recolectó información sobre diámetro a la base, altura total, sobrevivencia, y ataque de Hypsipyla grandella. Los análisis indican diferencias significativas a nivel de progenie y procedencias para diámetro y altura, pero el ataque de H. grandella fue uniforme en todos los sitios. Las heredabilidades a los 1,7 años para Upala fueron de 0,54±0,02 y 0,55±0,02 para diámetro y altura respectivamente. Después de esta medición el ensayo se quemó por completo, debido a sequías bajo el efecto de El Niño, razón por la cual no pudieron efectuarse mediciones posteriores. El ensayo en Lagartera, de 0,7 años, presentó heredabilidades para diámetro y altura de 0,55±0,008 y 0,57±0,008. En Laberinto, las heredabilidades obtenidas fueron de 0,48±0,01 para diámetro (2,9 años, 0,6 ± 0,01 para altura, 0,1±0,002 para el ataque de H. grandella; 0,07±0,002 para número de ejes, y 0,18±0,003 para la forma a los 2,7 años de plantado. Las inundaciones en 1998 dañaron el ensayo de Lagartera, que además fue severamente atacado por H. grandella. Esto se manifestó en heredabilidades muy bajas con errores estándar altos, por lo tanto los valores genéticos en la primera medición se consideran poco confiables. La plantación se recuperó y después de 3 años los valores genéticos fueron comparables con los otros 2 ensayos. En general, los árboles madre que estaban solitarios, produjeron progenies de crecimiento lento, en comparación con las progenies de árboles madre que

  17. PENGOLAHAN BIJI MAHONI (Swietenia Macrophylla King SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU ALTERNATIF BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan minyak bumi yang terus menerus akan mengakibatkan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Sumber energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Bahan baku potensial untuk memproduksi biodiesel yang tidak bersaing dengan bahan baku pangan contohnya adalah biji mahoni (swietenia macrophylla king. Tahapan yang diperlukan dalam percobaan biodiesel adalah proses pengambilan minyak biji mahoni dengan proses penyangraian, degumming, dan proses transesterifikasi. Alat yang diperlukan dalam pembuatan biodiesel yaitu: labu alas bulat dilengkapi kondensor, gelas ukur, pengaduk magnetik, alat-alat gelas lab, dan lain sebagainya. Proses pengambilan minyak dilakukan dengan penyangraian yang hasilnya di degumming dengan asam fosfat 5% b/b pada suhu 80ºC selama 15 menit. Degumming bertujuan untuk menghilangkan getah, lendir, protein, resin dan gum. Proses kedua yaitu transesterifikasi dengan metanol 1:6 (minyak dan mtanol dengan KOH 0,1 N pada suhu 60ºC selama 1 jam. Setelah diperoleh metil ester, dilakukan proses pencucian atau penetralan metil ester pada suhu pemanasan 104ºC untuk menghilangkan kadar airnya. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh rendemen minyak sebesar 86,92%, uji densitas 874,08 kg/m³, viskositas 3,07 mm2/s, dan bilangan asam 0,5601 mg KOH/g. Metil ester yang dihasilkan telah sesuai dengan SNI-04-7182-2006. An increased demand of the fossil fuel would lead to scarcity of the fossil fuel in the future. An alternative of environmentally friendly energy sources is biodiesel. It is accounted that the resources for producing biodiesel should not compete with food raw materials, such as mahogany grain, (swietenia macrophylla king. The necessary steps in the experiment of producing biodiesel are process of taking the mahogany seed-oil by using roasting method, degumming, and transesterification process. The required equipments for producing biodiesel were round-bottom flask equipped with condenser

  18. Foliar potassium nitrate application improves the tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings to drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, V; Díaz-López, L; Simón-Grao, S; Martínez, V; Martínez-Nicolás, J J; García-Sánchez, F

    2014-10-01

    Scarcity of water is a severe limitation in citrus tree productivity. There are few studies that consider how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition in crops suffering water deficit. A pot experiment under controlled-environment chambers was conducted to explore if additional N supply via foliar application could improve the drought tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings under dry conditions. Two-month-old seedlings were subjected to a completely random design with two water treatments (drought stress and 100% water/field capacity). Plants under drought stress (DS) received three different N supplies via foliar application (DS: 0, DS + NH4NO3: 2% NH4NO3, DS + KNO3: 2% KNO3). KNO3-spraying increased leaf and stem DW as compared with DS + NH4NO3 and DS treatments. Leaf water potential (Ψw) was decreased by drought stress in all the treatments. However, in plants from DS + NH4NO and DS + KNO3, this was due to a decrease in the leaf osmotic potential, whereas the decrease in those from the DS treatment was due to a decrease in the leaf turgor potential. These responses were correlated with the leaf proline and K concentrations. DS + KNO3-treated plants had a higher leaf proline and K concentration than DS-treated plants. In terms of leaf gas exchange parameters, it was observed that net assimilation of CO2 [Formula: see text] was decreased by drought stress, but this reduction was much lower in DS + KNO3-treated plants. Thus, when all results are taken into account, it can be concluded that a 2% foliar-KNO3 application can enhance the tolerance of citrus plants to water stress by increasing the osmotic adjustment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla king planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Medina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatán, México and South America (State of Pará, Brazil. The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large differences in nutrient availability and rainfall regimes. Nutrient concentrations of leaves and soils were determined spectrophotometrically, and isotope ratios were measured using mass spectrometric techniques.In Pará soils were sandier, and acidic, receiving above 2000 mm of rain, whereas in Quintana Roo soils were predominantly clayey, with neutral to alkaline pH due to the underlying calcareous substrate, with about 1300 mm of rain. Leaf area/weight ratio was similar for both sites, but leaves from Quintana Roo were significantly smaller. Average N and K concentrations of adult leaves were similar, whereas Ca concentration was only slightly lower in Pará in spite of large differences in Ca availability. Leaves from this site had slightly higher P and lower Al concentrations. Differences in water use efficiency as measured by the natural abundance of 13C were negligible, the main effect of lower rainfall in Quintana Roo seemed to be a reduction in leaf area. The N isotope signature (δ15N was more positive in Pará than in Quintana Roo, suggesting higher denitrification rates in the former. Results reveal a calciotrophic behavior and a remarkable capacity of mahogany to compensate for large differences in soil texture and nutrient availability.

  20. Assays for the in vitro establishment of Swietenia macrophylla and Cedrela odorata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez Flores

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Título en español: Ensayos para el establecimiento in vitro de Swietenia macrophylla y Cedrela odorata Abstract: Recalcitrance and contamination in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King and Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata L. stem tissues are the main causes of its ineffective in vitro propagation. The objectives of this research were: a to evaluate sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and plant preservative mixture (PPM® as surface disinfectants and/or added to the culture medium for the in vitro establishment of nodal explants taken from 10-year-old Mahogany and Spanish cedar plants, and b to evaluate the in vitro response of such explants treated with N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP (0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.7 μM, silver nitrate (AgNO3 (0, 3 mg l-1, activated charcoal (0, 1 g l-1 and vented caps. All the experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design. The NaOCl at 15%, for 20 min, as a surface sterilization or PPM® at 2 ml l-1  into the culture medium, were the best treatments to reduce contamination for both species. For Mahogany explants, BAP at 17.7 μM resulted in higher percentages of bud breaks than Spanish cedar (64% and 25%, respectively. Leaves on elongated shoots dropped off by 20 days after

  1. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Dutta

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  2. Performance and genetic variation of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in provenance and progeny trials in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevyn E. Wightman; Sheila E. Ward; Jeremy P. Haggar; Bartolo Rodriguez Santiago; Jonathan P. Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Stocks of the valuable big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) are declining, and trials for growth and pest resistance are needed to select material for plantations. Seeds were collected from 67 open-pollinated trees from five provenances in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico and planted in three provenance/progeny trials in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, in...

  3. Fluctuation of Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla, Analogous to the Seasonal Changes of Those in the Shoot of the Adult Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Qin Han; Xing-Fu Yan; Hua Zhang; Zheng-Hai Hu; Bing-Zhong Hao; Wei-Min Tian

    2007-01-01

    In order to identify appropriate plant materials for studying the gene expression and biological function of vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) in woody plants, the VSPs in the seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla King were investigated by using light microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)and Western-blotting. The seed of S. macrophylla was rich in storage proteins that accumulated in the vacuoles of cotyledon parenchyma cells in appearance of compact spherical grains. The growth and development of S.macrophylla seedlings were characterized by an obvious growth rhythm. The storage proteins in seeds disappeared during seedling growth while VSPs appeared in the stem 2 weeks after seedling leaves matured. Thereafter,the VSPs in the seedling stem almost exhausted during new shoot growth, and when the leaves of new shoot just matured, both the stem beneath the new shoot of seedlings and the stem of new shoot started to accumulate VSPs. Nitrogen application dramatically increased the level of VSPs, but had little influence on the dynamics of VSP consumption and accumulation in seedling stem. Together with these data, the fluctuation of VSPs in seedlings was very similar to that in the branches of the adult trees. In addition, seedlings are easy to be treated due to their small size. Our results suggested that S. macrophylla seedlings were suitable for investigating the biological roles of VSPs and the mechanism of nitrogen storage in trees.

  4. What loggers leave behind: Impacts on big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) commercial populations and potential for post-logging recovery in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Stephen B. Jennings; R. Matthew Landis; Mark Schulze; Anadilza M.V. Baima; do Carmo A. Lopes J.; Julian M. Norghauer; L. Rog& eacute Oliveira; rio; Frank Pantoja; Diane Pinto; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Edson Vidal; Barbara L. Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    The sustainability of current harvest practices for high-value Meliaceae can be assessed by quantifying logging intensity and projecting growth and survival by post-logging populations over anticipated intervals between harvests. From 100%-area inventories of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) covering 204 ha or more at eight logged and unlogged forest sites...

  5. Flexible mating system in a logged population of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae): implications for the management of a threatened neotropical tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maristerra R. Lemes; Dario Grattapaglia; James Grogan; John Proctor; Rog& eacute Gribel; rio

    2007-01-01

    Microsatellites were used to evaluate the mating system of the remaining trees in a logged population of Swietenia macrophylla, a highly valuable and threatened hardwood species, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 25 open pollinated progeny arrays of 16 individuals, with their mother trees, were genotyped using eight highly polymorphic...

  6. Acute toxicity profiling of the ethyl acetate fraction of Swietenia macrophylla seeds and in-vitro neuroprotectio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustak Sayyad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla (SM is a medicinally important plant found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of S. macrophylla (SMEAF is reported to exhibit potent anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antifeedant activities. Till date, there have been no studies reported on the acute oral toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of SM. The objective of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of SMEAF and evaluate the in-vitro neuroprotective activity of SMEAF using primary neuronal cell cultures. In acute oral toxicity study, the SMEAF did not produce any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality. Histo-pathological findings, support the safety of SMEAF, as there were no significant changes observed in any of the parameters studied. Based on the results obtained in MTT assay, we infer that SMEAF has a significant neuroprotective effect, as it increased the cell viability and exhibited protection to the neuronal cells against TBHP induced oxidative stress. Thus, SMEAF can be suggested for use in the development of herbal drug formulations with neuroprotective potential.

  7. Screening for Anthelminthic Activities from Extracts of Zanthoxylum Zanthoxyloides, Neocarya Macrophylla and Celosia Laxa Against Ascaris Infection in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B B Barnabas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Extracts of Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves were screened for anthelminthic activities on Ascaris lumbricoides. Celosia laxa appeared to be more potent against A. lumbricoides with rapid recovery of weight while Z. zanthoxyloides has the lowest potency. The effects of these plant extracts on Ascaris lumbricoides suggest that they could serve as an alternative source of anthelminthic agent. Industrial relevance: Infectious diseases pose serious challenges to global health care delivery. Moreoever, in developing countries, the cost of orthodox medication is out of reach of the common man, especially those in rural areas. This is coupled with the adulterated drugs and emergences of drug resistant strains have led to an intensive search for natural products of higher plants, which are biologically active against parasitic infections. Many plants are used locally in traditional medicine to treat parasitic infections. Nigeria offers a rich floral diversity that are used traditionally to treat worm infections. Nigerian medicinal plants (Celosia laxa, Neocarya macrophylla, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides used commonly used in Bida, Niger State, Nigeria for the treatment of worm infections were screened for anthelminthic activity. The extracts exhibited varying degree of anthelminthic activities against Ascaris lumbricoides. The extract of C. laxa display potent anthelminthic property. The extract of C. laxa with pronounced activity against A. lumbricoides may contain metabolites that have pharmacologically active principles with promising anthelminthic properties. This indicates the medical potential of C. laxa in the treatment of helminthiasis.

  8. Preparative Separation of Six Rhynchophylla Alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla Wall by pH-Zone Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–isopropanol–water (2:6:3:9, v/v, adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE–acetonitrile–water (4:0.5:5, v/v, adding triethylamine (TEA (10 mM to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moumita Dutta; Utpal Kumar Biswas; Runu Chakraborty; Piyasa Banerjee; Utpal Raychaudhuri; Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis activity in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetes rats compared to the healthy controls and also to observe the effect of the aqueous extract of Swietenia macrophylla (S. macrophylla) seeds on the experimental groups. Methods: Seeds of S. macrophylla were separated, washed, shed-dried and finally extract was prepared. Thirty two wistar rats were selected for the experimental study. Streptozotocin was used for the induction of diabetes. H2S concentration in plasma was measured. H2S synthesizing activity in plasma was measured. Statistical analysis have done using Microsoft excel, Office 2003. Values were expressed by mean±SD. P<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results:rats. The glucose levels are significantly lowered in the rats treated with metformin (5.48±0.03) mmol/L as well as with aqueous extract of S. macrophylla seeds (3.72±0.04) mmol/L. The HbA1c percentages in different groups of study subjects also indicate similar trends. Our study shows both the plasma H2S levels (22.07±0.73) mmol/L and plasma H2S synthesis activity (0.411±0.005 mmol/100 g) are significantly reduced in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Conclusions:Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood Fasting blood glucose level (7.74±0.02) mmol/L was significantly increased in diabetic glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  10. Comparative photosynthetic characteristics of differentHydrangea L. varieties%绣球属品种间光合特性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞秀明; 孙强; 姚红军; 王焱

    2016-01-01

    To compare the photosynthetic capacities of different varieties ofHydrangea L., gas exchange and chlorophyll lfuorescence characteristics and chlorophyll contents in the leaves of 9 varieties were investigated. The results show that the photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll lfuorescence characteristics related to light utili-zation efifciency and chlorophyll contents were higher in the leaves of ‘Zorro’ and ‘Lemon Web’, while these parameters were much lower in ‘Murasaki kobai’, ‘Annabelle’, ‘Honger’ and ‘Forever Summer’. Inversely, the lowest non-photochemical quenching was observed in the leaves of ‘Zorro’ and ‘Lemon Web’, however, this parameter was relatively higher in ‘Murasaki kobai’ and ‘Annabelle’. Through a comprehensive reference of these parameters, photosynthetic capacities of ‘Zorro’ and ‘LemonWeb’ were stronger, which are Hydrangea species suitable for being cultivated under high light intensity, whereas photosynthetic capacities of ‘Murasaki-kobai’, ‘Honger’ and ‘Annabelle’ were relatively lower. ‘Honger’ is favorable for cultivation under low light condition due to its strong shade-tolerance.%为比较绣球属(Hydrangea)不同栽培品种的光合特性,以9个绣球属品种为试材,对其气体交换、叶绿素荧光及叶片叶绿素含量进行研究。结果表明,‘Zorro’和‘Lemon Web’叶片的光合速率、反映光能利用率的叶绿素荧光指标和相对叶绿素含量高,而在‘Murasaki kobai’、‘贝拉安娜’、‘红额’和‘无尽夏’中较低;相反地,‘Zorro’和‘Lemon Web’叶片非光化学淬灭均小于其他品种,而这些指标在‘Murasaki kobai’和‘贝拉安娜’中较大。综合参考这些指标,‘Zorro’和‘Lemon Web’叶片的光能利用能力较强,是适合光下栽培的耐强光性绣球品种,而‘Murasaki kobai’、‘红额’和‘贝拉安娜’叶片的光合能力较弱,‘红

  11. Facile synthesis of hydrangea flower-like hierarchical gold nanostructures with tunable surface topographies for single-particle surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C. Y.; Zhou, N.; Yang, B. Y.; Yang, Y. J.; Wang, L. H.

    2015-10-01

    The physicochemical properties of noble metal nanocrystals depend strongly on their size and shape, and it is becoming clear that the design and facile synthesis of particular nanostructures with tailored shape and size is especially important. Herein a novel class of hydrangea flower-like hierarchical gold nanostructures with tunable surface topographies and optical properties are prepared for the first time by a facile, one-pot, seedless synthesis using ascorbic acid (AA) to reduce hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) in the presence of (1-hexadecyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The morphologies of the synthesized gold nanoflowers are controlled and fine-tuned by varying the synthetic conditions such as the concentration of reagents and the growth temperature. Due to their unique hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) structures with rich hot spots, these gold nanoflowers exhibit an efficient performance in single-particle surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The work stands out as an interesting approach for anisotropic particle synthesis and morphological control, and the proposed novel, hierarchical gold nanoflowers have a number of exciting potential applications in SERS-based sensors.The physicochemical properties of noble metal nanocrystals depend strongly on their size and shape, and it is becoming clear that the design and facile synthesis of particular nanostructures with tailored shape and size is especially important. Herein a novel class of hydrangea flower-like hierarchical gold nanostructures with tunable surface topographies and optical properties are prepared for the first time by a facile, one-pot, seedless synthesis using ascorbic acid (AA) to reduce hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) in the presence of (1-hexadecyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The morphologies of the synthesized gold nanoflowers are controlled and fine-tuned by varying the synthetic conditions such as the concentration of reagents and the growth temperature. Due to

  12. Physiological and Molecular Responses to Excess Boron in Citrus macrophylla W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Quiñones, Ana; Ruiz, Marta; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    This work provides insight into several mechanisms involved in boron (B) regulation pathway in response to high B conditions in Citrus. The study was carried out in Citrus macrophylla W. (Cm) seedlings cultured "in vitro" in media with 50 or 400 μM H3BO3 (control, Ct, and B-excess, +B, plants, respectively). Growth parameters, B concentration, leaf chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, the expression of the main putative genes involved in B transport and distribution, and leaf and root proline and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations, were assessed. Excess B led to high B concentration in +B plants (3.8- and 1.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively) when compared with Ct ones. However, a minor effect was recorded in the plant (incipient visual symptoms, less than 27% reduction in root growth and 26% decrease in Chl b concentration). B toxicity down-regulated by half the expression level of putative B transporter genes NIP5 and PIP1. CmBOR1 gene was not repressed in +B plants and B accumulated in the shoots. High B level increased the transcripts of putative gene TIP5, involved in B transport across the tonoplast, by 3.3- and 2.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively. The activity of V-PPiase proton pump, related with the electrochemical gradient in the vacuole, was also enhanced in +B organs. B toxicity up-regulated putative BOR4 gene (2.1- and 2.7-fold in roots and leaves, respectively), which codifies for an active efflux B transporter. Accordingly, B was located in +B plants preferently in an insoluble form on cell walls. Finally, excess B caused a significant rise in proline concentration (51% and 34% in roots and leaves, respectively), while the MDA level did not exceed 20%. In conclusion, Cm tolerance to a high B level is likely based on the synergism of several specific mechanisms against B toxicity, including: 1/ down-regulation of NIP5 and PIP1 boron transporters; 2/ activation of B efflux from cells due to the up-regulation of putative BOR4 gene; 3

  13. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Swietenia macrophylla KING (MELIACEAE A PARTIR DE MATERIAL JUVENIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Souza Schottz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (mogno é uma espécie arbórea nativa da Amazônia cuja madeira é considerada uma das mais nobres do mundo. Por esse motivo, vem sofrendo grande pressão de exploração, colocando-a entre as espécies em risco de extinção. Além disso, possui dificuldade de regeneração natural e de estabelecimento em reflorestamentos, sendo atacado por larvas de Hypsipyla grandella Zellar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver a etapa de multiplicação in vitro de mogno. Após a desinfestação, as sementes foram colocadas para germinar em meio de cultura MS completo. Após 6 semanas de germinação, os caules foram cortados em segmentos nodais, cada um contendo uma gema axilar. Foram realizados quatro experimentos com meios de cultura acrescidos de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP (2,5; 5; 10; 20 e 50 μM, 2-isopenteniladenina (2-iP (0; 1,1; 2,2; 4,4 e 8,8 μM e combinações de BAP (0; 2,5; 5; 10; 20 e 50 μM e 2-iP (2,2 μM. Nos dois primeiros tratamentos (BAP e 2-iP isoladamente, o meio de cultura MS foi utilizado como meio básico e, nos últimos tratamentos, utilizaram-se os meios MS e QL. Quando BAP foi testado isoladamente, o ponto máximo da taxa média de multiplicação foi de 23,61 µM, enquanto que não houve multiplicação na presença de 2-iP. O meio de cultura QL, suplementado com as combinações de BAP (0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 20 μM e 2-iP (2,2 μM, não induziu a multiplicação dos brotos. O ponto máximo da taxa média de multiplicação foi de 18,51 µM, obtido com o uso do meio de cultura MS acrescido de BAP e 2,2 µM de 2-iP.

  14. Incorporating hydrangea-like titanium dioxide light scatterer with high dye-loading on the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chen; Tang, Bing-Hong; Lu, Yen-Wei; Yu, Wan-Chin; Lin, Lu-Yin; Wu, Ren-Jang

    2016-07-01

    The light scattering layer is significant for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to harvest incident light more efficiently and excite larger amounts of electrons. Hydrangea-like TiO2 (Hsbnd TiO2) and coral-like TiO2 (Csbnd TiO2) nanostructures are synthesized via a hydrothermal method without using templates. Both of the nanostructures are applied as the light scattering layer for DSSCs with the commercial P90 TiO2 nanoparticles as the dye-adsorbed underlayer in the photoanodes. The DSSC with Hsbnd TiO2 as the light scattering layer achieves a higher light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 7.50% than those of 6.70% and 6.61% for the cells with Csbnd TiO2 and commercial TiO2 as the light scattering layer, and of 6.41% for the DSSC without a light scattering layer in its photoanode, mainly due to the enhanced photocurrent density through the abundant dye adsorption coupled with the inherent light scattering ability for the former case. The results indicate that not only the importance of the light scattering layer in the photoanode but the morphology of the nanostructure composed of the light scattering layer plays great roles on the light scattering and the dye-adsorbing capabilities. The incident photon-to-current efficiency the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements are also applied to analyze the electrochemical performance of the resulting DSSCs.

  15. Total Coumarins from Hydrangea paniculata Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Damage in Mice by Suppressing Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Ma; Jingzhi, Yang; Dongjie, Wang; Dongming, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Hydrangea paniculata (HP) Sieb. is a medical herb which is widely distributed in southern China, and current study is to evaluate renal protective effect of aqueous extract of HP by cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in animal model and its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods. HP extract was prepared and the major ingredients were coumarin glycosides. AKI mouse models were established by single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin, and HP was orally administrated for total five times. The renal biochemical functions, pathological staining, kidney oxidative stress, and inflammatory status were measured. Apoptosis of tubular cells and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils were also tested. Results. HP administration could improve the renal function by decreasing concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine and attenuates renal oxidative stress and tubular pathological injury and apoptosis; further research demonstrated that HP could inhibit the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and regulate caspase and BCL-2 family proteins. HP also reduced renal infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and its effect might be by downregulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and stat3 signaling pathway. Conclusions. This present study suggests that HP could ameliorate cisplatin induced kidney damage by antioxidation and suppressing renal inflammation and tubular cell apoptosis.

  16. New 3,4-Secocycloartane and 3,4-Secodammarane Triterpenes from the Ecuadorian Plant Coussarea macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardoni, Gianluca; Chiriboga, Ximena; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Coussarea macrophylla (Mart.) Müll.Arg. (Rubiaceae) was collected in Ecuador, and the bark was extracted with AcOEt. Chromatographic separation afforded six novel 3,4-secocycloartane and 3,4-secodammarane triterpenes, named macrocoussaric acids A-F, together with the known metabolites secaubryenol and 3,4-secodammara-4(28),20,24-triene-3,26-dioic acid. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data. This is the first report of 3,4-secocycloartane and 3,4-secodammarane triterpenes occurring in a Coussarea species. Macrocoussaric acids A and B (2 and 3, resp.) were found to be moderately cytotoxic against five different tumor cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE EXTRACT OF THE BARKS OF Licania macrophylla BENTH: PHYTOCHEMICALS AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan da Silva Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil fitoquímico, físico-químico da espécie vegetal e determinar a toxicidade do extrato bruto etanólico de L. macrophylla Benth frente às larvas de Artemia salina L. A análise fitoquímica foi realizado por meio do extrato bruto etanólico das cascas do caule e a determinação físico-química foi realizada de acordo com a Farmacopeia Brasileira. As análises fitoquímicas detectaram a presença de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, taninos, antraquinonas, depsídios e depsidonas. Em relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos a planta apresentou pH=4,64, pela ocorrência de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos e taninos; Lipídeos= 0,55% indica que o material vegetal apresenta poucos lipídios de baixo peso molecular; Umidade= 12,09%±0,12, o que relaciona a pouca quantidade de água, fator indispensável para a não ocorrência de desenvolvimento de microrganismo ou degradação enzimática. Os resíduos por incineração (cinzas da espécie se encontra dentro dos padrões farmacognósticos de 8,30%±0,54. O extrato bruto segundo o teste de toxicidade é atóxico com CL50=1253µg/mL, isto é, confirma-se a relação estabelecida entre a taxa de mortalidade e CL50 deve ser superior a 1000µg/mL para serem considerados atóxicos. As análises fitoquímicas confirmaram em parte a utilização da espécie para fins fitoterápicos, porém a forma de tratamento e acondicionamento pode influenciar na determinação de metabólitos secundários. Os parâmetros físico-químicos adotados mostraram que espécie encontra-se livre de agentes decompositores. Palavras-chave: Fitoquímica, L. macrophilla Benth, Toxicidade, Físico-Química. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p94-99

  18. Physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla kernel oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaby, M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of oils extracted from gingerbread plum kernels grown in two different areas (Niger and Guinea. The oil contents were found to be significantly different (P ≤ 0.05; 56% and 60% for gingerbread plum kernels originated from Niger (GPKN and guinea (GPKG, respectively. GPKG showed the highest levels for physical parameters such as iodine, saponification, free fatty acid, acid and peroxide values when compared with GPKN. The major monounsaturated fatty acid in both GPKN and GPKG was oleic acid (42.46 and 41.43%, respectively while the polyunsaturated fatty acids consisted of linoleic and arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid was at higher levels (17.67 and 21.72% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively than those in common vegetable oils. Results from antioxidant activity essays showed that GPKG is more active than GPKN in DPPH radical scavenging, β-carotene and phenolic contents while GPKN showed the highest values for reducing power and flavonoid. Of the 11 sterol compounds found in this study, 24-hydroxy-24-methyl cholesterol, clerosterol and sitosterol accounted for 68.5% and 66.33% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively. Finally, all tocopherol vitamers (except γ-tocopherol were present in GPKN and GPKG with α-tocopherol being the main element in both samples.En este estudio se examinaron las características físico-químicas y actividad antioxidante de los aceites de semilla de Neocarya macrophylla procedentes de dos regiones distintas, Níger y Guinea. Los contenidos grasos de las dos semillas resultaron ser significativamente (P ≤ 0.05 diferentes: 56% para las semillas procedentes de Níger (GPKN y 60% para las de Guinea (GPKG. El aceite de semillas de Guinea mostraba valores de parámetros químicos tales como índices de iodo, saponificación, peróxidos, y acidez, más elevados que el aceite de semillas de Níger. El ácido oleico resultó ser el ácido graso mono

  19. Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyan Perera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing private sector investments in commercial forestry, it is apparent that plantationforestry in Sri Lanka is moving in the direction of managing fast growing timber species for shorterrotations. However, there’s a perceptionthat accelerated growth rates induced by improved forestmanagement practices can result in inferior wood quality. This study tested this perceptionby studyingthe effect of growth rate on the specific gravity, as a proxy for wood quality, of three alternative timberspecies grown in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei.Specific gravity remained more or less uniform from pith to bark regardless of the fluctuation of ringwidth in K. senegalensis while S. macrophylla exhibited a slight increase in specific gravity from pith tobark. This increasing trend was more prominent in P. fortunei. Results revealed growth rates representedby ring width showed poor correlations with specific gravity in both S. macrophylla, and K.senegalensis. Although P. fortunei showed a statistically significant positive correlation, regressionanalysis indicated a poor relationship between growth rate and specific gravity. Hence it is unlikely thatwood specific gravity of the studied species to be influenced by accelerated growth rates.

  20. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai Peach cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.The peach breeding program of Embrapa Clima Temperado has, among the objectives the development of fresh market cultivars that fulfill the consumer's preference. Some of the largest consumer centers, such as São Paulo and Curitiba, prefer white flesh peaches with sweet flavor. Cultivar BRS Kampai originated from a cross between 'Chimarrita' and 'Flordaprince', adds the low chilling requirement, advantageous for subtropical areas, to the good appearance and flavor superior to any of the parents. The harvest period of this cultivar begins mid November, in Pelotas, RS, a few days before Rubimel (yellow flesh and Premier (white flesh cultivars (and in the second half of October, in Atibaia, SP being a good substitute for the later.

  1. Cultivar development of allogamous crops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza Jr., Cláudio Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    .... It was reviewed the genetic structure of these species and its relationship with the development of cultivars, the technologies used to develop hybrids and improved open-pollinated varieties and their F1...

  2. How to maintain improved cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Improved cultivars loose their identity and healthiness unless maintained properly. Contaminating and degrading forces, such as outcrossing, volunteer plants, mixing, natural selection, mutation and seed-borne diseases, are at the root of this. Maintenance selection can prevent this deterioration.

  3. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  4. Micropropagation of four blueberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Brenes Angulo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sharpblue, Woodard, Bonita and Delite cultivars were propagated from leaf explants. Leaf sections from in vitro singlenode explants were compared with those from plants in the field. The explants were placed in WPM medium supplemented with 1.5 mg.l-1 TDZ to promote sprouting, then subcultured to fresh WPM medium supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0 mg.l-1 zeatin to enhance adventitious shoot growth. Shoot clump length and number of shoots >2mm and >1cm in each clump were determined. Shoots 8 to 10 cm were harvested at 8 weeks and subcultured in WPM medium supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 or 8 mg.l-1 IBA for rooting. After 10 weeks, shoots were transplanted to greenhouse for acclimatization. The leaf segments cultured in WPM medium with TDZ formed adventitious shoot clumps in all varieties, regardless of leaf source. A significant effect of cultivar, source of explant and interaction cultivar x leaf source was found for shoots >2 mm. Clump size varied significantly among cultivars, leaf source, and interaction cultivars x source x zeatin concentration, when transfering to a medium with 2 concentrations of the growth regulator, but no differences due to cytokinin concentration were found. Number of shoots >2mm and length of the longest shoot varied significantly with cultivar and the interaction cultivar x source of explant in WPM + zeatin medium. Woodard explants from in vitro leaf sections produced the highest number of shoots (44.70±13.34 and Delite the lowest (21.50±4.99. Shoots subcultured in WPM with different IBA concentrations had les than 10% rooting in all treatments. However, when transplanted to greenhouse 100% rooting was obtained, regardless of in vitro treatment with IBA or leaf explant source. All the microshoots of the 4 cultivars were successfully greenhouse acclimatized and plantlets later established in the field.

  5. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  6. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements of the three-dimensional flow field of a descending autorotating mahogany seed (Swietenia macrophylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, E; Treviño, C; Vargas, R O; Martínez-Suástegui, L

    2013-06-01

    An experimental investigation of near field aerodynamics of wind dispersed rotary seeds has been performed using stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). The detailed three-dimensional flow structure of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) of autorotating mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla) in a low-speed vertical wind tunnel is revealed for the first time. The results confirm that the presence of strong spanwise flow and strain produced by centrifugal forces through a spiral vortex are responsible for the attachment and stability of the LEV, with its core forming a cone pattern with a gradual increase in vortex size. The LEV appears at 25% of the wingspan, increases in size and strength outboard along the wing, and reaches its maximum stability and spanwise velocity at 75% of the wingspan. At a region between 90 and 100% of the wingspan, the strength and stability of the vortex core decreases and the LEV re-orientation/inflection with the tip vortex takes place. In this study, the instantaneous flow structure and the instantaneous velocity and vorticity fields measured in planes parallel to the free stream direction are presented as contour plots using an inertial and a non-inertial frame of reference. Results for the mean aerodynamic thrust coefficients as a function of the Reynolds number are presented to supplement the DPIV data.

  7. Charbeckia macrophylla gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Mississippian Price (Pocono) Formation of southeastern West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus; Upchurch; Gillespie

    2000-08-01

    A fossil plant discovery from the Price (Pocono) Formation of southeastern West Virginia provides new information on the poorly known compression floras of the Lower Mississippian of North America. The new plant described herein consists of long tapering bipinnate fronds with imbricate basal pinnae, planate apical pinnae, and unlobed, elliptical to obovate pinnules with open dichotomous venation. Veins concentrated in the medial region of the pinnule curve toward the lateral margin, suggestive of an early stage in the evolution of a midrib. Pinnules exhibit a distinctly revolute or otherwise reinforced margin. The exceptional length of some fronds (over 1m) and pinnule size (some over 3cm by 2cm) strongly contrast with the generally diffusely branched fronds and small or highly dissected pinnule morphology that typify Early Mississippian leaf taxa. A new generic assignment, Charbeckia macrophylla, is thereby justified. The rigid appearance of the tapering rachis, the imbricate pinnae that appear to have resisted compression, and the reinforced pinnule margins imply thick evergreen leaves, perhaps adapted for drought tolerance. A possible Calamopityalean affinity is indicated by the size of the fronds and the stout petioles, which fall within the expected size range of the Kalymma-type petiole bases described from the nearby New Albany Shale of Tournaisian age.

  8. 大叶千斤拔种子萌发特性研究%Study on Germination Characteristics of Flemingia macrophylla Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管志斌; 张丽霞; 高微微

    2011-01-01

    To discuss the optimal condition for the seed germination and seed longevity of Flemingia macrophylla, and provide scientific evidences for cultivation and production of F. macrophylla. The rate of water absorption of the seed was determined. Methods of frazzling seed coat, soaking in warm water, immersing seed in H2S04 were used to treat hard seed. And the germination energy, germination rate and germination index of F. macrophylla was determined under different temperature and light, different germination bed and different storage time in the experiment. The raze of water absorption of F. macrophylla seed was 31.26%. The poor water permeability of seed coat was a crucial factor which affects the germination of seeds. 25-30℃ was the suitable temperature range of F. macrophylla germination. The germination rate could rise to 66.67% when the seed was cracked by sad and soaked 4 h in 80℃ warm water. The effect of the light and germination bed was insignificant. The germination rate of seeds stored for three years was 61% under 4℃ lower temperature condition, but it reduced to 32% stored for 4 years. F. macrophylla seeds were hard seeds and needed pretreatment before experiment. The seeds belonged to the high-temperature-germinating and non-photoblastic type. Seed longevity was longer and could store 4 years.%探讨大叶千斤拔种子发芽最佳基本条件和种子的寿命,为栽培生产提供科学依据.测定种子的吸水率;通过磨破种皮、热水处理和浓硫酸处理等找到破除种子硬实的最佳方法;考察不同温度和光照、发芽床、贮藏对种子萌发的影响.结果表明,大叶千斤拔种子吸水率为31.26%,种皮透水性差是影响种子发芽的关键因素.种子适宜萌发的温度范围为25~30℃,发芽前用磨擦种皮+80℃热水浸种4h的方法可使种子的发芽率提高到66.67%;光照和发芽床对种子萌发无显著影响.种子在4℃低温条件下贮藏3年发芽率仍有61%,贮藏4

  9. Desinfestação e germinação in vitro de sementes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King In vitro sterilization and germination of mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Margarido Fonseca Couto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos desenvolver técnicas de regeneração in vitro a partir de segmentos de epicótilo, epicótilo invertido e explantes foliares provenientes de plântulas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla germinadas em meio de cultura; e determinar a melhor concentração e tempo de exposição das sementes ao agente desinfestante, bem como a melhor posição de semeadura para germinação. As sementes foram desinfestadas, após a retirada do tegumento, em soluções com hipoclorito de sódio nas concentrações de 0; 2,5; e 5,0% (v/v, mantidas embebidas por 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutos e colocadas no meio em duas posições, sendo a posição 1 com a concavidade da parte achatada voltada para cima e na posição 2, com a concavidade da parte achatada voltada para baixo. Após a semeadura, foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com temperatura de ±26 ± 2 º C e escuro contínuo. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 x 2 (níveis de hipoclorito x tempos de embebição x posição de semeadura, totalizando 24 tratamentos com três repetições. As avaliações de germinação e contaminação por microrganismos ocorreram aos 12, 18, 24 e 30 dias. O melhor tratamento foi a desinfestação das sementes embebidas em 2,5 e 5% de hipoclorito de sódio por 30 e 20 minutos, respectivamente, as quais foram colocadas na posição 2, pois apresentaram a maior germinação (48% e baixa contaminação (15 e 10%, respectivamente. Quanto à posição, houve diferença significativa aos 24 e 30 dias após a semeadura, com as maiores médias nas sementes colocadas na posição 2.The objective of this work was to develop techniques of in vitro regeneration for mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, using epicotyl segments, inverted epicotyls and leaf explants from mahogany plantlets germinated in culture medium. Also, the best concentration and time and sterilizing agent for seed sterilization were determined

  10. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  11. Molecular and physiological changes in response to salt stress in Citrus macrophylla W plants overexpressing Arabidopsis CBF3/DREB1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gerding, Ximena; Espinoza, Carmen; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2015-07-01

    Plant stress induced by high salinity has leading to an important reduction in crop yields. Due to their tropical origin, citrus fruits are highly sensitive to salts. Rootstocks are the root system of fruit trees, regulating ion uptake and transport to the canopy. Therefore, increasing their salt tolerance could improve the salt tolerance of the fruit tree. For this, we genetically-transformed an important rootstock for lemon, Citrus macrophylla W, to constitutively express the CBF3/DREB1A gene from Arabidopsis, a well-studied salinity tolerance transcription factor. Transgenic lines showed normal size, with no dwarfism. Under salt stress, some transgenic lines showed greater growth, similar accumulation of chloride and sodium in the leaves and better stomatal conductance, in comparison to wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time analyses showed a similar expression of several CBF3/DREB1A target genes, such as COR15A, LEA 4/5, INV, SIP1, P5CS, GOLS, ADC2 and LKR/SDH, in transgenic lines and wild type plants, with the exception of INV that shows increased expression in line 4C15. Under salt stress, all measured transcript increased in both wild type and transgenics lines, with the exception of INV. Altogether, these results suggest a higher salt tolerance of transgenic C. macrophylla plants induced by the overexpression of AtCBF3/DREB1A.

  12. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  13. 'Gloriosa': cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada 'Gloriosa': crisphead tropicalized cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Sala

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Gloriosa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L. americana tropicalizada e resistente a Thielaviopsis basicola. Foi selecionada a partir de variantes da cultivar Lucy Brown, pelo método genealógico. Progênies S1 a S6 foram selecionadas para resistência a T. basicola, características hortícolas, tolerância ao pendoamento precoce e adaptação ao cultivo de verão. Apresenta ciclo precoce de 40 a 50 dias pós-transplante, pendoamento lento, cabeças grandes e três camadas de folhas externas. Possui tolerância a Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians e suporta o cultivo nos períodos de elevadas temperaturas e pluviosidade. Trata-se da primeira cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada no Brasil.'Gloriosa' is a tropicalized crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. resistant to Thielaviopsis basicola. It was derived by selection from cv. Lucy Brown variants by pedigree method. Progenies S1 to S6 were selected for T. basicola resistance, desirable horticulture traits, slowbolting and adaptation for Brazilian summer crop. It presents a precocious cycle within 40 to 50 days of being planted, slowbolting, large head and three layers of frame levels. It is tolerant to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians and is able to be grown under high temperature and rainy summer in southern of Brazil. It is the first crisphead lettuce type developed for tropical regions of Brazil.

  14. Cultivar de soja BRS 205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonato Emídio Rizzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A BRS 205, cultivar de soja de ciclo semiprecoce, obtida do cruzamento [BR-16(2 x Ocepar 8] x Tracy-M, é indicada para o Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras de novembro. Possui crescimento determinado, plantas de flor branca, pubescência marrom, porte baixo e grãos de hilo preto. Tem resistência ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e à pústula bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines. É moderadamente resistente ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. O rendimento médio de grãos foi 6% e 11% superior ao das cultivares RS 7-Jacuí e BR-16, respectivamente.

  15. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  16. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  17. Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, C C

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of mixtures (multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures) for disease management has been well demonstrated for rusts and powdery mildews of small grain crops. Such mixtures are more useful under some epidemiological conditions than under others, and experimental methodology, especially problems of scale, may be crucial in evaluating the potential efficacy of mixtures on disease. There are now examples of mixtures providing both low and high degrees of disease control for a wide range of pathosystems, including crops with large plants, and pathogens that demonstrate low host specificity, or are splash dispersed, soilborne, or insect vectored. Though most analyses of pathogen evolution in mixtures consider static costs of virulence to be the main mechanism countering selection for pathogen complexity, many other potential mechanisms need to be investigated. Agronomic and marketing considerations must be carefully evaluated when implementing mixture approaches to crop management. Practical difficulties associated with mixtures have often been overestimated, however, and mixtures will likely play an increasingly important role as we develop more sustainable agricultural systems.

  18. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar Saruman was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Saruman was released by hybridization between Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated and NJ 46. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  19. RESPONSE OF CABBAGE CULTIVARS TO BLACK ROT INFECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield stability of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cultivars were ... and stable cultivar(s) with adequate resistance to black rot caused by ..... Principles and Procedures of Statistics: ... black rot development in introduced cabbage.

  20. CULTIVAR IMPACT ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT AND GRAIN TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF SOME DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Kolev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative experiment was carried out with five Bulgarian and five foreign durum wheat cultivars. The aim of the experiment was to determine the chemical content and grain technological quality of some Bulgarian and foreign durum wheat cultivars grown under the agriecological conditions of Southern Bulgaria. The Vazhod cultivar proved to give the highest durum wheat grain yield, followed by Beloslava cultivar. Out of the foreign durum wheat cultivars the Durumko was notable for its higher productivity. The crude protein content in the grain was highest in Zagorka, Yavor and Yukon. The highest yield of gluten was reported in Beloslava, Vazhod and Zagorka.

  1. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties.

  2. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  3. Calogênese e rizogênese em explantes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King cultivados in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cruz da Rocha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A exploração de árvores tropicais realizada de forma indiscriminada, buscando espécies de alto valor econômico, tem levado várias espécies, como o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King, ao perigo de extinção. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de regeneração de gemas, direta ou indireta, poderia auxiliar na obtenção de um grande número de mudas e constituir uma perspectiva à propagação sexuada. Essa última é limitada pelo fato das sementes perderem rapidamente a capacidade germinativa. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dois tipos de explantes: fragmentos foliares e de raízes de plantas cultivadas in vitro. Após desinfestação, os explantes foram colocados em meio de cultura de Murashige e Skoog (1962 contendo três quartos da concentração de sais, vitaminas do mesmo meio, 30g.L-1 de sacarose, auxina (ácido naftaleno-acético, ANA, 0,11 µM e 0,54 µM, citocinina (cinetina, CIN, 1,2 µM, 2,3 µM, 4,7 µM e 9,3 µM; 6-benziladenina, BA, 2,2 µM, 4,4 µM e 8,8 µM ou 2-isopenteniladenina, 2-iP, 2,5 µM e 7g.L-1 de ágar. As variáveis testadas foram a concentração e o tipo de regulador de crescimento e a origem dos explantes. A cada 30 dias, os explantes foram avaliados pela contagem do número de explantes formando calos ou raízes e a consistência dos calos. Foram obtidos calos a com base nos dois tipos de explantes. Nos explantes foliares, 90% deles formaram calos em meios de cultura contendo BA 4,4 µM com ANA 0,54 µM e BA 8,9 µM com ANA 0,11 ou 0,54 µM. Nos explantes de raízes, a maior percentagem de explantes com calos foi de 55%, no meio de cultura com BA 2,2 µM e ANA 0,54 µM. Raízes adventícias foram obtidas partindo de calos e do limbo dos explantes foliares, em meios de cultura com CIN e ANA. Não foi observada a formação de gemas adventícias.

  4. CALOGÊNESE E RIZOGÊNESE EM EXPLANTES DE MOGNO (Swietenia macrophylla King CULTIVADOS IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A exploração de árvores tropicais realizada de forma indiscriminada, buscando espécies de alto valor econômico, tem levado várias espécies, como o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King, ao perigo de extinção. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de regeneração de gemas, direta ou indireta, poderia auxiliar na obtenção de um grande número de mudas e constituir uma perspectiva à propagação sexuada. Essa última é limitada pelo fato das sementes perderem rapidamente a capacidade germinativa. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dois tipos de explantes: fragmentos foliares e de raízes de plantas cultivadas in vitro. Após desinfestação, os explantes foram colocados em meio de cultura de Murashige e Skoog (1962 contendo três quartos da concentração de sais, vitaminas do mesmo meio, 30g.L-1 de sacarose, auxina (ácido naftaleno-acético, ANA, 0,11 M e 0,54 M, citocinina (cinetina, CIN, 1,2 M, 2,3 M, 4,7 M e 9,3 M; 6-benziladenina, BA, 2,2 M, 4,4 M e 8,8 M ou 2-isopenteniladenina, 2-iP, 2,5 M e 7g.L-1 de ágar. As variáveis testadas foram a concentração e o tipo de regulador de crescimento e a origem dos explantes. A cada 30 dias, os explantes foram avaliados pela contagem do número de explantes formando calos ou raízes e a consistência dos calos. Foram obtidos calos a com base nos dois tipos de explantes. Nos explantes foliares, 90% deles formaram calos em meios de cultura contendo BA 4,4 M com ANA 0,54 M e BA 8,9 M com ANA 0,11 ou 0,54 M. Nos explantes de raízes, a maior percentagem de explantes com calos foi de 55%, no meio de cultura com BA 2,2 M e ANA 0,54 M. Raízes adventícias foram obtidas partindo de calos e do limbo dos explantes foliares, em meios de cultura com CIN e ANA. Não foi observada a formação de gemas adventícias.

  5. 大叶碎米荠胶囊治疗腰肌劳损76例临床观察%Clinical observation on Cardamine Macrophylla Willd.Capsule in the treatment of 76 patients with lumbar muscle strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凯; 李东辉; 刘江舟; 周效思

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study curative effect of Cardamine Macrophylla Willd. Capsule in the treatment of lumbar muscle strain. Methods: 147 patients who met the full diagnostic criteria were divided into treatment group (76 cases) and control group (71 cases). The treatment group were treated with Cardamine Macrophylla Willd. Capsule per os, while the control group were treated with Western medicine Piroxicam Tablets per os. The comprehensive curative effects of the two groups were summarized after 15 days. Results: The total effective rate of the treatment group was 93.42%, and that of the control group was 74.65%, the curative effect was found to be better in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The curative effect in the treatment group treated with Cardamine Macrophylla Willd. Capsule (per os) was significantly better than that in the control group treated with Piroxicam Tablets (per os).%目的:观察大叶碎米荠(Cardamine macrophylla Willd.)治疗腰肌劳损的临床疗效.方法:将我院符合诊断标准的腰肌劳损147例患者分为治疗组(76例)和对照组(71例),治疗组以口服大叶碎米荠胶囊治疗,对照组予口服吡罗昔康治疗.15 d后对两组综合疗效进行比较.结果:治疗组总有效率为93.42%,对照组为74.65%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:口服大叶碎米荠治疗腰肌劳损的疗效明显,优于吡罗昔康对照组.

  6. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  7. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar Sauron was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Sauron was identified in open pollinated population of Cluj 3/83 selection [Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated x NJ 46]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  8. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar �Sauron� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Sauron� was identified in open pollinated population of �Cluj 3/83� selection [�Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated x �NJ 46�]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  9. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  10. Flower colours and pigments in tulip cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van J.P.; Keulen, van H.A.; Dijk, van A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Aanvullend op eerder onderzoek, waarbij bijna 500 oude en nieuwe tulpencultivars op bloempigmenten werden geanalyseerd, worden in tabelvorm van diezelfde cultivars nu de bloemkleur en de relatieve hoeveelheden carotenoiden, delfinidine, cyanidine, pelargonidine en flavonolen aangegeven

  11. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  12. Embriogénesis somática de Citrus macrophylla Wester con el empleo del Pectimorf® y análogos de brasinoesteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Bao Fundora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Somatic embryogenesis of Citrus macrophylla Wester using Pectimorf® and analogues of brassinosteroids Resumen Los cítricos son frutales muy utilizados como patrones de injerto. Para incrementar la cantidad de estos cultivos en las plantaciones citrícolas, se pueden usar técnicas de propagación in vitro como la embriogénesis somática, que requiere medios de cultivos artificiales y fitohormonas. Debido a los altos costos de las fitohormonas, una alternativa cubana es el uso de biorreguladores del crecimiento de producción nacional como: los análogos de brasinoesteroides: 25(R 2α, 3α, dihidroxi 5α espirostan- 6-ona (Biobras-6 y C: 25(R 2α, 3α, 5α, trihidroxiespirostan-6-ona (MH-5 y una mezcla de oligogalacturónido de grado de polimerización entre 10-14 (Pectimorf®.  Estos biorreguladores son efectivos en los procesos morfogenéticos como sustitutos o complemento de las auxinas y citoquininas. El presente trabajo estuvo dirigido a determinar el efecto del Pectimorf® y los brasinoesteroides como sustitutos de las fitohormonas tradicionales en el desarrollo de la embriogénesis somática y en la obtención de una línea celular embriogénica de Citrus macrophylla Wester. Se utilizó el medio de cultivo de Murashige y Skoog (MS (1962, suplementado con los biorreguladores del crecimiento MH-5, Biobras-6 y Pectimorf®. Mediante la embriogénesis somática se obtuvieron embriones, raíces y plántulas, en todos los tratamientos. En la formación de plántulas estos biorreguladores fueron muy efectivos. Palabras clave: cultivo in vitro; Citrus; biorreguladores del crecimiento. Abstract Citrus fruits are widely used as rootstock. To increase the amount of these crops in plantations, in vitro propagation techniques such as somatic embryogenesis can be used, which requires artificial culture media and plant hormones. Due to the high cost of the plant hormone, a Cuban alternative is the use of cuban bioregulators growth

  13. Parental Selection in Rice Cultivar Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley Omar P B.SAMONTE; Rodante E.TABIEN; Lloyd T.WILSON

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars assists breeders in identifying useful trait relationships and in selecting parents as donors of specific traits.This study was conducted to compare long-grain rice cultivars using genotype x trait (GT) biplot analysis and determine potential donors of traits related to grain yield and quality.Seventeen cultivars in the 2005 and 2006 Uniform Regional Rice Nursery in Beaumont,Texas,USA were analyzed for 20 traits using GT biplot analysis.The GT biplots showed the diversity among cultivars with regards to yield-related traits.Cultivars recommended as donor parents were:Trenasse,Spring,Presidio,and Cocodrie for high grain yield and head rice rate;Trenasse and Presidio for semi-dwarfness; Banks for tall plant height; Wells for high flag leaf area,panicle weight,and number and mass of filled grains per panicle; Hidalgo for high tiller density; Francis for high number of spikelets per panicle; Spring and Trenasse for short flowering duration; Cheniere for more days to heading and maturity and Spring for less days; and Spring and Hidalgo for high grain weight.Breeders can use these cultivars with specific traits to increase grain yield and quality.

  14. Estudo fitoquímico de Hydrangea sp. por meio de métodos clássicos de análise por espectroscopia no ultravioleta visível (UV-Vis e cromatografia em coluna e em papel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiele BERNARDI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A investigação fitoquímica é um tema que pode ser abordado por diversas áreas da ciência. A Hydrangea sp., também conhecida com hortensia, é um planta ornamental muito conhecida por possuir flavonoides, compostos antioxidantes, que interagem com íons alumínio no solo, alterando as cores das sépalas das flores. Este trabalho teve como objetivo extrair clorofila das folhas de Hydrangea sp. utilizando três solventes (diclorometano, acetona e solução aquosa de acetona, 80 %. Os dados indicaram que além de extrair clorofila, também há fortes evidências espectroscópicas da presença dos carotenoides β-caroteno e/ou luteína e licopeno. Assim, o método utilizado pode ser aplicado em aulas práticas para explicar que: i As folhas são verdes pela presença do pigmento clorofila; ii no entanto, elas não contém apenas clorofila em sua constituição; também possuem pigmentos amarelos e avermelhados; e iii ao envelhecer, as folhas perdem a coloração verde, há pela quebra da ressonância do anel porfirínico da clorofila e, consequentemente, as outras cores presentes no vegetal tornam-se predominantes.

  15. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IPR 98: Rust-resistant dwarf arabica coffee cultivar for dense spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The IPR 98 coffee cultivar is a dwarf plant smaller than the Catuaí Vermelho IAC-81 cultivar, completelyresistant to Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br. with medium precocity in ripening and superior quality and high yields with semidense,dense and super dense spacing in lower temperature coffee regions of the state of Paraná.

  16. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  17. Distribución y uso tradicional de Sagittaria macrophylla Zucc. y S. latifolia Willd. en el Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Zepeda Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sagittaria macrophylla y S. latifolia son plantas acuáticas emergentes que crecen en las orillas y zonas poco profundas de los cuerpos de agua limpios y de poca corriente. La primera es endémica de México, su distribución se restringe a la región del río Lerma y valle de México y está en peligro de extinción. Sagittarial latifolia se distribuye desde Canadá hasta el noroeste de Sudamérica. En México se localiza al menos en 11 estados. El análisis de la distribución de ambas especies muestra una disminución en el Estado de México; los factores que aparentemente están contribuyendo a este fenómeno son, en general, la explosión demográfica, la pérdida del hábitat y la sobreexplotación. No había registros del uso de S. latifolia en México, actualmente se reconoce que sus tubérculos o ‘papas de agua’ tienen importancia económica en la región del río Lerma. El uso tradicional de ambas especies indica que podrían ser una alternativa más en la dieta humana y animal.

  18. Resistance of some commercial winter wheat cultivars to Tilletia tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staletić Mirjana D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the resistance of twenty commercial winter wheat cultivars to common bunt causal agent (Tilletia tritici. Significant differences among the cultivars concerning the infection percent were observed, as well as the differences in the level of commercial cultivars' resistance to T. tritici. Most of the studied cultivars belonged to susceptible categories, and just few of them to the resistant ones. Cultivar Lasta was classified as highly resistant during the both investigation years in Kragujevac, while in Leposavić Lasta and Tiha were classified as resistant. The other studied cultivars were more or less susceptible.

  19. Relationship between biomass in ground and underground parts of Gentiana macrophylla and its rhizosphere microbial community structure%秦艽地上和地下生物量与其根际微生物群落结构关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 梁健; 安毅; 秦源; 南春燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究秦艽Gentiana macrophylla地上和地下生物量与其根际微生物群落结构关系.方法 采用平板培养法测定秦艽根际微生物群落组成.结果 人工栽培秦艽根际细菌、氨化细菌和固氮菌数量均显著高于野生种类;野生和人工栽培秦艽根际细菌、氨化细菌和固氮菌数量在高海拔样点最高;人工栽培秦艽地上和地下生物量均显著高于野生种类;秦艽生物量与根际细菌、氨化细菌和固氮菌数量呈正相关.结论 秦艽人工栽培应充分满足其生态要求,尽量在秦艽适宜生长的高海拔低温山区栽培;合理供给氮肥,接种合适的菌肥并增加其土壤微生物总数量可提高秦艽的产量.%Objective To study the relationship between the biomass in ground and underground parts of Gentiana macrophylla and its rhizosphere microbial community structure. Methods The composition of rhizosphere microorganism of G. Macrophylla was measured with plate counting method. Results The number of rhizosphere bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria of cultivated G. Macrophylla is significantly higher than that of wild species; The number of rhizosphere bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria of wild and cultivated G. Macrophylla samples was the highest at high altitude; The biomass in ground and underground parts of cultivated G. Macrophylla was significantly higher than that of wild species; The number of rhizosphere bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria with the biomass of G. Macrophylla assumed the remarkable positive correlation. Conclusion The artificial cultivation and management should fully meet the requirements of ecological conditions of G. Macrophylla, as far as possible in the suitable mountainous area of high altitude and low temperature; To improve its production we should pay attention to a reasonable supply of nitrogen, right vaccination of bacterial fertilizer, and

  20. Cadmium accumulation in different pakchoi cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying CHEN; Ting-qiang LI; Xuan HAN; Zhe-li DING; Xiao-e YANG; Ye-fei JIN

    2012-01-01

    The selection and breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) is a practicable and cost-effective approach to minimize the influx of heavy metal to the human food chain.In this study,both pot-culture and field experiments were conducted to identify and screen out cadmium pollution-safe cultivars (Cd-PSCs) from 50 pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) cultivars for food safety.When treated with 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg Cd,most of the pakchoi cultlvars (>70%)showed greater or similar shoot biomass when compared with the control.This result indicates that pakchoi has a considerable tolerance to soil Cd stress.Cd concentrations in the shoot varied significantly (P<0.05) between cultivars:in two Cd treatments (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg),the average values were 0.074 and 0.175 mg/kg fresh weight (FW),respectively.Cd concentrations in the shoots of 14 pakchoi cultivars were lower than 0.05 mg/kg FW.In pot-culture experiments,both enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of six pakchoi cultivars were lower than 1.0.The field studies further confirmed that the Hangzhouyoudonger,Aijiaoheiye 333,and Zaoshenghuajing cultivars are Cd-PSCs,and are therefore suitable for growth in low Cd-contaminated soils (≤1.2 mg/kg) without any risk to food safety.

  1. 环境因子对濒危药用植物秦艽种子萌发的影响%Effect of Environmental Factors on Endangered Medicinal Plant Gentiana macrophylla Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯茜; 胡锋; 张帆; 龙凤

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨环境因子对濒危药用植物秦艽种子萌发的影响,为秦艽资源的保护从种子方面提供理论依据。方法:测定秦艽种子千粒重、电导率及光照、积水、不同深度土壤覆盖种子的发芽率。结果:甘肃4个不同地区秦艽种子的千粒重、活力及发芽势、发芽率均有差别。光照不足、积水过多,土壤覆盖较深,都可降低秦艽种子的萌发率。结论:光照、积水、不同深度土壤覆盖等环境因子是影响秦艽种子萌发的重要因素。%Objective:To investigate the effects of environmental factors on Gentiana macrophylla seed germination and provide a theoretical basis for the protection of G.macrophylla seed resources.Methods:The grain seed weight, conductivity rats,light radiation,water contents around environment,and seed germination rate in the coverage by the different depth soil was determined in the experiment.Results:There existed some differences among different seeds collected from four regions in the grain weight,vigor,germination potential and germination rate.Insufficient light,too much water, the deeper soil cover might reduce seed germination rate.Conclusion:Light radiation,water contents around environment, different soil depth coverage and other environmental factors may play an important role on G.macrophylla seed germination respectively.

  2. Capacidade produtiva de cultivares de berinjela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Antonio C. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a capacidade produtiva de diferentes híbridos e cultivares de berinjela. Sete híbridos (Nápoli, Diamante Negro, Ciça, F-100, Super F-100, Kiko e F-2000 e duas cultivares de polinização aberta (Suzuki e Florida Market foram avaliados. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, constituído de nove tratamentos e três repetições. Cada repetição foi composta de oito plantas. As mudas foram plantadas no espaçamento 1,5m x 1,0m. A cultivar Suzuki produziu a maior quantidade de frutos por planta (27 frutos embora tenha apenas diferido significativamente da cultivar Flórida Market (13 frutos. Os híbridos testados apresentaram número de frutos variando de 20 a 25. Não foi verificada diferença significativa para o número de frutos de 1ª e 2ª categoria entre os materiais testados. Flórida Market e Kiko apresentaram a maior massa média do fruto (362,5 e 358,7 g, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente da cultivar Suzuki, que produziu frutos com a menor massa (178,9 g. As maiores produções por planta foram obtidas com o híbrido Kiko que diferiu significativamente da cultivar Suzuki. Foi verificado que os híbridos Kiko, Diamante Negro, Ciça e F-2000 apresentam potencial de produção semelhante ao Nápoli, atual padrão de mercado.

  3. Effect of 7-Hydroxy-2-(4-Hydroxy-3-Methoxy-Phenyl-Chroman-4-One (Swietenia Macrophylla King Seed on Retinol Binding Protein-4 and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Gene Expression in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to a defect of insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. There are increasing evidence that active compounds of medicinal plants may be used to treat diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a 7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-chroman-4-one flavonoid compound of the Swietenia macrophylla King seed on homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 gene expression in diabetic rats.

  4. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IAC-Alvorada and IAC-Diplomata: new common bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of common bean breeding programs is the development of high-yielding cultivars, with multipledisease resistance and high technological and nutritional grain quality. Two cultivars, IAC-Alvorada with carioca grain, andIAC-Diplomata with black grain, meet these standards, according to the results of trials of Value for Cultivation and Use(VCU 2005/2006/2007 in São Paulo. The cultivars, developed by the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, were registered bythe MAPA/RNC.

  5. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  6. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  7. ISOLASI, IDENTIFIKASI, DAN ELUSIDASI STRUKTUR SENYAWA ALKALOID DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL-ASAM NITRAT DARI BIJI MAHONI BEBAS MINYAK (Swietenia macrophylla, King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mursiti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang isolasi, identifikasi, dan elusidasi struktur  senyawa alkaloid dalam ekstrak metanol-asam nitrat dari biji mahoni bebas minyak (Swietenia macrophylla King. Biji mahoni diambil minyaknya dengan cara ekstraksi soxhlet menggunakan pelarut petroleum eter selama 8 jam. Isolasi senyawa alkaloid menggunakan metanol dan larutan asam nitrat 10%. Sebanyak satu gram ampas biji mahoni bebas minyak dicampur dengan 1 mL larutan asam nitrat 10%, kemudian ditambah 5 mL metanol dalam erlenmeyer bertutup disertai pengocokan selama 5 menit pada suhu 60oC menggunakan penangas air, setelah itu disaring, ditambah 1 mL larutan amonia 10%, kemudian disaring, dan dipekatkan. Ekstrak kemudian dianalisis dengan KLT, kemudian dipisahkan dengan kromatografi kolom. Sebagai penyerap pada kolom digunakan silika gel 40, panjang kolom 27 cm, diameter 2,8 cm, eluen yang digunakan  adalah kloroform:metanol (95:5, dan jumlah tetesan 15-20  per menit. Setiap fraksi yang diperoleh dari kromatografi kolom dianalisis dengan KLT menggunakan lampu UV. Uji alkaloid menggunakan pereaksi Dragendorff 130 dan 132. Fraksi yang positif merupakan fraksi yang mengandung alkaloid. Kemudian fraksi ini dianalisis lebih lanjut untuk identifikasi struktur dengan GC, spektrometer IR, UV, dan 1HNMR. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa dalam ekstrak diperkirakan terdapat senyawa alkaloid yakni 3,4,5-trietil-6-metoksi-2-metil-1,2-dihidro-piridin.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ It has been conducted a research on the isolation, identification and structural elucidation of alkaloid compounds in methanol-nitric acid extract of the oil-free mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla, King. The oil was taken from mahogany seed by Soxhlet extraction and using petroleum ether solvent for 8 hours, while the

  8. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in

  9. Blueberry Cultivars for Oregon (EC 1308)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Extension publication gives an overview of the types of blueberries and the blueberry cultivars that might be grown in Oregon or elsewhere in the Pacific Northwest. Bush and berry characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for commercial or home garden production are given for over 30 bl...

  10. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in commercial floriculture both In the Uni

  11. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  12. Distribution of Glucosinolates in Brassica oleracea cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A; Aires, A; Rosa, E; Bloem, E; Stulen, I.; De Kok, LJ

    2004-01-01

    Glucosinolates are important secondary compounds, commonly found in Brassicaceae. To what extent these sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds contribute to the total sulfur pool was investigated. In various cultivars of Brassica oleracea viz. curly kale, pointed cabbage, red cabbage, savoy cabbage

  13. Substrates in the development potted gerbera cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gerbera is a prominent culture that has gained in the Brazilian market of flowers and ornamental plants and there is a great demand for adequate substrates for its production. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and distribution of dry mass and nitrogen in potted gerbera, depending on the substrates and cultivars. Experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 substrates and 2 cultivars. Red and Cherry cultivars were evaluated at 1, 15, 29, 43 and 50 days of acclimation (DAA to the leaves number, leaf area, dry mass of aerial parts (leaf and flower and accumulation of nitrogen. From 29 DAA, the inflorescence has established as the drain and has contributed significantly to the total dry mass. The accumulation of nitrogen was similar in vegetative and reproductive periods. The traits evaluated varied depending on the substrate used, influenced by physical and chemical properties of the same. The growth, dry matter and nitrogen distribution potted gerbera cultivars Cherry and Red are influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of substrates, with better results in substrates with bulk density of less than 530 kg m-3 and pH values between 5.5 and 6.8

  14. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  15. Supplementation of Flemingia macrophylla and cassava foliage as a rumen enhancer on fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production in dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phesatcha, Burarat; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-10-01

    Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers, 3 years old with 180 ± 15 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate on the effect of Flemingia macrophylla hay meal (FMH) and cassava hay meal (CH) supplementation on rumen fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production. The treatments were as follows: T1 = non-supplement, T2 = CH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, T3 = FMH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + FMH supplementation at 75 and 75 g/head/day. All steers were fed rice straw ad libitum and concentrate was offered at 0.5 % of BW. Results revealed that supplementation of CH and/or FMH did not affect on feed intake (P > 0.05) while digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were increased especially in steers receiving FMH and CH+FMH (P methane production were decreased by dietary treatments. Protozoa and fungi population were not affected by dietary supplement while viable bacteria count increased in steers receiving FMH. Supplementation of FMH and/or FMH+CH increased microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen supply. This study concluded FMH (150 g/head/day) and/or CH+FMH (75 and 75 g/head/day) supplementation could be used as a rumen enhancer for increasing nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis while decreasing estimated methane production without adverse effect on voluntary feed intake of dairy steers fed rice straw.

  16. CULTIVAR RELEASE-CD 115: Soft Wheat Cultivar for colder regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 115 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC and isrecommended for cultivation in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. The cultivar is tolerant todiseases and pre-harvest sprouting. The mean grain yield in four years of evaluation was 3,420 kg ha-1, exceeding thecontrols by 7%.

  17. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRSMG União: common bean cultivar with jalo grain for the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bean cultivar BRSMG União as a new option of a bean cultivar with jalo grains for the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar BRSMG União had an average grain yield of 9.8% above the mean of the controls (Jalo EEP 558 and BRS Radiante and was resistant to powdery-mildew.

  18. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Kim, J Y; Song, C; Ko, J Y; Na, S Y; Yiem, M S

    1996-12-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm(3) soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the remaining 14 cultivars were susceptible. These results were similar to those obtained when the cultivars were subjected to field populations of the condition on a carnation farm.

  19. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes.

  20. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

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    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  1. RB975952 – Early maturing sugarcane cultivar

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    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RB975952 is an early maturing sugarcane cultivar released for the South-Central region of Brazil. It should be harvested between April and May, and it is recommended for planting in environments with medium to high production potential. RB975952 has high resistance levels to the main diseases of the crop, it also has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting, and high sucrose yields.

  2. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Chen

    Full Text Available Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and MCA (metal chelating activity were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC, followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA. The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  3. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  4. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Junli [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Fang Wei [Biology Department, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Yuan Jiangang [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yang Zhongyi [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: adsyzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2006-11-01

    Large areas of contaminated land are being used for agricultural production in some countries due to the high demand for food. To minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain through consumption of agricultural products, we propose the concept of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), i.e. cultivars whose edible parts accumulate a specific pollutant at a level low enough for safe consumption, even when grown in contaminated soil. We tested the feasibility of the PSC concept by growing 43 cultivars of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., including 20 normal and 23 hybrid cultivars) under a high (75.69-77.55 mg kg{sup -1}) and a low (1.75-1.85 mg kg{sup -1}) cadmium (Cd) exposure. These pot experiments took place in the spring and summer of 2004. At the low level of Cd exposure, 30 out of the 43 tested cultivars were found to be Cd-PSCs. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated (p < 0.01) between the two experiments, suggesting that Cd accumulation in rice grain is genotype-dependent and that the selection of PSCs is possible, at least at a certain level of soil contamination. No Cd-PSCs were found under the high level of Cd exposure. Yield was enhanced in some cultivars and depressed in others in response to elevated soil Cd, indicating that farmers cannot rely on yield depression as an indicator of toxicity of the grains. It is therefore important and feasible to screen for PSCs and to establish PSC breeding programs to effectively and efficiently reduce the risk of human exposure to soil pollutants, such as Cd, through crop consumption.

  5. Characterization of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using machine vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, S; Balamurugan, P

    2013-10-15

    Machine vision or image analysis is an important tool in the study of morphology of any materials. This technique has been used successfully to differentiate the eleven oats cultivars based on morphological characters. The geometry of seeds was measured through image analyzer and the variation was observed and recorded. From the recorded data, the cluster analysis was carried out and it revealed that the cultivars could be grouped into two main clusters based on similarity in the measured parameters. Cultivar Sabzar, UPO 212, OL 9 and OL 88 formed one main cluster. The another main cluster includes cv. Kent, OS 6, UPO 94, HFO 114, OS 7, HJ 8 and JHO 822 with many sub clusters. Among the cultivars HJ 8 and JHO 822 has more similarity in all measured parameters than other cultivars. Thus morphological characterization through seed image analysis was found useful to discriminate the cultivars.

  6. Rooting of stem segments from fig tree cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Rayane Barcelos Bisi; Guilherme Locatelli; Caio Morais de Alcântara Barbosa; Rafael Pio; Rodrigo Vieira Balbi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Although Brazil is the largest fig (Ficus carica L.) producer in the Southern Hemisphere, it mainly uses only one cultivar, 'Roxo de Valinhos'. In addition, propagation is almost entirely through hardwood cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a propagation method that provides more successful rooting of stem segments of fig cultivars for the purpose of expanding the genetic base of the fig tree. The cultivars used were 'Brunswick', 'Calabacita', 'Negro de Bursa...

  7. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, M. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, C.; Ko, J.Y.; Na, S. Y.; Yiem, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm³ soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the re...

  8. Cultivar identification in T. aestivum using highly polymorphic RFLP probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccino, P; Accerbi, M; Corbellini, M

    1993-08-01

    Two probes, specific for HMW-glutenins and γ-gliadins have been used to identify 50 common wheat Italian cultivars, most of which are closely related, and four common wheat cultivars originating outside Italy. The probes revealed complex polymorphic patterns; three probe/enzyme combinations had the necessary sensitivity for the identification of all 54 cultivars. As already shown for potato and barley, the use of four-cutter restriction enzymes and polyacrylamide gels proved particularly useful for detecting polymorphism.

  9. Photosynthetic Diurnal Variation of Soybean Cultivars with High Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Wei-qun; DU Wei-guang; ZHANG Gui-ru; LUAN Xiao-yan; GE Qiao-ying; HAO Nai-bin; CHEN Yi

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic characters were investigated among soybean cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency and high yield. The results indicated that: 1) There were significant differences in photosynthetic rate (Ph) and dark respiration rate (DR) under saturation light intensity and appropriate temperature.2) There were a little difference in light compensation point among them. Photo flux density (PFD) were mong the cultivars. Diurnal variation of Pn was shown a curve with two peaks. 4) The cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency were subjected less to photoinhibition than that with high yield. Critical temperatures of photoinhibition in high photosynthetic efficiency cultivars were higher than that of high yield.

  10. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-10-26

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

  11. Consumer evaluation of scab-resistant apple cultivars in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. JÖNSSON

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using untrained consumers for sensory evaluation was investigated on Swedish-grown scab-resistant apple cultivars in 2002 (11 cultivars and 2003 (15 cultivars. The consumers evaluated five cultivars each, including the control cultivar ‘Aroma’. Each cultivar was scored for appearance, texture, juiciness, taste and overall impression by a minimum of 100 consumers in 2002 and by 200 in 2003. All quality attributes were positively correlated when calculations were performed across all consumer scores, with overall impression and taste having the strongest association. ‘Rubinola’ and K:1160 emerged as the best liked cultivars overall. Cultivar means were analysed for relationships with some previously scored or measured variables and with consumer profile data. Positive correlations with overall impression were obtained for amount of red colour in 2002, and for sugar levels in 2003. Among consumer profile variables, age had the largest influence on consumer scores, with some indications that older consumers preferred (or at least tolerated soft-fleshed cultivars better than did younger consumers. Minimum number of consumers needed to obtain reliable results was determined by computer simulations indicating that the error rate became stabilized already with 50 consumers.;

  12. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  13. UEL 7: nova cultivar de Dendrobium UEL 7: a new Dendrobium cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available UEL 7 é uma cultivar de Dendrobium nobile desenvolvida no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina resultante do cruzamento das plantas matrizes D3 x D8 e selecionada pela coloração das flores amarelas e com largura e comprimento semelhantes (7,0 cm, formando praticamente um círculo. As plantas foram polinizadas artificialmente, e as sementes semeadas em meio de cultura in vitro. A cultivar apresenta flores de coloração amarela, labelo com o centro marrom escuro e o pseudobulbo apresenta em mé dia 11 flores. As flores têm durabilidade de aproximadamente 30 dias.UEL 7 is a Dendrobium nobile's cultivar developed at The Department of Agronomy of Universidade Estadual de Londrina and is the result of the crossing between D3 x D8 and selected for its yellow flowers and format with similar width and length (7.0 cm, almost forming a circle. The plants were pollinated artificially, and the seeds sowed in growth media in vitro. The cultivar presents flowers of yellow coloration, labelo with the center dark brown color and the pseudobulb presents 11 flowers on average. The flowers durability is about 30 days.

  14. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  15. Study on Introduction, Cultivation and Processing Techniques of Superior Species of Cinnamon cassia B1 Forma Macrophylla%清化肉桂良种引种、栽培与加工技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱积余; 马锦林; 李开祥; 何春茂

    2009-01-01

    肉桂(Cinnamomum cassia)是在我国南亚热带地区的一个重要的名优经济树种.针对国内现有栽培的肉桂品种单一、桂皮薄、培育大桂(桂板)所需时间较长、桂油含量较低、抗性较差和经营效益低等问题,引种越南清化肉桂(C.cassia Bl. forma macrophylla),开展栽培和加工技术研究.试验结果表明,越南清化肉桂是适于我国南亚热带作为板桂培育的优良品种,可在适宜立地种植.

  16. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C.; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then...

  17. Sensibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro ao cloreto de mepiquat Sensibility of cotton cultivars to mepiquat chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Bogiani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro ao cloreto de mepiquat e verificar se ela está relacionada ao ciclo ou à arquitetura da planta. Foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com seis cultivares de algodoeiro - FiberMax 966, FiberMax 977, Delta Penta, Delta Opal, FMT 501 e FMT 701 - e quatro doses do regulador vegetal à base de cloreto de mepiquat - 0, 7,5, 15 e 22,5 g ha-1 de i.a. -, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial 6x4 e quatro repetições. As parcelas experimentais foram constituídas por vasos de 12 L com duas plantas em cada um. As doses do regulador vegetal foram aplicadas sem adjuvante, no estádio de aparecimento dos botões florais, aos 34 dias após a emergência das plântulas. Paralelamente ao experimento com doses, a retenção do regulador pelas folhas das cultivares foi quantificada. O crescimento em altura das plantas de algodoeiro é diminuído com a aplicação do regulador vegetal, e esse efeito se intensifica com o aumento da dosagem aplicada. Existe diferença entre as cultivares estudadas quanto à sensibilidade ao cloreto de mepiquat, sendo que as mais precoces são mais sensíveis. Além da sensibilidade diferenciada, a arquitetura das plantas pode possibilitar maior ou menor deposição do regulador sobre as folhas.The objective of this work was to assess the sensibility of cotton cultivars to mepiquat chloride and to verify if it is related to plant cycle or architecture. A green-house experiment was carried out with six cotton cultivars - FiberMax 966, FiberMax 977, Delta Penta, Delta Opal, FMT 501 e FMT 701 -, and four concentrations of mepiquat chloride plant growth regulator - 0, 7,5, 15 and 22,5 g ha-1 of the active ingredient - in complete block design with a 6x4 factorial arrangement and four replicates. The plots consisted of 12 L pots with two plants per pot. Regulator doses were applied without adjuvants at the beginning of

  18. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  19. Cultivar and row distance interactions in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    yield and seed weight (r=0.72***), whereas the correlation between seed yield and the number of reproductive tillers was negatively correlated (r= - 0.49***). This may reflect choice of cultivars in the experiment with the tetraploid forage cultivar 'Tivoli' having the lowest number of reproductive...

  20. Identifying nitrogen-efficient potato cultivars for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    In organic farming, nitrogen efficiency of potato might vary among cultivars, even within the same maturity type. We therefore analysed in depth the response to nitrogen of a diverse set of cultivars, grown at different locations (differing in soil type and management) and in four years (differing i

  1. Performance de six cultivars de tomates Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... de déterminer sur la parcelle après apport d\\'insecticides, les incidences du TYLCV ... others diseases: the yellow leaf curl, bacterial wilt and root knot nematodes. In order to identify performants cultivars, six improved cultivars of tomato were ...

  2. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  3. Blueberry cultivars for the Pacific Northwest (PNW 656)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bush habit, berry characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for commercial or homeowner production for 41 highbush, rabbiteye and ornamental blueberry cultivars are presented. This extension guide reviews many of the possible cultivars a commercial grower or homeowner might grow. Standar...

  4. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, A.I.; Ree, van R.; Leeuwen, van A.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Puehringer, H.; Laimer, M.; Martinelli, A.; Zaccharini, M.; Vazquez-Cortes, S.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Clare Mills, E.N.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars. Methods

  5. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  6. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  7. New Kiwifruit Cultivar Carves a Firm Niche in European Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ While enhancing the world kiwifruit production by developing new cultivars,CAS researchers are gaining a firm foothold in international kiwifruit market as they prolong their control over the propagation rights of a recently developed novel yellowfleshed cultivar, Jin Tao, in European countries.

  8. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  9. Metabolomics-driven nutraceutical evaluation of diverse green tea cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6 and Sunrouge (SR strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive

  10. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  11. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  12. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1 than the control.

  13. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... be used directly for marker-assisted selection. In addition, we suggest a number of candidate genes involved in the control of several important fruit quality traits. Future studies and breeding attempts can therefore benefit from the results, including genetic fingerprints and pedigree reconstruction...

  14. Adaptability and stability of sweet sorghum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Fillipe de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic stability and adaptability of 25 sweet sorghum cultivars of EmbrapaMaize and Sorghum. The experiments were conducted in five Brazilian environments, three in the state of Minas Gerais, and theothers in Sinop, Mato Grosso and Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Fresh biomass yield (FBY, and total soluble solids (TSS of the juicewere evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant genotype byenvironment interaction for both traits. According to the Annicchiarico methodology analysis, genotypes CMSXS634, BRS506, andCMSXS646 were the most stable and adapted for FBY and TSS concomitantly; CMSXS634 being more adapted to favorable environmentsand CMSXS646 being more adapted to unfavorable environments.

  15. Morphological diversity in fourteen cultivars Tiron village, Kediri, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azis Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiron village, Kediri is one of central mangoes in Indonesia. Many cultivar of mangoes encountered at this location. This study aims to look at the diversity of mango cultivars in the Tiron Village, Kediri, Indonesia. Mangoes diversity is based on qualitative and quantitative character of each cultivar. The diversity among cultivar indicated by the standard deviation and variance in the eleven quantitative characters of mango. Mango cultivars categorized by phylogeny morphological characters. The method used for phylogeny analysis is an UPGMA method (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Phylogenic analysis is based by the qualitative character of the plant. The results showed there were fourteen cultivars of mango in the village of Tiron Kediri have high diversity. Fourteen mango cultivars were categorized four groups. Based on a qualitative character, there are four classes of mango. The first group is the Katul, Podang Urang, and Podang Lumut. The second group is the Gadung, Jaran, Madu, Endog, Pakel, Dodonilo, Ireng, Lanang and Cantek. Santok Kapur into groups to form groups of three and Kopyor fourth. The high diversity in the village mango Tiron Kediri potential for resource in situ germplasm.

  16. Amplifying the benefits of agroecology by using the right cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, D; Laossi, K-R; Lavelle, P; De Carvalho, M H Cruz; Asakawa, N; Botero, C; Barot, S

    2011-10-01

    Tropical soils are particularly vulnerable to fertility losses due to their low capacity to retain organic matter and mineral nutrients. This urges the development of new agricultural practices to manage mineral nutrients and organic matter in a more sustainable way while relying less on fertilizer inputs. Two methods pertaining to ecological engineering and agroecology have been tested with some success: (1) the addition of biochar to the soil, and (2) the maintenance of higher earthworm densities. However, modern crop varieties have been selected to be adapted to agricultural practices and to the soil conditions they lead to and common cultivars might not be adapted to new practices. Using rice as a model plant, we compared the responsiveness to biochar and earthworms of five rice cultivars with contrasted selection histories. These cultivars had contrasted responsivenesses to earthworms, biochar, and the combination of both. The mean relative increase in grain biomass, among all treatments and cultivars, was 94% and 32%, respectively, with and without fertilization. Choosing the best combination of cultivar and treatment led to a more than fourfold increase in this mean benefit (a 437% and a 353% relative increase in grain biomass, respectively, with and without fertilization). Besides, the more rustic cultivar, a local landrace adapted to diverse and difficult conditions, responded the best to earthworms in terms of total biomass, while a modern common cultivar responded the best in term of grain biomass. This suggests that cultivars could be selected to amplify the benefit of biochar- and earthworm-based practices. Overall, selecting new cultivars interacting more closely with soil organisms and soil heterogeneity could increase agriculture sustainability, fostering the positive feedback loop between soils and plants that has evolved in natural ecosystems.

  17. Studying on rooting ability of olive cultivars region of Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA BREGU; FADIL THOMAJ; ANIDA MEMA

    2014-01-01

    The results brought in this study present the rooting ability of semi dendric olive pieces, including the five most important cultivars of the area which are used as oil cultivar ("olive white", “Kushan", "Karre" and "black olive from Ndroq Tirana") or as cultivar used for oil and salting (Boç and red olive). Anchoring (sample) material is taken from three age-old mother plants and with a good health and vegetation condition. Previously pieces are treated with IBA at 4000 ppm concentration. ...

  18. BRS 137: cultivar de soja para cultivo no Sul do Brasil BRS 137: soybean cultivar for southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emídio Rizzo Bonato

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A liberação de cultivares de elevado potencial produtivo e com resistência a doenças é fundamental para continuar agregando rendimento na produção brasileira de soja. A cultivar BRS 137 é resultado do programa de melhoramento de soja desenvolvido pela Embrapa. A cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos 2% superior ao da cultivar IAS 5, em 24 ambientes, no Rio Grande do Sul. É resistente à pústula-bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. É indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras realizadas a partir de meados de outubro até fim de novembro, com população máxima de 300.000 plantas/ha.The goals of the soybean breeding program for the release of a new cultivar include high yield potential and resistance to diseases in order to improve Brazilian production. The cultivar BRS 137 is a result of the soybean breeding program of Embrapa (Brazil. Prior to its release, the cultivar had shown a mean grain yield potential 2% higher than the cultivar IAS 5 in 24 environments in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Moreover, it is resistant to bacterial pustule (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, soybean stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, brown stem rot (Phialophora gregata, frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina, and powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa. The cultivar is being indicated to be cropped in the Rio Grande do Sul state for sowing from mid October to the end of November with a maximum population of 300,000 plants/ha.

  19. Resposta diferencial das cultivares de algodoeiro a Alternaria macrospora Differential response of cotton cultivars to Alternaria macrospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant Ramchandra Mehta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resposta diferencial de 32 cultivares comerciais do algodoeiro a A. macrospora em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi realizada em plântulas de 20-25 dias de idade com 25 repetições, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso. As cultivares foram agrupadas através de análise de Scott & Knott. Resistência completa não foi encontrada, sendo que todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis. Houve diferença entre reação de plantas da mesma cultivar. Não obstante, quando algumas plantas das cvs. BRS Antares e Fibermax 986, que mostraram resistência, foram inoculadas com mistura de nove isolados escolhidos ao acaso, as mesmas mantiveram sua resistência a esta mistura. Trabalhos futuros deverão ser realizados para encontrar fontes de resistência a este patógeno em outras espécies de Gossypium.The differential response of 32 commercial cotton cultivars to A. macrospora was studied under greenhouse conditions. Twenty to twentyfive days old plants were inoculated in 25 repetitions in a randomized block design. The cultivars were grouped using the Scott & Knott analysis. Complete resistance was not found and all cultivars were susceptible to the pathogen. Differential reaction within the plants of the same cultivar was observed. However, when some resistant plants of cultivars BRS Antares and Fibermax 986 were inoculated using a mixture of nine randomly selected isolates of A. macrospora, the plants maintained their resistance. Further research is necessary to find sources of resistance to this pathogen in other species of Gossypium.

  20. The Effects of Deforestation on the Growth of Qiongzhuea Macrophylla%森林砍伐对马边大熊猫主食竹大叶筇竹生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光磊; 周材权

    2012-01-01

    To understand the effects of deforestation on the growth of Qiongzhuea macrophylla, we investigated the areas of deforestation and non-cutting in Mabian between September 2010 and June 2011. The method of quadrats was: set up a 1m×1m quadrats each about 50m, and measure the basal diameter and height of all the bamboo in the quadrat. We set 110 quadrat altogether,50 in the erea of deforestation and 60 in non-cutting erea. and uses the program of Spss 16.0 to analysis data. After deforestation, the base diameter of Qiongzhuea macrophylla increased significantly(p 〈 0. 001 ); the height slightly increased (p 〉 0.05);the density of bamboo was increased (p 〈 0.05). The results showed that there was a great affection considering the growth and structure of Qiongzhuea macrophylla. In order to protect giant panda of Mabian effectively and use natural resources rationally, it is urgently needed to take some measurements to protect old-growth forest.%为了研究森林砍伐对马边大熊猫主食竹大叶筇竹生长的影响.2010年9、10月和2011年6月对马边大风顶保护区内森林砍伐区和非砍伐区使用样方法进行调查,样方设置方法为:沿样线每前进50m设置一个1m×1m的竹子样方,对样方内所有竹子的基径和高度进行测量,共设置110个竹子样方,其中砍伐区内50个,非砍伐区60个.使用Spss16.0对数据进行分析.相对于非砍伐区,砍伐区内郁闭度下降明显;大叶筇竹的基径显著上升,差异性极显著(P〈0.001);高度略微增加,但差异性不明显(P〉0.05);竹子密度增加,差异性显著(P〈0.05).结果表明:采笋行为和森林砍伐在一定程度上已经影响到马边大熊猫主食竹大叶筇竹的生长,为了更有效地保护马边大熊猫以及更合理地利用保护区资源,势必需要采取有效措施,继续保护好保护区内的原始森林.

  1. Genetic variation of 12 rice cultivars grown in Brunei Darussalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Genetic variations of 12 different rice cultivars in Brunei Darussalam were studied using 15 different. SSR markers ..... Principles of plant breeding: John Wiley & Sons Inc.,. New York .... and reproductive development of rice.

  2. introduction and evaluation of improved banana cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Central and Eastern Provinces account for 26 %. The rest of the provinces ... from traditional cash crops, especially coffee. (Coffea arabica) ..... Impact Study of the Tissue Culture. Banana. Project in ... local cultivars. INIBAP Newsletter for Asia.

  3. Nonstructural carbohydrates and return bloom potential differ among cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    explain low fruit set and biennial bearing tendencies of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Yet, comparisons of nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations during critical phenological stages across cultivars that differ in biennial bearing tendencies and return bloom potential are lacking, particular...

  4. RAPD-based genetic relationships in different Bougainvillea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with authenticating existing knowledge about 21 Bougainvillea cultivars comprisingof 9 hybrids and their parents through RAPD analysis. The 19 degenerate primer sets generated 234 bands from which 158(67.5% were polymorphic. The UPGMA based dendrogram divided 21 cultivars into two major groups with Jaccard’ssimilarity coefficient ranging from 0.51 to 0.942. Group A had three cultivars namely Trinidad, Formosa and Dr. H. B. Singhin which Dr. H.B. Singh was confirmed as a hybrid of other two cultivars. Group B was sub divided into 8 clusters. Theparentages of 7 out of 8 hybirds have been confirmed based on clusters. The study concluded that the RAPD technique issuitable for confirmation of parent-hybrid relationship.

  5. Blueberry estimated harvest from seven new cultivars: fruit and anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Jessica; Stevenson, David; Hedderley, Duncan

    2013-08-15

    This study compares the yields, weights and anthocyanin contents of fruit from a group of seven new cultivars released from the New Zealand blueberry breeding programme and selected for the longest possible combined harvest season. The measured factors were primarily influenced by cultivar, and seasonal variations had relatively minor effects. The late-ripening cultivars 'Velluto Blue' and 'Centra Blue' had the highest fruit yields, anthocyanin contents and estimated total anthocyanin harvestable from a given area. 'Blue Moon' and 'Sky Blue' had the largest fruit sizes. The early-ripening cultivars 'Blue Bayou', 'Blue Moon' and 'Sunset Blue' had the lowest anthocyanin contents. The yield, fruit size and total anthocyanin content results obtained from any single year were highly correlated with the average of the three years, which makes pursuing the evaluation for these traits from a single year and at an early stage of plant development a practical proposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF INVESTIGATED RAPESEED HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  7. development of hardy sorghum cultivars for the arid and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVELOPMENT OF HARDY SORGHUM CULTIVARS FOR THE ARID AND. SEMI ARID REGIONS .... media and presence or absence ofin vitro selective agents (Amzallag et ...... diversity in India Mustard (Brassica Juncea) and its relationship ...

  8. Chemical desiccation for early harvest in soybean cultivars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamara Pereira; Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho; Clovis Arruda Souza; Analu Mantovani; Vanderléia Mathias

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this work was to assess the production performance and germination seeds in response to differents stages and desiccation chemicals products to early harvest of soybean cultivars...

  9. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  10. Integration of Information on Climate, Soil and Cultivar to Increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivar to Increase Water Productivity of Maize in. Semi-arid ... 2Department of Soil and Crop Science, Texas A & M University, Texas USA. Abstract .... historical climate data into wet, normal and dry seasons (tercile probability) in particular.

  11. Respose of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to drought is a desired cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The present study aimed to determine the response of 22 cultivars of common bean during the early stages of vegetative development character. The plants were subjected to irrigation at 70% or 20% of field capacity (FC for seven days and the indicators were measured relative water content, stomatal opening, stomatal index, proline content and total phenols in leaves. The data obtained were processed using a principal component analysis and the variables studied were represented by a bivariate graph (biplot. It was possible to group the cultivars based on their response in tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible to water stress condition induced by irrigation at 20% FC. Stomatal opening and relative water content were recommended to be used as criteria for selecting cultivars tolerant to water stress indicators bean. Key words: PCA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., proline, water stress

  12. New hop (Humulus lupulus L. cultivars from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru SALONTAI

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The research staff of the Agronomy Institute of Cluj-Napoca breeded the first Romanian hop cultivars officially approved in 1984 by the State Commission for the Testing and Approval of Plant Varieties. The new Humulus lupulus varieties are cv. "Napoca'l", cv. "Aroma" and cv. "Transilvania". The selection method, origin, biological characteristics, productivity and some technological qualities of the new cultivars are discussed in the paper.

  13. EVALUATION FOR SALT STRESS TOLERANCE IN TWO STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Al-Shorafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress conditions have been found to destroy the vital physiological process in plant where slower cell division and cell enlargement or both and limit mineral nutrient uptake with clearly nutritional imbalance. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan to evaluate growth responses and mineral composition of two strawberry cultivars to salt stress by different NaCl levels. Six NaCl levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM and two strawberry cultivars, Camarosa and Albino, were used. Nutrient elements were added at the 0.5-strength Hoagland nutrient concentration. Distilled water supplemented with half strength Hoagland solution was used as control. Number of leaves and runners of both strawberry cultivars were significantly reduced by increasing NaCl level. Growth parameters (shoot, root and total dry weights and root: Shoot ratios were significantly reduced with each increase in salinity level. Camarosa had higher value for all these parameters compared with Albino. Leaf chlorophyll content of both strawberry cultivars was significantly decreased when 25 mM NaCl or higher was applied. Regardless of NaCl level, Camarosa cultivar had significantly higher chlorophyll content compared with Albino. Elevated salinity level significantly increased leaf proline content of both cultivars. Albino leaves accumulated higher proline compared with Camarosa at salinized and non-salinized treatments. Both strawberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf and root Na and Cl contents under salinized conditions compared with non-salinized conditions. Each increase in NaCl level resulted in an increase in leaf and root Na and Cl contents of both cultivars. On contrast, leaf K content was decreased with salinity, root content of this mineral was significantly increased with salinity. It could be recommended to avoid growing ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Albino’ strawberry using irrigation water of 25 m

  14. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  15. Processamento de tomate seco de diferentes cultivares Dried tomato processing of different cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O tomate seco apresenta um consumo crescente, principalmente como ingrediente de pizzas e lasanhas, e na forma de aperitivo. A pesquisa avaliou o processo de produção de tomate seco de quatro cultivares comerciais (Italiano, Débora Plus, Santa Cruz, Delícia e a qualidade dos produtos prontos. O tomate foi fatiado em quatro cortes longitudinais, sentido pedúnculo-ápice, e as fatias tiveram suas massas loculares removidas. O secador foi regulado nas primeiras três horas para 100ºC, seguido de 80ºC até completar a secagem do produto, o qual apresentou uma umidade residual em torno de 60%. A cv. Delícia produziu a maior perda de 39,8% durante o preparo das fatias frescas, sendo que as perdas para as demais cultivares variaram entre 32,7 a 34,3%. Os rendimentos dos tomates inteiros em produtos prontos foram iguais a: cv. Débora Plus 9,1%; cv. Santa Cruz 8,9%; cv. Delícia 8,6%; e cv. Italiano 8,3%. O maior tempo de secagem de 9 horas e 25 minutos foi para a cv. Delícia; as demais apresentaram um mínimo de 8 horas e 10 minutos (Italiano e um máximo de 8 horas e 35 minutos (Santa Cruz. Os tomates secos das cultivares Italiano e Débora Plus apresentaram-se levemente adocicados; o da cv. Santa Cruz foi ainda menos; e, esta característica foi de difícil percepção para o da cv. Delícia, que também teve uma mastigação não suave e mais prolongada. Apesar da diferença, os produtos tomates secos obtidos a partir dessas cultivares não diferiram significativamente quanto ao paladar quando degustados por provadores não treinados.Consumption of dried tomatoes has been increasing, mainly as an ingredient of pizzas and lasagnas, and also as an appetizer. This study evaluated the production process of four commercial varieties (Italiano, Débora Plus, Santa Cruz, Delícia and the quality of the finished products, which had a moisture content of around 60%. The tomatoes were sliced into four longitudinal cuts in the stalk-apex direction and

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  17. Adaptability of soybean cultivars in different crop years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I O; Rezende, P M; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Zuffo, A M; Silva, K B; Gwinner, R

    2015-08-07

    Soybean is one of the main sources of foreign exchange credits for Brazil in the agricultural sector. There is increasing interest in growing this leguminous crop, especially in the southern region of Minas Gerais, due to its importance as an alternative for crop rotation with maize. In this respect, the study of the adaptability of new cultivars to the region is indispensable so as to obtain high yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 soybean cultivars for growing in the summer season in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crop years. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications and the treatments consisted of 38 cultivars. At the time of harvest, the following assessments were made: grain yield (kg/ha), height of the lowest pod (cm), plant height (cm), and lodging. The data were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance. The phenotypic mean values were clustered, adopting the Scott and Knott test. For simultaneous selection of multiple traits, the sum of rank index of Mulamba and Mock was adopted. The cultivar TMG 801 RR had the best yield performance; the cultivars Monsoy 8001, MGBR-46 (Conquista), and BRSMG 68 (Vencedora) also stood out. Considering simultaneous selection for grain yield, plant height, height of the lowest pod, and lodging, the cultivar TMG 801 RR is recommended for growing in the summer season in the southern region of Minas Gerais.

  18. Adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars using a mixed model

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    Andréa Ferreira Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although strawberry crops have a strong socio-economic impact on the agricultural sector of Espírito Santo State, there are few studies on the performance of strawberry cultivars in different locations and years under a low tunnel management system (LT. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the parameters of adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars under LT-protected cultivation using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetically predicted values. Seven strawberry cultivars were assessed (‘Dover’, ‘Camino Real’, ‘Ventana’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Seascape’, ‘Diamante’ and ‘Aromas’ in the agricultural years 2006/7, 2007/8 and 2008/9 in three locations in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with 3 replications and 15 plants per plot. The analysis of deviance for the yield (ton. ha-1 demonstrated that only the effects of genotype and the triple interaction genotype x location x year were significant, which indicates the presence of genetic variability among the cultivars and the inconsistency of the position among the genotypes for combinations of year and location. Considering the selection for yield, adaptability and stability, in LT-protected cultivation, cultivars Camarosa and Aromas are highlighted for expressing average values that were 22% higher than the overall mean of the cultivars (24.55 ton. há-1 in the environments assessed.

  19. SSR Analysis of Genetic Diversity Among 192 Diploid Potato Cultivars

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    Xiaoyan Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In potato breeding, it is difficult to improve the traits of interest at the tetraploid level due to the tetrasomic inheritance. A promising alternative is diploid breeding. Thus it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity of diploid potato germplasm for efficient exploration and deployment of desirable traits. In this study, we used SSR markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of diploid potato cultivars. To screen polymorphic SSR markers, 55 pairs of SSR primers were employed to amplify 39 cultivars with relatively distant genetic relationships. Among them, 12 SSR markers with high polymorphism located at 12 chromosomes were chosen to evaluate the genetic diversity of 192 diploid potato cultivars. The primers produced 6 to 18 bands with an average of 8.2 bands per primer. In total, 98 bands were amplified from 192 cultivars, and 97 of them were polymorphic. Cluster analysis using UPGMA showed the genetic relationships of all accessions tested: 186 of the 192 accessions could be distinguished by only 12 pairs of SSR primers, and the 192 diploid cultivars were divided into 11 groups, and 83.3% constituted the first group. Clustering results showed relatively low genetic diversity among 192 diploid cultivars, with closer relationship at the molecular level. The results can provide molecular basis for diploid potato breeding.

  20. Growth Responses of Wheat Cultivars to Rock Phosphate in Hydroponics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ASHRAF; RAHMATULLAH; M.A.MAQSOOD; S.KANWAL; M.A.TAHIR; L.ALI

    2009-01-01

    Screening cultivars to grow under conditions of low phosphorus (P) availability and utilize P efficiently from compounds of low solubility in soils may be beneficial to overcome poor plant growth in P-deficient soils.The growth behavior and P utilization efficiency of seven wheat cultivars grown in hydroponics were studied,using rock phosphate as P source.The wheat cultivars grown for 30 days were significantly different in biomass accumulation,P uptake and P utilization efficiency.The dry matter production of all the cultivars was significantly correlated with P uptake,which in turn correlated to the drop in the root medium pH.The ranking of wheat cultivars on the basis of dry matter yield,P uptake and P utilization efficiency was Zamindar 80 > Yccora > C 271 > WL 711 > Barani 83 > PARI 73 > Rohtas.The cultivar Zamindar 80 appeared to possess the best growth potential in P-deficient soils.

  1. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

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    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  2. Avaliação de herbicidas para dois cultivares de mandioca Selectivity of herbicide alternatives for two cassava cultivars

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    D.F Biffe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É importante avaliar a tolerância de variedade de mandioca a novas alternativas de controle químico, com o intuito de ampliar as opções disponíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência, para duas importantes variedades de mandioca cultivadas no Estado do Paraná. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g i.a. ha-1 avaliadas foram: diuron (400 e 800, metribuzin (360 e 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1.920 e as misturas ametryn + clomazone (1.350+1.900, ametryn+trifluralin (1.500+1.350, isoxaflutole+metribuzin (60+320, isoxaflutole+diuron (60+400, combinados com uso de uma testemunha dupla adjacente a cada tratamento. Os cultivares utilizados neste trabalho foram Fécula Branca e Fibra. Apenas o herbicida S-metolachlor, para ambos os cultivares, e metribuzin (360 g i.a. ha-1, para o cultivar Fibra, não provocaram injúrias. Atrazine provocou redução de estande para o cultivar Fécula Branca aos 60 DAP, mas não foi detectada redução na altura de plantas. Tanto atrazine (para os dois cultivares quanto diuron na dose de 800 g i.a. ha-1 (para o cultivar Fécula Branca afetaram a produtividade de raízes. Dessa forma, atrazine foi considerado não seletivo para ambos os cultivares, e a maior dose de diuron foi também considerada não seletiva para o cultivar Fécula Branca. Há diferenças de tolerância entre os cultivares, sendo o Fibra, de modo geral, mais tolerante aos herbicidas avaliados.It is important to evaluate the tolerance of cassava varieties under new weed chemical control alternatives. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides, applied at pre-emergence, for two important cassava varieties grown in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The herbicides and respective doses (g a.i. ha-1 were: diuron (400 and 800, metribuzin (360 and 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1,920 and mixtures ametryn+clomazone (1

  3. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

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    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  4. Novo cultivar de mamona: IAC-226(Tarabay New castor bean cultivar IAC-226 (Tarabay

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    Angelo Savy Filho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um novo cultivar de mamona (Ricinus communis 1., IAC-226 (Tarabay originado de linhagem pura, obtida do cruzamento controlado entre o 'Pindorama' e o 'Campinas': trata-se de germoplasma adaptado às condições climáticas normais de cultura no Estado de São Paulo, material de porte alto (250-350cm, diâmetro de copa de 215cm e ciclo vegetativo médio (180 dias, a partir da emergência. A produção econômica é dada pelos racemos primários, secundários, terciários e quaternários, com 19, 30, 23 e 28% da produção total respectivamente, elevado potencial produtivo (2.681kg/ha de sementes e 1.233kg/ha de óleo, e frutos indeiscentes.The characteristics of a new castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivar, named IAC-226 (Tarabay, obtained by hybridization between 'Pindorama' and 'Campinas', and selected by the pedigree method, are reported. The origin, characteristics of the plant and fruits such as seed weight and yield are described. Remarkable traits are: tall height indehiscent fruits, adaptation and outstanding yield ability with mean value of 2,681kg of seeds/ha and 1,233kg of oil/ha.

  5. Microrganismos associados a frutos de diferentes cultivares de noz Pecan Microorganisms associated with fruits of different cultivars of Pecan nut

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    Nádia Izumi Terabe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do comportamento natural da nogueira Pecan às principais doenças é de suma importância para o estabelecimento do planejamento da implantação da cultura. O controle fitossanitário e tratos culturais devem ser realizados de modo a não comprometerem a qualidade do produto final, as amêndoas. Foram avaliadas nozes produzidas na safra de 2005 e oriundas de Uraí-PR, pelas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker, para identificar e quantificar os microrganismos associados à amêndoas e cascas dos frutos, bem como observar diferenças entre organismos colonizadores das cultivares. Os frutos foram avaliados na pós-colheita, aos trinta dias de armazenamento em ambiente, através da metodologia do papel de filtro, sendo submetidos ou não à assepsia superficial. O fungo Cladosporium caryigenum, promotor da rancificação das amêndoas foi observado, em amêndoas e cascas, nas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker; Fusarium sp., foi encontrado em porcentuais elevados, tanto em amêndoas quanto em cascas das três cultivares estudadas; Cephalothecium roseum, causador do mofo róseo em amêndoas, na cultivar Frotscher. Aspergillus sp. e Penicillium sp., causadores de emboloramento e produtores de aflotoxinas foram observados em porcentuais representativos, em amêndoas da cultivar Frotscher e em amêndoas e cascas das cultivares Frotscher, Burkett e Moneymaker, respectivamente. Os maiores porcentuais de perda do rendimento foram observados na cultivar Burkett, por causa da incidência de Colletotrichum sp., causador da antracnose em amêndoas, que acarreta escurecimento e deterioração do produto final, levando-o ao descarte.The knowledgement of the natural behavior of the main diseases of Pecan nut is of utmost importance for the stablishment of an implantation plan for that culture. The phytosanitary control and cultural treatments should be performed in order not to change the quality of the final product. Nuts harvest

  6. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  7. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  8. Interferência de Raphanus sativus na produtividade de cultivares de soja Interference of Raphanus sativus in soybean cultivars' yield

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    M.A Bianchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A forte dependência de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas em soja tem como consequência a seleção de espécies daninhas tolerantes e resistentes. O manejo integrado considera, além do uso de herbicidas, técnicas como a habilidade competitiva do cultivar para controlar plantas daninhas. Com os objetivos de avaliar a resposta de cultivares à competição com nabo (Raphanus sativus e identificar aqueles portadores de habilidade competitiva superior, foi conduzido experimento em campo, em Cruz Alta-RS, na safra 2000/01. Testaram-se duas condições de competição (ausência ou presença de nabo forrageiro durante a fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo da soja, combinadas com 11 cultivares da cultura. O efeito da competição com nabo é variável entre os cultivares, caracterizando variabilidade genética que permite selecionar genótipos portadores de habilidade competitiva superior. A competição com nabo reduz a estatura de planta, o comprimento médio dos ramos e a produtividade de grãos de soja. Entre os genótipos de soja utilizados, o cultivar MSoy 6101 destaca-se quanto à habilidade competitiva pela maior produtividade potencial de grãos na ausência de competição e pela capacidade de mantê-la diante da competição com nabo.The strong dependence on herbicides for weed control in soybean has led to the selection of tolerant and/or resistant weed plants. Besides the use of herbicides, integrated management includes techniques such as cultivar competitive ability to control weed plants. This work aimed to evaluate cultivar response to competition with forage turnip (Raphanus sativus and to identify carriers of superior competitive ability. The experiment was carried out under field conditions in Cruz Alta-RS, during the 2000/01 season. Two competition conditions (absence and presence of forage turnip during the soybean vegetative growth stage were tested in combination with 11 soybean cultivars. The effect of forage

  9. Consistência do padrão de agrupamento de cultivares de milho Clustering pattern consistency of corn cultivars

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    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a consistência do padrão de agrupamento obtido a partir da combinação de duas medidas de dissimilaridade e quatro métodos de agrupamento, em cenários formados por combinações de número de cultivares e número de variáveis, com dados reais de cultivares de milho (Zea mays L. e com dados simulados. Foram usados os dados reais de cinco variáveis mensuradas em 69 experimentos de competição de cultivares de milho, cujo número de cultivares avaliadas oscilou entre 9 e 40. A fim de investigar os resultados com maior número de cultivares e de variáveis, foram simulados, sob distribuição normal padrão, 1.000 experimentos para cada um dos 54 cenários formados pela combinação entre o número de cultivares (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 e 100 e o número de variáveis (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 e 10. Foram realizadas análises de correlação, de diagnóstico de multicolinearidade e de agrupamento. A consistência do padrão de agrupamento foi avaliada por meio do coeficiente de correlação cofenética. Há decréscimo da consistência do padrão de agrupamento com o acréscimo do número de cultivares e de variáveis. A distância euclidiana proporciona maior consistência no padrão de agrupamento em relação à distância de Manhattan. A consistência do padrão de agrupamento entre os métodos aumenta na seguinte ordem: Ward, ligação completa, ligação simples e ligação média entre grupo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the clustering pattern consistency obtained from the combination of the two dissimilarity measures and four clustering methods, in scenarios consist of combinations number of cultivars and number of variables, with real data in corn cultivars (Zea mays L. and simulated data. We used real data from five variables measured in 69 trials involving corn cultivars, the number of cultivars ranged between 9 and 40. In order to investigate the results with more cultivars and

  10. Hyperoside and anthocyanin content of ten different pomegranate cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, M; Moghaddam, G; Oveisi, M R; Sadeghi, N; Jannat, B; Rostami, M; Saadat, M A; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2013-07-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is native to the Mediterranean region and has been used extensively as a medicine in many counties. Hyperoside is known as an important flavonoid with antioxidant activity and anti hypertension effect. Anthocyanins are the active component in several herbal medicines, thus accurate measurement of hyperoside and anthocyanins, along with their degradation indices, is very useful to food technologists and horticulturists. The aim of the current study was to determine the antioxidant capacity as hyperoside and anthocyanin content of ten different Iranian pomegranate cultivars. Spectroscopic analyses of the pomegranate showed Black peel cultivar had the highest hyperoside content (25.93 +/- 2.87, 620.41 +/- 30.32 mg/100 g) in its pulp and peel, respectively. Based on this study, the amounts of anthocyanin in pulp ranged between 1.56 +/- 0.05 and 3.89 +/- 0.07 mg g(-1) which related to Sweet white peel and Sweet alac cultivars, respectively. More over the highest and also the lowest peel anthocyanin contents related to these cultivars. The results revealed that the hyperoside and also anthocyanin peel content of each variety is higher than its pulp content. In addition the potency of black peel (Medicinal pomegranate) and Sweet alac cultivars for prevention of coronary heart disease and hypertension were presented.

  11. Analysis of pecan cultivars Mahan and Western in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Wan, X

    2016-09-16

    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) has been introduced to East China for over one hundred years, but its planting is still only occurring at a small scale. The key limiting factor is its low yield. To enhance the yield pecan in East China, two pecan cultivars, Mahan and Western, were examined. Twenty traits describing phasic development, yield, nut quality, and cultural practice were investigated. We found that pecan cultivar Mahan gives a higher yield and nut quality than cultivar Western. We recommend interplanting of cultivar Pawnee to act as a pollinator tree. Appropriate cultivation practices that can be implemented to enhance fruit yield of cultivars Mahan and Western include soil-applied paclobutrazol (PBZ) at certain concentrations, pinching, and supplementary pollination. For example, the addition of 1.25 g/m(2) of PBZ inhibits pecan branch growth and stimulates short bearing branches, which promotes fruit yield. We found that soil-applied PBZ reached optimal performance 82 days after application. A pinching length of 40 cm resulted in a fruit yield increase. In addition, grafting and transplantation may promote male flowering, but delays female flowering. These cultural practices may provide insights that can be used to improve pecan cultivation in East China.

  12. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics.

  13. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Plum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Voća

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidants capacity of three plum cultivars, namely ‘Top’, ‘Elena’ and ‘Bistrica’. Fruits were harvested and following parameters were determined: dry matter, total acids (TA, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, vitamin C, total phenols, nonflavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Differences between cultivars for most of the chemical parameters were observed. The cultivar ‘Bistrica’ showed higher values of dry matter, TSS, vitamin C and pH value, while ‘Top’ had higher total acids value and lowest TSS, dry matter, vitamin C and pH. Total phenolics content varied from 157.70 mg in ‘Elena’ to 344.10 mg in ‘Bistrica’, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE, on fresh weight basis. ‘Top’ contains the highest amount of non-flavonoids among cultivars studied. Therefore, ‘Bistrica’ and ‘Top’ show the highest antioxidant capacity, as well. There were significant differences between total phenolics and non-flavonoids content between ‘Elena’ and other two cultivars, while antioxidant capacity showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits ranged from 3.10 mmol/kg in ‘Elena’ to 3.17 mmol/kg in ‘Top’ and ‘Bistrica’.

  14. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Some of Winter Canola Cultivars

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    J Rashidifar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate terminal drought tolerance in different Canola cultivars based on drought tolerance indices, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at experimental field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII, Karaj in 2008-09. Results using stress tolerance index (STI, geometric mean productivity (GMP and mean productivity (MP indices revealed Zarfam, Talaye and GKH305, were as cultivars with highest yield in both optimum irrigation and terminal drought conditions. High and positive correlation between STI, GMP and MP indices with yield in optimum and drought conditions indicated that they were as the best indices for introduction and characterization of drought tolerant canola cultivars. Biplot graph showed that MP, GMP and STI indices had high correlation coefficient with each other, and tolerant genotypes were located near tolerance indices. Also results of three dimensional scatter plot indicated that cultivars Zarfam, GKH 305 and Tassilo were recognized as tolerant genotypes to drought stress, and cultivars ES Astrid, GK Helena, Modena and Okapi were identified as sensitive genotypes.

  15. Response mechanisms of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars to water deficit stress

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    Patricia Menezes Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf. (Syn. Urochloa were evaluated for their adaptation to water deficit and the stress response mechanisms in a greenhouse experiment. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with a 2 × 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. The Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars were evaluated under two water availability conditions, with or without water restriction. The harvests were carried out 0, 7, 14 and 28 days after the start of water restriction. For both cultivars, the water deficit stress caused a reduction in shoot biomass and leaf area and an increase in the percentage of roots in the deeper soil layers. The B. brizantha cv. Marandu reached critical levels of leaf water potential in a shorter period of water restriction than did the B. brizantha cv. BRS Piatã. The osmoregulation and deepening of the root system are mechanisms of adaptation to water stress observed in both Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars. Besides that, the Marandu cultivar also increases its leaf senescence and, consequentially, decreases its leaf area, as a response to water deficit.

  16. Morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars of East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FITRI HANDAYANI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Handayani F, Sumarmiyati, Ahmadi NR. 2016. Morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars of East Kalimantan. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 88-93. High diversity of local rice is very important in rice breeding program as a gene pool for valuable traits such as resistance to specific disease and tolerance against environmental stresses (Al, Fe, acidity, etc. East Kalimantan is a province which has so many local rice cultivars either lowland, upland or tidal swamp rice. Unfortunately, there is still limited scientific information about local rice genetic diversity in East Kalimantan, whereas it is an important basic information for rice breeding program. The aim of this research was to study the morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars from some regions in East Kalimantan. The research was conducted at Lempake trial field, Samarinda in April-September 2016. The result showed that the cultivars had variability in morphological characters. Plant profile was medium to high while some tillers were little and very little. The color of lemma and palea was yellowish straw in 17 cultivars while the rest had brown lines in yellowish straw background. Seed length ranged between 7.3-9.6 mm, while seed width ranged between 1.9-3.3 mm, and seed thickness ranged between 1.5-2.1 mm. The shape of the rice grain varied between medium grain (length: width = 2.1-3.0 or long grain (length: width > 3.0.

  17. Desempenho agronômico de quatro cultivares de almeirão Agronomic performance of four chicory cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura são escassas as informações sobre as principais cultivares de almeirão (Cichorium intybus cultivadas no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de almeirão na região de Campinas-SP. As cultivares avaliadas foram Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga e Pão-de-Açúcar, em experimento realizado em canteiros no Centro Experimental Central do Instituto Agronômico, de dezembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 com mudas transplantadas. O delineamento experimental no campo foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Aos 50 dias após o transplante foram avaliadas cinco plantas de cada parcela quanto à altura, número de folhas, massa fresca e seca, e em duas dessas plantas avaliou-se a área foliar. Foi avaliado, também, o sabor, com e sem tempero, por seis provadores. As cultivares apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação à altura das plantas, área foliar e sabor. 'Pão-de-Açúcar' apresentou em magnitude maior rendimento agronômico (516,0 g planta-1, seguida pela 'Folha Amarela' (432,7 g planta-1. Esta constitui-se em uma alternativa para o mercado, uma vez que apresenta desempenho semelhante ao das principais cultivares de almeirão comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo.In the literature there is little information about the main chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus grown in Brazil. The present paper aims to evaluate the agronomic performance of the chicory cultivars in the region of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga and Pão-de-Açúcar cultivars were evaluated, in an experiment carried out in field conditions in the Experimental Center of the Instituto Agronômico, from December 2009 to January 2010. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 replications. At 50 days after transplanting five plants of each plot were evaluated for the height, leaf number, fresh and dry weight and two of these plants

  18. Annual variation in sensory characteristics of seventeen apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Seppä

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory characteristics of 17 apple cultivars commonly grown in Finland were compared over three harvest years (2009–2011. Descriptive analysis with a trained panel (n = 11–14 comprised 17 attributes rated from 0 (‘not at all’ to 10 (‘very’: four appearance (green, red, area of red colour, skin waxiness, three odour (intense, grassy, fruity, five  texture (hard, crispy, mealy, juicy, tough peel, and five flavour (intense, sour, sweet, astringent, diverse attributes. Ratedintensities differed between the harvest years but their magnitude and direction of change varied according to the cultivar. Odour and flavour ratings tended to be higher in 2009 than in 2010 and 2011. The summer 2009 was fairly normal, while summer 2010 was hot and dry, and summer 2011  hot and humid. These climate may explain some of the differences between the first and the two subsequent years. Late season cultivars tended to be relatively stable against annual effects.

  19. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  20. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  1. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiros C. Arabica L. enxertados sobre cultivar 'Apoatã IAC 2258' (Coffea canephora Performance of C. Arabica L. Coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cultivar (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fonseca de Paiva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho avaliar a influência da enxertia e do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' no comportamento agronômico de sete cultivares de cafeeiro da espécie Coffea arabica cultivadas em solo isento de fitonematoides. O ensaio foi conduzido em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 x 3 com quatro repetições, sendo sete cultivares de Coffea arabica ('Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' e três tipos de enxertia (muda enxertada, auto enxertada e pé franco. Foi avaliada a produtividade média de quatro anos, uniformidade de maturação, percentagem de frutos chochos e classificação do grão por tipo de peneira. As cultivares enxertadas estudadas apresentaram comportamento agronômico satisfatório em todas as características avaliadas e semelhante ao pé-franco. Em áreas isentas de fitonematoides, à exceção das cultivares 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1', as demais cultivares estudadas são adequadas opções de escolha para uso como copas. A técnica da enxertia com o uso do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' em área isenta de fitonematoides não se justifica para incremento de produtividade.This research had the objective to evaluate the effect of grafting and 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cv. as rootstock on agronomic performance of seven Coffea arabica cvs. planted in area nematodes free. The experimental design was randomized blocks using a 7x3 factorial scheme with four repetitions. The treatments were 'Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' and 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258', self grafted (meaning a cultivar was grafted on a rootstock of the same cultivar and no grafting. The characteristic evaluated was the average yield of beans between the first and the fourth year, the fruit maturation stage

  2. Six cultivars of Solanum macrocarpon (Solanaceae in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The  Solanum macrocarpon complex (the cultivated egg plant has been studied in Ghana using morphological and experimental methods. Six cultivars belonging to the S.  macrocarpon complex have been recognized and described. The cultivars are  S. macrocarpon ‘Gboma’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Mankessim’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Akwaseho’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Kade’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Sarpeiman’ and  S. macrocarpon ‘Bui’. The very spiny, hairy plant traditionally called S. dasyphyllum is regarded as the wild ancestor from which the cultivars have been derived through a process of crop evolution. The variation within S. macrocarpon complex is attributable to genotypic differences and environmental factors.

  3. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  4. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic mango cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa del Carmen Martínez Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of polyembryony in the mango cultivars Manila and Ataulfo, and to determine whether seedlings cultured in vitro are zygotic or nucelar. Percentage of polyembryony was calculated and the number of embryos in 100 seeds of each cultivar was recorded. 'Manila' exhibited 97% polyembryony with 3.4 embryos per seed, while 'Ataulfo' had 95% polyembryony with 3.2 embryos per seed. Later, 20 seeds of each cultivar were established in vitro, and it was analyzed those in which all embryos germinated (12 seeds from 'Manila' and 7 from 'Ataulfo'. DNA was extracted from seedling leaf tissue, and its origin was identified with 14 RAPD primers. The polymorphic markers recognized the seedlings of sexual origin in seven of nine 'Manila' polyembryonic seeds, and in four of seven 'Ataulfo' ones. Also, in polyembryonic seeds not all zygotic seedlings were produced by small embryos located at the micropyle.

  5. Processing potential of jellies from subtropical loquat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira CURI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To increase the availability to consumers and add more value to loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., which is a very perishable and seasonal fruit, and in order to identify which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for jelly processing, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different loquat cultivars (Fukuhara, Kurisaki, Mizumo, Mizuho and Mizauto grown in subtropical regions of Brazil on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting jelly. Based on sensory acceptance the most suitable loquat cultivars for jelly processing are Kurisaki and Mizuho. In this study it was found that the consumer prefers a more acidic, less sweet, less firm or softer loquat jelly, clearer with a more intense red color.

  6. Drought responses in six hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cultivars

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    Ali Shahi-Gharahlar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major causes of reduction of crop yields worldwide, a problem that will increase in the next decades due to climate change. We describe here an initial attempt to define biochemical markers associated to water stress in several hazelnut cultivars, by measuring the levels of common osmolytes and the generation of secondary oxidative stress, in plants subjected to water stress, and after recovery from the stress treatment. Proline appears to be a reliable marker in this species, as its accumulation in leaves correlates well with the degree of stress affecting the plants. Differences between cultivars in relative Pro accumulation and oxidative stress suggested that some cultivars are more tolerant than others and could be selected for cultivation in drought-affected areas

  7. Identificação de cultivares de trigo pelo teste de fenol Cultivars identification of wheat by phenol test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lemos de Menezes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de fenol é recomendado para a identificação de cultivares de trigo em laboratório e se baseia na reação de compostos presentes no pericarpo das sementes. Devido à reação constante para cada cultivar, o teste serve para caracterização rápida e fácil de materiais com reações diferentes. No presente trabalho, com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação varietal em trigo, determinou-se a reação ao fenol de 42 cultivares, que estiveram ou estão em recomendação no Brasil.The phenol test is recommended for wheat cultivar identification and is based on the reaction of compounds present in the seeds pericarp. Due to the constant reaction for each cultivar, the test may be used for a rapid and easy characterization of different reactions materiais. In this essay, the phenol reaction was determined in 42 brazilian wheat varieties aiming to facilitate its identification.

  8. Bagasse production potential from late sugar cane cultivars; Potencial produtivo de bagaco por cultivares tardios de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz C.; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify energy sources, the residue of sugarcane gathers attributes that qualify its use. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the potential of bagasse production in late cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, it was counted the number of stems in a row linear meter, it was obtained the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by a calculation of estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the number of people who would benefit from the energy generated from the combustion of bagasse in a process of cogeneration power. The results were submitted to analysis of variance by F test and averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Cultivars RB867515, RB72454 and CTC6 showed the best performance, indicating its greater potential for power cogeneration. Cultivars CTC IAC94-2 and 2101 were lower when considering the results obtained. (author)

  9. Common bean cultivars and lines interactions with environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bean lines brought forth in breeding programs or of cultivars in use can be affected by environmental variability. The adaptability and stability of grain yield of 18 common bean cultivars and lines in 23 environments (combinations of seasons, years and locations were evaluated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. 'IAC-Carioca' and 'IAC-Carioca Eté' were used as standard cultivars for the carioca grain type, while 'FT-Nobre' and 'IAC-Una' represented the standard for black grains. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications and plots consisting of two, two central five meters rows flanked by border rows. Stability parameters were estimated by the methods Maximum Yield Deviations (MYD and by the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis (AMMI. For the identification of the most stable cultivars, the two methods led to consistent results, although by MYD the highest stability was always associated to the highest yield. 'MAC-733327' and 'LP 9637' were the most suitable cultivars and lines for the joint seasons, while 'LP 9637' and 'FT-Nobre' were the most suitable for the dry season. The MYD method combined a simple procedure, easiness of result interpretation, uniqueness of parameters, and association between stability and yield. On the other hand, the AMMI method simplified the identification of stable cultivars by visual inspection, also providing information on the environments. However, the complex nature which combines uni-and multivariate techniques hampers its widespread use in breeding programs.

  10. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was conducted in the period of April to October of 2009, under protected cropping, in the experimental area of the horticulture sector of the Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC, in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. A randomized block design was adopted, in a split-plot arrangement, the plots being comprised of soil coverings: coffee bean husks, grass straw (Brachiaria decumbens; dessicated bamboo leaves (Bambusa spp. and uncovered soil (control treatment, and the subplots comprised of three onion cultivars (IPA 10, IPA 11 and IPA 12, with four repetitions. The variables analyzed were total bulb yield (t ha-1, marketable bulb yield (t ha-1, fresh mass of the bulb (g bulb-1, classification of the bulbs and loss of mass as a function of storage time. There was no interaction effect between the soil coverings and the cultivars. Cultivars IPA 10 and IPA 11 showed greater agronomic performance of the studied variables. The soil coverings did not affect the yield and average mass of the bulbs under organic cultivation. The three cultivars presented more than approximately 70% of the bulbs in class 2 and a maximum of 5% of unmarketable bulbs. The loss of mass after 49 days of storage was 10% independent of the cultivar or soil covering.

  11. The antioxidant activitives of mango peel among different cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ge; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Fei-Yue; Fu, Qiong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the contents of total phenol and total flavonoid of 8 mango cultivars were determined. Their antioxidant abilities were also evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pireyhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP as well as TEAC were also analyzed. Results showed that mango peels were rich in natural antioxidant compounds the antioxidant abilities were different among different cultivars. The correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP indicated phenolics represent a major part of antioxidant capacity in mango peels. This was also useful in the utilization of mango processing waste.

  12. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted;

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell...... proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars ‘BirgitteBöttermö’, ‘Fanal’ and ‘Tiki’ were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133mmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74...

  13. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...... was approximately 500 kg ha-1. In general, fibre yields increased when seed rates of 16 kg ha-1 or more were used. At 32 kg seed ha-1 Futura gave higher fibre yields than at all other seed rates, and higher yields at 24 cm row distance than at 48 cm. Fasamo differed from the other cultivars by having a lower dry...

  14. Biochemical and Physiological Changes of Three Watermelon Cultivars Infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp.niveum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ming; HAO Chi; GUO Chun-rong; ZHANG Zuo-gang; HE Yun-chun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic changes in membrane permeability, activities of disease-related enzymes, and contents of pathogenesis-relevant chemical compounds and photosynthetic pigments in root cells of three watermelon cultivars were studied after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum at seedling stage. The results showed that the capacity of self-regulating and returning to normal status of cultivar Kelunsheng (resistant) was greater than that of a susceptible cultivar, Zaohua, in terms of malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The resistant cultivar maintained a higher activity of dehydrogenase, higher content of vitamin C(Vc), and relatively lower content of soluble sugar than the susceptible cultivar. The content of soluble protein was higher in the resistant cultivar than that in the susceptible one at day 1 after inoculation. The capacities of the resistant cultivar to inhibit chlorophyll deterioration and maintain a higher carotenoid content were significantly stronger than those of the susceptible cultivar.

  15. Synonyms and homonyms of Malvasia cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) existing in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Torres, I.; Ibanez, J.; Andres, M. T. de; Rubio, C.; Borrego, J.; Cabello, F.; Zerolo, J.; Munoz Organero, G.

    2009-07-01

    Malvasia is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, iso enzymatic, and micro satellite analysis as well as a large bibliographic search of the studied cultivars. Despite their Malvasia denomination, some cultivars have been identified as synonyms of Macabeo, Alarije, Dona Blanca, Chasselas, or Planta Nova, all included on the official Spanish list of commercial grape cultivars. Malvasia de Sitges and Malvasia de Lanzarote have the characteristic flavour of Malvasia grapes and no synonyms were found among the cultivars grown in Spain, whereas Malvasia Rosada resulted from a colour mutation in Malvasia de Sitges. (Author) 26 refs.

  16. Stability of partial resistance in potato cultivars exposed to aggressive strains of Phytophthora infestans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Potato cultivars were evaluated for their resistance responses to aggressive strains of Phytophthora infestans in field and laboratory experiments. Analysis of variance revealed differential cultivar-by-isolate interactions for both foliar and tuber blight resistance. Differential responses occur as

  17. Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Hamid; Sabeera Muzzafar; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Flours of two local cowpea cultivars namely Red cowpea and Black cowpea were analysed for proximate composition, pasting and functional properties. The crude protein and fat contents were higher for Black cultivar than the Red cultivar. The apparent amylose content was significantly higher for Red cowpea (25.54%) than Black cowpea (15.09%). Polyphenols were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. The pasting profile of two cultivars revealed significantly higher values of peak ...

  18. Estimation of resistance pear cultivars to Erwinia amylovora using artificial immature pear fruits method

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilović, Veljko; Stanisavljević, Rade; Stošić, Stefan; Stevanović, Miloš; Aleksić, Goran; Stajić, Milica; Dolovac, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility of different pear cultivars to Erwinia amaylovora by artificial inoculated immature pear fruits are shown in this article. According obtained results significant differences among cultivars are confirmed and they could be divided in four groups. Most susceptibly cultivars were Santa Marija. Second group includes Williams, Morettini, Carmen, Hardenpont. As most resistant shown to be Magness, Turandot and two local varietyies Karamanka, as well as another unknown local cultivar. ...

  19. 大叶钩藤叶挥发油成分气相色谱-质谱联用分析%Analysis of volatile oil from the leaves of Uncaria macrophylla Wall.by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 黄林芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the chemical components of the volatile oil from the leaves of Uncaria macrophylla Wall.. Methods:The volatile oil was extracted by water -steam distillation and analyzed by GC -MS with capillary gas chromatographic column. The components were quantitatively determined with normalization method and identified by GC -MS.Results:Totally 127 chromatographic peaks were detected,among which 85 compounds have been identified,accounting for 96.47% of the total volatile oil. The main components of volatile oil include ester (23.57%), ketene (15.11% ) ,alkane(14. 62% ) ,enol(7. 66% ),aldehydes,ketones,alcohol,and other substances. Among of them,the compounds with highest concentrations were 2 -methyl -1 - (1,1 -dimethylethyl) -2 -methyl -1,3 - propanediylpropano-ate(10.17% )and hentriacontane(10.17% ) ,the larger composition were 4 - (2,6,6 - trimethyl - 1 - cyclohexen - 1 -yl) -3 -buten -2 -one(7.9%) ,phytol(5. 8% ) ,(E) -2 -hexenoic acid butyl ester,(4.76% ) ,hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester(3.76%) ,4 - (2,6,6 -trimethyl - 2 - cyclohexen -1 -yl) -3 -buten -2 -one(3.54% ) ,3,5,11,15 -tetram-ethyl -1 - hexadecen -3 - ol(3.11%) ,etc.. Conclusion:The established GC - MS analysis method can comprehensively reflect the volatile oil from the leaves of U. macrophylla, and provides experimental basis for further exploitation.%目的:分析大叶钩藤叶挥发油成分.方法:采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取大叶钩藤叶的挥发油,经气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)仪分析,归一化法测得各组分的相对含量.结果:检出127个色谱峰,鉴定了大叶钩藤叶挥发油化合物中的85个成分,约占相对总含量的96.47%.大叶钩藤叶挥发油主要成份及其相对含量为酯(23.57%)、烯酮类(15.11%)、烷烃类(14.62%)、烯醇类(7.66%)醛、醇、酮等物质,其中含量最高的是2-甲基-1-(1,1-二甲基乙基)-2-甲基-1,3-丙二基丙酸酯(10.17%)、三十一烷(10.17%);含量较高的有4-(2,6,6-三甲基-1-

  20. The effects of sooty mold on photosynthesis and mesophyll structure of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King., Meliaceae Efeitos da fumagina sobre a fotossíntese e a estrutura do mesofilo de mogno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pires de Lemos Filho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of the sooty mold on anatomy and photochemical activity of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla leaves. The photochemical features of shade-developed leaves with or without sooty mold were compared to those of sun leaves using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Leaf anatomy was also evaluated using conventional techniques. The degree of blockage of the photosynthetic active photon flux density (PPFD by sooty mold and its effect on photochemistry were evaluated. Sun leaves showed thick mesophyll with palisade parenchyma disposed in a uniseriate layer, whereas shade leaves showed narrow mesophyll, independently of sooty mold presence. The effective quantum yield (deltaF/Fm' and the apparent electron transport rate (ETR of sun leaves were higher than those of shade leaves. The values of ETR suggested that photochemistry saturation occurred at lower PPFD in shade-grown plants. Lower values of the deltaF/Fm' and, consequently, lower values of ETR were observed in leaves with sooty mold. A reduction of 40% of the incident light was seen due to physical blockage by sooty mold which is presumably responsible for an additional decrease of ETR values. Our data indicated that sooty mold did not directly damage the leaf, but reduce leaf photochemistry capacity, by decreasing light availability.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da fumagina na anatomia e a atividade fotoquímica em folhas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King., Meliaceae. Folhas com e sem fumagina desenvolvidas na sombra foram comparadas com as de folhas de sol, para verificar as diferenças em parâmetros fotoquímicos utilizando-se medidas de fluorescência. As amostras de folhas destinadas a estudos anatômicos foram processadas segundo técnicas convencionais. A intensidade de bloqueio da radiação densidade de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos (DFFA pela fumagina e seu efeito sobre a atividade fotoquímica foram

  1. Growth and Spread of Blueberry Cultivars in a 15 Year-Old Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry cultivars with reduced plant height and non-spreading, upright growth habit would be useful for reducing pruning requirements and improving ease of hand and machine harvest. Twenty-one rabbiteye cultivars and six southern highbush cultivars and selections were planted on March 6,1985 in s...

  2. Evaluation of maize cultivars for their susceptibility towards mycotoxigenic fungi under storage conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dawlal, P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available was carried out where each maize cultivar was serially inoculated with each of the fungi. Results showed that four maize cultivars had a slower rate of infestation towards the field fungi while three cultivars had a slower rate of infestation towards...

  3. Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal

  4. Resistance of squash cultivars to Aphis gossypii Resistência de cultivares de abobrinha italiana a Aphis gossypii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson LL Baldin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae plants are damaged by attack of a wide spectrum of insects and microorganisms. Among the sucker insects causing damages on squash Cucurbita pepo (L., the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae is pointed as one of the most important, once their nymphs and adults suck the sap of the leaves continuously, besides being potential vector of virus. The present research evaluated different cultivars, aiming to identify the resistance against this aphid. The cultivars Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 and Caserta TS were used in laboratory assays (T= 25±2ºC; RH= 70±10% and fotophase= 12 h. In the immature phase the duration of nymphal instars was evaluated, the total duration and their viability, confining individuals on leaf disks from cultivars. In the adult phase the duration of reproductive period, the fecundity and the biological cycle were observed. The cultivar 'Sandy' expressed high level of antibiosis and feeding non-preference against A. gossypii, increasing the nymphal stage and causing mortality near to 70%. Besides, this cultivar reduced the production of nymphs and the longevity of the insects. The 'Novita Plus' cultivar also induced significant nymphal mortality, however in lower levels than those verified in 'Sandy', indicating a moderate resistance.As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são prejudicadas pelo ataque de um amplo espectro de insetos e microrganismos. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abobrinha Cucurbita pepo (L., o pulgão Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae merece destaque, uma vez que suas ninfas e adultos sugam a seiva das folhas constantemente, além de ser potencial vetor de vírus. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar diferetes cultivares de abobrinha italiana quanto à resistência a esse pulgão. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 e Caserta TS em ensaios

  5. Características do cultivar iarana de coffea arabica The iarana cultivar of coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas mecânicas de sementes de cafeeiros selecionados portadores de alelos individuais SH1, SH2 , SH3 , SH4 responsáveis pela resistência de Coffea arabica a grupos de raças fisiológicas de Hemileia vastatrix foram distribuídas aos lavradores com as denominações de cultivar iarana-C 73 e iarana-C 74. As sementes foram misturadas nas proporções, em peso, de 2:12:3:1 e 2:8:2:1, para os genotipos SH1SH1, SH2SH2 , SH3,SH3, e SH4SH4 , para os anos de 1973 e 1974, respectivamente. Todos os cafeeiros devem ser portadores dos alelos SH5SH5. A mistura foi distribuida em 1973, a 987 lavradores e, em 1974, a 463 lavradores de todas as regiões cafeeiras do Brasil. O iarana deverá ser plantado isoladamente do resto do cafezal em cada propriedade, para observação e seleção das plantas mais adaptadas para produção de sementes. As hibridações naturais que ocorrem entre plantas de diferentes genotipos darão origem a novas combinações genéticas portadoras de vários dos fatores genéticos, com espectro mais amplo de resistência às raças fisiológicas de H. vastatrix.Mechanical mixtures of seeds of selected plants of Coffea arabica carrying the dominant alleles SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4 conditioning resistance to different races of Hemileia vastatrix were released to the growers as Iarana C 73 and Iarana C 74 cultivars. The seeds were mixed in the proportion of 2:12:3:1 and 2:8:2:1 for the genotypes SH1SH1, SH2SH2, SH2SH3 and SH4SH4 for 1973 and 1974 crops, respectively. The mixed seeds were distributed to 987 farmers in 1973 and 463 coffee farmers in 1974 from most of the coffee regions in Brazil. Iarana is to be planted in isolated plots for observation and selection of the more adapted plants for seed production. Natural hybridization between plants of different genotypes will give rise to new combinations with broader spectrum of resistance to physiological races of H. vastratrix.

  6. A Multiplexed Microsatellite Fingerprinting Set for Hazelnut Cultivar Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a robust and cost-effective fingerprinting set for hazelnuts using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Twenty SSRs containing repeat motifs of = three nucleotides distributed throughout the hazelnut genome were screened on eight genetically diverse cultivars to a...

  7. Rooting of stem segments from fig tree cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane Barcelos Bisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Brazil is the largest fig (Ficus carica L. producer in the Southern Hemisphere, it mainly uses only one cultivar, ‘Roxo de Valinhos’. In addition, propagation is almost entirely through hardwood cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a propagation method that provides more successful rooting of stem segments of fig cultivars for the purpose of expanding the genetic base of the fig tree. The cultivars used were ‘Brunswick’, ‘Calabacita’, ‘Negro de Bursa’, ‘Mini Figo’, ‘Lampa Preta’, ‘Lemon’, ‘Troiano’,’ Nazaré’, ‘Três num Prato’, ‘Princesa’, ‘Colo de Dama’, ‘Montes’, ‘Bêbera Branca’, ‘Pingo de Mel’, and ‘Roxo de Valinhos’. The propagation methods used were layering, hardwood cuttings, nodal segments, herbaceous cuttings originating from the removal of sprouts, and herbaceous cuttings obtained during growth. We found that the propagation method influences the rooting of stem segments, and cultivars differ in their rooting potential.

  8. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    .... In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites...

  9. Predicting Development of an Epidemics on Cultivar Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model for the development of an epidemic on a plant cultivar mixture illustrates the influence of the infection efficiency, spore production rate, proportion of deposited spores, frequency of autodeposition, and composition of the mixture on the genetic composition of the pathogen...

  10. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed b

  11. Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

  12. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  13. Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Mondragon, M. G.; Calderon de la Barca, A. M.; Duran-Prado, A.; Campos-Reyes, L. C.; Oliart-Ros, R. M.; Ortega-Garcia, J.; Medina-Juarez, L. A.; Angulo, O.

    2009-07-01

    Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Diaz, NC-2 and Florunner) were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash), amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Diaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha). Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm. The main sterol present was A- sitosterol (approx. 65%). Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications. (Author) 40 refs.

  14. Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

    1979-12-01

    Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

  15. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  16. Susceptibility of highbush blueberry cultivars to Phytophthora root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  17. Quality Parameters of Six Cultivars of Blueberry Using Computer Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matiacevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blueberries are considered an important source of health benefits. This work studied six blueberry cultivars: “Duke,” “Brigitta”, “Elliott”, “Centurion”, “Star,” and “Jewel”, measuring quality parameters such as °Brix, pH, moisture content using standard techniques and shape, color, and fungal presence obtained by computer vision. The storage conditions were time (0–21 days, temperature (4 and 15°C, and relative humidity (75 and 90%. Results. Significant differences (P<0.05 were detected between fresh cultivars in pH, °Brix, shape, and color. However, the main parameters which changed depending on storage conditions, increasing at higher temperature, were color (from blue to red and fungal presence (from 0 to 15%, both detected using computer vision, which is important to determine a shelf life of 14 days for all cultivars. Similar behavior during storage was obtained for all cultivars. Conclusion. Computer vision proved to be a reliable and simple method to objectively determine blueberry decay during storage that can be used as an alternative approach to currently used subjective measurements.

  18. Quality Parameters of Six Cultivars of Blueberry Using Computer Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiacevich, Silvia; Celis Cofré, Daniela; Silva, Patricia; Enrione, Javier; Osorio, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background. Blueberries are considered an important source of health benefits. This work studied six blueberry cultivars: "Duke," "Brigitta", "Elliott", "Centurion", "Star," and "Jewel", measuring quality parameters such as °Brix, pH, moisture content using standard techniques and shape, color, and fungal presence obtained by computer vision. The storage conditions were time (0-21 days), temperature (4 and 15°C), and relative humidity (75 and 90%). Results. Significant differences (P cultivars in pH, °Brix, shape, and color. However, the main parameters which changed depending on storage conditions, increasing at higher temperature, were color (from blue to red) and fungal presence (from 0 to 15%), both detected using computer vision, which is important to determine a shelf life of 14 days for all cultivars. Similar behavior during storage was obtained for all cultivars. Conclusion. Computer vision proved to be a reliable and simple method to objectively determine blueberry decay during storage that can be used as an alternative approach to currently used subjective measurements.

  19. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  20. Leaf gas exchange and yield of three upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological parameters associated with crop performance and growth in different groups of upland rice (Oryza sativa L. may support plant breeding programs. We evaluated the role of gas exchange rates and dry matter accumulation (DMA as traits responsible for yields in a traditional (cv. ‘Caiapó’, intermediate (cv. ‘Primavera’ and modern (cv. ‘Maravilha’ upland rice cultivars. Leaf gas exchange rates, DMA, leaf area index (LAI, harvest indexes (HI and yield components were measured on these genotypes in the field, under sprinkler irrigation. Panicles per m2 and DMA at flowering (FL and heading, as well as CO2 assimilation rates (A were similar across these cultivars. The highest yield was found in ‘Primavera’, which may be explained by (i a two-fold higher HI compared to the other cultivars, (ii greater rates of DMA during spikelet formation and grain-filling, as well as (iii a slow natural decrease of A in this cultivar, at the end of the season (between FL and maturation.

  1. Sensory Profiles and Seasonal Variation of Black Walnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Catherine; Koppel, Kadri; Reid, William

    2016-03-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a North American hardwood tree valued for producing nuts and wood. Black walnut cultivars were evaluated by a trained panel over 2 growing seasons to determine the seasonal variation in the sensory profile. Results showed that cultivars were significantly different on 3 appearance (skin color, nutmeat color, and kernel roughness), 1 aroma (black walnut ID), 5 flavor (black walnut ID, banana-like, piny, rancid, and overall nutty), and 2 texture attributes (surface roughness and hardness). These profiles were compared to results collected in 2011 to determine differences between growing seasons. Results showed 4 flavor attributes (black walnut ID, overall nutty, fruity-dark and rancid) had an interaction effect of year and cultivar, while 6 attributes (brown, caramelized, floral/fruity, piny, musty/dusty, and oily) showed a main effect of year. In general, flavor attributes had higher intensities in 2011 than in 2013. These results suggest that seasonal variation may influence flavor profile more than cultivar. Thus, using samples from only 1 growing season when testing agricultural products may not provide adequate information for the long term. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  3. Atividade antioxidante de frutos de quatro cultivares de pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Mendes dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esforços são empregados para identificar plantas com teores de antioxidantes que conferem benefícios à saúde. A capacidade antioxidante do pêssego deve-se aos compostos fenólicos, vitamina C e carotenoides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar quatro cultivares de pessegueiro (Aurora, Biuti, Diamante e Douradão em relação à capacidade antioxidante, determinando o teor dos compostos antioxidantes relacionados a essa atividade. Os frutos foram separados em dois grupos: sem armazenamento e armazenados por cinco dias à temperatura ambiente. Foram determinados os teores de vitamina C, carotenoides, compostos fenólicos e a capacidade antioxidante, pelos métodos DPPH e β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. As quatro cultivares mostraram-se ricas em substâncias antioxidantes, porém a intensidade dessa ação foi diferenciada entre elas. A cultivar Biuti apresentou maior teor das substâncias analisadas e maior atividade antioxidante em relação às outras cultivares. Foi observado que o potencial antioxidante dos frutos de pêssego aumentou durante o período de armazenamento.

  4. Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

  5. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WHEAT CULTIVARS ESTIMATED BY SSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dvojković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Presence and utilization of the genetic variability in the breeding programmes is prerequisite for their successfulness. Important factor for crop improvement is knowledge about the genetic diversity which providing a basis for the precise selection of parental combinations. Since beginning of 20th century, generation of wheat breeders and scientists in Croatia developed numerous advanced and successful wheat cultivars. Previous researches aimed to genetic diversity evaluation in Croatia were conducted by means of morphological traits, pedigree data (coefficients of parentage, proteins (glutenins and gliadins and RAPD DNA markers. DNA markers detect directly variation of DNA sequence for particular loci and they are not under influence of environment, epistatic and pleiotropic effects. Microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeats; SSRs, as highly polymorphic, informative and codominant DNA marker system, have been extensively used for genetic diversity studies on wheat world wide. A set of 98 wheat cultivars released in Croatia during the period 1905-2007, and 24 foreign cultivar (included because of their ancestral significance or as standards, were screened by 45 microsatellite markers, covering all three wheat genomes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the microsatellites-based genetic diversity with emphasize on cultivars created at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, as well as to investigate SSR application for selection of genetically the most distant parental pairs. Preliminary data obtained by means of SSR markers showed a satisfactory level of genetic diversity and usefulness of microsatellites for parental selection.

  6. (RR) soybean cultivars estimated by phenotypic characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... phenotypic characteristics and microsatellite molecular markers (SSR). Ten agronomic traits ... genetic variations at the DNA, which are inherited genetically. ...... having been responsible for the development of RR. Villela et al. ..... soybean cultivars: evolution over time and breeding implications. Genet. Mol.

  7. susceptibility of some kersting's groundnut landrace cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The com- pletely randomized design was used to obtain data on the oviposition, developmental period, ... jung-black and Nakori-brown landrace cultivars consistently demonstrated high tolerance to the pest and .... Two hundred (200) sound seeds of each culti- var were ..... Ndlovu and Giga (1988) reported that the pat-.

  8. Properties of kenaf from various cultivars, growth and pulping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Ernest S. Miyashita; Sara J. Spielvogel

    1999-01-01

    The physical properties of kenaf offer potential as an alternative raw material for the manufacture of paper. Investigations to date have not determined whether core and fiber should be pulped together or separately. Kenaf bast and core fibers of different cultivars were pulped under various kraft pulping conditions and physical properties: density, Canadian Standard...

  9. Impact of Molecular Genetic Research on Peanut Cultivar Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. has lagged other crops on use of molecular genetic technology for cultivar development in part due to lack of investment, but also because of low levels of molecular polymorphism among cultivated varieties. Recent advances in molecular genetic technology have allowed researchers to more precisely measure genetic polymorphism and enabled the development of low density genetic maps for A. hypogaea and the identification of molecular marker or QTL’s for several economically significant traits. Genomic research has also been used to enhance the amount of genetic diversity available for use in conventional breeding through the development of transgenic peanut, and the creation of TILLING populations and synthetic allotetraploids. Marker assisted selection (MAS is becoming more common in peanut cultivar development programs, and several cultivar releases are anticipated in the near future. There are also plans to sequence the peanut genome in the near future which should result in the development of additional molecular tools that will greatly advance peanut cultivar development.

  10. Variation of photosynthetic tolerance of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu High Quality Rice R and D Center, ... temperature in the light at bud, seedling and booting stages and divided into three basic types; cultivars .... saturating photon pulse (4000 mol/m2 s).

  11. Reaction of peanut cultivars to late leafspot and rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitr Vorasoot

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Late leafspot caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis van Arx and rust caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. are among the most serious diseases of peanut. Although fungicide application is effective in controlling the diseases, its high cost is considered uneconomical in many developing countries. In this situation, the use of resistant cultivars offers a better alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate seven peanut cultivars for their resistances to late leafspot and rust. Peanut cultivars were planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 4 replications at Khon Kaen University Experimental Farm. Natural infection of late leafspot and rust were allowed. Disease score, sporulation index and lesion number per 100 cm2 of leaf area were recorded as the resistance parameters of both diseases. Pod yield, seed yield, shelling percentage, pod number per plant and pod length were also measured. NC 17135 was the most resistant to late leafspot and moderately resistant to rust. NC 17090 was the most resistant to rust but susceptible to late leafspot. NC 17135 and NC 17090 should be recommended as sources of late leafspot and rust resistance, respectively. The two Thai released cultivars, Tainan 9 and Lampang were highly susceptible to both diseases.

  12. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed b

  13. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, C A; Clarke, J M; Duguid, S; Chaney, R L

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  14. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  15. BRS Centauro – oat cultivar for ground cover and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants and seeds of oat cultivar BRS Centauro, of the species Avena brevis Roth., are highly uniform. The crop cycle is long, the suitability as fodder excellent, and leaf production particularly high, resulting in better quality forage than that of the black oat forage controls.

  16. Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...

  17. BRS Pampeira: new irrigated rice cultivar with high yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariano Martins de Magalhães Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS Pampeira is a rice cultivar developed by Embrapa, recommended for irrigated cultivation in Brazil. It shows modern architecture, with high tillering and tolerance to lodging. It stands out for its high yield potential, medium cycle and good grain quality.

  18. 'Ramata': a new dwarf and variegated Hedychium J. Koenig cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new dwarf (~71 cm) variegated Hedychium cultivar, ‘Ramata’, was developed at the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory (TCSHL), Poplarville. A potted ‘Ramata’ plant produces multiple pseudostems, originating from the rhizome, giving it a compact appearance. ‘Ramata’ originated fr...

  19. 'Suvetar' and 'Valotar' - new strawberry cultivars (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HIETARANTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivars ‘Suvetar’ and ‘Valotar’ have been released from the breeding programme of MTT Agrifood Research Finland. Both new cultivars overwintered as well as the control cultivars ‘Jonsok’ and ‘Polka’. ‘Suvetar’ overwintered even better than ‘Polka’. ‘Suvetar’ was produced from the cross ‘Polka’ × ‘Emily’. It scored better than the control cultivars for sensory assessed skin resistance. Measured fruit firmness of ‘Suvetar’ was not significantly different from that of ‘Polka’, but was better than ‘Jonsok’. ‘Valotar’ originates from a cross between ‘Jewel’ and ‘Senga Sengana’. Its measured fruit firmness was better than that of ‘Jonsok’ and ‘Polka’. Considering sensory assessments, the good firmness seems to be largely due to good skin resistance. The fresh flavour, yield, fruit size and fruit appearance of ‘Suvetar’ and ‘Valotar’, together with improved fruit firmness, make both the new varieties suitable for the fresh fruit market.;

  20. Performance de six cultivars de tomates Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Elle s'est déroulée sur deux cycles de production, l'un en saison sèche et ... respectively. The results obtained allowed us to make a hierarchical classification of the cultivars according to their ..... Plan directeur du développement agricole ...

  1. Cultivars of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae) show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... times the leaf blade is interrupted along the midrib and become divided into an ... Two-month room temperature air-dried samples of six cultivars of ..... of garden horticulture and landscape design, De Lux ed, Garden City.

  2. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  3. Phenology, production and fruit quality of new Czech apricot cultivars in the Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating of 14 new apricot cultivars created at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice in the Czech Republic in order to recommend the best of them for growing in the Belgrade region. The study was carried out at the Experimental station ‘Radmilovac’ of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade over a period of five years (2009-2013. The experimental orchard was established in 2007, the rootstock was Myrobalan seedling, and tree spacing was 4.5 x 3 m. The control cultivar for comparison was the clone of ‘Velkopavlovická’ cultivar (type of ‘Hungarian Best’, LE-12/2. Flowering of introduced cultivars started from three days before to one day after the control cultivar, while the maturation time ranged from 19 days earlier in cultivar ‘Leskora’ to 12 days after the control in cultivar ‘Sophia’ (LE-2926. Compared with the control cultivar, significantly higher yield was achieved only in cultivar ‘Palava’, while significantly higher fruit weight was recorded in three cultivars: ‘Candela’ (LE-2927, ‘Sophia’ (LE-2926 and ‘Betinka’ (LE-3276. Cultivars ‘Sophia’ and ‘Betinka’ got the best scores for fruit appearance, while cultivars ‘Marlen’ and ‘Lebona’ ranked the highest for fruit taste. Among studied apricot cultivars, for the cultivation in the Belgrade region, the following cultivars can be recommended as promising: ‘Palava’ (early season, ‘Betinka’ (mid-season and ‘Sophia’ (late season. Regarding the large size and attractive appearance of fruits, these cultivars are more suitable for fresh consumption, but they can also be used for processing. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31063

  4. Does excess boron affect malondialdehyde levels of potato cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kemal Avci

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malondialdehyde (MDA is a product of lipid peroxidation and a sign of oxidative stress in plants. Therefore, determining the responses of plants to a particular type of stress at a particular time will shed a light on clarifying the stress status of the plants. In this study, we report how MDA levels in potato cultivars changed under toxic concentrations of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Materials and Methods: Eight different potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars (cv. Konsul, cv. Morene, cv. Slaney, cv. Mona Lisa, cv. Jaerla, cv. Poroventa, cv. Yayla Kizi, cv. Armada were used as study material. Excess boron was applied for seven weeks in three concentrations (0.5, 2.5 and 5 mM to plants that were grown from tubers. Plants were harvested and malondialdehyde content analyses were carried out in leaf tissues. Results: MDA levels under excess boron in cv. Mona Lisa and Yayla Kizi steadily increased rose with increasing concentrations in all groups, compared to control. In cv. Morene, MDA decreased in 0.5 mM Boron and increased in 2.5 and 5 mM Boron applications. In cv. Armada, cv. Slaney, cv. Konsul and cv. Poroventa, MDA levels fluctuated in different groups of each cultivar. In cv. Jaerla, MDA decreased in all groups with increasing boron, compared to control. Conclusions: MDA levels under excess boron showed increase, fluctuation and decrease in each group of the cultivars, compared to control. Therefore, MDA levels in potato plants under excess boron might not be a clear sign to determine the level of stress. This is the first report of MDA levels in eight different potato cultivars subjected to three different excess boron concentrations.

  5. The Processing of Turning Colour Olives of Oblica Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Kulišić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research the observation of the preservation process of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (an autochthonous Croatian cultivar processed according to the Californian type of processing has been carried out. Although the oblica cultivar is the most frequent cultivar in Croatian orchards, it is absolutely unexplored concerning the concentration of polyphenolic compounds (oleuropein and its derivatives as well as concerning the composition of natural microflora in the fruit. It has been very important to determine to what extent the choice of preserving technology is optimal for the cultivar’s particularities. The changes of fundamental physical and chemical features of brine (total acidity, pH value, the concentration of sodium chloride, the concentration of sugar, and brine temperature have been screened during the process of preservation. The appearance of the lactobacilli population has also been observed. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified in this population on the seventh day after the fruit has been put in brine. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified by means of the API 50 CHL (“bioMérieux”, France biochemical test and the APILAB PLUS (“bioMérieux”, France software. During further phases of the process, no appearance of the lactobacilli has been identified. On the basis of our physical and chemical examinations, we have concluded that the type of processing of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (which was applied without a complete knowledge of the Oblica’s particularities did not give optimal and expected values (low brine temperature, exceptionally high acidity of the medium. We have also concluded that it is necessary for further research to include the examinations of the portion of polyphenolic compounds in the fruit, as well as the examinations of the composition of naturally present microflora. Both examinations represent the

  6. Desempenho de cultivares de alface no Estado do Acre Performance of lettuce cultivars in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. da S. Lédo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Devido às condições ambientais verificadas no estado do Acre, caracterizado pela ocorrência de temperaturas elevadas e alta precipitação, as cultivares tradicionalmente utilizadas pelos produtores apresentam baixo rendimento e qualidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento das novas cultivares de alface disponíveis no mercado, em termos de características agronômicas e rendimento, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. Para isso foram realizados dois ensaios no campo experimental da Embrapa Acre, em um solo do tipo Argissolo Vermelho-Escuro, textura argilosa. O primeiro de maio a julho de 1996 (período seco e o segundo de dezembro de 1996 a fevereiro de 1997 (período chuvoso. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Babá de Verão, Brisa, Carolina AG-576, Elisa, Lucy Brown, Marisa AG-216, Piracicaba 65, Regina 71, Tainá, Simpson, Vanessa e Verônica, sendo que 'Regina 71' e 'Elisa' foram incluídas apenas no ensaio do período seco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. No período seco, as cultivares Simpson, Lucy Brown e Regina 71 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios (373; 362 e 341 g, respectivamente e produções comerciais de 49,8; 48,3 e 45,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Em geral, as cultivares dos tipos lisa sem cabeça e lisa com cabeça apresentaram maior índice de ataque de nematóide (Meloidogyne javanica quando comparadas às do tipo crespa. No ensaio realizado no período chuvoso, as cultivares Marisa AG-216, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Brisa, Tainá e Piracicaba-65 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios e produções comerciais. Entretanto, as médias obtidas foram bem inferiores às verificadas no ensaio do período seco, variando de 164 a 198 g para o peso médio, e 21,9 a 25,9 t/ha para produção comercial. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas no período seco, Regina 71 (lisa, sem cabeça e Carolina AG-576 (lisa, com cabeça destacaram-se entre as do tipo

  7. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  8. Variantes somaclonais da cultivar de arroz Bluebelle resistentes à brusone Blast resistant somaclonal variants of rice cultivar Bluebelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A brusone, causada por Pyricularia grisea, constitui fator limitante da produtividade do arroz irrigado, principalmente no Estado do Tocantins. A detecção de variabilidade genética quanto à resistência à brusone em cultivares suscetíveis, como a Bluebelle, considerada uma das cultivares-padrões quanto à qualidade dos grãos, foi o principal objetivo deste trabalho. O procedimento adotado incluiu a indução de calos provenientes de panículas imaturas, regeneração, avaliação e seleção das plantas R2 resistentes à doença. O mesmo procedimento foi utilizado para nova indução de calos e regeneração de plantas a partir de três plantas R2 selecionadas. Foi realizada a avaliação e a seleção de plantas resistentes nas gerações R2 e R4 em viveiro de brusone. Nos testes realizados em casa de vegetação com três isolados coletados da cultivar Metica1, pertencentes aos patótipos IB41 e IB45 de P. grisea, todos os 47 somaclones R6 foram resistentes. Por outro lado, os somaclones apresentaram reações diferenciais frente a cinco isolados provenientes de somaclones da cultivar Bluebelle, e resistência a um isolado proveniente da cultivar Bluebelle, enquanto a cultivar Bluebelle foi suscetível a todos os isolados. Estes resultados indicaram variação genética no que diz respeito à resistência à brusone, na segunda fase de indução de calos e na regeneração de plantas. Dos 47 somaclones R6, 22 apresentaram alto grau de resistência vertical nos testes conduzidos nos viveiros de brusone em quatro locais, e poderão ser utilizados como novas fontes de resistência.Rice blast, caused by Pyricularia grisea, is the major yield constraint in irrigated rice mainly in the State of Tocantins. The detection of genetic variability for blast resistance in susceptible cultivars such as Bluebelle, considered as a standard for superior grain quality, was the main objective of the present investigation. The adopted procedure included

  9. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  10. Characterization and quantification of fruit phenolic compounds of European and Tunisian pear cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahem, Marwa; Renard, Catherine M G C; Eder, Severin; Loonis, Michèle; Ouni, Rim; Mars, Messaoud; Le Bourvellec, Carine

    2017-05-01

    The flesh and peel of 19 pear cultivars (8 Tunisian dessert cultivars, 8 European dessert cultivars and 3 French perry pear cultivars) were studied for their phenolic composition. Phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC/ESI-MS(2) and individually quantified by HPLC-DAD. Five classes of polyphenols were present: flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and simple phenolics (hydroquinones). The total phenolic content ranged between 0.1g/kg Fresh Weight (FW) ('Conference' cultivar) and 8.6g/kg FW ('Plant De Blanc' cultivar) in the flesh and between 1.6g/kg FW ('William vert' cultivar) and 40.4g/kg FW ('Arbi Chiheb' cultivar) in the peel. Procyanidins, analyzed after thioacidolysis, were the main phenolic compounds in all pear cultivars either in the pulp or the peel, their constitutive units being essentially (-)-epicatechin. Tunisian dessert pears and French perry pears are richer in procyanidins with very high degree of polymerization (>100) for Tunisian pears. Peel procyanidins were less polymerized (from 4 to 20). Pear peel phenolic profile was more complex especially for Tunisian cultivars, with flavonols and in some cultivars anthocyanins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  12. Comparative of Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Four Commercial Mandarin Cultivars on 'Flying Dragon' Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abedi Gheshlaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Flying dragon' is one of the citrus rootstocks that are considered to be a promised dwarfing rootstock in the world. This experiment was conducted in the Astara research station for study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of 4 mandarin cultivars (Unshiu, Clementine, Page, and Yunesi budded on 'Flying dragon'. This experiment was carried out with four cultivars in randomized complete bloke design (RCBD with three replications. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of fruits, as well as vegetative traits were recorded and analyzed for 3, 6 and 1 years, respectively. The highest yield was observed on Yunesi cultivar in the final year of experiments and the lowest yield was on Unshiu cultivar in the fifth year. TSS/TA and means of fruit weight were affected by interaction of year and cultivar. The highest means of fruit weight was on Yunesi in the years of 85 and the highest TSS/TA was in years of 88 on Clementine cultivar. The highest alternate bearing index obtained in years of 88 on the Unshiu cultivar and the lowest that was on the Page cultivar. The highest yield efficiency, cumulative yield and plant height were observed on Yunesi cultivar, and the highest width and canopy of tree were on Unshiu cultivar. The lowest yield and tree size were on Page cultivar.

  13. Caracterização morfológica, produtividade e rendimento comercial de cultivares de alho Morphological characterization, commercial yield and productivity of garlic cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Tadeu V de Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem condições de elevar a produção de alho a ponto de suprir a demanda interna. Para alcançar tal êxito, é necessário avaliar o maior número possível de cultivares visando estabelecer as melhores para cada região. Sendo assim, esse trabalho objetivou avaliar o rendimento econômico e a qualidade de bulbos de 20 cultivares de alho na região Centro-Sul do Paraná. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de março e setembro de 2009, no município de Guarapuava-PR. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se em doze cultivares de alho seminobre e oito cultivares de alho nobre. Foram realizadas as avaliações de produtividade total (PT, produção comercial (PC e classificação comercial dos bulbos; superbrotamento; e seis caracteres relacionados à morfologia da planta: diâmetro do pseudocaule, comprimento e largura da folha, comprimento, largura e número de bulbilhos. As cultivares do grupo nobre apresentaram PT superior às cultivares do grupo seminobre, porém, não houve diferença com relação à PC. Entre as cultivares do grupo nobre, a São Valentim apresentou a maior PC de bulbos, com 8,9 t ha-1. As cultivares do grupo nobre apresentaram maior porcentagem de bulbos nas classes 6 e 7, com destaque para as cultivares Chonan, com 40,3% dos bulbos na classe 7 e a cultivar Ito, com 75% dos bulbos nas classes 6 e 7. O oposto foi observado no grupo seminobre, pois a maioria dos bulbos encontra-se nas classes 3, 4 e 5. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, a cultivar São Valentim se adaptou melhor às condições edafoclimáticas da região, apresentando elevado potencial produtivo.Brazil could increase garlic production up to the point of supplying the internal demand. To achieve this success, it is necessary to evaluate the maximum number of cultivars to establish the best ones for each region. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate economic yield and quality of

  14. 秦艽1-羟基-2-甲基-2-(E)-丁烯基-4-焦磷酸还原酶基因(GmHDR)的克隆和表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase gene (GmHDR)from Gentiana macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑文; 孔维维; 郑鹏; 化文平

    2015-01-01

    Secoiri doids,such as gentiopicroside,are the main active compounds in “Qinj iao”,a traditional Chinese herbal medicine derived from the dried roots of Gentiana macrophylla.These compounds have widely biological and pharmacological effects,such as stomachic,choleretic,anti-hepatotoxic activities,anti-inflammatory,antifungal and antihistamine activities.Secoiridoids belonged to monoterpenoid,were biosynthesized via the secoiridoid pathway (sometimes also called“ridoid pathway”)in high plant.1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR)is one of the key enzymes in the pathway of iridoid biosynthesis.In this paper,we cloned the gene sequence of HDR from G.macrophylla,and analyzed the characteristic of sequence and expression patterns in order to know its roles in secoiridoid biosynthesis.Based on our library generated by high-through sequencing of G.macrophylla transcriptome,we cloned HDR gene from G.macrophylla(named as GmHDR)by RT-PCR.And the GmHDR coding amino acid sequence characterization,such as physicochemical characteristics,signal peptide,transit peptide, subcellular localization,conserved domain and secondary structure,analyzed with bioinformatics methods.Then we also detected the expression patterns of GmHDR in different parts of G.macrophylla by real time PCR.One 1 630-bp length sequence of GmHDR gene was obtained from G.macrophylla.GmHDR contains a completed open read-ing frame (ORF)of 1 392 bp,which encoded a polypeptide with 463 amino acids.GmHDR,the encoding protein by GmHDR,has high homology (identities ≥ 84%)to HDR proteins from Rauvolfia verticillata,Tanacetum parthenium and other plants.One neighbor joining tree was constructed to show evolution ship between GmHDR and HDR proteins from other plants using MEGA5.2 soft.The phylogenetic tree also gave a same conclusion that Gm-HDR had a closed relation with HDR proteins from Catharanthus roseus and Rauvolfia verticillata.Further analysis with bioinformatics methods showed

  15. Avaliação de cultivares de berinjela em armazenamento refrigerado Post-harvest quality of eggplant cultivars in cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Kluge

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de diferentes cultivares de berinjela foram armazenados a 11 + 0,5ºC e 90 + 5% UR, por períodos de 7, 14 e 21 dias (+ 2 dias a 24-25ºC e 70-75% UR, com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento pós-colheita destes frutos. As cultivares estudadas foram Diamante Negro, Kiko, Piracicaba F-100, Flórida Market, Super F-100, F-2000, Suzuki, Nápoli e Ciça. Verificaram-se diferenças nas respostas das diferentes cultivares em relação à perda de peso, pressão de turgescência e qualidade global durante o armazenamento refrigerado. A frigoconservação dos frutos foi viável até 7 dias para todos as cultivares. O armazenamento por período superior a 7 dias dependeu da cultivar. A cultivar Super F-100 foi a que apresentou a maior capacidade de armazenamento (21 dias.Our objective was to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of nine eggplant cultivars. Fruits were stored at 11 + 0,5ºC e 90 + 5% RH, for periods of 7, 14 and 21 days (including 2 days of simulated commercialization at 24-25ºC and 70-75% RH. The cultivars studies were Diamante Negro, Kiko, Piracicaba F-100, Flórida Market, Super F-100, F-2000, Suzuki, Nápoli and Ciça. We measured changes in weight loss, turgor pressure and visual quality during the cold storage period. Low temperature storage of the fruits was acceptable up to 7 days for all cultivars. Storage above 7 days was dependent of the cultivar. The cultivar Super F-100 presented the largest storage capacity.

  16. Determination of Genetic Polymorphism Among Soybean (Glycine max. L. Merrill Cultivars Developed in Recent Years through RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine PAKYÜREK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype or cultivar identification is the first step to ensure plant breeder’s rights. If registered cultivars or germplasms were not distinguished by any mechanism, then seed production or novel varieties could not be controlled. The RAPD markers are chosen to distinguish seven soybean ( Glycine max. L. Merrill cultivars from each other  and to assign the polymorphisms among of them in this study. Eight primers were used and DNA fingerprinting of all cultivars were determined with that primers. According to that fingerprinting all cultivars were distingusihed from each other in DNA banding pattern. Using these markers results, similarity index in between soybean cultivars were calculated. Dwight and Maverick were the most similar cultivars ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,70 point to each other. In addition that Maverick and Defiance cultivars have shown the highest polymorphism rate ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,39 point each other. .

  17. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-08-01

    The intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA is highly variable, but is location specific in the nucleolar organizer region of the chromosomes. This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities between landraces. Some of the high molecular weight IGS allelic variants were also probed for their chromosomal localization by sequential silver nitrate staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, only the intergenic spacer allelic variant of 3.1 kb could be successfully hybridized, and was observed to be physically located on the chromosome pair 1B in the NOR loci of the cultivar ‘Magueija’.

  18. Free hydroxycinnamic acids, lycopene, and color parameters in tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Marcos; Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz, Carlos

    2007-10-17

    Concentrations of antioxidant compounds (total phenolic compounds, free hydroxycinnamic acids, and lycopene) and color parameters ( a*, b*, and L*) were determined in 167 tomato samples belonging to five cultivars (Dorothy, Boludo, Dunkan, Dominique, and Thomas) produced on the island of Tenerife. Chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were identified and quantified in the tomato samples. Chlorogenic acid had the highest mean concentration, whereas the p-coumaric was not detected in almost half of the tomato samples. The cultivar, cultivation method, and production region had little influence on the concentration of analyzed parameters. Considerable seasonal variations in the levels of these parameters were observed. Many correlations were observed between the antioxidant compounds and color parameters. The tomato samples tended to be differentiated according to the sampling period when discriminant analysis was applied.

  19. Sensory quality of scab-resistant apple cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two scab-resistant apple cultivars were harvested in autumn 1999 and evaluated for sensory quality the following October, November and December. Multivariate analysis was effective in describing the comblex relationships and variabillity among the numerous attributes used to characterise apple quality. Crispness, mealiness, skin toughness, apple flavour, sweetness, unripe flavour and overripe flavour were informative attributes describing the variation in the sensory quality. Texture a...

  20. Nodule senescence and biomass components in common bean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Fernández Luqueño; David Espinosa Victoria; Antonio Munive; Langen Corlay Chee; Luis M. Serrano Covarrubias

    2008-01-01

    Most legumes establish mutualistic symbiotic relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), giving origin to nodules. Nodules exhibit natural or induced aging which coincides with the drop in nitrogenase activity at the flowering period or at the pod filling stage. In this research, the onset of nodule senescence (NS) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions in five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of two growth habits, determined (Type I) and indeterminate ...

  1. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  2. A new red -fleshed kiwifruit cultivar ‘Chuhong’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZhongyan; ZhongCaihong; BuFanwen

    2004-01-01

    ‘Chuhong’ is a red-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar selected from Actinidia chinensis var. rufopulpa grown in the wild.The fruit has beautiful red flesh color around the central core. It also has high soluble solids content and good taste. The plantsgrow well in both high and low altitude conditions, and are precocious and productive. The fruit matures in early September, and has reasonably good storage quality. There is a very positive response from customers according to preliminary marketing tests.

  3. The Impact of Switchgrass Cultivar Diversity on Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, A. C.; Jastrow, J. D.; SIX, J. W. U. A.; Morris, G.; De Graaff, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The search for new sources of sustainable energy has cast attention on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a potential biofuel crop. However, growing switchgrass in a high-input, low-diversity cropping system can have negative environmental consequences, such as enhanced nitrate (NO3) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Increasing plant diversity has been shown to promote plant production by increasing nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), which may lower fertilizer requirements in cropping systems. With this study we asked how increasing cultivar diversity of switchgrass impacts NUE. The study took place at Fermilab National Environmental Research Park in Batavia, IL. In 2013, we applied a 15N tracer label to switchgrass planted in monocultures and mixtures of 2-types, 4-types, and 6-types of cultivars. We harvested the aboveground biomass and collected soil cores after one growing season. Preliminary data showed that cultivars differed significantly in yield and in the total 15N content in aboveground biomass, but there are no differences in tissue 15N concentration. In addition, there appears to be no effect of diversity level on 15N contents or concentrations. We intend to use this aboveground and soil 15N data to calculate NUE. These results could suggest that choosing the cultivar that most efficiently takes up N and produces the most yield may be more important than increasing diversity to promote the efficacy of biofuel feedstock production. However, increasing diversity can have other positive ecological consequences and does not appear to have negative impacts on yield or the N cycle.

  4. Evaluation of Tunisian olive oils from different cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Souihli; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Pereira, José A.; Oueslati, Souheib; António M. Peres

    2016-01-01

    [Excerpt] Olive oil is a highly appreciated food product due to sensory and healthy attributes, being quite prone to frauds. So, physicochemical evaluation of olive oils is legally required. In this study, 43 olive oil samples produced in Tunisia from different olive cultivars (groups: Sahli cv – 11 samples; Chetoui cv- 26 samples; and, Other cvs – 4 samples including Leguim cv and Arbequina cv) were physicochemically evaluated taking into account: (i) free acidity (FA), K232 and K270 extinct...

  5. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella; Regina Lúcia Felix Ferreira; Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto; Antônio Jussie da Silva Solino; Eliana Mara Napoli Corrêa de Paula da Silva; Maísa Pinto Bravin

    2015-01-01

    The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was co...

  6. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  7. CULTIVARES DE MILHO E DE GRAMÍNEAS FORRAGEIRAS SOB MONOCULTIVO E CONSORCIAÇÃO MAIZE AND FORAGE GRASS CULTIVARS UNDER MONOCROPPING AND INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindomar Pereira Simões; Emerson Alexandrino; Thales Augusto Duarte Daniel; Adriano Jakelaitis; Kennedy Vidal Souza; Josia Ludtke

    2010-01-01

    ...) e o segundo por quatro cultivares forrageiras (Marandu e Xaraés, de B. brizantha , e Tanzânia e Mombaça, de P. maximum ). Os sete tratamentos adicionais corresponderam aos respectivos monocultivos das cultivares testadas...

  8. Eficiência hospedeira de oito cultivares de bananeira a fitonematóides Host reaction of eight banana cultivars to plant parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lucí Dinardo-Miranda

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de bananeira (Musa spp. Grande Naine, Nanicão Jangada, Nanicão (Grupo AAA, Enxerto, Prata, Prata Zulu, Maçã e Mysore (Grupo AAB foram plantados em campo e avaliados quanto à eficiência hospedeira a nematóides. Todos eles apresentaram elevadas populações de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1, sendo considerados, portanto, hospedeiros favoráveis dessa espécie. Os cultivares do grupo AAA e Mysore foram também hospedeiros favoráveis de Radopholus similis, enquanto os demais do grupo AAB se comportaram como hospedeiros pouco favoráveis. Helicotylenchus dihystera foi detectado em baixas populações, em raízes e no solo da rizosfera de todos os cultivares.The host reaction of eight banana cultivars (Musa spp. to nematodes was assessed in a field experiment. Three cultivars evaluated were members of AAA Group (Grande Naine, Nanicão and Nanicão Jangada and five belonged to AAB Group (Prata, Enxerto, Prata Zulu, Maçã and Mysore. All cultivars were infested by Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, rated as efficient hosts. The AAA Group cultivars and Mysore were also efficient hosts to Radopholus similis, whereas Prata, Enxerto and Maçã were not. Helicotylenchus dihystera was detected at low density populations in soil and root samples of all cultivars.

  9. Descriptive analysis of flavor characteristics for black walnut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ashley E; Chambers, Delores H

    2013-06-01

    Seven black walnut cultivars, Brown Nugget, Davidson, Emma K, Football, Sparks 127, Sparrow, and Tomboy, were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis. Seven trained panelists developed a lexicon for the black walnuts and scored the intensities of the samples for 22 flavor attributes. Results showed that the 7 samples differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) on 13 of the attributes. For the majority of the attributes, only Emma K differed from the rest of the cultivars by being characterized with lower scores for black walnut ID, overall nutty, nutty-grain-like, nutty-buttery, floral/fruity, oily, and overall sweet. That sample also was higher in acrid, burnt, fruity-dark, musty/earthy, rancid, and bitter attributes. The remaining 6 cultivars showed few differences in individual attribute ratings, but did show some differences when mapped using multivariate techniques. Future studies should include descriptive analysis of other black walnut varieties, both wild and commercial, that could be grown and harvested for production. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy is feasible to discriminate hazelnut cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Stella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the feasibility of the near infrared (NIR spectroscopy use for hazelnut-cultivar sorting. Hazelnut spectra were acquired from 600 fruit for each cultivar sample, two diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from opposite sides of the same hazelnut. Spectral data were transformed into absorbance before the computations. A different variety of spectral pretreatments were applied to extract characteristics for the classification. An iterative Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA algorithm was used to select a relatively small set of variables to correctly classify samples. The optimal group of features selected for each test was analyzed using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA. The spectral region most frequently chosen was the 1980-2060 nm range, which corresponds to best differentiation performance for a total minimum error rate lower than 1.00%. This wavelength range is generally associated with stretching and bending of the N-H functional group of amino acids and proteins. The feasibility of using NIR Spectroscopy to distinguish different hazelnut cultivars was demonstrated.

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Xanthopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd, a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, ‘Big Moose’ with large round fruits and ‘Munchkin’ with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882 and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883 sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively, which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for ‘Big Moose’ and ‘Munchkin’ were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  12. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Manioudaki, Maria; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd), a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, 'Big Moose' with large round fruits and 'Munchkin' with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882) and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883) sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively), which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for 'Big Moose' and 'Munchkin' were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  13. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D ∞) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition.

  14. Emergy assessment method for wheat cultivar efficiency and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jankowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on emergy was applied to quantify the fluxes of the energy, matter and monetary investment use (water, seeds, work, fertilizer and plant protecting agents, fuel, goods and services, productivity, environmental services and sustainability in typical wheat cultivar conducted in Wielkopolska. In order to convert all the flows mentioned into common base (seJ a conversion factors (solar transformities were used. In this way it was possible to consider also such flows that are free and generally neglected in the traditional balances. Generally only 52% emergy inflow is delivered by financial investment, while the remaining part, delivered in the form of the environmental services, is free. The Emergy Yield Ratio EYR = 1.14 indicate a low level of output per emergy investment unit. The values of Environmental Loading Ratio ELR = 11 and Emergy Sustainability Index ESI = 0.1 indicate an environmental stress and low level of cultivar sustainability, respectively. The final cultivar product (wheat has the emergy density 4.35 E12 seJ/kg and transformity 26.3 E4 seJ/J.

  15. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  17. Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Zlatko; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Politeo, Olivera; Strikić, Frane; Kolak, Ivan; Milos, Mladen; Satovic, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-seven Ocimum basilicum cultivars were subjected to a chemical characterization of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a genetic characterization using the amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Since the same 27 accessions had previously been classified into six morphotypes, these analyses allowed us to make detailed comparisons of chemistry, genetics, and morphology. The chemical composition and morphology of the studied cultivars appeared to have a strong genetic component. The AFLP analysis revealed a distinction between the green and purple morphotypes. The green morphotypes predominantly utilized the terpene biosynthetic pathway, while most purple morphotypes primarily utilized the phenylpropene biosynthetic pathway. The GC/MS analysis led to identification of 87 volatiles. Among the 27 cultivars, five chemotypes were identified. A detailed characterization of the essential oil constituents indicated the existence of both specific combinations of compounds and 'private' compounds with the potential to be used in many aspects of human life. The established relationship between a genetic profile, chemical composition, and morphology represents an important step in future breeding programs and in the cultivation of this species.

  18. Polyphenol and glycoalkaloid contents in potato cultivars grown in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusser, Hannah; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Evers, Danièle

    2012-12-15

    The polyphenol (phenolic acids, flavanols and flavonols) and glycoalkaloid (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of potato tubers grown in Luxembourg were analyzed by UPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS separately in peel (approx. 2mm), outer (approx. 1cm) and inner flesh. Polyphenol contents decreased from the peel via the outer to the inner flesh and differed among the cultivars. The cultivars Vitelotte and Luminella had the highest polyphenol contents (5202 and 572 μg/g dry weight (DW) in the outer flesh), whereas Charlotte and Bintje had the lowest contents (19.5 and 48.0 μg/g DW). Chlorogenic acid and its isomers (neo- and cryptochlorogenic acid) were the major polyphenols. Glycoalkaloid contents were highest in the peel and lowest in the inner flesh, values in the flesh were below guideline limits in all cultivars. In conclusion, potatoes contribute to the daily intake of polyphenols and their consumption, thereby, may have positive effects on health.

  19. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  20. Phosphorus Uptake from Rhizosphere Soilby Two Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAJIAN; T.S.GAHOONIA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Inorganic soil phosphorus extractable with sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3-Pi),soil pH and root hairs length and density in the rhizosphere of two winter wheat cultivars (Tritium aestivum L.cv.Shichum,Sleipner)grown on a high pH Chinese silt loam(52.7 mg NaHCO3-Pikg-1) and a Danish sandy loam(43.4mg NaHCO3-Pi kg-1)wer studied to assess how these wheat cultivars differed in phosphorus uptake.The rhizosphere soil pH of two wheat cultivars grown on the two soils were fairly unchanged with increasing distrance from the roo surface.However the root hairs of Shichun were 2.1 times longer than those of Sleipner,Root surface area(RSA) of Shichun increased by 192% due to root hairs whereas root hairs of Sleipner increased RSA by 68% only.Hence the root system of Shichun was in contact with more soil than that of Sleipner,even though Sleipner had a longer root,Grown at the lower pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Danish soil Shichun absorbed more inorganic phosphorus than Sleipner whereas at the higher pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Chinese soil there was no phosphorus uptake difference between the two wheat culivars.

  1. Susceptibility of different parsley cultivars to infestation by pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nawrocki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in the years 2002 and 2003 on parsley seeds of 6 cultivars: Alba, Berlińska, Cukrowa, Kinga, Lenka, and Vistula. Mycological analysis of parsley seeds showed that the most common inhabitans were fungi from genus Alternaria (mainly A. alternata and A. radicina and Fusarium, especially F. avenaceum and F. oxysporum. During the glasshouse investigations fungi Alternaria radicina, A. alternata and Fusarium avenaceum were the main reason for parsley damping-off. The highest number of infected seedlings was observed for Berlińska and Kinga, because in both years of experiments these cultivars had the lowest number of healthy seedlings. The highest number of healthy seedlings had cultivars Alba and Lenka, especially in the second year of experiments. In the field experiments not only fungi from genus Alternaria and Fusarium were the most often isolated from diseased parsley seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum was more often isolated from diseased field seedlings than from glasshouse parsley seedlings. Other fungies isolated often from parsley seedlings cultivated in the field were: Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Stemphylium botryosum.

  2. Genetic diversity among different physiological traits of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of subtropical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafeel, S O

    2015-08-21

    The genetic diversity of Saudi locally growing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars has not been thoroughly characterized. To understand the genomic patterns of diversification in Saudi sorghum cultivars (N = 7), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used as a rapid, inexpensive method for providing information regarding genomic variability below the species level. Six commercially available primers were initially used to select a single primer based on availability, universality, and its use with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. PCR-amplified molecular markers were reproducibly detected in Saudi cultivars. The single primer 2 produced clear bands and revealed variability among the cultivars. Seven tested cultivars were categorized into 2 major groups, indicating 2 genomogroups for the Saudi-cultivars. Five cultivars (S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6) showed identical banding patterns and were grouped in the same clade, although their panicles varied in size, shape, and color. Two cultivars (S1 and S7) showed different banding patterns. In this study, a single primer (P2) was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of genotype detection among sorghum cultivars. This is the first report describing genetic variation among S. bicolor cultivars in Saudi Arabia. The commercial primer (P2) and PCR reaction mixture used in this study are readily available and can be used in sorghum improvement programs.

  3. Influence of Cultivar on the Postharvest Hardening of Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Tubers

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    Christian Siadjeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cultivar on the postharvest hardening of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was assessed. 32 cultivars of D. dumetorum tubers were planted in April 2014, harvested at physiological maturity, and stored under prevailing tropical ambient conditions (19–28°C, 60–85% RH for 0, 5, 14, 21, and 28 days. Samples were evaluated for cooked hardness. Results showed that one cultivar, Ibo sweet 3, was not affected by the hardening phenomenon. The remaining 31 were all subject to the hardening phenomenon at different degree. Cooked hardness increased more rapidly in cultivars with many roots on the tuber surface compared to cultivars with few roots on the tuber surface. When both the characteristics flesh colour and number of roots on tuber surface were associated, cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and many roots increased more rapidly than in cultivars with white flesh and many roots, whereas cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and few roots increased more slowly than in cultivars with white flesh and few roots. Accessions collected in high altitude increased more rapidly compared to accessions collected in low altitude. The cultivar Ibo sweet 3 identified in this study could provide important information for breeding program of D. dumetorum against postharvest hardening phenomenon.

  4. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus

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    Y. R. Sindarovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleases (RNases are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  5. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  6. In vitro Digestibility and Gas Production Characteristics of Four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Cultivars as Fresh Fodder

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    Zailan, M.Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass was first introduced to Malaysia in the 1920?s and there were many cultivars introduced in Malaysia since 1950?s. However, there is a need to have comparative evaluation of these Napier cultivars so that definite recommendations can be made in the choice and management of the respective cultivars. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in vitro digestibility and gas production characteristic of four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum cultivars, namely Common, Silver, Red and Dwarf Napier. Common, Silver and Red Napier are classified as tall cultivars while Dwarf Napier is a short cultivar. Gas production was determined at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 32, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation period and its kinetics was described using the equation p = a + b (1 ? e?ct. Dwarf Napier had the highest (P 0.05 in the rate of gas production (C of Napier cultivars which ranged from 0.024 to 0.035 h-1. The metabolisable energy (ME was significantly higher in Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars (8.7 MJ/kg DM compared to Silver and Common Napier cultivars. The cumulative gas production within 32 h was highest (P0.05 ranged from 52 to 73 mM, 88 to 70%, 6.2 to 6.8%, respectively.. Dwarf Napier cultivar had superior nutritional quality. Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars could be classified as high quality grasses due to their high digestibility, gas production and degradation rates compared to the other cultivars. The low quality of Common and Silver Napier cultivars is mainly reflected by the extensive lignification of their cell wall structure.

  7. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

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    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  8. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiro em diferentes densidades de plantio The behavior of coffee cultivars under different plant densities

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    Edison Martins Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se em Adamantina, na Região da Alta Paulista, em São Paulo, entre maio de 1995 e junho de 2000, o crescimento e quatro produções de cafeeiros das cultivares de porte baixo Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 de Coffea arabica L., submetidas às densidades de plantio de 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 e 10.000 plantas ha-1, com uma planta por cova. Estudou-se também a população de 2.500 plantas.ha-1 em covas com duas plantas com 2,0 m de distância na linha de plantio. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, com parcelas subdivididas, onde as parcelas foram as populações e as subparcelas, as cultivares. Os resultados permitiram inferir que, no período estudado, o aumento da densidade influenciou positivamente a altura e negativamente o diâmetro do caule e da base da copa dos cafeeiros, mas não a altura da inserção do primeiro ramo plagiotrópico a partir do nível do solo. O aumento da população de cafeeiros acarretou menor produção de café beneficiado por planta, mas concorreu para o aumento da produtividade no período de 1997 a 2000. O plantio de duas mudas de café por cova acarretou também diminuição do diâmetro do caule e da produção individual dos cafeeiros. Observou-se na cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 maior diâmetro da base da copa e maior crescimento em altura, enquanto a cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 evidenciou seu maior diâmetro do caule. As cultivares Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 não diferiram entre si quanto à produção individual e à produtividade de café beneficiado no quadriênio (1997-2000.This experiment was developed at Adamantina, west region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during May of 1995 to June of 2000. The plant growth and productivity of two coffee cultivars Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 and Obatã IAC 1669-20, were evaluated considering to plant densities of 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 and 10.000 plants ha-1. The density of 2500 also was

  9. Caracterização botânica de cultivares de morangueiro Botanical characterization of strawberry cultivars

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    Rachel Benetti Queiroz Voltan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de caracterização botânica em seis cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria X ananassa Duch. quatro desenvolvidos no Brasil - 'Campinas (IAC-2712', 'Guarani (IAC-5074', 'AGF 080' e 'IAC Princesa Isabel' - e dois introduzidos - 'Reiko', do Japão, e 'Sequóia', dos Estados Unidos - visando sua distinção taxonômica. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP durante os anos agrícolas de 1992/93. Os caracteres morfológicos que se mostraram úteis na diferenciação dos seis cultivares foram os seguintes: tipo de planta; número de folíolos; coloração da folha; razão entre o comprimento e a largura dos folíolos medianos; ângulo da base do limbo do folíolo mediano; comprimento das estipulas; posição das flores primárias em relação à folhagem; número de pétalas das flores primárias; razão entre o comprimento e a largura das pétalas; receptáculo do ovário; forma das infrutescências e da base da infrutescência; posição do cálice e calículo; espaços vazios no interior da infrutescência e comprimento e largura da infrutescência. Para a identificação dos cultivares, foi elaborada uma chave analítica. Os cultivares AGF 080 e Campinas não foram distinguidos com base nos caracteres analisados.Six strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa Duch., four developed in Brazil (AGF 080, Campinas, Guarani and IAC Princesa Isabel and two introduced (Reiko from Japan and Sequoia from USA were botanically evaluated in order to screening morphological vegetativa and reproductive characters to get the taxonomical distinction of them. Two experiments were carried out in 1992 and 1993 at the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The following morphological characters were screened to distinguish the cultivars studied: growing habit; leaflet number; leaf colour; middle leaflet length and width ratio; middle

  10. Cultivares de soja sob plantio direto em Latossolo Vermelho compactado = Soybean cultivars under no-till on a compacted oxisol

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    Neyde Fabíola Balarezo Giarola

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O processo de compactação pode modificar os atributos físicos do solo a ponto de limitar o potencial genético de desenvolvimento de culturas agrícolas ou de cultivares mais sensíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico típico, a resposta de parâmetros de produção de cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e atributos físicos do solo ao sistema plantio direto em condições de lavoura e com compactação adicional. O estudo foi conduzido na C-Vale Cooperativa Agroindustrial, em Palotina, Estado do Paraná. Foram avaliados dois tratamentos de solo: sistema plantio direto sem compactação adicional (SPD-C0 e sistema plantio direto com compactação adicional (PD-C1, e cinco cultivares de soja: (1 Coodetec 204, (2 Coodetec 215, (3 Monsoy 5942,(4 Embrapa 48 e (5 Spring. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 X 2. Os atributos de solo avaliados foram: densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade. Nas plantas, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: fitomassa seca, altura de plantas, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, massa demil grãos e produtividade. Os resultados demonstraram que as variáveis de produção das cultivares de soja não foram influenciados pelos diferentes níveis de compactação do solo, e as diferenças observadas se deveram às características das próprias cultivares.The compaction process can promote changes in the physical attributes of soil, to the point of limiting the genetic potential for the development of more sensitive agricultural crops or cultivars. Thegoal of this study was to evaluate, on a clayed Red Latosol (Oxisol, the response of production parameters of different varieties of soybean (Glycine max and physical attributes of soil under tillage farming, and with additional compression. The study was conducted at C-Valley Agroindustrial Cooperative, in Palotina (Paraná State. Two treatments

  11. 'PiraRoxa': cultivar de alface crespa de cor vermelha intensa 'PiraRoxa': triple red lettuce cultivar

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    Fernando César Sala

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available 'PiraRoxa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L. crespa de cor vermelha intensa, resistente à Bremia lactucae, Thielaviopsis basicola e LMV, patótipo II. Foi selecionada por meio do método genealógico a partir do cruzamento entre o tipo Lolla Rossa 'RS 521998' e a cv. Gizela. Apresenta plantas grandes e vigorosas, folhas crespas, coloração vermelha intensa e brilhante. Em ensaios conduzidos no verão (2003/2004 o pendoamento da 'PiraRoxa' foi de 10 e 20 dias mais lento quando comparado às cvs. Banchu New Red Fire e Loretta, respectivamente. Trata-se da primeira cultivar tropicalizada para o segmento de alface vermelha com resistência a doenças no Brasil.'PiraRoxa' is a triple red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivar resistant to Bremia lactucae, Thielaviopsis basicola and LMV, pathotype II. This cv. was obtained through pedigree selection from the cross between a Lolla Rossa 'RS 521998' and cv. Gizela. This shiny and intense red lettuce presents vigorous plants with loose leaves. In summer trials (2003/2004 'PiraRoxa' presented slow bolting performance (10 to 20 days later in comparison to cvs. Banchu New Red Fire and Loretta. This is the first tropicalized red leaf lettuce with multiple disease resistance developed in Brazil.

  12. Caracterização e diversidade genética de cultivares de morangueiro Characterization and genetic diversity of strawberry cultivars

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    Elizete Beatriz Radmann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genético-molecular, por marcadores RAPD, das dez principais cultivares de morangueiro utilizadas no País: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie e Vila Nova. O DNA foi extraído de folhas maduras, as análises RAPD foram realizadas com 26 primers e os produtos de amplificação separados por eletroforese. O coeficiente de Dice foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS. Houve amplificação de fragmentos consistentes com 19 primers, tendo sido encontrado polimorfismo em 14. Dos 116 fragmentos gerados, 84 foram polimórficos. As cultivares foram classificadas em dois grupos principais quanto à similaridade genética: cultivares destinadas à industrialização (Bürkley, Santa Clara e Vila Nova e cultivares destinadas ao mercado in natura (demais cultivares. A similaridade foi menor no grupo das cultivares para consumo in natura (44-74%, o que ocorreu em função dos parentais serem diferentes. A maior similaridade genética ocorreu entre as cultivares de indústria Santa Clara e Vila Nova (98%, ambas obtidas pelo programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Clima Temperado, e provenientes dos mesmos parentais ('Konvoy-Cascata' e 'Lassen'. Padrões RAPD foram estabelecidos para a caracterização genética das dez cultivares de morangueiro estudadas.In this work we characterized the genetic-molecular diversity by RAPD markers of the main ten strawberry cultivars cultivated in Brazil: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie and Vila Nova. The DNA was extracted from mature leaves, the RAPD analysis were carried out with 26 primers and the amplification products were separated by electrophoreses. The coefficient of Dice was used to estimate the genetic similarity among the cultivars and the UPGMA

  13. Variations in Disease Resistance of Chestnut Cultivars against Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Sanghyun; KIM Kyunghee; PIAO Chungen; MOON Byungju

    2006-01-01

    Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is one of the major chestnut diseases occurred on stems and branches. Oriental chestnut has more resistance than American one. Twenty-five cultivars of chestnut tree including various cultivars such as Tsukuba, Okkwang, Rihei, Ginyose, Eunsan, etc. Were tested with a rapid, simple and reliable method. The cultivar Banseki is one of the most resistant cultivars tested and has the necrotic area of 0.40 cm2. However, the necrotic areas of the cultivars of American chestnut, Eunsan, Kwangjujoyul and Eaton, ranges from 3.35 to 2.61 cm2 and these cultivars are relatively susceptible to this pathogen. Many pycnidia of this pathogen were observed on the inner and outer bark tissues after incubating for 3 weeks.

  14. Using protein markers of embryo and seed storage proteins in identification of four pistachio cultivars

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    Ali Akbar Ehsanpour

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of protein marker for Pistachio cultivars, as a valuable source of food is important. In this study, the protein patterns of embryo from four pistachio cultivars including Akbari, Ahmad Aghaei, Fandoghi and Kaleghouchi were analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The presence of protein bands about 90 and 45 killo dalton (kd in protein pattern of embryonic axes in cultivars Kaleghouchi and Akbari respectively and the absence of protein bands with approximate molecular weight 30 and 20 kd in protein pattern of cotyledons in cultivars Kaleghouchi and Akbari respectively can be used as protein markers for these pistachio cultivars. On the other hand, the maximum expression level of bands 45 kd in protein pattern of cotyledons could be indicative of a protein marker for cultivar Ahmad Aghaei.

  15. Ozone phytotoxicity in relation to stress ethylene evolution and stomatal resistance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adepipe, N.O.; Tingey, D.T.

    1979-01-01

    In greenhouse experiments, the ozone sensitivities of three cowpea cultivars differing in growth habits and some physiological traits were determined and related to stress ethylene production and leaf diffusive resistance. The cultivars were more sensitive at the 3-leaf than at the 2-leaf stages of growth. There was no consistent leaf injury at less than 0.50 ..mu..l/l of ozone for 2 hr. At an ozone concentration of 1.0 ..mu..l/l for 2 hr. the cultivar Adzuki exhibited marked leaf injury, amounting to over 80% symptom coverage of the leaf surface while New Era and Ife Brown sustained leaf injury maxima of 58 and 35% respectively. Stress ethylene production did not differ among the cultivars. While ozone increased stomatal diffusive resistance in all cultivars, there were not significant differences among the cultivars.

  16. Determination of Apomictic Fruit Set Ratio in Several Romanian Walnut (Juglans regia L. Cultivars

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    Sina Niculina COSMULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available carried out to determine the ability of apomictic fruit setting in twelve Romanian walnut cultivars. ‘Sibisel 44’, ‘Geoagiu 65’, ‘Germisara’, ‘Muscelean’, ‘Sarmis’, ‘Valcor’, ‘Valmit’, ‘Valrex’, ‘Jupanesti’, ‘Velnita’, ‘Orastie’ and ‘Argesean’ cultivars were used in the experiment. Female flowers were isolated with pergament paper bags and the apomictic fruit set was determined 8 weeks after anthesis. The apomixis degree was determined as the number of fruit calculated in relation to the number of isolated flowers. The percentage of apomictic fruit set without pollination in cultivars analyzed is low, ranging from 7.86% (‘Orastie’ cultivar up to 12.46% (‘Jupanesti’ cultivar. The results indicated that apomictic fruit set is insufficient for economical seed and crop production in these Romanian walnut cultivars.

  17. Variation among Rice Cultivars in Root Acidification and Its Relation to Cadmium Uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-guo; XU Hai; CAI Guo-liang; QIAN Min; WANG De-ke; ZHU Qing-sen

    2006-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, soil acidification by root activities was investigated in six rice cultivars differing in Cd accumulation. The results showed a significant difference among the cultivars in pH of pot water and root exudate. Soil acidification abilities varied with rice cultivars. Both pH of pot water and root exudate were lower in indica cultivars than in japonica ones. The difference in root acidification was larger in Cd treated cultivars than the control. Under Cd stress, the pH of pot water and root exudate correlated negatively and significantly with Cd concentrations in rice plants. It was suggested that the soil acidification by root exudates, especially in Cd contaminated soils, may be one of the mechanisms responsible for Cd uptake in rice cultivars.

  18. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  19. Understanding cultivar-specificity and soil determinants of the cannabis microbiome.

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    Max E Winston

    Full Text Available Understanding microbial partnerships with the medicinally and economically important crop Cannabis has the potential to affect agricultural practice by improving plant fitness and production yield. Furthermore, Cannabis presents an interesting model to explore plant-microbiome interactions as it produces numerous secondary metabolic compounds. Here we present the first description of the endorhiza-, rhizosphere-, and bulk soil-associated microbiome of five distinct Cannabis cultivars. Bacterial communities of the endorhiza showed significant cultivar-specificity. When controlling cultivar and soil type the microbial community structure was significantly different between plant cultivars, soil types, and between the endorhiza, rhizosphere and soil. The influence of soil type, plant cultivar and sample type differentiation on the microbial community structure provides support for a previously published two-tier selection model, whereby community composition across sample types is determined mainly by soil type, while community structure within endorhiza samples is determined mainly by host cultivar.

  20. Estabelecimento in vitro de explantes de três cultivares de bananeira Explants establishment in vitro of three banana cultivars

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    Silvia Nietsche

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar dois protocolos de desinfestação na micropropagação em três cultivares de bananeira. Utilizaram-se mudas das cultivares de bananeira Prata Anã, FHIA 18 e SH3640. Os protocolos 1 e 2 de desinfestação (Des. 1 e Des. 2 foram realizados utilizando-se os seguintes produtos: solução fungicida de Derosol, álcool comercial, solução de hipoclorito de sódio e de hipoclorito de cálcio e tween 20, apresentando variações na concentração dos produtos em cada um dos protocolos. As avaliações para a porcentagem de contaminação foram realizadas diariamente por meio do número total de tubos contaminados e não contaminados. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em um sistema fatorial. As contaminações que ocorreram foram causadas exclusivamente por bactérias. Independentemente do tratamento utilizado, os índices de contaminação foram superiores a 29% para as três cultivares testadas. Estes resultados indicam a necessidade de adequar novas metodologias de assepsias de explantes de bananeira.The purpose of this work was to evaluate two protocols of disinfestations in the micropropagation on young plants of three banana cultivars: Prata-Anã, FHIA 18 and SH3640. Protocols 1 and 2 of disinfestations (Dis. 1 and Dis. 2 were carried out using the products: fungicidal solution of Derosol, commercial alcohol, solution of sodium hypo chlorite and calcium hypo chlorite and tween 20, presenting variations in their concentration in every one of the protocols. The evaluations for contamination rate were taken daily by means of the total number of contaminated and non-contaminated tubes. A random block design in a factorial scheme with four repetitions was used. Exclusively bacteria had caused all contamination. Independently of the used treatment the contamination levels had been up to 29% for all the three cultivars tested. These results indicate the necessity of

  1. Development and Validation of National Cotton Cultivar Registration lndex Model in Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiyin XU; Jian Ll

    2014-01-01

    Based on the cotton variety high yielding potential, fiber quality traits, disease resistance, and early maturity characters, a cultivar registration index model was developed to simplify the tedious calculation process in national cotton registration procedure, and thus to enhance the practical application of cultivar regis-tration index in cotton breeding and cotton recommending. [Method] By means of correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis and path analysis methods, the cor-relation of cotton main properties and their effects on cultivar registration index were explored using the dataset of national cotton regional trials in Yangtze River Val ey during 1996-2013. The cultivar registration index model was constructed with step-wise regression statistical technique to ascertain the quantitative relationship of main characters with cultivar registration index, and the regional cotton trial dataset in 2013 was used to validate the model. [Result] Several characters with larger deter-minants to cultivar registration index were screened out, i.e. lint yield increase ratio, pro-frost yield ratio, verticil ium wilt index, fiber strength, fusarium wilt index and mi-cronaire value. The cultivar registration index model defined the functional relation-ship of cultivar registration index with the selected main characters, among which lint yield increase ratio, fiber strength and micronaire value contributed most to culti-var registration index. The model validation with regional cotton trials in 2013 indi-cated the root mean square error, RMSE was only 2.77, and the variation coeffi-cient was 6.77%, which confirmed the model prediction effect was quite perfect. [Conclusion] The developed cultivar registration index model was reliable enough to simulate the complicated scoring system in cultivar registration procedure, also sim-plified cotton registration process, and enhanced the practicability of the cultivar reg-istration index.

  2. Control of Pratylenchus brachyurus with Selected Nonfumigant Nematicides on a Tolerant and a Sensitive Soybean Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Schmitt, D P

    1987-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate soybean cultivar sensitivity to Pratylenchus brachyurus and selected nonfumigant nematicides for control of this nematode. 'Essex', a tolerant cultivar, yielded more than 'Forrest' , a sensitive cultivar, in an infested field. Plots treated with aldicarb, carbofuran, and fenamiphos had fewer nematodes 40 days after planting than nontreated plots. Plots planted with Forrest and treated with carbofuran had a greater yield than the untreated controls.

  3. Potencial de multiplicação in vitro de cultivares de morangueiro In vitro multiplication potential of strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ucker Brahm

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de dez cultivares de morangueiro: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie e Vila Nova. Utilizou-se protocolo similar ao dos laboratórios comerciais. A desinfestação dos estolões foi realizada em soluções à base de álcool e hipoclorito de sódio; a cultura dos meristemas em meio semi-sólido MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0,01 mg L-1 ANA e 0,1 mg L-1 AG3; e a multiplicação em meio MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, à 25 ± 4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Partiu-se de 10 meristemas de cada cultivar, avaliando-se a taxa de multiplicação e os níveis de contaminação, vitrificação e oxidação durante as fases de estabelecimento (30 dias e de multiplicação (quatro subcultivos. O número estimado de plântulas obtidas por meristema foi: 559 de 'Aromas'; 569 de 'Bürkley'; 516 de 'Camarosa'; 517 de 'Campinas'; 3.907 de 'Dover'; 1.841 de 'Milsei-Tudla'; 943 de 'Oso Grande'; 350 de 'Santa Clara'; 298 de 'Sweet Charlie', e 1.132 de 'Vila Nova'. A quantificação dessa variabilidade genética é importante para o planejamento da produção de matrizes de cada cultivar nos laboratórios de micropropagação.The objective of this research work was to evaluate the in vitro multiplication potential of ten strawberry cultivars : 'Aromas', 'Bürkley', 'Camarosa', 'Campinas', 'Dover', 'Milsei-Tudla', 'Oso Grande', 'Santa Clara', 'Sweet Charlie', and 'Vila Nova'. The procedures used for this purpose were similar to those found in the protocol observed by commercial micropropagation laboratories. The disinfestation of the scions was made by dipping them in an alcohol and sodium hypochlorite solution, the meristem culturing in a semisolid medium containing 1 mg of BAP, 0.01 mg of NAA, and 0.1 mg of G3A per liter and the scions multiplication in an MS medium containing 1 mg of BAP at 25° ± 4° C, 20 µ

  4. Weed suppression and weed tolerance of wheat cultivars - relevant traits for Integrated Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschwele, Arnd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An assortment of 10 winter wheat cultivars was tested for specific effects on weed suppression. Furthermore cultivar specific effects of weed infestation and weed control measures on the crop yield were investigated. Two trial series conducted from 2005 to 2010 demonstrated a wide cultivar specific range of shading capacity and weed suppression. Light penetration and the dry matter of the model weed Sinapis alba were highly correlated (r = 0.87 in trial series A (2005-2007. Consequently, the weed dry matter in the less competitive cultivar Dekan was 5 times higher compared to the weak competitor Cubus. Mechanical weed control by harrowing reduced ears density of all cultivars tested in trial series A. These reductions were significantly higher in the cultivars Bussard and Pegassos compared to the other cultivars. Since the weed infestation was low and negative crop effects by harrowing could be compensated by a higher number of kernels/ear, the yield effects were the same for all cultivars. Contrary to the hypothesis, a cultivar specific yield response by harrowing could not be assessed. Higher competition effects by sowing the model weed Sinapis alba could be realised in trial series B (2008-20120. Consequently, the control measures (a harrowing (b 50% herbicide (c 100% herbicide resulted in significantly higher crop yields ranging from 1.23 t*ha-1 (harrowing to 2.08 t*ha-1 (100% herbicide. The yield reduction caused by the model weed was not the same for all cultivars and was lower for the cultivars Cubus and Limes (6% and 7% compared to Boomer (15%. Thus, weed tolerance could be identified as a cultivar specific trait. There were significant interactions between cultivar and weed control measures: The yield increase (relative to model weed was 5% for Bussard, which was much lower compared to the treatment effects on the cultivar Impression (11%. The hypothesis that yield effects by mechanical and chemical weed control may be affected by the

  5. Genetic Diversity of European and Chinese Oilseed Brassica rapa Cultivars from Different Breeding Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; Ofori Atta1; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The Brassica oilseed crops went through two major breeding bottlenecks during the introgression of genes for zero erucic acid and low glucosinolate content, respectively, which may lead to reduced genetic biodiversity of the crop. This study investigates the impact of these bottlenecks on the genetic diversity within and across European and Chinese winter B. Rapa cultivars. We compared eight cultivars from Europe and China, representing three different seed qualities from three different breeding periods: (1) high erucic acid, high glucosinolates (++); (2) zero erucic acid, high glucosinolates (0+); (3) zero erueic acid, low glueosonolates (00, canola quality). Diversity was estimated on 32 plants per cultivar, with 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering each of the B. Rapa linkage groups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variations within cultivars, across cultivars and across regions (Europe and China) were significant, with about 60% of the total variation within cultivars. There was a slight, but non-significant loss in genetic diversity within cultivars when comparing the three breeding periods as indicated by effective number of alleles (2.39,2.23, and 1.99 for breeding periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively), Shannon information index (0.93, 0.90, 0.75), and expected heterozygosity (0.51, 0.49, 0.42). By cluster analysis (UPGMA dendrogram) and principal coordinate analysis, Chinese and European cultivars were clearly divided into two distinct groups. In conclusion, quality improvement did not significantly reduce the genetic diversity of European and Chinese B. Rapa cultivars.

  6. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  7. Cultivars of tulip affected by tulip necrotic disease caused by tobacco necrosis virus in commercial field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahata, K.; Kusaba, T.; Mukobata, H.

    1983-08-01

    This paper represents the name of cultivars in which typical symptoms of tulip necrotic disease have been shown in commercial fields. Within 1976-1983 growing seasons, the authors observed fifty cultivars having the symptoms on their ground parts of tulips and it seemed that cultivars which belong to classes of Truimph, Darwin, Darwin Hybrid and Double Late were highly susceptible to tulip necrotic disease. It was also recognized that, most of affected cultivars flowered in mid or late April, and a few in early April.

  8. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  9. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability.

  10. Influence of Olive Cultivar on Oil Attributes in the Arid Region of Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Asheri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive cultivation has economic and health implications. The quality of harvested oil is affected by the type of cultivar and the climate in which the trees are cultivated. This study was carried out to determine quality indices (peroxide value, K232, and K270, fatty acid composition, and pigment profiles in some cultivars grown in an arid region in central Iran. These are cultivated in completely different climatic conditions than the major olive growing areas of Iran. The results have illustrated that there are significant differences between the cultivars in oil quality, pigments content, and fatty acid composition. Oil quality of all studied cultivars falls within the established ranges for extra virgin olive oil. Oleic acid levels of the ‘Beledy’ and ‘Leccino’ cultivars are below the International Olive Council (IOC established limit. Oils of the ‘Mari’, ‘Koroneiki’, and ‘Mission’ cultivars had the highest monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content. However, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content for Mission oil was considerably higher than ‘Koroneiki’ and ‘Mari’ oils. The ratio of MUFA/PUFA for ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ was higher among all the cultivars studied. Furthermore, these two cultivars presented higher oleic/linoleic acid ratio and lower Cox values. Based on our findings, ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ are among the best performing cultivars for producing olive oil in intensely hot and arid regions.

  11. Pomological properties of sweet cherry cultivars grafted on ‘colt’ rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomological properties of 11 newly sweet cherry cultivars grafted on Colt rootstock were studied in the region of Macva over a three-year period (2010- 2012. An investigation has included phenological traits (flowering and maturing, the elements of productivity (number of flowers in an inflorescence, fruit set and yield, the most important fruit characteristics (physical, chemical and sensory, and fruit cracking index. Average time of flowering of tested cultivars was in the first and the second decade of April, while the maturing time was between 15 May (‘Early Lory’ and 20 June (‘Penny’. The highest yield was achieved by cultivars ‘Giorgia’, ‘Sunburst’, and ‘Crystalina’. Large fruit size was found in cultivars ‘Penny’, ‘Santina’, ‘Sunburst’, ‘Olympus’, and ‘Kordia’. The lowest susceptibility to fruit cracking was manifested in cultivars ‘Early Lory’ and ‘Giorgia’. Cultivars ‘Kordia’ and ‘Cristalina’ were given the highest sensory ratings. Overall, the best results were shown by medium-early season cultivar ‘Santina’, which can be recommended for commercial cultivation. In addition, the early-season cultivar ‘Early Lory’, and the late-season cultivar ‘Kordia’ can also be recommended for cultivation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063

  12. Phenological behaviour of Vitis rotundifolia cultivars in Pinhais – PR / Comportamento fenológico de cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia em Pinhais – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Zanette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the phenological cycle of nine Vitis rotundifolia cultivars during the 2004/2005 season. The cultivars were Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. The experiment was performed on an orchard implanted in 1999 at the Canguiri Experimental Station of the Federal University of Paraná in Pinhais-PR. The phenology of two adult plants of each cultivar was monitored. The recorded phenological stages were: 1 Dormant bud; 2 Swollen bud; 3 Wool bud; 4 Green tip; 5 Bud burst (first leaf appearance; 6 Two to three leaves unfolded; 7 Five to six leaves unfolded; 8 Fully developed inflorescence; 9 Trace bloom (flowerhoods detached; 10 Full flowering (50% of the flowerhoods fallen; 11 Fruit set; 12 Groat-sized berries; 13 Pea-sized berries; 14 50% filled berries (beginning to touch berries; 15 Final size; 16 Color change; 17 Berries ripe for harvest; and 18 End of harvesting. A very long phenological cycle was observed when compared to species such as Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca. These evaluations allowed us to conclude that: a there is no difference in the phenological cycle periods between bronze and dark skinned cultivars; b cultivars presented desuniform wool bud to full flowering cycle, ranging from 25 days (‘Regale’ to 81 days (‘Creek’; c the cultivar Regale presented the longest cycle (203 days from full flowering to harvest and the cultivar Creek the shortest (136 days. The evaluated cultivars additionally presented desuniform ripening and a tendency to drop berries. O objetivo foi caracterizar o ciclo fenológico de nove cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia avaliadas na safra de 2004/2005. As cultivares estudadas foram as seguintes: Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. O trabalho foi realizado em um pomar do Setor de Fruticultura da Estação Experimental do Canguiri da Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Pinhais-PR, sendo que

  13. Incidência e severidade da malformação floral em seis cultivares de mangueira Incidence and severity of mango flower malformation in six cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Oliveira Dias

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência e a severidade da malformação floral em diferentes cultivares de mangueira (Mangifera indica L., em condições de clima semi-árido, no município de Santa Maria da Vitória, Estado da Bahia. O experimento foi conduzido no mês de julho de 2001, em um cultivo comercial formado por diversas cultivares divididas em talhões. Os tratamentos foram compostos por seis cultivares assim distribuídas: T1- Rosa; T2- Haden; T3- Bourbon; T4- Palmer; T5- Tommy Atkins; T6-Van Dyke. Nas condições em que o trabalho foi desenvolvido, os menores índices de incidência e severidade da malformação floral foram obtidos pela cultivar Rosa que não apresentou sintomas, seguida pela 'Bourbon'. A cultivar Haden apresentou os maiores índices da doença.The present work was developed with the objective to evaluate the incidence and the severity of mango flower malformation in different cultivars, in conditions of semi-arid region, in Santa Maria da Vitória, Bahia State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in july, 2001, in a mango orchard composed of different cultivars. The used treatments cultivars were: T1- Rosa; T2- Haden; T3 Bourbon; T4- Palmer; T5- Tommy Atkins; T6- Van Dyke. In the conditions that this work was carried out, the highest percentage of incidence and severity of flower malformation was gotten by Haden variety. Rosa and Bourbon cultivars presented minimum occurrence of the disease.

  14. Initial growth and tolerance of melon cultivars under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbia Bressia Gonçalves Araujo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is normally developed in semiarid regions, where water resources are limited. This scarcity of water is a strong stressor on the crops, and requires the supplementation of existing water supplies with poor quality water, especially saline water. This can impede the growth and production of plants; however, the use of tolerant genotypes may minimize this problem. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was developed at the Federal University of Campina Grande - UFCG, Pombal Campus, Paraiba State, Brazil, in order to study the emergence, initial growth, and tolerance of melon cultivars irrigated with waters of different salt content. We studied three melon cultivars (Gaúcho Redondo, Gaúcho Casca de Carvalho and Halles Best Jumbo irrigated with five levels of saline water (0.6; 1.2; 1.8; 2.4; and 3.0 dS m-1, arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme, with the treatments distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The plants seeds were monitored for 30 days after sowing, and at 30 days the growth and salinity tolerance index was evaluated. Cultivar Halles Best Jumbo was the most tolerant to saline water during initial stage of growth, while the Gaucho Redondo was more sensitive to salinity. It was found that saline waters up to 1.8 dS m-1 were suitable for irrigation of melon plants round Gaucho and waters up to 2.4 dS m-1 could be used for irrigation of Gaucho Casca de Carvalho and Halles Best Jumbo crops during the initial growth phase.

  15. Biofortification of Wheat Cultivars to Combat Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattha, Muhammad U.; Hassan, Muhammad U.; Khan, Imran; Chattha, Muhammad B.; Mahmood, Athar; Chattha, Muhammad U.; Nawaz, Muhammad; Subhani, Muhammad N.; Kharal, Mina; Khan, Sadia

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake is a global nutritional problem, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, zinc biofortification of wheat and other cereal crops is being urgently addressed and highly prioritized as a research topic. A field study was planned to evaluate the influence of zinc application on grain yield, grain zinc content, and grain phytic acid concentrations of wheat cultivars, and the relationships between these parameters. Three wheat cultivars, C1 = Faisalabad-2008, C2 = Punjab-2011, and C3 = Millet-2011 were tested with five different methods of zinc application: T1 = control, T2 = seed priming, T3 = soil application, T4 = foliar application, and T5 = soil + foliar application. It was found that grain yield and grain zinc were positively correlated, whereas, grain phytic acid and grain zinc were significantly negatively correlated. Results also revealed that T5, T3, and T4 considerably increased grain yield; however, T2 only slightly enhanced grain yield. Grain zinc concentration increased from 33.1 and 33.7 mg kg−1 in T1 to 62.3 and 63.1 mg kg−1 in T5 in 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively. In particular, T5 markedly decreased grain phytic acid content; however, maximum concentration was recorded in T1. Moreover, all the tested cultivars exhibited considerable variation in grain yield, grain zinc, and grain phytic acid content. In conclusion, T5 was found to be most suitable for both optimum grain yield and grain biofortification of wheat. PMID:28352273

  16. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS TO ABIOTIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špoljarević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought, temperature and salt stress are the most prominent among different types of abiotic stress in soybean production. This PhD dissertation aimed to investigate the physiological mechanisms of soybean response to the above mentioned stresses. The research was performed with 6 cultivars in the germination - emergence stage and two cultivars in the flowering stage. In the first experiment, soybean seed was germinated in paper towels soaked in water or the solution with given osmotic pressure. Two levels of drought (5% and 10% PEG solutions, salt (50 and 100 mM NaCl solutions and temperature stress (10°C and 30°C, as well as a control treatment (20°C, water were applied through a 7 day germination period. Seed germinability (% and morphological traits were analysed, as well as enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters in hypocotyls. The most effective were higher level of drought stress and low temperature. High temperature stimulated seedling development and mild drought stress had a priming effect and increased germination rate. In the second experiment, two cultivars were grown in pots filled with soil and kept in the open until flowering, and afterwards exposed to different temperature degrees (30°C, 10°C and 20°C as control during 3 days in a climate chamber. The photosynthesis efficiency parameters and, like in first experiment, physiological indicators of plant stress response were determined in the leaf tissue. Highly significant treatment influence on the analysed parameters in the both growth stages, confirms that the applied treatments invoked the oxidative stress and defence reactions in soybean.

  17. Características qualitativas de cultivares de cebola no sul de Minas Gerais Qualitative characteristics of onion cultivars in southern Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Júlio de Rezende Chagas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a composição físico-química e química de cultivares de cebola (Allium cepa L., conduziu-se um ensaio na Fazenda Experimental de Lavras da EPAMIG, Lavras-MG, no período de março a setembro de 1995. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e 6 tratamentos, constituídos pelas cultivares Baia Periforme, Crioula, Granex 33, Pira Ouro, Jubileu e Texas Grano 502. Após a cura, avaliaram-se o pH, sólidos solúveis e totais (%, acidez titulável (%, ácido pirúvico (µmol/g, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores (% e índice industrial dos bulbos. As cultivares Crioula, Baia Periforme, Pira Ouro e Jubileu apresentaram as maiores concentrações de sólidos totais e solúveis. A acidez mais elevada foi observada nas cultivares Crioula (0,370% e Pira Ouro (0,315%. Os maiores índices industriais foram apresentados pelas cultivares Crioula (0,87 e Baia Periforme (0,75, e os menores, pelas cultivares Texas Grano 502 (0,51 e Granex 33 (0,32.This study was carried out from March to September of 1995, in the Experimental Field of EPAMIG, Lavras-MG, Brazil, with the objective of determining the physico-chemical and chemical composition of onions from different cultivars (Allium cepa L.. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with four repetitions and six cultivars as follow: Baia Periforme, Crioula, Granex 33, Pira Ouro, Jubileu and Texas Grano 502. After the cure it was evaluated the pH, soluble and total solids (%, titrate acidity (%, pyruvic acid (µmol/g, total sugar, reducers and non reducers (% and industrial index. The cultivars Crioula, Baia Periforme, Pira Ouro and Jubileu showed the largest concentrations of total and soluble solids. The highest acidity indexes were observed in the cultivars Crioula (0.370% and Pira Ouro (0.315%. The largest industrial indexes were found in the cultivars Crioula (0.87 and Baia Periforme (0.75, and the smallest ones in the

  18. Yields and resistance of strawberry cultivars to crown and root diseases in the field, and cultivar responses to pathogens under controlled environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangling FANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Devastating outbreaks of crown and root diseases have impacted severely on commercial strawberry production in Western Australia (W.A.. Studies were conducted to evaluate the yields, and resistance of three commercial strawberry cultivars to crown and root diseases, both in fumigated and non-fumigated field beds, and to determine the responses of eight commercial cultivars to individual pathogens under controlled conditions. In the field, cv. Camino Real showed the greatest fruit yield both in fumigated and non-fumigated beds, and was the most disease-resistant cultivar. Each cultivar had a greater fruit yield and a lower amount of plant decline in fumigated beds, compared with non-fumigated beds. Both for fumigated and non-fumigated beds, the amount of plant decline increased from August to November, particularly in non-fumigated beds. Under controlled conditions, cv. Festival was most resistant and cv. Camarosa most susceptible to wilt-causing Fusarium oxysporum. Against binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-A, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Phoma exigua, cv. Festival was most resistant and cv. Aromas most susceptible. Cultivar Camino Real was the most resistant to Gnomonia fructicola and Phytophthora cactorum and cv. Festival most resistant to Pythium ultimum. Against Macrophomina phaseolina, cv. Albion was the most resistant with cv. Camarosa the most susceptible. Cultivar Camarosa, the most widely grown cultivar in W.A., was most susceptible to F. oxysporum, while cv. Camino Real was resistant to F. oxysporum both in the field and the controlled environment conditions. Cultivar Festival is the most resistant cultivar to F. oxysporum and a range of different pathogens. The Australian bred cv. Juliette was as susceptible as cv. Camarosa to F. oxysporum, but relatively resistant to binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-A. This is the first study, not only to define the relative yield potentials of different cultivars in a situation where crown and root disease

  19. Rendimento de cultivares de tomate para processamento em Goias

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Seis ensaios de competição de cultivares de tomate para processamento industrial foram conduzidos nos municípios goianos de Anápolis, Jataí, Porangatú e Santa Isabel, em 1990, e Anápolis e Porangatu, em 1991. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, tendo as parcelas 80 plantas em 1990 e 70 em 1991. Em Porangatu, em 1990, as plantas foram mais precoces, florescendo 35 e 41 dias após a semeadura e iniciando-se a colheita 38 dias após a antese. Em ...

  20. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  1. A COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RICE CULTIVARS DATA

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    Mugemangango Cyprien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, rice cultivars data have been analysed by three different statisticaltechniques viz. Split-plot analysis in RBD, two-factor factorial analysis in RBD and analysis oftwo-way classified data with several observations per cell. The powers of the tests under differentmethods of analysis have been calculated. The method of two-way classified data with severalobservations per cell is found better followed by two-factor factorial technique in RBD and splitplot analysis for analyzing the given data.

  2. Evaluation of ensilage potential of alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, ALG; Costa,Ciniro; Arrigoni, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the ensilage potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L,.). The material used in the evaluation was harvested from an experiment in a complete randomized blocks design with three replicates, with seventeen alfalfa cultivars, Criouil, Florida 77, P555, P581, Moapa, Gilboa, 34 Linea, C/W 8754, C/W 4468, C/W 86, C/W 8746, Hunter Field, Trifecta, Sequel, CUF 101, Aurora e Siriver, during three years. The harvest used for the determinations was collected at 30...

  3. Divergência genética entre cultivares de caupi Genetic divergence among cultivars of cowpea

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    Francisco José de Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a divergência genética de cultivares de caupi, agrupadas por análise multivariada visando à seleção de parentais superiores. Foram utilizadas 16 cultivares de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] do banco de germoplasma do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Ceará. As observações fenotípicas foram realizadas num ensaio com delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados, com seis blocos e 16 tratamentos, incluindo três testemunhas, com parcela experimental de 24 m² e área útil de 16 m², sendo quatro fileiras de plantas, com espaços de 1,0 x 0,5 m, contendo duas plantas por cova. Para mensurar os caracteres fenotípicos, cinco plantas competitivas, localizadas nas duas fileiras centrais da parcela, foram tomadas ao acaso. Os cruzamentos entre os grupos I [TVx-337-3F e Vita-4 (TVu 1977-OD] e II (Bengala e V-4 Alagoas podem resultar em produção de novas combinações gênicas, por serem divergentes e reunirem maior número de caracteres agronomicamente desejáveis. Os caracteres que mais contribuem para divergência genética são o comprimento da vagem (36,80% e o peso de 100 sementes (19,21%.This work aimed to determine the genetic divergence among cowpea cultivars [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] when grouped in a multivariate analysis concerning to select superior parents. So 16 cowpea cultivars were used from the germplasm bank of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, in Brazil. The data were accomplished in complete randomized blocks, with six blocks, 16 treatments and three cultivar checks. The total area of experimental plots was 24 m² and the net area was 16 m², displayed in four rows, plants were spaced about 1.0 x 0.5 m with two plants in each plot. The phenotypic data were estimated from five competitive plants as casual samples on two central rows of each replicate. Breeding among the groups I [TVx-337-3F and

  4. Potencial de multiplicação in vitro de cultivares de framboeseira In vitro multiplication rate of raspberry cultivars

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    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de quatro das principais cultivares de framboeseira utilizadas no Brasil: Autumn Bliss, Batum, Dorman Red e Heritage. Utilizou-se protocolo empregado em laboratórios comerciais. A desinfestação dos explantes foi realizada em soluções à base de álcool e hipoclorito de sódio; a cultura dos meristemas em meio semissólido MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0,01 mg L-1 ANA e 0,1 mg L-1 AG3; a multiplicação em MS com 0,8 mg L-1 BAP e 15 mg L-1 sulfato de ferro; e o enraizamento em ½MS com 0,1 mg L-1 ANA, sempre a 25±4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Partiu-se de 60 meristemas de cada cultivar, avaliando-se a taxa de multiplicação e os níveis de contaminação, vitrificação e oxidação durante as fases de estabelecimento (60 dias, multiplicação (seis subcultivos de 40 dias e enraizamento in vitro (30 dias. As cultivares de framboeseira apresentaram pronunciada variabilidade genética quanto ao potencial de multiplicação. O número estimado de mudas obtidas por meristema no sistema de micropropagação descrito foi de 56.664 para 'Autumn Bliss', 6.692 para 'Heritage', 1.942 para 'Batum' e 696 para 'Dorman Red'. A quantificação dessa variabilidade de resposta in vitro é importante para o planejamento da produção de mudas nos laboratórios de micropropagação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro potential of multiplication of the four main raspberry cultivars used in Brazil: Autumn Bliss, Batum, Dorman Red and Heritage. A commercial micropropagation protocol was used. The explant desinfestation was carried out in solution of alcohol and sodium hypochlorite. The meristem culture was carried out in semi-solid MS medium with 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0.01 mg L-1 ANA and 0.1 mg L-1 AG3; the explant multiplication in MS medium with 0.8 mg L-1 BAP and 15 mg L-1 iron sulphate; and the rooting in ½MS medium with 0.1 mg L-1 ANA, always at 25±4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 and 16

  5. TOTAL NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE (TNC OF THREE CULTIVARS OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum AT VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PHASE

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    Budiman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine Total Non-structural carbohydrates (TNC of three cultivars of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum harvested at vegetative and reproductive phases. The cultivars tested were Taiwan (Gt, King (Gk and Mott (Gm and arranged in a 3 x 2 of treatments with four replicates following nested design. The results showed that the highest sugar content (P<0.01 was found in Gt cultivar and the lowest was in Gm cultivar. The highest starch content (P<0.01 was found in Gk cultivar and the lowest was in Gt cultivar. TNC content of Gt and Gk cultivars were not significantly different, but both were significantly higher (P<0.01 compared with the Gm cultivar. It can be concluded, that there were differences in TNC between cultivars, however, the TNC content in Gk cultivar was not different with Gt cultivar, while Gm cultivar have the lowest (P<0.01 TNC content. At reproductive phase all cultivars have higher (P<0.01 TNC and starch content than at vegetative phase.

  6. 'PiraRoxa': cultivar de alface crespa de cor vermelha intensa 'PiraRoxa': triple red lettuce cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando César Sala; Cyro Paulino da Costa

    2005-01-01

    'PiraRoxa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) crespa de cor vermelha intensa, resistente à Bremia lactucae, Thielaviopsis basicola e LMV, patótipo II. Foi selecionada por meio do método genealógico a partir do cruzamento entre o tipo Lolla Rossa 'RS 521998' e a cv. Gizela. Apresenta plantas grandes e vigorosas, folhas crespas, coloração vermelha intensa e brilhante. Em ensaios conduzidos no verão (2003/2004) o pendoamento da 'PiraRoxa' foi de 10 e 20 dias mais lento quando comparado...

  7. New Cultivars Derived from Crosses between Commercial Cultivar and a Wild Population of Papaya Rescued at Its Center of Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Vázquez Calderón; Manuel Jesús Zavala León; Fernando Amilcar Contreras Martín; Francisco Espadas y Gil; Abelardo Navarrete Yabur; Lorenzo Felipe Sánchez Teyer; Jorge M. Santamaría

    2014-01-01

    In order to generate new varieties, this study focused on the rescue and use of landraces and wild Carica papaya L. populations located at southern Yucatan, Mexico, to cross them with a commercial papaya cultivar (Maradol). In the cross L7 × M22, The native parent line L7 was used as the receiver parent while the commercial Maradol (M22) was used as the donor parent, seeking to generate genotypes with improved productivity and reduced plant height. Cluster analysis and principal components an...

  8. Melhoramento genético do cultivar de milho IAC-1 Genetic improvement of the maize cultivars IAC-1

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    Luiz Torres de Miranda

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os resultados obtidos no melhoramento do cultivar de milho IAC-1 pela introdução de linhagens prolíficas nesta população, que já vinha sendo melhorada há oito ciclos pelo método de seleção entre e dentro de famílias de meios irmãos. Para produção de grãos foi observado um progresso genético médio de 3,3% por ciclo, comparado com um progresso genético esperado de 7,2% por ciclo. Para índice-de-espigas foi observado um progresso genético de 8,9% e um progresso genético espe-rado de 1,9% por ciclo. Com a introdução de fatores de prolificidade, o índice-de-espigas aumentou consideravelmente superando inclusive o do híbrido duplo comercial utilizado como controle. Houve pequeno aumento da porcentagem de plantas acamadas e quebra-das, com o decorrer dos ciclos de seleção. Computando-se os ganhos obtidos inicialmente neste cultivar, houve em 10 ciclos de seleção um progresso acumulado de 28% para produção de grãos e de 10% para índice-de-espigas, sendo este último obtido quase exclusivamente após a introdução das linha-gens prolíficas.There are presented results of the improvement of the maize (Zea mays, L. cultivars IAC-1, after the introduction of prolificacy in a population formerly improved for eight cycles by the modified ear-to-row procedure. It was obtained an average progress of 3.3% per cycle in grain yield, against an expected genetic progress of 7.2% per cycle. For the ear index a genetic progress of 8.9% per cycle was observed and an expected genetic progress of 1.9% per cycle was estimated. With the introduction of prolificacy factors, ear index increased considerably outyielding the commercial double hybrid control Lodging changed 'very little with the cycles of selection. The IAC-1 cultivars showed an accumulated progress of 28% for grain yield and 10% for ear index. The gain in ear index is mainly due to the prolific inbred lines introduced in the synthetic.

  9. Physicochemical Characteristics of Orange Juice Samples From Seven Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some physicochemical parameters of orange juice from seven orange varieties (Pineapple orange, Hamlin, Trovita, Jincheng,1232 Tangor, Olinda Valencia, and Delta Valencia) were analyzed, special attention was paid to the level of sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, mineral composition, and color parameters. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS),TSS/titratable acidity (TA) ratios, sugars, and organic acids were kept within a proper range for juice processing except that Jincheng had lower TSS than the others. Sucrose was the most dominant sugar in the orange cultivars, followed by fructose and glucose, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Serine and proline were the principal amino acids.Potassium was the most abundant mineral in all of the juice samples, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium content of most varieties was under 10 mg kg-1. Though all of the samples had orange colour, Olinda Valencia and Delta Valencia had deeper red colour than the others. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the samples in most of the characteristics. The results provided important information on the physicochemical characteristics of the varieties and on how to make the best use of orange cultivars for different purposes, which is of significance for both technological research and processing practice.

  10. IMPROVING SUBMERGENCE TOLERANCE OF VIETNAMESE RICE CULTIVAR BY MOLECULAR BREEDING

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    Ta-Hong Linh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Submergence stress has caused by climate change is the major hindrance to enhancing rice production of Vietnam. In this study, we have evaluated the levels of submergence tolerance ability of the imported rice cultivars under the 4 different field trials. Among these, IR64-Sub1 exhibits the highest submergence tolerance with stable and high yield, and was used as a donor plant, while Bacthom 7, an elite Vietnamese rice cultivar was used as the recipient plant. In molecular markers study, we have used closely linkage markers with Sub1, flanking markers Sub1, and unlinked marker to Sub1 for the foreground, recombinant and background selections in the backcrossing generations between the donor and the recipient plants. In BC3F1 generation, the individual plant number 116 has carried QTL/Sub1 and retained the highest genetic background of the recipient parent up to 98.6%. The newly improved rice line may be useful for growing in the flooding areas of Vietnam to cope with the climate change.

  11. Selection indices to identify drought-tolerant grain sorghum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, C B; Ticona-Benavente, C A; Tardin, F D; Cardoso, M J; Bastos, E A; Nogueira, D W; Portugal, A F; Santos, C V; Schaffert, R E

    2014-11-27

    Twenty-five cultivars of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were examined under both drought stress and normal conditions in 4 experiments. In each condition, genotypes were evaluated in a factorial experiment using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Eight drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index, mean productivity (MP), geometric MP, harmonic mean, stress susceptibility index, tolerance index, yield index, and yield stability index were estimated for each genotype based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated conditions (Yp). The results indicated that there were positive and significant correlations among Yp and Ys with geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, indicating that these factors are better predictors of Yp and Ys than tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, yield stability index, and yield index. Based on adjusted means at Yp and Ys, indices geometric MP, MP, harmonic mean, and stability tolerance index, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and biplot analysis, the most tolerant cultivars were '9929020', '9929034', and 'N 95B'.

  12. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  13. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon.

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    Min Chai

    Full Text Available As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as 'trap crops' for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids 'Sorbonne', Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids hybrids 'Ceb Dazzle', and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum 'L. formolongo' to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced "suicidal germination" of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil.

  14. Vernalization and Photoperiod Genes in Iranian Wheat Cultivars

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    Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. can avoid the deleterious effects of low temperatures by using environmental adaptation strategies such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction. Awareness of the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns is necessary for introducing new varieties to specific environments. We performed morphological and genetic studies of 104 lines and cultivars of Iranian wheat genotypes, including four durum genotypes, obtained from national wheat breeding programmes. We used sequence-tagged site (STS-PCR with specific primers to identify alleles affecting the sensitivity to vernalization and photoperiod response at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 loci. Some morphological traits such as percentage germination, growth habit, final leaf number (FLN, ear length, and days to ear emergence were also measured. Results showed that FLN and days to ear emergence are the best morphological traits to study wheat flowering time. Allelic variation showed that Vrn-D1 is more frequent than other genes in Iranian wheat genotypes, and so most Iranian genotypes are vernalization-insensitive. In addition, most genotypes were photoperiod-insensitive because of the semi-dominant mutation allele, Ppd-D1a. Based on allelic variation and morphological traits, we identified five classes of Iranian genotypes. The allelic variation study and morphology evaluation of this germplasm showed that the majority of Iranian cultivars and breeding lines are spring varieties and insensitive to day length.

  15. Caracterização molecular de cultivares de pessegueiro e nectarineira com microssatélites Molecular characterization of peach and nectarine cultivars though microsatellites markers

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    Valmor João Bianchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na certificação de mudas de plantas frutíferas, a identificação genética é importante em todas as etapas do processo de produção. Em pessegueiro, a identificação de genótipos baseada somente em características morfofenológicas deixa dúvidas quanto à verdadeira identidade de algumas cultivares. Marcadores moleculares de microssatélies foram utilizados objetivando a caracterização molecular de 8 cultivares de nectarineira e 28 de pessegueiro. Para a análise, foram utilizados 13 incializadores de microssatélites (primers, sendo que todos foram marcadores produzindo polimorfismo suficiente para identificar 32 das 36 cultivares analisadas. A maior similaridade genética verificada nas cultivares para consumo in natura foi entre Coral e Planalto (0,94 e entre Della Nona e Marfim (0,90, enquanto, para os pessegueiros para indústria, foi de 0,93 entre Jubileu e Capdeboscq e de 0,92 entre Jade e Esmeralda. Os marcadores de microssatélites permitiram separar em grupos distintos as nectarineiras e os pessegueiros de consumo in natura dos de indústria, havendo uma elevada concordância entre os dados genealógicos das cultivares e os dados gerados pelos microssatélites, confirmando a grande utilidade da técnica para a caracterização genética.Genetic identification of fruit tree plants is important in all phases of the production process. On peach the genotypes identification based only on the morphologic and phenologic characteristics leaves doubts on the true identity of some cultivars. Microsatellite markers were used aiming at the molecular characterization of eight nectarine and 28 peach cultivars. Thirteen microsatellite primers were used and all of them generated enough polimorfism that may identify 32 out of 36 of the analysed cultivars. The greatest genetic similarity was found between the fresh market 'Coral' and 'Planalto'(0,94 and between the 'Della Nona' and 'Marfim' cultivars (0,90, whereas for caning peaches the

  16. Produção de mudas de cultivares de morangueiro em duas épocas de coleta Runners production of strawberry cultivars in two collection dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tessarioli Neto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da grande importância das mudas na implantação de um cultivo de morango, pouca importância tem sido dada a estudos experimentais nesta fase da cultura. Avaliou-se o comportamento de sete cultivares de morangueiro na fase de produção de mudas, em duas épocas, sob condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos completamente casualizados, com 14 tratamentos e 4 repetições através de um esquema fatorial 7 x 2. Os fatores estudados foram cultivar (Campinas IAC-2712, IAC Princesa Isabel, Chandler, Dover, Pajaro, Toyonoka e Korona e épocas de coleta das mudas (14/03/1997; 15/04/1997. Determinou-se a quantidade de mudas produzidas por metro quadrado e a classificação das mudas em quatro categorias: Extra, Primeira, Segunda e Descarte. Houve diferenças quanto a quantidade de mudas de morangueiro produzidas por metro quadrado, de acordo com a cultivar. As cultivares Dover e Campinas produziram maior quantidade de mudas do que as cultivares Korona, Chandler, Princesa Isabel, Toyonoka e Pajaro, independentemente da época de coleta. A coleta de mudas na segunda época (15/04/97 proporcionou a obtenção de mudas de qualidade superior à observada na primeira época (14/03/97, independente da cultivar.In spite of the great importance of runners in the formation of new strawberry fields, little importance has been given to experimental studies of this phase of the crop. There were evaluated seven strawberry cultivars in the stage of runner production, during two different collection dates under field conditions, in Piracicaba, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with 14 treatments and 4 replications, using a factorial scheme of 7 x 2. The variables were the cultivars (Campinas IAC-2712, IAC Princesa Isabel, Chandler, Dover, Pajaro, Toyonoka and Korona and the dates of runner collection (14/031997;15/04/1997. The runners were considered according to four categories: Extra

  17. Variation in Growth, Physiology, and Yield of Six Sugarcane Cultivars from across the Globe in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars with diverse genetic background under similar location can help in better understanding cultivar response to environment and in identifying various physiological traits that could lead to improved yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, yield...

  18. DNA typing and genetic relations among European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccacci, P; Akkak, A; Botta, R

    2006-06-01

    In this work, 78 hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars from various germplasm repositories were studied at 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in order to identify the genotypes and investigate their genetic relations. Polymorphism at SSR loci was evaluated on the basis of number of alleles (mean: 9.4), expected heterozygosity (mean: 0.78), and power of discrimination (mean: 0.91). Several synonyms reported in the literature were confirmed, and new cases of synonymy were identified. The parentage of North American cultivars 'Butler', 'Ennis', and 'Royal', the French selection 'Fercoril-Corabel', and 'Impératrice Eugenie' was investigated on the basis of the alleles present at 16 loci and analysis at 8 additional loci. A dendrogram generated from cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouped cultivars according to their pedigrees or geographical origins. There was an evident differentiation of the northern European cultivars from the southern European ones and from the Turkish cultivars. The latter clustered close to but separate from the Italian and Spanish clusters. It is very likely that exchanges of cultivars occurred between the central and western Mediterranean basin as a result of human migration and trade. A database containing the SSR profiles of the most important hazelnut cultivars will be useful for identification of cultivars and synonyms, legal protection, and parentage analysis.

  19. Truhart-NR, A Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Pimento-type Pepper Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to develop a high-yielding, pimento-type pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivar that is highly resistant to root-knot nematodes were completed with the official release of Truhart-NR on October 20, 2009. The new cultivar is homozygous for the dominant N gene that conditions a high level of re...

  20. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  1. A relative resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Stem Borer Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane in Louisiana and Texas. Cultivar resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in commercial and experimental sugarcane cultivars in four replicated field studies between 2009 and 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed t...

  2. A review of the potential for competitive cereal cultivars as a tool in integrated weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, I K S; Storkey, J; Sparkes, D L

    2015-06-01

    Competitive crop cultivars offer a potentially cheap option to include in integrated weed management strategies (IWM). Although cultivars with high competitive potential have been identified amongst cereal crops, competitiveness has not traditionally been considered a priority for breeding or farmer cultivar choice. The challenge of managing herbicide-resistant weed populations has, however, renewed interest in cultural weed control options, including competitive cultivars. We evaluated the current understanding of the traits that explain variability in competitive ability between cultivars, the relationship between suppression of weed neighbours and tolerance of their presence and the existence of trade-offs between competitive ability and yield in weed-free scenarios. A large number of relationships between competitive ability and plant traits have been reported in the literature, including plant height, speed of development, canopy architecture and partitioning of resources. There is uncertainty over the relationship between suppressive ability and tolerance, although tolerance is a less stable trait over seasons and locations. To realise the potential of competitive crop cultivars as a tool in IWM, a quick and simple-to-use protocol for assessing the competitive potential of new cultivars is required; it is likely that this will not be based on a single trait, but will need to capture the combined effect of multiple traits. A way needs to be found to make this information accessible to farmers, so that competitive cultivars can be better integrated into their weed control programmes.

  3. Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildew in legacy cultivars of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), the most popular leafy vegetable, are susceptible to downy mildew disease caused by Bremia lactucae. Cultivars Iceberg and Grand Rapids that were released in 18th and 19th century, respectively, have high levels of quantitative resistance to downy milde...

  4. Adaptation to partial resistance to powdery mildew in the hop cultivar Cascade by Podosphaera macularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hop cultivar Cascade has been grown in the Pacific Northwestern U.S. with minimal input for management of powdery mildew (Podosphaera macularis) for nearly 20 years due to the putatively quantitative resistance in this cultivar. While partial resistance is generally thought to be more durable th...

  5. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 32 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  6. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of southern highbush blueberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols were developed to optimize adventitious shoot regeneration from four southern highbush blueberry cultivars. Leaf explants from six-week-old shoots of the four cultivars were excised and cultured on ten WPM (woody plant medium)-based regeneration media each containing thidiazuron (TDZ) (4.5...

  7. Cultivar effect on the sweet cherry antioxidant and some chemical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzyński Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacities, sugars and organic acids content of sweet cherry cultivars (Bianca, Burlat, Johanna 1, Johanna 2, Kordia, Kunzes Kirsche, Merton Premier, Napoleon, Orleans, Regina, Rivan, Schneiders Spate Knorpelkirsche, Summit, Trebnitzer Lotkirsche grown in Poland. Significant differences were observed between tested cultivars for all studied parameters.

  8. Boric acid in germination of pollen grains and fruit set of peach cultivars in subtropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Bittencourt Machado de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The pollination and fertilization process directly affects the crop yield of peach. Previous studies have shown that some cultivars lack consistent cropping (yield variation in subtropical regions. The application of boric acid at flowering can minimize this problem. This study quantified the germination of pollen grains and fruit set on 18 cultivars of peach in a subtropical region when treated with boric acid at bud. The initial spray treatments were three concentrations of boric acid (400 mgL-1, 800 mgL-1 and 1,200 mgL-1 plus a control treatment of water. Treatments were sprayed on the shoots when the flower buds were flower bud swelling on early maturing cultivars Aurora 2 and Doçura 2. There is a cultivar difference where 'Aurora 2' had a negative effect from the application of boric acid on the percentage of germinated pollen grains and fruit set. 'Doçura 2' has a positive results at the concentration of 400 mgL-1 of boric acid. In a follow-up experiment with 18 cultivars, using only the water control and 400 mgL-1 boric acid treatment, boron increases pollen grain germination and fruit set for some cultivars. The increase in germination and fruit set varies significantly among the cultivars. The concentration of 400 mgL-1 of boric acid increases pollen germination and fruit set, but not in all cultivars.

  9. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  10. Digestibilidade in vivo dos nutrientes de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L. em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorigan Cláudia Josefina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a digestibilidade "in vivo" dos nutrientes dos cultivares de amoreira FM 86 e FM SM nas idades de crescimento de 45 e 90 dias. Foram utilizados 8 caprinos machos, da raça Saanen, com 6 meses de idade e peso vivo médio de 26kg. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 X 2 (2 cultivares de amoreira e 2 idades de crescimento. O coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN do cultivar FM 86 (74,82 % superou o cultivar FM SM (69,36 %, não ocorrendo diferença significativa entre as idades de crescimento. Ocorreu interação significativa entre cultivar e idade de crescimento para o Coeficiente de Digestibilidade da FDA, e o cultivar FM 86 na idade de 45 dias (75,09 % superou a de 90 dias (68,82 %. Para os parâmetros NDT e oeficientes de digestibilidade da energia, MS e PB, verificou-se superioridade da idade de corte de 45 dias, sem diferença entre os cultivares. Concluiu-se que os cultivares FM 86 e FM SM apresentaram excelente valor energético e altos coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, da PB e dos constituintes da parede celular, indicando um elevado potencial da amoreira como forrageira para caprinos.

  11. Influence of cultivar and culture system on nutritional and organoleptic quality of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhatou, Ikram; Fernández Recamales, Ángeles

    2014-03-30

    Strawberries are widely appreciated and consumed as a pleasant-tasting fruit either in fresh form or as processed product. Of the many factors which can affect the quality of fruit (sensorial and nutritional), the cultivar is especially important, but it is also affected by crop conditions. The main characteristics related to the fruit quality and nutritional attributes were assessed in several varieties of strawberry grown in soilless and soil culture. The effect of different cultivars and cropping systems on selected quality parameters, were assessed by applying multivariate statistical methods, such as principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Differences among cultivars were observed based on the mineral composition and glucose and fructose concentrations in both cultivation systems. However, no significant differences between cultivars were detected in sourness. Tamar and Camarosa were the sweetest cultivars among those grown in soilless and soil system, respectively. Both varieties also had the highest total sugars/total acids ratio. The comparison between strawberries cultivated in soil and soilless systems also revealed significant differences in the mineral composition, content of sugars and related parameters. Good discrimination was observed between cultivars of conventional crops, whereas no clear separation between cultivars grown in the soilless system was achieved by PLS-DA. PLS-DA also allowed differentiation of samples by type of crop (soilless vs. conventional crop). This information could be useful for selection of growing conditions and high-quality cultivars. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Cultivar and nitrogen fertilizer rate affect yield and nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimizing nitrogen (N) management and using cultivars with high N use efficiency (NUE) are of great importance for durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) producers in irrigated desert production systems. Field experiments with six durum wheat cultivars (Ocotillo, Orita, Kronos, Havasu, Duraking, and Toppe...

  13. Soil and Cultivar Type Shape the Bacterial Community in the Potato Rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inceoglu, Ozgul; Salles, Joana Falcao; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The rhizospheres of five different potato cultivars (including a genetically modified cultivar) obtained from a loamy sand soil and two from a sandy peat soil, next to corresponding bulk soils, were studied with respect to their community structures and potential function. For the former analyses, w

  14. Utilisation of N in perennial ryegrass cultivars by stall-fed lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the summers of 2000 and 2001, the effect of six diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on the N utilisation by 12 high productive dairy cows was determined. Experiments were conducted according to a double 3 × 3 Latin square design; within each Latin square, three cultivars were

  15. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  16. Genetic Relationships of Aglaonema Species and Cultivars Inferred from AFLP Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianjun; DEVANAND, PACHANOOR S.; Norman, David J; HENNY, RICHARD J.; CHAO, CHIH‐CHENG T.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Aglaonema is an important ornamental foliage plant genus, but genetic relationships among its species and cultivars have not been reported. This study analysed genetic relatedness of 54 cultivars derived from nine species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers.

  17. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  18. Effect of nitrogen rate and the environment on physicochemical properties of selected high amylose rice cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic marker haplotypes for the Waxy and alk genes are associated with amylose content and gelatinization temperature, respectively, and are used by breeders to develop rice cultivars that have physicochemical properties desired by the parboiling and canning industries. Cultivars that provide cons...

  19. Factors affecting the vase life of Rosa cultivar 'Sonia': Microbiological and scanning electron microscopic investigations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, H.M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The papers compiled in this thesis comprise a series of successively executed investigations into the role of micro-organisms in xylem plugging, and disturbance of the water relations and the vase life of cut flowers. For this purpose Rosahybrida cultivar 'Sonia' (the hybrid tea-rose Rosa cultivar '

  20. Lesser-known European wine grape cultivars in southwestern Idaho: cold hardiness, berry maturity and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cold tolerance, phenology, yield and fruit maturity of lesser-known red and white-skinned wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera, L.) of European origin were compared to that of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ over two growing seasons in southwestern Idaho. Variability among cultivars was detec...

  1. ‘IAC Milênio’ – Common bean cultivar with high grain quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Instituto Agronômico de Campinas – IAC registered the carioca type common bean cultivar IAC Milênio. The cultivar has a mean yield of 2831 kg ha-1, high grain quality with tolerance to darkening, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and physiological races 81, 89, and 95 of the anthracnose pathogen (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

  2. CARBOHYDRATES, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN PULP AND PEEL OF 15 BANANA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR FERNANDES AQUINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the pulp and peel of 15 banana cultivars in two ripening stages. Four bunches per cultivar were harvested in the pre-climacteric stage, six fruits were used by sample unit. Fruits were analyzed in the pre-climacteric stage and after ripening. Total, reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars, starch, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cultivar and ripening stage influenced all characteristics analyzed. Unripe pulp and peel had small percentage of sugar, but high percentage of starch, especially ‘Terrinha’ and ‘Marmelo’ cultivars. AAB and ABB cultivars presented the highest percentages of starch, when compared to AA and AAA cultivars. For the phenolic compounds, the highest content was observed in ripe peel, followed by ripe pulp and unripe peel and pulp, highlighting ‘Terrinha’ cultivar in all parts and stages evaluated. The antioxidant potential was higher in ripe peel, followed by unripe peel, ripe and unripe pulp. Fruits of Terrinha, Marmelo, Maçã, Ouro and Caru-Verde cultivars showed the highest carbohydrate contents, and phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity, justifying future actions in the expansion of planting and consumption of these fruits.

  3. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  4. Physiological studies on cultivar-specific resistance of tomato plants to Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrastructural and physiological aspects of cultivar-specific resistance of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Fulvia fulva) are subject of this thesis.The ultrastructural study described in the first paper was meant as an introduction to a physiological study of cultivar-specific resistance.

  5. Base temperature for leaf appearance and phyllochron of selected strawberry cultivars in a subtropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Telles Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf development is characterized by the appearance of new leaves and is related to crop leaf area index, which affects the interception of solar radiation used for photosynthesis and biomass production and ultimately defines crop yield. The objectives of this paper were to estimate the base temperature for leaf appearance and to determine the phyllochron of two strawberry cultivars considering several planting dates. A two-year field experiment was conducted during 2008 and 2009 in Santa Maria (RS. The cultivars Arazá (early and Yvapitá (late were used at three planting dates in both years. Base temperature (Tb was estimated using the Mean Square Error (MSE approach of the regression between accumulated leaf number (LN and accumulated thermal time (ATT. The phyllochron was calculated as the inverse of the slope of the regression of LN against ATT. Estimated Tb for leaf appearance in both cultivars was 0 °C. Variations in phyllochron were observed among the two cultivars, among planting dates and also during the plant developmental period of each cultivar. Before flowering, the phyllochron was similar in both cultivars and after flowering it was higher in cultivar Arazá. Phyllochron was greater for later planting dates and increased at short photoperiods in Fall and Winter. Results showed that both cultivars have a typical long-day plant response because phyllochron decreased as photoperiod increased up to approximately 11.8 hours, and phyllochron was the lowest at longer photoperiod.

  6. MT BB: Tomato cultivar for practical classes of plant genetics and breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Angelo Piotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MT BB cultivar originated from a backcross program which aimed at adding two recessive mutations that alter leaf architecture(potato leaf – c and flower color (white flower – wf to Micro-Tom cultivar, which is a tomato miniature. MT BB was developedfor use in practical classes of genetics and breeding in both undergraduate and graduate courses.

  7. Cultivar variability of patatin biochemical characteristics: table versus processing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárta, Jan; Bártová, Veronika; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Sedo, Ondrej

    2012-05-02

    Biochemical characteristics of patatin proteins purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from tubers of 20 potato cultivars were studied to evaluate their genotype differences with respect to utility groups, table potato cultivars (TPCs) and processing potato cultivars (PPCs). Both groups of cultivars showed similar values of protein content in dry matter (3.98-7.39%) and of patatin relative abundance (5.40-35.40%). Three mass levels (∼40.6, 41.8, and 42.9 kDa) of purified patatins were found by MALDI-TOF MS within all cultivars. Differences among mass levels corresponding with the mass of sugar antenna (∼1.2 kDa) confirmed the previous concept of different glycosylation extentsin patatin proteins. It was showed that the individual types of patatin varying in their masses occur in the patatin family in a ratio specific for each of the cultivars, with the lowest mass type being the major one. Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated wide cultivar variability in number of patatin forms. Especially 2D-PAGE showed 17-23 detected protein spots independently on the utility group. Specific lipid acyl hydrolase (LAH) activity of purified patatins from the individual tested cultivars varied between 0.92 and 5.46 μmol/(min mg). Patatin samples within most of the TPCs exhibited higher values of specific LAH activity than samples of PPCs. It may be supposed that individual patatin forms do not have similar physiological roles.

  8. URS Brava – a new oat cultivar with partial resistance to crown rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar URS Brava, obtained from a simple cross between the line ‘UFRGS 995078-2’ and the cultivar ‘URS 21’, shows high grain yield and stability, high grain quality, desirable agronomical traits and partial resistance to crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae.

  9. Genome composition of triploid lily cultivars derived from sexual polyploidization of Longiflorum x Asiatic hybrids (Lilium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shujun Zhou,; Ramanna, M.S.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2008-01-01

    About 19 cultivars, which had originated from backcrosses between F1 LA (Longiflorum × Asiatic) hybrids (2n = 2x = 24) as female parents and Asiatic cultivars as male parents (2n = 2x = 24), were analyzed with genomic in situ hybridization. 17 of them were triploid (2n = 3x = 36), and two aneuploid

  10. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  11. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Svend Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. In view of the global climate change, heat stress is an increasing constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Our aim was to identify contrasting cultivars in terms of heat tolerance by mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse origin, based on a physiologi...

  12. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in experimental sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 experimental sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ...

  13. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in commercial sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 commercial sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ro...

  14. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome SNP analysis of nine date palm cultivars reveals plastid heteroplasmy and close phylogenetic relationships among cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal S M Sabir

    Full Text Available Date palm is a very important crop in western Asia and northern Africa, and it is the oldest domesticated fruit tree with archaeological records dating back 5000 years. The huge economic value of this crop has generated considerable interest in breeding programs to enhance production of dates. One of the major limitations of these efforts is the uncertainty regarding the number of date palm cultivars, which are currently based on fruit shape, size, color, and taste. Whole mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences were utilized to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of date palms to evaluate the efficacy of this approach for molecular characterization of cultivars. Mitochondrial and plastid genomes of nine Saudi Arabian cultivars were sequenced. For each species about 60 million 100 bp paired-end reads were generated from total genomic DNA using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. For each cultivar, sequences were aligned separately to the published date palm plastid and mitochondrial reference genomes, and SNPs were identified. The results identified cultivar-specific SNPs for eight of the nine cultivars. Two previous SNP analyses of mitochondrial and plastid genomes identified substantial intra-cultivar ( = intra-varietal polymorphisms in organellar genomes but these studies did not properly take into account the fact that nearly half of the plastid genome has been integrated into the mitochondrial genome. Filtering all sequencing reads that mapped to both organellar genomes nearly eliminated mitochondrial heteroplasmy but all plastid SNPs remained heteroplasmic. This investigation provides valuable insights into how to deal with interorganellar DNA transfer in performing SNP analyses from total genomic DNA. The results confirm recent suggestions that plastid heteroplasmy is much more common than previously thought. Finally, low levels of sequence variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes argue for using nuclear SNPs for

  15. Partial resistance to Erwinia carotovora SUBSP. carotovora and plant vigour among F1 hybrids of Zantedeschia cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, R.C.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of breeding Zantedeschia cultivars for resistance to soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (syn. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) was determined. Hybrids of six cultivars (`Back Magic`, Galaxy`, Pink Persuasion`, Sensation`, `Treasure` and `Florex Gold`)

  16. Abordagem Bayesiana das curvas de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro Bayesian approach in the growth curves of two cultivars of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Martins Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi utilizada a metodologia Bayesiana para ajustar o modelo não-linear logístico para dados de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, "Neguinho" e "Carioca". O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com vinte repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo que os tratamentos principais foram constituídos pelas cultivares e as subparcelas foram constituídas por 17 períodos de avaliações, do plantio até aos 85 dias. A metodologia permitiu comparar as curvas de crescimentos sem utilizar a teoria assintótica e estes resultados mostraram um maior incremento em altura para a cultivar "Carioca".In this paper the Bayesian methodology was used to fit the logistic nonlinear model to growth data of two common bean cultivars, 'Neguinho' and 'Carioca'. The experiment was a split plot under a completely randomized design with twenty replicates, being the main treatments constituted by cultivars and the sub plots constituted by seventeen periods of evaluations, from planting to 85 days. The methodology allowed comparing the growth curves without using the asymptotic theory, and these results showed a larger height increment for the 'Carioca' cultivar.

  17. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Potential of bagasse production from middle sugarcane cultivars; Potencial de producao de bagaco por cultivares medias de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebre, Antonio Carlos Pereira; Siva Neto, Helio Francisco da; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos Omir; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV /UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], E-mail: antoniocplebre8@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    In the search for sustainability a major concern relates to the sugarcane agroindustry waste, and their potential use as an energy source. In this sense, the objective was to identify the production and productivity of bagasse of different sugarcane cultivars, aimed at the completion of the cogeneration of electricity. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP-Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, the number of stems was counted in a meter, obtaining the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by calculating the estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the potential number of people who could benefit from the electricity that would be produced by the combustion of bagasse generated within a system of cogeneration of electricity put in practice by the sugar mills and ethanol distilleries. Cultivars with the best performance IAC91-1099 and CEC 15 who obtained the highest production and productivity of mulch increases the number of people benefited. Cultivars IAC94-4004-5000 and IAC95 showed intermediate results and the cultivars SP81-3250 and RB855536 obtained less satisfactory results. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Drought Resistance Indicates for Yield and Its Components in Three Triticale Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kinaci

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing cereal production and quality. The development of triticale cultivars which are tolerant to drought is an objective in many breeding programmes, but so far success has been limited. This study was carried to examine differences in yield and yield components and kernel features among triticale cultivars (Tatlicak 97, Karma 2000 and MIKHAM 2002 under drought stress. Three triticale cultivars with different yield performance were grown in separate experiments under the rain fed and irrigated conditions at Eskisehir, Turkey, in 2006-2007 growing season. In the study, susceptibility index (SSI, stress tolerance index (STI, tolerance (TOL, yield index (YI, yield stability index (YSI, mean productivity (MP and geometric mean productivity (GMP were calculated. The best yielding cultivar under the drought stress, hence having a low susceptibility index, was Karma 2000. This cultivar may be utilized for improvement of drought resistance in triticale breeding programmes.

  20. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Gözlekçi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar" was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

  1. Analysis of different European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars: authentication, phenotypic features, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Mazzeo, Maria F; Minasi, Paola; Peluso, Angela; De Luca, Antonio; Piccirillo, Pasquale; Siciliano, Rosa A; Carbone, Virginia

    2014-07-02

    Hazelnuts exhibit functional properties due to their content in fatty acids and phenolic compounds that could positively affect human health. The food industry requires precise traits for morphological, chemical, and physical kernel features so that some cultivars could be more suitable for specific industrial processing. In this study, agronomical and morphological features of 29 hazelnut cultivars were evaluated and a detailed structural characterization of kernel polyphenols was performed, confirming the presence of protocatechuic acid, flavan-3-ols such as catechin, procyanidin B2, six procyanidin oligomers, flavonols, and one dihydrochalcone in all the analyzed cultivars. In addition, an innovative methodology based on the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of peptide/protein components extracted from kernels was developed for the authentication of the most valuable cultivars. The proposed method is rapid, simple, and reliable and holds the potential to be applied in quality control processes. These results could be useful in hazelnut cultivar evaluation and choice for growers, breeders, and food industry.

  2. Calcium, Iron, and Zinc Bioaccessibilities of Australian Sweet Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpanit, Weeraya; Coorey, Ranil; Clements, Jon; Benjapong, Wenika; Jayasena, Vijay

    2017-06-14

    In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of the cultivar and dehulling on calcium, iron, and zinc bioaccessibilities of Australian sweet lupin (ASL). Ten ASL cultivars grown in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Western Australia were used for the study. The bioaccessibilities of calcium, iron, and zinc in whole seed and dehulled lupin samples were determined using a dialysability method. The cultivar had significant effects on calcium, iron, and zinc contents and their bioaccessibilities. Average bioaccessibilities of 6% for calcium, 17% for iron, and 9% for zinc were found for whole seeds. Dehulled ASL had average calcium, iron, and zinc bioaccessibilities of 11%, 21%, and 12%, respectively. Compared to some other pulses, ASL had better iron bioaccessibility and poorer calcium and zinc bioaccessibilities. Dehulling increased calcium bioaccessibilities of almost all lupin cultivars. The effect of dehulling on iron and zinc bioaccessibilities depends on the ASL cultivar.

  3. Cultivar and Rhizobium Strain Effects on the Symbiotic Performance of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    content and dry weight/N ratio. At harvest 63 days after planting, cultivars accounted for 75% of the variation in dry weight, while the Rhizobium strains accounted for 63% of the variation in N-content and 70% of the variation in dry weight/N ratio. Cultivar × strain interactions were statistically......The symbiotic performance of four pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars in combination with each of four strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was studied in growth chamber experiments in order to estimate the effects of cultivars, strains and cultivar × strain interaction on the variation in dry weight, N...... significant, but of minor quantitative importance, accounting for 5–15% of the total variation. Rhizobium strains also influenced the partitioning of N between reproductive and vegetative plant parts and between root and shoot biomass....

  4. Genetic Markers Analyses and Bioinformatic Approaches to Distinguish Between Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The genetic diversity of 22 olive tree cultivars (Olea europaea L.) sampled from different Mediterranean countries was assessed using 5 SNP markers (FAD2.1; FAD2.3; CALC; SOD and ANTHO3) located in four different genes. The genotyping analysis of the 22 cultivars with 5 SNP loci revealed 11 alleles (average 2.2 per allele). The dendrogram based on cultivar genotypes revealed three clusters consistent with the cultivars classification. Besides, the results obtained with the five SNPs were compared to those obtained with the SSR markers using bioinformatic analyses and by computing a cophenetic correlation coefficient, indicating the usefulness of the UPGMA method for clustering plant genotypes. Based on principal coordinate analysis using a similarity matrix, the first two coordinates, revealed 54.94 % of the total variance. This work provides a more comprehensive explanation of the diversity available in Tunisia olive cultivars, and an important contribution for olive breeding and olive oil authenticity.

  5. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow....... These results indicate that the quality of the olive oil depends both on the olive cultivar and geographical region. Keywords: Olive oil, Yellow cultivar, Oil-grade cultivar, Shiraz, Kazeroon...

  6. Content of free phenolic compounds in cultivars of potatoes harvested in Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde Méndez, Candelaria del Mar; Rodríguez Delgado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena María; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2004-03-10

    Determination of free phenolic compounds in potato samples was optimized using a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with on-line diode array detection. This method was applied to samples of four cultivars of potatoes harvested in Tenerife (Canary Islands). The free phenolic compounds found in the potato samples were (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. Potato samples belonging to Colorada cultivar, ssp. andigena, had mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid higher than those found for Kerr's Pink and Cara cultivars, ssp. tuberosum, and for Negra cultivar, S. x chaucha. In contrast, p-coumaric acid was not detected in any potato samples of the Colorada cultivar. Traditional potatoes presented a higher mean concentration of ferulic acid than recently imported potatoes. A significant and negative correlation was established between (+)-catechin and p-coumaric acid. A considerable contribution to the daily intake of flavonoids was observed with the actual consumption of potatoes.

  7. Physical and chemical characterization of fruits of mulberry cultivars from genus Morus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Okamoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of mulberry cultivars fruits (Morus spp.. The experiment was conducted at Marilia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, it was evaluated fruits of ten mulberry cultivars, IZ 1/1, IZ 1/2, IZ 1/3, IZ 1/12, IZ 2/1, IZ 3/1, IZ 4/1, IZ 15/1, Korin and Miura. The physical and chemical characteristics of mulberry fruits varied according to cultivar. Cultivar Korin stood out because showed higher soluble solids content and higher acidity, important requirements for better tasting fruit. When considering the volume for processing, the cultivars IZ 1/3, IZ 1/12 and IZ 15/1 had a higher mass.

  8. Determination of acrylamide in local and commercial cultivar of potatoes from biological farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, Nadia; Focardi, Silvia; Guarnieri, Massimo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido

    2013-02-15

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the characterization of parameters influencing formation of acrylamide in fried potatoes, from biological cultivation. The formation of acrylamide was investigated in relation to frying in biological extra virgin olive oil and commercial seed oil. Three different cultivars (Rossa di Colfiorito, Quarantina bianca genovese and Kennebec) were chosen. Asparagine, glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were determined in potato slice before frying, while acrylamide content was analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS in the slices fried in seed and extra virgin olive oil. The Kennebec cultivar showed differences in its potential for acrylamide formation, which was primarily related to its relatively high asparagine and reducing sugars contents, respect the other local cultivars (particulary Quarantina). Values of acrylamide below detection limit (LOD) were found in Quarantina bianca genovese cultivar samples fried in extra virgin olive oil and peanuts seed oil and higher in peanuts seed oil fried potatoes of Kennebec cultivar.

  9. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Saleh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  10. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Water Dynamics in Different Ginger Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-01-20

    Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.

  11. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  12. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode; DeMartini, J.;

    2012-01-01

    -plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark......Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well...... suggest that selection of cultivars for improved biofuel feedstock of wheat straw is possible, because heritability of sugar release is 57% and there are few adverse correlations to other agronomic traits....

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE SEEDLING REACTIONS OF TWENTY BARLEY CULTIVARS TO SIX ISOLATES OF DRECHSLERA TERES F. MACULATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar USTA; KARAKAYA, Aziz; OĞUZ, Arzu ÇELİK; MERT, Zafer; AKAN, Kadir; ÇETİN, Lütfi

    2014-01-01

    Seedling reactions of 20 barley cultivars grown in Turkey were determined under greenhouse conditions to six isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of barley net blotch disease. Isolates were obtained from different provinces of Turkey. Differences among the reactions of the cultivars to the isolates of the fungus were observed. Isolate differences in pathogenicity for each cultivar were also present. The reactions of cultivars to the isolates ranged betwee...

  14. Vernalização de cultivares de alho nobre na região de Lavras Vernalization of noble garlic cultivars in the region of Lavras, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovilson José de Souza

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se cultivares de alho nobre [Caçador 30, Caçador 40, Caçador, Caxiense, Chonan, Contestado, Gigante Núcleo, Quitéria e Quitéria obtida por cultura de tecidos (CT] submetidas à vernalização (4ºC por 50 dias na região de Lavras (MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as cultivares em relação à altura de plantas aos 60 dias após o plantio. A cultivar Caxiense apresentou a maior produção total de bulbos, diferindo estatisticamente das cultivares Caçador 30 e Contestado. As cultivares que apresentaram os menores índices de superbrotamento foram Chonan, Gigante Núcleo, Quitéria e Caçador. As cultivares Contestado e Caxiense apresentaram as maiores taxas de ocorrência desta anormalidade. As maiores produções comerciais de bulbos foram obtidas com as cultivares Quitéria e Caçador. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de peso médio de bulbos e número de bulbilhos por bulbo da produção comercial entre as cultivares. A cultivar Gigante Núcleo apresentou maior peso médio de bulbilho da produção comercial quando comparada com as cultivares Contestado, Quitéria (CT e Caçador 30, que não diferiram entre si.Noble garlic cultivars were submitted to the vernalization (4ºC during 50 days in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The evaluated cultivars were Caçador 30, Caçador 40, Caçador, Caxiense, Chonan, Contestado, Gigante Núcleo, Quitéria and Quitéria obtained through tissue culture (CT. The experimental design was a complete randomized block, with three replications. No significant differences were observed in relation to plant height 60 days after planting date. Caxiense presented the highest total production of bulbs, differing significantly from the cultivars Caçador 30 and Contestado. The cultivars showing lesser indexes of secondary growth were Chonan, Gigante Núcleo

  15. THE STEM BORER INFESTATION ON RICE CULTIVARS AT THREE PLANTING TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendarsih Suharto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem borer is the second important rice pest after rats in Indonesia. A field trial was conducted in Karawang, West Java in dry season of 2003 to study the effect of planting time on the stem borer infestation on seven rice cultivars. The rice cultivars tested were Fatmawati (new plant type cultivar, Gilirang (semi-new plant type cultivar, Maro and Intani 3 (hybrid rice cultivars, and IR72, Cilosari and IR62 (inbreed rice cultivars. The three planting times (PT were: (1 the early PT, 14 days before farmer’s PT, (2 the common PT, simultaneously with farmer’s PT, and (3 the late PT, 14 days after farmer’s PT. The trial was arranged in a split plot design with four replications. Planting time is the main plot and rice cultivar is the subplot. Fourteen-day old rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm x 25 cm planting distance in a 5 m x 6 m plot size. Species and fluctuation of rice stem borer were determined by using water traps containing four synthetic sex pheromone lures of rice stem borer species as attractant. Results showed that the dominant species of stem borer was yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.. Degree of stem borer infestation depended upon the planting time. Stem borer infestation at the first planting time was higher (average 37.90% compared to those found at the second and third planting time, i.e. 0.65% and 0.54%, respectively. Rice yields of Fatmawati, Gilirang, Maro, Intani-3, and Cilosari cultivars correlated with the degree of stem borer infestation, but did not correlate with planting time. Cilosari cultivar showed the most tolerant under heavily stem borer infestation. The present study implies that adjustment of planting time is the most feasible effort to reduce stem borer infestation because none of the seven rice cultivars tested were able to minimize damage under heavily infestation of yellow stem borer.

  16. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S M; de Boer, Albertus H

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+) homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+) levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+) concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+) shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+) accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+) points to a role of stem Na(+) accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+) accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+) transport to the leaves.

  17. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinse Jaarsma

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+ shoot distribution index (SDI for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+ points to a role of stem Na(+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1 gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+ transport to the leaves.

  18. Molecular Screening and Resistance Evaluation of American Wheat Cultivars to Chinese Stripe Rust Races

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu-lu; ZHANG Chun-yu; SUN Quan; LIN Feng; CUI Na; XU Shi-chang; GAO Yang; XU Xiao-dan

    2010-01-01

    Stripe rust,caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp.tritici,is one of the major diseases of wheat in China.In order to asses the resistance levels and existing Yr genes among 59 wheat cultivars (lines) from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States,to provide resistance resources for genetic improvement of wheat stripe rust resistance in China,59 wheat cultivars (lines) from PNW of the United States were infected by 3 mixed races of predominant Chinese stripe rust races CRY31,CRY32,and CRY33 to evaluate their resistance at seedling and adult plant stages,and screened with molecular markers tightly linked to currently effective all-stage resistance genes Yr10,Yr15 and adult plant resistance genes Yr18,Yr39.Of 59 American cultivars (lines),five cultivars (lines),Expresso,02W50076,ACS52610,WA008012,and WA00801833,had all-stage resistance,showing resistance to mixed races of CRY31,CRY32,and CRY33 at both seedling and adult plant stages.33 cultivars (lines) had adult plant resistance,only showing resistance to stripe rust at adult stage.Based on the molecular screening,none of the 59 PNW cultivars (lines) had the polymorphic bands of linked markers to Yr10.There were 12,33 and 29 cultivars (lines) which had polymorphic bands of linked markers to Yr15,Yr18 and Yr39,accounting for 20,55 and 49% of the 59 PNW cultivars (lines),respectively.All these results suggested that Yr15,Yr18 and Yr39 were widespread among PNW cultivars (cultivars) and could be utilized in Chinese wheat stripe rust resistance breeding.

  19. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT OF DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTER ALICE FERREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pineapple is widely consumed and appreciated not only due to its taste and aroma, and also to its nutritional, functional and antioxidant properties, including its vitamin C and carotenoid contents. Brazil is one of the largest world’ pineapple producer, and Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars are the most commonly grown and marketed, but their susceptibility to fusariosis can compromise cultivation. New cultivars resistant to this pathogen are available to meet the demands of pineapple producers and consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of pineapple fruits of Imperial, Victoria, IAC Fantástico and Gomo de Mel cultivars, as well as traditional Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars. Fruits grown in the Triângulo Mineiro region were evaluated by colorimetry, determination of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds by spectrometry, antioxidant activity by ABTS and carotenoid profile by HPLC. Regarding color, Gomo de Mel cultivar showed lower brightness and higher value of parameter b*, indicating a more intense yellow color in this fruit. This result is consistent with the highest carotenoid concentration in this cultivar. Another cultivar that stood out was Imperial, which, while maintaining high carotenoid levels, also showed high concentrations of vitamin C and phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activity. Victoria cultivar showed low levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, even lower than IAC Fantástico cultivar, which showed levels of bioactive compounds similar to traditional Pérola and Smooth Cayenne cultivars.

  20. Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA. Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa.

  1. Effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars on intake, digestibility, and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, B M; Taweel, H Z; Smit, H J; Elgersma, A; Dijkstra, J; Tamminga, S

    2005-09-01

    The effects of 8 diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on dry matter (DM) intake, DM digestibility, and milk yield (MY) of dairy cows were evaluated in the summer of 2000 and 2001. Each summer, herbage was harvested daily and stall-fed to 12 dairy cows during six 2-wk periods. Six cultivars were fed in 3 periods (1, 3, and 5) according to a double 3 x 3 Latin square design. In the other periods (2, 4, and 6), 2 cultivars were fed in a repeated measurement design. Herbage mass and leaf blades in the sward canopy varied among cultivars, but differences were not consistent between years. The largest differences in herbage composition were found in water-soluble carbohydrate content, followed by crude protein content. only small differences were found in the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content. A higher water-soluble carbohydrate content was found in 2 cultivars in both years, whereas ranking of cultivars in crude protein and NDF content was not consistent with years. Dry matter intake and MY were not affected by cultivar. In both years, DM digestiblity was high (>77%), with very small differences among cultivars in 2000 (<0.5%) and larger differences in 2001 (up to 4%). This was associated with a delayed heading date in 2001, resulting in larger differences in leaf blades and NDF content among cultivars. It may be concluded that the 8 cultivars used in our experiments do not provide grass breeders with encouraging evidence to include selection criteria for an increased DM intake, DM digestibility, and MY in their grass breeding schemes.

  2. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na+ shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na+ points to a role of stem Na+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na+ transport to the leaves. PMID:23533673

  3. Response of French Bean Cultivars to Plant Spacing Under Agroclimatic Condition of Baffa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveed Ahmed; Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; and Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out at Mansehra during cropping season of 2013. There were three French bean cultivars and four different plant spacings. The experiment was laid out on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Different cultivars, plant spacings and their interactions significantly influenced all the parameters studied. Maximum days to flowering (59.33) and seed maturity (97.66) were recorded in cultivar Komal Green grown at 15 cm spacing, while, maximum 100-grain weight (42.20 g) was noted in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 60 cm spacing. However, maximum fresh pod yield• plant-1 (109.67 g), number of seed• pod-1 (7.99) and seed yield• hm-2 (1 437.3 kg) were recorded in cultivar Paulista grown at spacing of 45 cm. Whereas, maximum plant height (40.50 cm) was noticed in cultivar Paulista grown at 15 cm plant spacing. While, the least number of days to flowering (50.33) and to seed maturity (85.66) were taken by cultivar Paulista grown at 60 cm plant spacing. Likewise, minimum seed yield (311.9 kg• hm-2) was recorded in plants of cultivar Komal Green spaced at 60 cm plant spacing. While, minimum fresh pod weight• plant-1 (67.00 g) and number of seed• pod-1 (4.66) were attained in cultivar Peshawar Local grown at 15 cm plant spacing. Whereas, minimum plant height (27.59 cm) and 100-grain weight (15.60 g) were recorded for cultivar Komal Green grown at 45 and 15 cm, respectively.

  4. Habilidade competitiva de cultivares de cevada convivendo com azevém Competitive ability of barley cultivars against ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Galon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da habilidade competitiva de cultivares de cevada com plantas daninhas torna-se relevante para a adoção do método de manejo cultural; desse modo, podemse diminuir os custos de produção, bem como os impactos ambientais causados por outros métodos de manejo, como o químico. Este trabalho comparou as habilidades competitivas relativas de três cultivares de cevada e um biótipo de azevém. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação na estação de crescimento 2008/09, utilizando-se delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em série de substituição e constituíram-se de cinco proporções de plantas de cevada e do azevém competidor com a cultura: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 e 0:100. A cevada foi representada pelos cultivares BRS Greta, BRS Elis e BRS 225, e o competidor, pelo azevém. A análise da competitividade foi efetuada por meio de diagramas aplicados a experimentos substitutivos, mais uso de índices de competitividade relativa. As variáveis estudadas foram: afilhamento, estatura, área foliar e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas. O azevém afetou o afilhamento, a área foliar e a massa da matéria seca da parte aérea de plantas dos cultivares de cevada BRS Greta, BRS Elis e BRS 225, demonstrando grande habilidade competitiva com a cultura pelos recursos disponíveis no meio. Entre os cultivares de cevada avaliados, BRS Elis foi o mais competitivo na presença do azevém, que é uma das espécies daninhas que necessitam de controle mesmo quando presente em baixas proporções na cultura da cevada.Characterization of the competitive ability of barley varieties against weed species is relevant for the adoption of the cultural method of weed control; thus, it is possible to reduce both the production costs and environmental impacts caused by other management methods, including the use of chemicals. This work assessed the

  5. Efeito da autofecundação em cultivares de abacaxi Effects of self pollination in pineapple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Santos Cabral

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O elevado nível de heterozigose dos parentais utilizados em hibridações é a principal causa da baixa eficiência dos programas de melhoramento genético do abacaxizeiro em gerar novas cultivares. Por outro lado, os efeitos da autofecundação são pouco conhecidos em abacaxi, mas esta estratégia pode proporcionar avanços significativos no melhoramento desta planta. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo observar os efeitos da autofecundação em cultivares de abacaxi. Inflorescências das cultivares Primavera, Perolera, Roxo-de-Tefé, Pérola e Smooth Cayenne foram protegidas antes da antese para possibilitar a ocorrência de autofecundação. As sementes produzidas foram germinadas em câmara de crescimento, utilizando-se como substrato do meio de cultura MS, suplementado com 30 g.L-1 de sacarose e solidificado com 2 g.L-1 de "Phytagel. Durante a germinação, observou-se que cerca de 16% das sementes de 'Roxo-de-Tefé' produziram plântulas albinas. Foram obtidas 43 plantas a partir de 'Primavera', cinco de 'Perolera', onze de 'Roxo-de-Tefé' e nenhuma de 'Pérola' e 'Smooth Cayenne'. Todas as plantas da progênie de 'Primavera' apresentaram folhas sem espinhos nos bordos ("piping", evidenciando homozigose para esta característica, enquanto na progênie de 'Perolera' três plantas evidenciaram folhas sem espinhos nos bordos e duas com folhas espinhosas, segregando para o caráter espinescência. Na descendência de 'Roxo-de-Tefé', oito plantas apresentaram folhas de cor roxa e três com folhas verdes, com segregação para a cor da folha, mas todas evidenciaram folhas com espinhos no bordo. As baixas porcentagens de germinação, o crescimento lento e o baixo vigor observados nas plantas em casa de vegetação, viveiro e campo, evidenciaram a ocorrência de depressão por endogamia nestas fases de desenvolvimento.The high level of heterozygosis of parentals used to generate pineapple hybrids has resulted in low efficiency of the

  6. Use of electronic tongue for differentiation of tomato taste by cultivar, harvest maturity, and chilling or heating exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate whether an electronic-tongue (etongue) could differentiate “taste” profiles of tomato fruit between different cultivars, harvest maturities, and postharvest chilling or heating exposure. The four cultivars included: two common commercial cultivars, ‘Tyg...

  7. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was us

  8. Allelic divergence and cultivar-specific SSR alleles revealed by capillary electrophoresis using fluorescence-labeled SSR markers in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Though sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are complex aneu-polyploid hybrids, genetic evaluation and tracking of clone- or cultivar-specific alleles become possible due to capillary electrophoregrams (CE) using fluorescence-labeled SSR primer pairs. Twenty-four sugarcane cultivars, 12 each...

  9. Caracterização físico-química de frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo Physical and chemical characteristics from fruits of four okra cultivars

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    Wagner F. da Mota

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química dos frutos de quatro cultivares de quiabo neste estudo. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas cultivares Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David e Mammoth Spinless, com cinco repetições. Na maturidade comercial os frutos da cultivar Star of David tiveram maior diâmetro, peso fresco total e teor de matéria seca, menor comprimento, teor de umidade e de vitamina C comparado com as demais cultivares. A cultivar Red Velvet teve o menor diâmetro, peso fresco, teor de matéria seca, açúcares redutores e teores de clorofilas a, b e total, e maior teor de umidade e vitamina C. Frutos da cultivar Mammoth Spinless apresentaram os maiores teores de clorofilas a, b e total. A cultivar Amarelinho teve maior comprimento e menores teores de clorofila, a, b e total. As cultivares Amarelinho e Mammoth Spinless apresentaram maiores teores de açúcares redutores.In an experiment some physical and chemical characteristics of four okra cultivars were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, where the treatments were the cultivars Amarelinho, Red Velvet, Star of David and Mammoth Spinless with five replications. At commercial maturity fruits of the cultivar Star of David presented the largest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, smallest length, content of water and vitamin C in comparison to the other cultivars. The cultivar Red Velvet presented the smallest diameter, total fresh matter, content of dry matter, reducing sugars and content of chlorophyll a, b and total, but the largest content of water and vitamin C. The cultivar Amarelinho produced the longest fruits and the smallest content of chlorophyll a, b and total. The cultivars Amarelinho and Mammoth Spinless showed higher contents of total reducing sugars.

  10. Evaluation of twelve maize (Zea mays L. cultivars for silage Avaliação de doze cultivares de milho (Zea mays L. para silagem

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    Maria Celina Jorge Leme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and chemical composition of different maize cultivars for ensiling of the plant. Twelve maize cultivar were analyzed in a completely randomized block design, with three block, twelve treatments and three replication. The plot with three lines of six meters long and spacing of 0.8 m were used in all trials. The cycle of the plants of the planting to harvest varied from 105 to 114 days. The height average differed among (P 0.05 for ear by plant number (0.9 to 1.1, dry matter (33.2 to 38.2 %, ether extract (1.9 to 2.5 % and neutral detergent fiber (49.1 to 56.2 %. The dry matter production differed (P O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características agronômicas e químico-bromatológica de diferentes cultivares de milho para ensilagem. Foram avaliados doze cultivares de milho em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com três blocos, 12 tratamentos e três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por três linhas de seis metros de comprimento e espaçamento de 0,8 m entre linhas. O ciclo das plantas, do plantio à colheita, variou de 105 a 114 dias. A altura média diferiu entre os cultivares (P 0,05 entre os cultivares para número de espigas por planta (0,9 a 1,1, teores de matéria seca (33,2 a 38,2 %, de extrato etéreo (1,9 a 2,5 % e de fibra em detergente neutro (49,1 a 56,2 %. A produção de matéria seca diferiu (P < 0,05 entre o cultivar TORK (20,6 t/ha e os cultivares CD-302 (16,4 t/ha e TRAKTOR (15,7 t/ha. O AGN-3150 apresentou o menor teor de fibra em detergente ácido (24,2 % e maior digestibilidade (80,7 %. Todas as cultivares apresentaram características agronômicas e qualitativas adequadas para produção de silagem, destacando-se os cultivares TORK e AGN-3150.

  11. Ontogenia da nodulação em duas cultivares de feijão-caupi Ontogeny of nodulation in two cultivars of cowpea

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    Terezinha Ferreira Xavier

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ontogenia da nodulação em duas cultivares de feijão-caupi. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando-se as cultivares "BRS-Guariba" e "BRS-Marataoã" cultivadas em sacos plásticos com 5kg de areia. A adubação mineral, isenta de N, foi realizada na véspera da semeadura e as sementes foram inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium sp, estirpe BR 2001. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 dias após emergência das plantas, sendo determinados o número, a massa seca e o tamanho dos nódulos e a matéria seca da parte aérea. As cultivares apresentaram maior número de nódulos aos 30 e 50 dias após a emergência. A massa e o tamanho dos nódulos aumentaram durante o ciclo das cultivares. A matéria seca da parte aérea aumentou até o estádio de formação de vagens, diminuindo até o final do ciclo fenológico. As cultivares "BRS-Guariba" e "BRS-Marataoã" apresentam comportamento semelhante em relação à nodulação pela estirpe utilizada.The aim of this paper was at evaluating the ontogeny of nodulation in two cultivars of cowpea. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and was used the cultivars BRS-Guariba and BRS-Marataoã cultivated in plastic pots with 5 kg of sand. The mineral fertilization, without N, was made before the sowing and the seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp, strain BR 2001. The evaluations were made to the 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after plant emergence, being measured nodule number, dry mass and size and shoot dry mass. The cultivars showed higher nodule number to 30 and 50 days after plant emergence. Nodule dry mass and size increased significantly during the cycle of cultivars. Shoot dry mass increased to stage of formation of pods, decreasing until the end of the phenological cycle. BRS-Guariba and BRS-Marataoã cultivars present similar behavior in relation to nodulation by used strain.

  12. Ensaio de cultivares e híbridos de morangueiro, Jundiaí, 1971 Strawberry cultivar trial at Jundiaí experiment station

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    Leocádio de Souza Camargo

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de ensaio de competição de cinco cultivares e híbridos de morangueiro (Fragaria híbridos, realizado em 1971 na Estação Experimental de Jundiaí, SP, região de altitude aproximada de 715 m e latitude 23° e 6'S. O município de Jundiaí e os municípios vizinhos são os maiores produtores de morango do Brasil. Os cultivares estudados foram os seguintes: Campinas, Monte Alegre, Mantiqueira, Híbrido 1AC-4703 e Dr. Morère ou Comum. A colheita se estendeu de maio a novembro, para os cultivares Campinas, Monte Alegre e Híbrido IAC-4703. Foram tardios na produção de frutos, colhendo-se de julho a novembro, os cultivares Mantiqueira e Dr. Morère ou Comum. Com relação a precocidade, produtividade e características comerciais de produto - tamanho, paladar, coloração, firmeza dos frutos - obtiveram-se resultados significantemente superiores com os cultivares Campinas e Monte Alegre.A comparative study of strawberry cultivars (Fragaria hb. and hybrids was carried out at the Jundiaí Experiment Station, in 1971. The cultivar "Dr. Morère", also called "Comum", formerly the most cultivated in the State of São Paulo, was included as a standard. April 16 was the planting date. The cultivars were statistically compared on the basis of total yield of fruits (harvested from May to November and on early yield (corresponding to the May to July harvest. The cultivars were Campinas (IAC-2712, Monte Alegre (IAC-3113, Hybrid IAC-4703, Mantiqueira (IAC-3976 and Dr. Morère or Comum (I-699. Campinas (IAC-2712, Monte Alegre (IAC-3113 and Hybrid IAC-4703 showed significantly higher total yield than the others. Monte Alegre (IAC-3113 proved to be the earliest in yield followed by Campinas (IAC-2712. Dr. Morère and Mantiqueira were the latest in yield. Campinas and Monte Alegre were superior to the other cultivars also in characters as fruit size, taste, color and firmness.

  13. Resposta de cultivares de trigo à infestação do pulgão Rhopalosiphum padi Wheat cultivars response to Rhopalosiphum padi infestation

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    Rafael Peruzzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de oito cultivares comerciais de trigo (BRS 194, BRS 208, BRS Camboatá, BRS Guabiju, BRS Guamirim, BRS Louro, BRS Timbaúva e BRS Umbu à infestação do pulgão Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Trigo, em telado, em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e seis repetições, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas. As parcelas principais receberam os tratamentos com e sem infestação de pulgões, e as subparcelas foram compostas pelas cultivares. A infestação com os pulgões (20 adultos ápteros por planta foi realizada aos 12 dias após a emergência das plantas, quando se encontravam no início do afilhamento, e foi mantida durante 15 dias. As cultivares avaliadas responderam diferentemente à infestação do pulgão R. padi. A cultivar BRS Timbaúva é a mais resistente, e as cultivares BRS Umbu e BRS Guabiju são as mais suscetíveis ao pulgão, quanto ao crescimento e a capacidade produtiva de plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of eight commercial wheat cultivars (BRS 194, BRS 208, BRS Camboatá, BRS Guabiju, BRS Guamirim, BRS Louro, BRS Timbaúva e BRS Umbu to the infestation of Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Trigo, in greenhouse conditions. It was used the randomized block design, in a split-plot array, with eight treatments and six replicates. The plots received treatments with or without infestation with aphids, and the split-plots were composed by the cultivars. The infestation with aphids (20 wingless adults per plant was done 12 days after plant emergency, in the beginning of tillering, and was kept for 15 days. The cultivars responded differently to the infestation with aphids. BRS Timbaúva cultivar is more resistant, and BRS Umbu and BRS Guabiju cultivars are more susceptible to R. padi, concerning plant growth and plant yield.

  14. Genetic diversity of some apple cultivars in the south of Syria based on morphological characters

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    O. Al-Halabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed to evaluate genetic diversity among five local and six introduced apple cultivars in the germplasm which located in the South of Syria based on 29 morphological characters of leaf and fruit. The analysis of variance showed significant differences at P < 0.05 for all measured parameters, however the mean values of Limb length and width, fruit weight, length, and width indicated to a wide range of diversity between local and introduced cultivars, that the introduced cultivars have mostly the highest mean value while the local cultivars have the lowest mean values, that clearly found in the local apple cultivar Ksairi (K which revealed the lowest mean value of fruit weight (FW, fruit length (FL and fruit diameter (FD in the comparison with all studied cultivars. Likewise, principal component analysis (PCA was used and the first 4 principal components accounted for 76.4% of the total variance, with eigen values 29.2%, 18.8%, 16.9% and 11.5% respectively. The main important characters in PC1 are correlated with the high mean value of width of stalk cavity (WP, fruit weight (FW, fruit diameter (FD, fruit length (FL, core length (CL, width of calyx cavity (WC, core width (CW, depth of stalk cavity (DP, stalk diameter (SD, seed width (SeW and leaf margin (LM. PC2 discriminated among cultivars depending on Fruit shape (FS, leaf shape (LS, over color (OC, maturity time (MT, core shape (CS, limp length (LL and leaf base (LB which were able to differentiate between all studied cultivars . PC3 is correlated with the high mean value of Stalk length (SL, titratable acidity (TA, total sugar (TS, and total soluble solids (TSS. PC4 is correlated with the high mean value of depth of calyx cavity (DC, leaf apices (LA and fruit cross section (FCS. Cluster analysis was also used that divided the studied cultivars into two clusters, the first cluster included all local apple cultivars, in addition to Leaz Golden (LG cultivar, however AbouGhabra (AG

  15. Efeito de densidade de plantas na produtividade de cultivares de pepino para processamento tipo "cornichon" Effect of plant density on yield of cornichon pickling cucumber cultivars

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    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de cultivares de pepino para processamento, tipo "cornichon", semeadas em diferentes espaçamentos. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Petrolina, PE, no período de abril a julho de 1999. Foram estudadas as cultivares para processamento Calypso, Eureka, Prêmio, Vlaspik e Vlasset e os espaçamentos entre plantas de 0,20, 0,30 e 0,50 m, em sistema rasteiro. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no esquema fatorial 5x3, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A parcela experimental foi composta de quatro linhas de 3,0 m, com espaços entre elas de 1,0 m, duas plantas por cova, e área útil constituída pelas linhas centrais. O incremento do espaçamento entre plantas teve efeitos lineares negativos na produtividade das cultivares Vlaspik, Vlasset e Prêmio. As menores produtividades das cultivares Calypso e Eureka ocorreram sob espaçamento, respectivamente, de 0,50 e 0,46 m. Os maiores valores de massa de matéria fresca dos frutos foram observados nas cultivares Vlasset (6,94 g/fruto e Eureka (6,82 g/fruto que não apresentaram diferenças entre si. Observaram-se efeitos lineares positivos do aumento do espaçamento entre plantas no número de frutos por planta em todas as cultivares. As cultivares apresentaram uma variação de 12,18 a 15,10% de frutos tipo 3 (5,0 a 5,5 cm de comprimento, tendo as cultivares Vlaspik (15,10%, Eureka (14,50% e Calypso (13,60% apresentado as maiores proporções, sem diferirem entre si.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of cornichon pickling cucumber cultivars in different sowing spacings. The experiment was developed out in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil, from April to July, 1999. Five cultivars of pickling for processing (Calypso, Eureka, Prêmio, Vlaspik and Vlasset and three plant spacings (0.20, 0.30 and 0.50 m led in the low system were studied. The treatments were arranged in the 5x3 factorial scheme in experimental

  16. Response of root explants to in vitro cultivation of marketable garlic cultivars Resposta dos explantes radiculares ao cultivo in vitro de cultivares comerciais de alho

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    Danielle C Scotton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic cultivars are sexually sterile under standard growth conditions, with direct implications for commercial production costs as well as breeding programs. Garlic is propagated commercially via bulblets, which facilitates disease transmission and virus load accumulation over vegetative generations. Tissue culture produces virus-free clones that are more productive, while keeping the desired traits of the cultivar. Consequently, this technique allows studies of garlic genetics as well as guarantees genetic conservation of varieties. We aimed at analyzing the in vitro regeneration of eight marketable cultivars of garlic using root segments as explants. For each genotype, bulblet-derived explants were isolated and introduced into MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and 2-iP. Calli were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 8.8 mM BAP and 0.1 mM NAA (regeneration medium A, or with 4.6 mM kinetin alone (regeneration medium B. The calli were then evaluated for regeneration frequency after sixty days of in vitro cultivation. The noble cultivar 'Jonas' presented the highest rates of plant regeneration among the cultivars tested. The medium A, which contained auxin and cytokinin, induced the highest regeneration rates of all cultivars. The process described herein is simple, reproducible and can potentially be used as a tool in molecular breeding strategies for other marketable cultivars and genotypes of garlic.Cultivares de alho são sexualmente estéreis sob condições padrão de cultivo, com implicações diretas nos custos de produção comercial, bem como em programas de melhoramento. O alho é comercialmente propagado por meio de bulbilhos, o que facilita a transmissão de doenças e leva ao acúmulo de cargas virais ao longo das gerações. A cultura de tecidos produz clones livres de vírus que são mais produtivos, mantendo as características desejadas da cultivar. Consequentemente, esta técnica permite estudar a genética do alho, bem

  17. Baby corn, green corn, and dry corn yield of corn cultivars Rendimentos de minimilho, milho verde e de grãos de cultivares de milho

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    Renato S Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In corn, when the first female inflorescence is removed, the plant often produces new female inflorescences. This allows the first ear to be harvested as baby corn (BC and the second as green corn (GC or dry corn (DC, that is, mature corn. The flexibility provided by a variety of harvested products allows the grower to compete with better conditions in the markets. We evaluated BC, GC, and DC yields in corn cultivars AG 1051, AG 2060, and BRS 2020, after the first ear was harvested as BC. A random block design with ten replicates was utilized. The yields of MM, MV and MS were higher when these products were individually harvested than when they were harvested in combination with baby corn (BC + GC and BC + DC. Cultivar BRS 2020 was the best for producing BC exclusively, considering the number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and the number (NH of marketable husked ears. Considering weight (WH of BC marketable husked ears, cultivar AG 1051 was the best. Cultivars did not differ in baby corn yield when this product was harvested in combination with MS or MV, except with regard to NH and WH, with AG 1051 being superior. The cultivars did not differ between total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked green ears. However, cultivars AG 1051 and AG 2060 were the best with respect to marketable unhusked green ears and number and weight of marketable husked green ears. Cultivar AG 1051 was the best with regard to kernel yield.No milho, se a primeira inflorescência feminina é removida, existe frequentemente a produção de novas inflorescências femininas. Isso possibilita que a primeira espiga seja colhida como minimilho (MM e a segunda, como milho verde (MV, ou milho seco (MS, isto é, milho maduro. A flexibilidade proporcionada pela colheita de vários produtos permite ao agricultor competir melhor nos mercados. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de MM, MV e MS das cultivares AG 1051, AG 2060 e BRS 2020, ap

  18. In vitro fermentation of ten cultivars of barley silage

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    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation characteristics of whole-crop barley silages from ten different cultivars were evaluated by the in vitro gas production technique. The organic matter degradability of barley silage (62.9% in average was comparable to those reported in our previous trials for oat (59.7% and sorghum silages (65.5%; while the maximum gas production rate (5.38 ml/h in average was slightly lower respect to oat (6.71 ml/h and sorghum silage (6.74 ml/h. The mean nutritive value (4.00 MJ/kg DM calculated on the basis of both chemical composition and in vitro fermentation data was comparable to that (4.16 MJ/kg DM obtained in our previous research performed on corn silage, from crop sowed in the same area.

  19. Some Engineering Properties of Four African Date Palm Fruit Cultivars

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    Ndubisi A. Aviara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out to study some physical, mechanical and thermal properties of four cultivars of African date fruits and kernels namely ‘digila’, ‘krikri’, ‘sukur’ and ‘trigal’. The properties investigated include length, width, pulp thickness, roundness, sphericity, fruit and kernel mass, true density, bulk density and porosity. Others are angle of repose, static coefficient of friction, crushing strength and specific heat. Average fruit and kernel length of digila, krikri, sukur and trigal cultivars at the moisture contents of 17.85, 11.46, 15.85 and 12.27% (d.b., respectively, was 38.04 and 21.98 mm, 30.70 and 22.99 mm, 33.23 and 22.40 mm and 36.08 and 22.60 mm. Corresponding average width value was 15.53 and 6.35 mm, 14.80 and 6.92 mm, 17.01 and 7.59 mm and 18.00 and 8.26 mm, for fruits and kernels. Roundness of digila, krikri, sukur and trigal fruit and kernel was 46.10 and 28.78%, 37.10 and 36.78%, 44.35 and 33.10% and 44.31 and 35.84%, respectively. Sphericity of fruit and kernel was, respectively 49.64 and 33.52% (digila, 58.81 and 37.40% (krikri, 47.85 and 35.70% (sukur and 43.25 and 32.13% (trigal. Bulk density of the fruits of the cultivars was found to be relatively lower than that of their corresponding kernels. True density of fruits was lower than the density of water, while kernels were higher. Porosity of the fruits was 34.0, 35.21, 39.0 and 50.5% for digila, krikri, sukur and trigal and the corresponding kernel porosity was 38.8, 59.5, 30.3 and 48.6%, respectively. The angle of repose of fruit and kernel was found to be 19.82 and 34.94o (digila, 18.07 and 33.36o (krikri, 21.93 and 29.0o (sukur and 25.49 and 20.93o (trigal. The crushing strength of both fruit and kernel was 6.74 and 10.68, 2.03 and 4.35, 13.15 and 17.64 and 5.63 and 9.67 kN/m2, for digila, krikri, sukur and trigal, respectively. Static coefficient of friction of fruit and kernel varied structural surface. Specific heat varied

  20. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola

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    Luis Weiler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parents in crosses with male tetraploid and apomictic parents. Seedlings and seeds were immersed in colchicine solutions for different periods. A tetraploid chromosome number was confirmed in three plants. The reproduction mode of the resulting polyploid plants will be assessed; if confirmed to be sexual, they can be used in crosses with native apomictic plants to breed new intraspecific hybrids.

  1. Diallel analysis in white oat cultivars subjected to water stress.

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    Guilherme Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to determine the combining ability of three white oat parental genotypes (UPF 18, URS21and URS 22 and to estimate the heterosis of F1 hybrids in two conditions, with and without water stress. The results indicate a largeeffect of the environment on the evaluated characters (cycle, leaf area, plant stature, grain yield per plant, main panicle weight andnumber of grains of the main panicle. The condition without stress was the most efficient for the selection of superior genotypes.Based on the general and specific combining ability, the cultivar URS 22 was shown to be indicated for cycle and stature reduction,while UPF 18 lead to increases in leaf area, main panicle weight and number of grains of the main panicle. The specific cross URS22 x URS 21 was the best for the selection of superior genotypes.

  2. Influence of cultivar and processing on cherry (Prunus avium) allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavesi, L; Brenna, O V; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Pastorello, E A

    2006-12-27

    Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate food allergic event that affects lips, mouth, and pharynx, is often triggered by fruits and vegetables, and may be associated with pollinosis. Here, we report on the allergenic pattern of different varieties of cherry (Prunus avium) and results obtained by applying several technological processes to the selected varieties. Whole cherries were submitted to chemical peeling, thermal treatment, and syruping processes, and the relative protein extracts were analyzed by in vitro (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis) and in vivo tests (skin prick test). Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that there was no marked difference among cherry cultivars. Chemical peeling successfully removed Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) responsible for oral allergy syndrome in patients without pollinosis, leading to the industrial production of cherry hypoallergenic derivatives. Furthermore, the syruping process removed almost all allergenic proteins to whom patients with pollinosis are responsive. In vivo tests confirmed electrophoretic results.

  3. Nutritional composition of new Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Díaz, NC-2 and Florunner were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash, amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Díaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha. Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm.The main sterol present was βsitosterol (approx. 65%. Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications.

    Se estudio el rendimiento agrícola y composición química (proteína, grasa, carbohidratos, fibra y cenizas, perfil de amino ácidos, digestibilidad, perfil de ácidos grasos, contenido de tocoferol y de esteroles de seis variedades de cacahuate (Arachis hypogaea L. Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81B, Ranferi Díaz, NC-2 y Florunner. Los resultados mostraron que el mayor rendimiento se logró en las variedades Ranferi Díaz y Col-61-Gto (6.3 Ton/ha. El contenido de proteína fue de 23.5 a 26.6% y el contenido de grasa en un intervalo de 49.8 a 53.4%. La digestibilidad promedio de las seis variedades fue de 86%. El contenido de lisina y treonina en la proteína de todas las variedades fue suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos del humano. La composición del aceite

  4. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L. CULTIVARS

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    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid used together with 1 mg/L 6-benzyladenine or 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on basal Murashige and Skoog medium. Callus is not a desirable method to clonally propagate important germplasm but can serve as one possible way of deriving periclinal mutants as a result of somaclonal variation.

  5. Chemical desiccation for early harvest in soybean cultivars

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    Tamara Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of desiccants is an alternative to anticipate the soybean harvest and keep the physiological quality of seed. The objective of this work was to assess the production performance and germination seeds in response to differents stages and desiccation chemicals products to early harvest of soybean cultivars. The experiment was conducted in Campos Novos, in two harvests, it was used a randomized complete block design disposed in split-split-plots. Two phenological stages of application (stage R7.1 and R7.3 were tested in the main plot. Five soybean cultivars (NA 5909 RG, CD 2585 RR, BMX Turbo RR, SYN 1059 RR and BENSO 1RR were evaluated in the subplots, and three desiccants ammonium glufosinate, paraquat, carfentrazone-ethyl in the 2011/12 season and one control (without the desiccant application were evaluated in the sub-subplots. In the 2012/13 season the carfentrazone-ethyl was substituted by diquat. It were evaluated the number of the days in the early harvest, yield, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, mass of 100 seeds and germination percentage. The chemical dessecation with the use of glufosinate ammonium and paraquat applied in R7.1 stage allowed to anticipate the harvest in six days (2011/12 and provided maintenance germination percentage (90% and 92% compared to control (76%. The dessecation didn’t influence negatively on seeds productivity, but reduced the mass of seeds in the two growing seasons, and early harvest was dependent of pre-harvest rain absence, with this preamble. The use of dessicants is a possibility of early harvest in production field of soybean seeds.

  6. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as ‘trap crops’ for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’, Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids ‘Ceb Dazzle’, and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) ‘L. formolongo’) to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced “suicidal germination” of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil. PMID:26565398

  7. Genetic Relationships Among Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Native to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Bakir, Melike; Ulas, Mehmet; Sakar, Zeynep Mujde

    2016-08-01

    Olive is a widely cultivated, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and economically important fruit species used as both olive oil and table olive consumption. In Turkey, more than 50 olive cultivars have been authorized for commercial plantations, representing the developmental base for the olive industry. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic relationships among the most widely grown 27 olive cultivars in Turkey, using microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers. Nine well-known foreign olive cultivars from different countries are also included in the study to compare the Turkish cultivars. To determine genetic relationship and diversity, 10 SSR loci (DCA3, DCA9, DCA15, DCA18, UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO24, UDO28) were used. Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the UPGMA method for cluster analysis were performed using the software NTSYSpc. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranging from 4 (UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, DCA15) to 12 (DCA9) presenting high polymorphism. There were no identical cultivars. High similarity was shown by cultivars Maviand Adana topağı (0.754). The most genetically divergent cultivars, Domat-Meski (0.240) and Domat-NizipYağlık (0.245), were also identified.

  8. STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF SEVERAL SOYBEAN OS-CULTIVARS IN THE GRAIN YIELD

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    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of several domestic soybean cultivars. Trials were conducted on the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during five years (1996-2000 and involved 14 soybean cultivars: Kaja, Una, Iva, Ilova, Lika, Drina, Tisa, Vuka, Nada, Podravka 95, Kuna, Ika, Anica, Kruna. All tested cultivars were created in soybean breeding programme at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Data for grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance followed by LSD test. Stability of grain yield for each cultivar was estimated by three parameters: regression coefficient (bi, ecovalence (Wi and portion of genotype x environment variance due to the contribution of each genotype to total variance of genotype x environment interaction (S2GxY. Correlations between grain yield and stability parameters as well as among stability parameters were calculated. The summarised results indicate significant variation in level and stability of grain yield and adaptability of cultivars. Among 14 tested cultivars, six cultivars: Ika, Podravka 95, Anica, Kuna, Tisa and Drina had high and stable grain yield and wide-general adaptability. Correlation between grain yield and stability parameters has indicated that simultaneous selection on high and stable grain yield is possible. Very high significant positive correlation between parameters Wi and S2GxYindicate using of smaller number of parameters for stability estimation of grain yield without reduction of the estimation accuracy.

  9. Fermentation characteristics of different grain legumes cultivars with the in vitro gas production technique

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    Monica Isabella Cutrignelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present trial the fermentation characteristics of some grain legumes were studied using the in vitro gas production technique with a view to using them as an alternative protein source to soybean in animal feeding. Three cultivars of lupine, six cultivars of faba bean and seven cultivars of peas were incubated at 39°C with buffalo rumen fluid for 96h. OM degradability and fermentation kinetics were studied. Few differences in fermentation characteristics were observed among the cultivars for each legumes grains. “Scuro di Torre Lama” showed significantly (P<0.01 lower values of dOM and OMCV than the other 5 faba bean cultivars; “Lublanc” had lower (P<0.01 OMCV than the other 2 lupine cultivars and “Spirale” produced less gas and showed a faster kinetics than the other 6 peas cultivars. In vitro fermentation characteristics of the tested grain legumes were comparable to that obtained from soybean meal in our previous in vitro study. The pooled peas showed the significantly (P<0.01 higher gas production (OMCV: 394 ml/g and faster fermentation kinetics (Rmax: 12.6 ml/h; the pooled lupine showed the lowest gas production (OMCV: 284 ml/g and the slowest fermentation process (Rmax: 7.42 ml/h.

  10. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

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    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  11. Assessment of Tolerance of Late-Flowering Almond Cultivars to Salinity

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    A. Bybordi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the tolerance to salinity in almond, this factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized block design with three replications in greenhouse of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in East Azerbaijan province. The first factor included almond cultivars (Mangha, Nonpareil, Eskandar, Araz and Sahand, and the second factor was salinity levels (electrical conductivity of 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m. In this experiment, the plant height, fresh and dry weight of leaves, chlorophyll index and concentration of nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium were measured. The results showed that the highest plant height belonged to Eskandar and Sahand cultivars. With increasing the salinity level, nitrogen concentration of the leaves decreased. Leaves of Mangha cultivar had the highest chlorine content. Although calcium concentrations of the leaves in various salinity levels were in the same statistical group, but calcium concentration was increased in higher salinity levels. Araz cultivar had the highest concentration of magnesium in its leaves. Interaction of salinity × cultivar for phosphorus content showed that Araz cultivar produced the highest phosphorus content in its leaves at salinity level of 16 dS/m. Statistical results of sodium to potassium ratio, which is an index for resistance to salinity, showed that Araz was the most tolerant almond cultivar against salinity.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEED STORAGE PROTEINS IN SOME IRANIAN DATE PALM CULTIVARS USING SDS-PAGE

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    Sayed Mohammad Reza Khoshroo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is most adapted tree to grow in desert areas. It has always been looked on as a key source of stability, survival and evolution of the oasis agro-system since it constitutes the basic features of the ecological pyramid in desert regions. Determining genetic variability and cultivars identification in date palm are two major important factors in breeding programs, characterization of germplasm, and conservation purposes. The genetic variation of seed proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE for 9 cultivars in Shahdad region in Iran. A total of 16 alternative protein bands with different mobility rates were identified within a molecular weight range of 11 KDa to 350 KDa. Then, electrophorogram for each cultivar was scored, and Jaccard‘s Similarity Index was calculated. Relying on UPGMA and NJ methods, genetic diversity of cultivars was evaluated by constructing the dendrogram for protein bands. Moreover, genetic distance was calculated for all of the cultivars.  It is concluded that seed storage protein profiles could be useful markers in genetic diversity studies and classification of cultivars. The cultivars from Shahdad were well separated from each other. This might have been done due to their unique genetic build-up. The cluster analysis displayed five major classes. In order to precise this assumption, data were computed to perform a PCA. Cluster analysis and PCA demonstrated their validity in establishing genetic diversity. When PCA was studied, the previously described results about Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram were also visualized.

  13. Mutation Breeding of various spray chrysanthemum cultivars by gamma-ray irradiation

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    Kim, Sang Hoon; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jin Baek; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Geung Joo [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was carried out to analyze mutation rate and spectrum of chrysanthemum by gamma-ray irradiation. Five flower types, 16 cultivars including 'Geumsu', 'Hwiparam', 'Ilwol', 'Magic', 'Moonlight', 'Noblewine', 'Pinky', 'Progy', 'Sangtte', 'Waterfog', 'Whitneypangpang', 'Yelloweye', 'Yellowpangpang', 'Yesmiso', 'Yesmorning', and 'Yestogether' were irradiated as 30, 50, and 70 Gy dose during 24 hours. As a result, mutation rate was identified as the highest in single type among five flower types, but there was a little difference according to cultivars. Mutation rate was increased in proportion to irradiation dose in anemone, pompon, and spider type cultivars, but there wasn't clear in single and semi-double type cultivars. Mutation spectrum was identified as the highest in the cultivar 'Noblewine'. The most sensitive cultivars to radiation were revealed as 'Noblewine' and 'Yesmorning' and the least were Moonlight', 'Waterfog', and 'Yellowpangpang'. Consequently, there was much difference in radio-sensitivity according to cultivars of chrysanthemum and flower type was correlated a little with mutation rate.

  14. Comparison of Cold-Resistance in Some Iranian and European Grape Cultivars

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    M. A. Nejatian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in vineyards of Iran is sensitivity of grape cultivars to winter cold. Considering the rich genetic diversity of grape cultivars in Iran vineyards and severe cold winter in 2007, this situation was used as a natural treatment in order to identify cold tolerance and assess damages in 21 Iranian grape varieties and 8 European grape varieties in a factorial experiment, based on completely randomized blocks design with four replications and three plants per unit. In each plant, four branches (one year old were selected and the number of healthy and damaged sprouts were counted. Then, statistical and cluster analysis was performed. Descriptive statistics (coefficient of variation of phenotypic traits of the obtained data from assessment of grape cultivars was calculated. Using the correlation coefficient (Pearson r, bilateral relationship between traits was measured and the attributes which their selection could increase the efficiency were determined. The results indicated that grape cultivars were located in four groups of sensitive, semi-sensitive, semi-tolerant and completely tolerant. Ghermez Bidaneh, Fakhri, Siyah Gazvin, Khalili and Rish Baba cultivars showed the highest tolerance. Most of the European cultivars including Ruby Seedless, Superior, Fiesta, Black Seedless, Perlette, Flame Seedless, Tompson Seedless and Torkmanistan 4 were in semi-tolerant to susceptible groups. Tolerance threshold against winter cold was was 15 ±1 ◦C in normal varieties and 20 ±1 ◦C in tolerant cultivars. There was a significant phenotypic correlation between the studied traits.

  15. Effect of Fe Deficiency on Antioxidant System in Leaves of Three Flax Cultivars

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    Zeinab Abd El-Rahman SALAMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of antioxidant enzymes as well as antioxidant compounds in protecting plant from the deleterious effect of iron deficiency was examined in different flax Linum usitassimum L. cultivars. Three flax cultivars (Sakha 1, Sakha 2 and Giza 8 were grown in water culture with (Fe-sufficient plants, +Fe or without (Fe-deficient plants,-Fe iron supply for 40 days. The obtained results showed that, iron deficiency severely decreased dry weight and concentration of iron in all cultivars leaf tissue. Besides this, to verify whether iron deficiency could induce alteration in reactive oxygen species, high concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS and H2O2 content in leaves of flax cultivars were detected under (-Fe compared to (+Fe treatments. Iron deficiency can also modulate the content of glutathione (GSH level, which were significantly increased in Fe deficient treatment compared to Fe-sufficient treatment among cultivars. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was increased under deficient treatment. In contrast, significant differences were observed between cultivars in the activity of Fe containing enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT that was greater under Fe sufficient treatment, suggesting higher amounts of physiological iron in leaf tissue of all cultivars. In addition, some changes in POD isoenzyme profile was detected under iron stress.These results suggested that, these antioxidant compounds are the key compounds to protect cell from oxidative injury.

  16. Quality assessment of 178 cultivars of plum regarding phenolic, anthocyanin and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Moehring, Jens; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In this study assessment of total phenolic, individual anthocyanin and total sugar content (TSC) of wide range of plum cultivars was done in order to select cultivars with high health benefiting compounds for potential breeding purposes. Total phenolics varied between 38.45 and 841.50mg GAE 100g(-1) FW. Cyaniding-3-rutinoside, cyaniding-3- glucoside and its equivalents were identified in anthocyanin measurement by HPLC with different ranges. TSC differed between 9.63 and 29.47%. Besides, evaluation of the effect of cultivar and year on phenolic content of 23 randomly selected cultivars over two following years (2013 & 2014) showed significant effect of both factors on phenolic content of plum cultivars. Overall, cultivars "Cacaks Spaete" which had high amount of total phenolics with stability over time, as well as "Hohenheim breed 4894" as a cultivar which contained high amounts of total phenolics, anthocyanins and TSC were selected for further breeding purposes to provide high nutritional quality plum to consumers.

  17. Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Soybean Cultivars under Different Continuous Cropping Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants. PMID:23977368

  18. Influence of cultivar on the content of selected minerals in red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.

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    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beetroot is a vegetable that accumulate heavy metals. This is largely dependent on the cultivar, methods and growing conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of elements in the roots of 15 cultivars of red beet. The analysis assessed the content of macroelements (Na, P and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn. Most soils of the Lesser Poland region are exposed to the impact of industrial and transportation pollution. The soils of this region are characterized by strong acidification as well as natural or increased heavy metal content. The experiment was set up at the experimental field of the Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants of the University of Agriculture in Krakow, in 2009-2010. On the basis of the performed analysis, ‘Opolski’ was chosen as the cultivar that was characterized by a high content of macroelements and lower ability to accumulate heavy metals than the other tested cultivars. The lowest ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd and Cr was found in the cases of cultivars with cylindrical root shapes, such as Rywal or Opolski. One can indicate such cultivars as Astar F1 or Nabab F1 as cultivars recommended for cultivation in ecologically threatened areas.

  19. Genotype-dependent regulation of drought-responsive genes in tolerant and sensitive sugarcane cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Manassés Daniel; de Oliveira Silva, Roberta Lane; Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar Costa; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

    2017-10-30

    Drought is the most damaging among the major abiotic stresses. Transcriptomic studies allow a global overview of expressed genes, providing the basis for molecular markers development. Here, the HT-SuperSAGE technique allowed the evaluation of four drought-tolerant cultivars and four-sensitive cultivars, after 24h of irrigation suppression. We identified 9831 induced unitags from roots of the tolerant cultivars with different regulations by the -sensitive cultivars after the applied stress. These unitags allowed a proposal of 15 genes, whose expressed profiles were validated by RT-qPCR, evaluating each cultivar independently. These genes covered broad metabolic processes: ethylene stress attenuation (ACCD); root growth (β-EXP8); protein degradation [ubiquitination pathway (E2, 20SPβ4); plant proteases (AP, C13)]; oxidative detoxification (TRX); fatty acid synthesis (ACC); amino acid transport (AAT), and carbohydrate metabolism [glycolysis (PFK, TPI, FBA); TCA cycle (LDP, MDH); pentose phosphate pathway (TKT)]. The expressed profiles showed a genotype-dependent regulation of the target genes. Two drought-tolerant cultivars (SP83-2847; CTC6) presented each one, nine of the induced genes. Among the -sensitive cultivars, CTC13 induced only one, while SP90-1636 induced two genes. These genes should help breeders to identify accessions managing drought stress tolerance responses, showing better ethylene stress attenuation, energy allocation, amino acid transport, and protein homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellulosic ethanol: interactions between cultivar and enzyme loading in wheat straw processing

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    Felby Claus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2.5, 5 and 10 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw and to compare particle size distribution of cultivars after pilot-scale hydrothermal pretreatment. Results Significant interactions between enzyme loading and cultivars show that breeding for cultivars with high sugar yields under modest enzyme loading could be warranted. At an enzyme loading of 5 FPU g-1 dm pretreated straw, a significant difference in sugar yields of 17% was found between the highest and lowest yielding cultivars. Sugar yield from separately hydrolyzed particle-size fractions of each cultivar showed that finer particles had 11% to 21% higher yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending on differences in removal of hemicellulose, accumulation of ash and particle-size distribution introduced by the pretreatment.