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Sample records for hybrids contained two-thirds

  1. Two cycles of recurrent maternal half-sib selection reduce foliar late blight in a diploid hybrid Solanum phureja-S. stenotomum population by two-thirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is an important disease problem worldwide. Foliar resistance to late blight was found in a hybrid population of the cultivated diploid species Solanum phureja-S. stenotomum (phu-stn). The objective of this study was to determine if resistance t...

  2. HYBRID CONTROL APPROACH FOR CONTAINER CRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaojun; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid control approach is proposed to achieve the desired performance. Firstly a robust input shaper is designed to reduce the transient vibration and residual vibration of the container efficiently. Then a simple fuzzy logic controller is designed to eliminate the residual vibration completely in order to guarantee the positioning precision. Such a hybrid approach is simple in structure and readily realizable. Simulation results verify the fine performance of this hybrid control approach. It can achieve perfect elimination of residual vibration and concise positioning of the container load, and it is robust to parameter variations (mainly for cable length) and external disturbances.

  3. Hybrid Composite of Polyaniline Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polyaniline hybrid material was synthesized by emulsion polymerization in-situ. The morphology of hybrid material was studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity of nanocomposite increases with the increasing of carbon nanotube content because of the new conductivity passageways formed by carbon nanotubes.

  4. Intraply Hybrid Composites Would Contain Control Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shiao, Chi-Yu

    1996-01-01

    "Smart" structural components with sensors and/or actuators distributed throughout their volumes made of intraply hybrid composite materials, according to proposal. Strips of hybrid control material interspersed with strips of ordinary (passive) composite material in some layers, providing distributed control capability. For example, near and far edges of plate bent upward by commanding bottom control strips to expand and simultaneously commanding upper control strips to contract.

  5. Silicone-containing aqueous polymer dispersions with hybrid particle structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakiewicz, Janusz; Ofat, Izabela; Trzaskowska, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the synthesis, characterization and application of silicone-containing aqueous polymer dispersions (APD) with hybrid particle structure are reviewed based on available literature data. Advantages of synthesis of dispersions with hybrid particle structure over blending of individual dispersions are pointed out. Three main processes leading to silicone-containing hybrid APD are identified and described in detail: (1) emulsion polymerization of organic unsaturated monomers in aqueous dispersions of silicone polymers or copolymers, (2) emulsion copolymerization of unsaturated organic monomers with alkoxysilanes or polysiloxanes with unsaturated functionality and (3) emulsion polymerization of alkoxysilanes (in particular with unsaturated functionality) and/or cyclic siloxanes in organic polymer dispersions. The effect of various factors on the properties of such hybrid APD and films as well as on hybrid particles composition and morphology is presented. It is shown that core-shell morphology where silicones constitute either the core or the shell is predominant in hybrid particles. Main applications of silicone-containing hybrid APD and related hybrid particles are reviewed including (1) coatings which show specific surface properties such as enhanced water repellency or antisoiling or antigraffiti properties due to migration of silicone to the surface, and (2) impact modifiers for thermoplastics and thermosets. Other processes in which silicone-containing particles with hybrid structure can be obtained (miniemulsion polymerization, polymerization in non-aqueous media, hybridization of organic polymer and polysiloxane, emulsion polymerization of silicone monomers in silicone polymer dispersions and physical methods) are also discussed. Prospects for further developments in the area of silicone-containing hybrid APD and related hybrid particles are presented.

  6. Properties of hybrid resin composite systems containing prepolymerized filler particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackham, Jason T; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Lien, Wen

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the properties of newer hybrid resin composites with prepolymerized-filler particles to traditional hybrids and a microfill composite. The following properties were examined per composite: diametral tensile strength, flexural strength/modulus, Knoop microhardness and polymerization shrinkage. Physical properties were determined for each Jason T Blackham, DMD, USAF, General Dentistry, Tyndall composite group (n = 8), showing significant differences between groups per property (p hybrid composites (Z250, Esthet-X) had higher strength, composites containing pre-polymerized fillers (Gradia Direct Posterior, Premise) performed more moderately and the microfill composite (Durafill VS) had lower strength. Premise and Durafill VS had the lowest polymerization shrinkage.

  7. The rule of two-thirds in diabetes epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication hypothesises a rule of two thirds which seems to operate in Indian diabetes epidemiology. Two thirds of all persons with dysglycemia are prediabetic; two thirds of all persons with diabetes are diagnosed to have the condtion; and two thirds are diagnosed before the age of 50 years. Two thirds of people with diabetes have concomitant hypetension or dyslipidemia; two thirds do not get their HbA1c assessed; and two thirds of those who do, do not achiev target values. Yet, two thirds of people with diabetes report satisfactory psychosocial health and quality of life, and adherence to dietary therapy and medication. Only one thirds adhere to exercise and self monitoring advice, however. Two thirds of persons on oral glucose lowering drugs receive metformin; two thirds of those on insulin receive premixed insulin or twice daily isnuslin, and a similar proportion uses pens for delivery. Thus, the rule of two thirds, rather than of halves, operates in modern Indian diabetes practice.

  8. Hybrid Nanostructures Containing Sulfadiazine Modified Chitosan as Antimicrobial Drug Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanel Silvestru Munteanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CH nanofibrous structures containing sulfadiazine (SDZ or sulfadiazine modified chitosan (SCH in the form of functional nanoparticles attached to nanofibers (hybrid nanostructures were obtained by mono-axial and coaxial electrospinning. The mono-axial design consisted of a SDZ/CH mixture solution fed through a single nozzle while the coaxial design consisted of SCH and CH solutions separately supplied to the inner and outer nozzle (or in reverse order. The CH ability to form nanofibers assured the formation of a nanofiber mesh, while SDZ and SCH, both in form of suspensions in the electrospun solution, assured the formation of active nanoparticles which remained attached to the CH nanofiber mesh after the electrospinning process. The obtained nanostructures were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The SDZ release profiles and kinetics were analyzed. The SDZ or SCH nanoparticles loosely attached at the surface of the nanofibers, provide a burst release in the first 20 min, which is important to stop the possible initial infection in a wound, while the SDZ and SCH from the nanoparticles which are better confined (or even encapsulated into the CH nanofibers would be slowly released with the erosion/disruption of the CH nanofiber mesh.

  9. Impedance characterization of epoxy composite containing conductive hybrid carbon fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Raja Nor; Tawil, Siti Nooraya; Zailan, Suhaila

    2017-08-01

    Epoxy composites containg carbon fillers are prepared in this work with an intention to characterise their electrical properties. The performance of electrical conductivity of epoxy composites is assessed by adding various loadings of conductive carbon fillers into the neat epoxy. First, Carbon Black (CB) was incorporated within epoxy matrix at several loadings. The increase in the specific conductivity of more than five orders of magnitude was observed between 3 wt. % and 4 wt.% CB loading, recorded at 10 kHz frequency. As such, the critical percolation loading, pc was recorded in between 3 wt.% and 4 wt.%. For the samples containing CB at loading 4 wt.% and above, the conductivity remains independent of the frequency, indicating a purely ohmic behaviour. It is also observed that the specific conductivity values can be altered by increasing the hardener stirring time up to 15 minutes, where the pc was successfully lowered down to < 3 wt. % It was further intended to study the hybrid effects by adding CNT to the composites. The conductivity data showed that the composite becomes frequency independent, even at 2 wt. % carbon loading (1 wt. % CB + 1 wt. % CNT), demonstrating the roles contributed by high aspect ratio conductive CNT in enhancing the formation of percolated path at much lower loading.

  10. Hybrid silica luminescent materials based on lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid crystal with polarized emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanova, N.M., E-mail: natsel@mail.ru [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Vandyukov, A.E.; Gubaidullin, A.T. [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Acad. Arbuzov Str., Kazan 420088 (Russian Federation); Galyametdinov, Y.G. [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    This paper represents the template method for synthesis of hybrid silica films based on Ln-containing lyotropic liquid crystal and characterized by efficient luminescence. Luminescence films were prepared in situ by the sol–gel processes. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) mesophases C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 10}H/Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O containing Ln (III) ions (Dy, Tb, Eu) were used as template. Polarized optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR-spectroscopy were used for characterization of liquid crystal mesophases and hybrid films. The morphology of composite films was studied by the atomic force microscopy method (AFM). The optical properties of the resulting materials were evaluated. It was found that hybrid silica films demonstrate significant increase of their lifetime in comparison with an LLC system. New effects of linearly polarized emission revealed for Ln-containing hybrid silica films. Polarization in lanthanide-containing hybrid composites indicates that silica precursor causes orientation of emitting ions. - Highlights: • We suggest a new simple approach for creating luminescence hybrid silica films. • Ln-containing hybrid silica films demonstrate yellow, green and red emissions. • Tb(III)-containing hybrid film have a high lifetime. • We report effects of linearly polarized emission in hybrid film.

  11. Hybrid HPMC nanocomposites containing bacterial cellulose nanocrystals and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, Ranganathan; Sajeevkumar, Vallayil Appukuttan; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Rajamanickam, Ramalingam; Abhishek, Virat; Nadanasabapathy, Shanmugam; Siddaramaiah

    2014-05-25

    Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) based hybrid nanocomposites reinforced with bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNC) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had been prepared and characterised. BCNC was capable of improving the tensile strength and modulus of HPMC, but they made the film more brittle. The addition of AgNPs along with BCNC, helped to regain some of the lost elongation properties without affecting other properties. Moisture sorption analysis proved that the hydrophilicity of the nanocomposite decreased considerably by the addition of these nanomaterials. Several mathematical models were also used to fit the experimental sorption results. A unique combination of two nanomaterials was highly effective in overcoming certain limitations of nanocomposites which uses only one type of nanomaterial. This type of hybrid nanocomposites with superior properties is expected to be useful in eco-friendly food packaging applications.

  12. Clustomesogens: Liquid Crystalline Hybrid Nanomaterials Containing Functional Metal Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molard, Yann

    2016-08-16

    Inorganic phosphorescent octahedral metal nanoclusters fill the gap between metal complexes and nanoparticles. They are finite groups of metal atoms linked by metal-metal bonds, with an exact composition and structure at the nanometer scale. As their phosphorescence internal quantum efficiency can approach 100%, they represent a very attractive class of molecular building blocks to design hybrid nanomaterials dedicated to light energy conversion, optoelectronic, display, lighting, or theragnostic applications. They are obtained as AnM6X(i)8X(a)6 ternary salt powders (A = alkali cation, M = Mo, Re, W, X(i): halogen inner ligand, X(a) = halogen apical ligand) by high temperature solid state synthesis (750-1200 °C). However, their ceramic-like behavior has largely restricted their use as functional components in the past. Since these last two decades, several groups, including ours, started to tackle the challenge of integrating them in easy-to-process materials. Within this context, we have extensively explored the nanocluster ternary salt specificities to develop a new class of self-organized hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials known as clustomesogens. These materials, combine the specific properties of nanoclusters (magnetic, electronic, luminescence) with the anisotropy-related properties of liquid crystals (LCs). This Account covers the research and development of clustomesogens starting from the design concepts and synthesis to their introduction in functional devices. We developed three strategies to build such hybrid super- or supramolecules. In the covalent approach, we capitalized on the apical ligand-metal bond iono-covalent character to graft tailor-made organic LC promoters on the {M6X(i)8}(n+) nanocluster cores. The supramolecular approach relies on the host-guest complexation of the ternary cluster salt alkali cations with functional crown ether macrocycles. We showed that the hybrid LC behavior depends on the macrocycles structural features

  13. Hybridization-based biosensor containing hairpin probes and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Strohsahl, Christopher M.

    2010-10-12

    A sensor chip that includes: a fluorescence quenching surface; a nucleic acid probe that contains first and second ends with the first end bound to the fluorescence quenching surface, and is characterized by being able to self-anneal into a hairpin conformation; and a first fluorophore bound to the second end of the first nucleic acid molecule. When the first nucleic acid molecule is in the hairpin conformation, the fluorescence quenching surface substantially quenches fluorescent emissions by the first fluorophore; and when the first nucleic acid molecule is in a non-hairpin conformation, fluorescent emissions by the fluorophore are substantially free of quenching by the fluorescence quenching surface. Various nucleic acid probes, methods of making the sensor chip, biological sensor devices that contain the sensor chip, and their methods of use are also disclosed.

  14. Preparation and properties of a POSS-containing organic-inorganic hybrid crosslinked polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan Nie; Gang Li; Yang Li; Hong Yao Xu

    2009-01-01

    A novel POSS-containing organic-inorganic hybrid crosslinked polymer was prepared by hydrosilylation reaction of octahydridosilsesquioxane (T8H8) with 4,4'-bis(4-allyloxybenzoyloxy)phenyl (diene A). Its structure and property was character-ized by FTIR, 29Si NMR, TGA and ellipsometer, respectively. The results show that the hybrid polymer possesses high thermal stability and low dielectric constant of 1.97 at optical frequencies.

  15. ELECTROSTATIC INTERACTION HYBRIDS FROM WATER-BORNE CONDUCTIVE POLYANILINE AND INORGANIC PRECURSOR CONTAINING CARBOXYL GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Luo; Xian-hong Wang; Ji Li; Xiao-jiang Zhao; Fo-song Wang

    2007-01-01

    Electrostatic interaction conductive hybrids were prepared in water/ethanol solution by the sol-gel process from inorganic sol containing carboxyl group and water-borne conductive polyaniline(cPANI).The electrostatic interaction hybrids film displayed 1-2 orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity in comparison with common hybrids film,showing remarkable conductivity stability against water soaking.Most strikingly,it displayed ideal electrochemical activity even in a solution with pH=14,which enlarged the conducting polyaniline application window to strong alkaline media.

  16. Hybridization Properties of RNA Containing 8-Methoxyguanosine and 8-Benzyloxyguanosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sylwester Baranowski

    Full Text Available Modified nucleobase analogues can serve as powerful tools for changing physicochemical and biological properties of DNA or RNA. Guanosine derivatives containing bulky substituents at 8 position are known to adopt syn conformation of N-glycoside bond. On the contrary, in RNA the anti conformation is predominant in Watson-Crick base pairing. In this paper two 8-substituted guanosine derivatives, 8-methoxyguanosine and 8-benzyloxyguanosine, were synthesized and incorporated into oligoribonucleotides to investigate their influence on the thermodynamic stability of RNA duplexes. The methoxy and benzyloxy substituents are electron-donating groups, decreasing the rate of depurination in the monomers, as confirmed by N-glycoside bond stability assessments. Thermodynamic stability studies indicated that substitution of guanosine by 8-methoxy- or 8-benzyloxyguanosine significantly decreased the thermodynamic stability of RNA duplexes. Moreover, the presence of 8-substituted guanosine derivatives decreased mismatch discrimination. Circular dichroism spectra of modified RNA duplexes exhibited patterns typical for A-RNA geometry.

  17. Hybrid Sterility in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Involves the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain Containing Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhao, Zhigang; Shi, Yanrong; Tian, Hua; Liu, Linglong; Bian, Xiaofeng; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gan, Lu; Shen, Yumin; Wang, Chaolong; Yu, Xiaowen; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Ikehashi, Hiroshi; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-07-01

    Intersubspecific hybrid sterility is a common form of reproductive isolation in rice (Oryza sativa L.), which significantly hampers the utilization of heterosis between indica and japonica varieties. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of S7, which specially causes Aus-japonica/indica hybrid female sterility, through cytological and genetic analysis, map-based cloning, and transformation experiments. Abnormal positioning of polar nuclei and smaller embryo sac were observed in F1 compared with male and female parents. Female gametes carrying S7(cp) and S7(i) were aborted in S7(ai)/S7(cp) and S7(ai)/S7(i), respectively, whereas they were normal in both N22 and Dular possessing a neutral allele, S7(n) S7 was fine mapped to a 139-kb region in the centromere region on chromosome 7, where the recombination was remarkably suppressed due to aggregation of retrotransposons. Among 16 putative open reading frames (ORFs) localized in the mapping region, ORF3 encoding a tetratricopeptide repeat domain containing protein was highly expressed in the pistil. Transformation experiments demonstrated that ORF3 is the candidate gene: downregulated expression of ORF3 restored spikelet fertility and eliminated absolutely preferential transmission of S7(ai) in heterozygote S7(ai)/S7(cp); sterility occurred in the transformants Cpslo17-S7(ai) Our results may provide implications for overcoming hybrid embryo sac sterility in intersubspecific hybrid rice and utilization of hybrid heterosis for cultivated rice improvement.

  18. Magnetic silica hybrids modified with guanidine containing co-polymers for drug delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timin, Alexander S., E-mail: a_timin@mail.ru [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology (ISUCT), 7, Sheremetevsky prosp., 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); RASA Center in Tomsk, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, 634500 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Khashirova, Svetlana Yu. [Kabardino-Balkar State University, ul. Chernyshevskogo 173, Nal' chik, 360004 Kabardino-Balkaria (Russian Federation); Rumyantsev, Evgeniy V.; Goncharenko, Alexander A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology (ISUCT), 7, Sheremetevsky prosp., 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    Guanidine containing co-polymers grafted onto silica nanoparticles to form core-shell structure were prepared by sol-gel method in the presence of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The morphological features for uncoated and coated silica particles have been characterized with scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the polymer coated silicas exhibit spherical morphology with rough polymeric surface covered by γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The grafting amount of guanidine containing co-polymers evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was in the range from 17 to 30%. Then, the drug loading properties and cumulative release of silica hybrids modified with guanidine containing co-polymers were evaluated using molsidomine as a model drug. It was shown that after polymer grafting the loading content of molsidomine could reach up to 3.42 ± 0.21 and 2.34 ± 0.14 mg/g respectively. The maximum drug release of molsidomine is achieved at pH 1.6 (approximately 71–75% release at 37 °C), whereas at pH 7.4 drug release is lower (50.4–59.6% release at 37 °C). These results have an important implication that our magneto-controlled silica hybrids modified with guanidine containing co-polymers are promising as drug carriers with controlled behaviour under influence of magnetic field. - Highlights: • Polymer coated silica hybrids containing γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared via sol–gel method. • Polymer grafting influences pH-response and surface properties of final products. • Molsidomine as a model drug was effectively loaded into polymer coated silicas. • The drug loading depends on the nature of grafted polymer and its content.

  19. Enhanced discriminability for nonbiological motion violating the two-thirds power law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Roy; Goldstein, Ariel; Vuillaume, Laurène; Faivre, Nathan; Hassin, Ran R; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    The two-thirds power law describes the relationship between velocity and curvature in human motor movements. Interestingly, this motor law also affects visual motion perception, in which stimuli moving according to the two-thirds power law are perceived to have a constant velocity compared to stimuli actually moving at constant velocity. Thus, visual motion adhering to biological motion principles causes a kinematic illusion of smooth and velocity-invariant motion. However, it is yet unclear how this motion law affects the discrimination of visual stimuli and if its encoding requires attention. Here we tested the perceptual discrimination of stimuli following biological (two-thirds power law) or nonbiological movement under conditions in which the stimuli were degraded or masked through continuous flash suppression. Additionally, we tested subjective perception of naturalness and velocity consistency. Our results show that the discriminability of a visual target is inversely related to the perceived "naturalness" of its movement. Discrimination of stimuli following the two-thirds power law required more time than the same stimuli moving at constant velocity or nonecological variants of the two-thirds power law and was present for both masked and degraded stimuli.

  20. Impact Resistance of Lightweight Hybrid Structures for Gas Turbine Engine Fan Containment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Revilock, Duane M.

    2003-01-01

    The ballistic impact resistance of hybrid composite sandwich structures was evaluated with the ultimate goal of developing new materials or structures for potential gas turbine engine fan containment applications. The sandwich structures investigated consisted of GLARE-5 laminates as face sheets with lightweight cellular metallic materials such as honeycomb, foam, and lattice block as a core material. The impact resistance of these hybrid sandwich structures was compared to GLARE-5 laminates and 2024-T3 Al sheet, which were tested as a function of areal weight (material thickness). The GLARE-5 laminates exhibited comparable impact properties to that of 2024-T3 Al at low areal weights, even though there were significant differences in the static tensile properties of these materials. The GLARE-5, however, did have a greater ballistic limit than straight aluminum sheet at higher areal weights. Furthermore, there is up to a 25% advantage in ballistic limit for the GLARE-5/foam sandwich structures compared to straight 2024-T3 Al. But no advantage in ballistic limit was observed between any of the hybrid sandwich structures and thicker versions of GLARE-5. Recommendations for future work are provided, based on these preliminary data.

  1. A microfluidic microprocessor: controlling biomimetic containers and cells using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-11-07

    We present an integrated platform for performing biological and chemical experiments on a chip based on standard CMOS technology. We have developed a hybrid integrated circuit (IC)/microfluidic chip that can simultaneously control thousands of living cells and pL volumes of fluid, enabling a wide variety of chemical and biological tasks. Taking inspiration from cellular biology, phospholipid bilayer vesicles are used as robust picolitre containers for reagents on the chip. The hybrid chip can be programmed to trap, move, and porate individual living cells and vesicles and fuse and deform vesicles using electric fields. The IC spatially patterns electric fields in a microfluidic chamber using 128 × 256 (32,768) 11 × 11 μm(2) metal pixels, each of which can be individually driven with a radio frequency (RF) voltage. The chip's basic functions can be combined in series to perform complex biological and chemical tasks and can be performed in parallel on the chip's many pixels for high-throughput operations. The hybrid chip operates in two distinct modes, defined by the frequency of the RF voltage applied to the pixels: Voltages at MHz frequencies are used to trap, move, and deform objects using dielectrophoresis and voltages at frequencies below 1 kHz are used for electroporation and electrofusion. This work represents an important step towards miniaturizing the complex chemical and biological experiments used for diagnostics and research onto automated and inexpensive chips.

  2. [Two-thirds of doctors are female, but ever still behind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaat, J.O.M.; Leeuw, P.W. de; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    At present, two-thirds of the medical students in The Netherlands are women. However, the problems of combining a medical education with the responsibilities of motherhood, and the inaccessibility of medical top positions for women, are as serious as they were ten years ago at the 65th anniversary

  3. Two Thirds of Forest Walkers with Japanese Cedar Pollinosis Visit Forests even During the Pollen Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Morita

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: These results revealed that two thirds of forest walkers who had experienced JCP visited forests even during the pollen season. This indicates the further need for public service announcements informing people with JCP that the risk of pollen exposure and subsequent JCP reaction is increased by visiting forested areas during the pollen season.

  4. Hybrid-Type Organic Thermoelectric Materials Containing Nanoparticles as a Carrier Transport Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Keisuke; Inoue, Junta; Sadakata, Shifumi; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently received much attention as thermoelectric materials. Although the carrier mobility within a single CNT is very high, the charge carrier transport between CNTs is quite slow. We have utilized nanoparticles (NPs) for promotion of the carrier transport between CNTs for improving their thermoelectric performance. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was used as a binder of the CNTs. Thus, hybrid-type organic thermoelectric materials containing the NPs were constructed from Pd NPs, CNTs, and PVC. The thermoelectric properties were slightly improved in the three-component films by only mixing the separately-prepared Pd NPs. The NPs of a polymer complex, poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (n-PETT), were also used as a charge carrier transport promoter instead of the Pd NPs to produce n-PETT/CNT/PVC hybrid films. Treatment of the three-component films with methanol produced a high thermoelectric power factor and low thermal conductivity, resulting in a high "apparent" thermoelectric performance ( ZT ˜ 0.3 near room temperature) although the thermal conductivity was measured in the through-plane direction, which is a different direction from that for the electrical conductivity.

  5. Hybrid-Type Organic Thermoelectric Materials Containing Nanoparticles as a Carrier Transport Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Keisuke; Inoue, Junta; Sadakata, Shifumi; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently received much attention as thermoelectric materials. Although the carrier mobility within a single CNT is very high, the charge carrier transport between CNTs is quite slow. We have utilized nanoparticles (NPs) for promotion of the carrier transport between CNTs for improving their thermoelectric performance. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was used as a binder of the CNTs. Thus, hybrid-type organic thermoelectric materials containing the NPs were constructed from Pd NPs, CNTs, and PVC. The thermoelectric properties were slightly improved in the three-component films by only mixing the separately-prepared Pd NPs. The NPs of a polymer complex, poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (n-PETT), were also used as a charge carrier transport promoter instead of the Pd NPs to produce n-PETT/CNT/PVC hybrid films. Treatment of the three-component films with methanol produced a high thermoelectric power factor and low thermal conductivity, resulting in a high "apparent" thermoelectric performance (ZT ˜ 0.3 near room temperature) although the thermal conductivity was measured in the through-plane direction, which is a different direction from that for the electrical conductivity.

  6. Quantum efficiency of colloidal suspensions containing quantum dot/silica hybrid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyungjoon; Yoon, Cheolsang; Lee, Sooho; Lee, Doh C.; Shin, Kyusoon; Lee, Kangtaek

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the fluorescence properties of colloidal suspensions conntaining quantum dot (QD)/silica hybrid particles. First, we synthesized QD/silica hybrid particles with silica-QD-silica (SQS) core-shell-shell geometry, and monitored the quantum efficiencies of their suspensions at various particle concentrations. We found that the quantum efficiency (QE) of SQS particles in deionized (DI) water was much lower than that of the QDs even at low particle concentration, mainly due to the light scattering of emitted photons at the silica/water interface, followed by reabsorption by QDs. As the concentration of SQS particles was increased, both light scattering and reabsorption by QDs became more important, which further reduced the QE. Refractive index-matched solvent, however, reduced light scattering, yielding greater QE than DI water. Next, we induced aggregation of SQS particles, and found that QE increased as particles aggregated in DI water because of reduced light scattering and reabsorption, whereas it remained almost constant in the refractive index-matched solvent. Finally, we studied aggregation of highly concentrated silica particle suspensions containing a low concentration of SQS particles, and found that QE increased with aggregation because light scattering and reabsorption were reduced.

  7. 2,4-Dichlorophenol (DCP) containing wastewater treatment using a hybrid-loop bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilaver, Mehmet; Kargi, Fikret

    2009-02-01

    Synthetic wastewater containing 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) was biologically treated using a hybrid-loop bioreactor system consisting of a packed column biofilm reactor (PCBR) and an aerated tank with effluent recycle. Effects of the feed DCP concentration on COD, DCP and toxicity removals were investigated. Biomass concentration in the packed column and in the aeration tank decreased with increasing feed DCP content due to toxic effects of DCP on the microorganisms. Low biomass concentrations at high DCP contents resulted in low COD, DCP and toxicity removals. Therefore, percent DCP, COD and toxicity removals decreased with increasing feed DCP content. Nearly 70% COD removal was achieved with a feed DCP content of 380 mg L(-1). The system should be operated with the feed DCP lower than 100 mg L(-1) in order to obtain DCP, COD and toxicity removals above 90%.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Imide Containing Hybrid Epoxy Resin with Improved Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorous containing amine, tripropyldiamine phosphine oxide (TPDAP, and hybrid monomer 4-(N-phthalimidophenyl glycidylether (PPGE were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (EDX. PPGE was incorporated in bisphenol A epoxy resin (BPA in various concentrations (5% to 20%, based on a weight percentage of BPA resin. Curing was carried out with the stoichiometric amount of TPDAP and 1,3-propanediamine (PDA to result in cross-link network. Various mechanical, chemical, thermal, and flame retardant properties of modified and unmodified epoxy resin were studied. The coatings obtained with the addition of PPGE were found to have improved properties as compared with those of the unmodified resin. Coatings with 15% loading of PPGE showed improved flame retardant and mechanical properties with stable thermal behaviour.

  9. PWR Containment Shielding Calculations with SCALE6.1 Using Hybrid Deterministic-Stochastic Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Matijević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of the SCALE6.1/MAVRIC hybrid shielding methodology (CADIS and FW-CADIS were demonstrated when applied to a realistic deep penetration Monte Carlo (MC shielding problem of a full-scale PWR containment model. Automatic preparation of variance reduction (VR parameters is based on deterministic transport theory (SN method providing the space-energy importance function. The aim of this paper was to determine the neutron-gamma dose rate distributions over large portions of PWR containment with uniformly small MC uncertainties. The sources of ionizing radiation included fission neutrons and photons from the reactor and photons from the activated primary coolant. We investigated benefits and differences of FW-CADIS over CADIS methodology for the objective of the uniform MC particle density in the desired tally regions. Memory intense deterministic module was used with broad group library “v7_27n19g” opposed to the fine group library “v7_200n47g” used for final MC simulation. Compared with CADIS and with the analog MC, FW-CADIS drastically improved MC dose rate distributions. Modern shielding problems with large spatial domains require not only extensive computational resources but also understanding of the underlying physics and numerical interdependence between SN-MC modules. The results of the dose rates throughout the containment are presented and discussed for different volumetric adjoint sources.

  10. Structure–property relationships in hybrid dental nanocomposite resins containing monofunctional and multifunctional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang WG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Weiguo Wang,1,* Xiang Sun,1,* Li Huang,2,* Yu Gao,1 Jinghao Ban,1 Lijuan Shen,1 Jihua Chen1 1Department of Prosthodontics, 2Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS, have the potential to improve the mechanical properties of the methacrylate-based composites and resins used in dentistry. In this article, nanocomposites of methacryl isobutyl POSS (MI-POSS [bears only one methacrylate functional group] and methacryl POSS (MA-POSS [bears eight methacrylate functional groups] were investigated to determine the effect of structures on the properties of dental resin. The structures of the POSS-containing networks were determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Monofunctional POSS showed a strong tendency toward aggregation and crystallization, while multifunctional POSS showed higher miscibility with the dimethacrylate monomer. The mechanical properties and wear resistance decreased with increasing amounts of MI-POSS, indicating that the MI-POSS agglomerates act as the mechanical weak point in the dental resins. The addition of small amounts of MA-POSS improved the mechanical and shrinkage properties. However, samples with a higher MA-POSS concentration showed lower flexural strength and flexural modulus, indicating that there is a limited range in which the reinforcement properties of MA-POSS can operate. This concentration dependence is attributed to phase separation at higher concentrations of POSS, which affects the structural integrity, and thus, the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the dental resin. Our results show that resin with 3% MA-POSS is a potential candidate for resin-based dental materials

  11. Characterization of copy number variation in genomic regions containing STR loci using array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repnikova, Elena A; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Bailes, Andrea; Weber, Cecilia; Erdman, Linda; McKinney, Aimee; Ramsey, Sarah; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Lamb Thrush, Devon; Astbury, Caroline; Reshmi, Shalini C; Shaffer, Lisa G; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Pyatt, Robert E

    2013-09-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) loci are commonly used in forensic casework, familial analysis for human identification, and for monitoring hematopoietic cell engraftment after bone marrow transplant. Unexpected genetic variation leading to sequence and length differences in STR loci can complicate STR typing, and presents challenges in casework interpretation. Copy number variation (CNV) is a relatively recently identified form of genetic variation consisting of genomic regions present at variable copy numbers within an individual compared to a reference genome. Large scale population studies have demonstrated that likely all individuals carry multiple regions with CNV of 1kb in size or greater in their genome. To date, no study correlating genomic regions containing STR loci with CNV has been conducted. In this study, we analyzed results from 32,850 samples sent for clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis for the presence of CNV at regions containing the 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) STR, and the Amelogenin X (AMELX) and Amelogenin Y (AMELY) loci. Thirty-two individuals with CNV involving STR loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 7, 11, 12, 13, 16, and 21, and twelve with CNV involving the AMELX/AMELY loci were identified. These results were correlated with data from publicly available databases housing information on CNV identified in normal populations and additional clinical cases. These collective results demonstrate the presence of CNV in regions containing 9 of the 13 CODIS STR and AMELX/Y loci. Further characterization of STR profiles within regions of CNV, additional cataloging of these variants in multiple populations, and contributing such examples to the public domain will provide valuable information for reliable use of these loci.

  12. Ingestive behavior of Nellore steers in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the feeding behavior of Nellore beef cattle in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids. Twenty-seven animals averaging 350 ± 24 kg of body weight and 24 months of age, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T, where, T1-TDFC: total diet containing flint corn, T2-TDSFC: total diet containing semi-flint corn and T3-TDSDC: total diet containing semi-dent corn, with 9 replicates per treatment. The animals were fed ad libitum twice a day (at 8:00am and 4:00pm with a isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet, with 30% of sugar cane bagasse and 70% concentrate (88% maize, 8% soybean meal, 3% mineral and vitamin supplement and 1% urea for 95 days (14 days of adaptation and 3 experimental periods of 27 days each. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and after each period of 27 days, always in a fasting period of 16 hours. The evaluation of animals feeding behavior occurred at the last day of each period by visual observation every five minutes for full periods of 24 hours. Observations were made in four shifts: morning (06:00 to 12:00, afternoon (12:00 to 18:00, evening (18:00 to 00:00 and early morning (00:00 06:00 to determine the number of ruminal bolus, chewing time, total feeding time, total ruminating standing time, total ruminating lying time, total standing idle time and total lying idle time. During the night’s observations, the stalls received artificial illumination to facilitate the data collection and the animals were adapted with light at night for three days before observations. Animals fed with diets containing semi-dent corn had longer chew time and more ruminal bolus than those fed with flint corn, but did not differ from those that received semi-flint corn in the diet. The chewing time and number of ruminal bolus varied with the observation periods, being higher in the morning and decreasing in the

  13. Structure–property relationships in hybrid dental nanocomposite resins containing monofunctional and multifunctional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguo; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Li; Gao, Yu; Ban, Jinghao; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS), have the potential to improve the mechanical properties of the methacrylate-based composites and resins used in dentistry. In this article, nanocomposites of methacryl isobutyl POSS (MI-POSS [bears only one methacrylate functional group]) and methacryl POSS (MA-POSS [bears eight methacrylate functional groups]) were investigated to determine the effect of structures on the properties of dental resin. The structures of the POSS-containing networks were determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Monofunctional POSS showed a strong tendency toward aggregation and crystallization, while multifunctional POSS showed higher miscibility with the dimethacrylate monomer. The mechanical properties and wear resistance decreased with increasing amounts of MI-POSS, indicating that the MI-POSS agglomerates act as the mechanical weak point in the dental resins. The addition of small amounts of MA-POSS improved the mechanical and shrinkage properties. However, samples with a higher MA-POSS concentration showed lower flexural strength and flexural modulus, indicating that there is a limited range in which the reinforcement properties of MA-POSS can operate. This concentration dependence is attributed to phase separation at higher concentrations of POSS, which affects the structural integrity, and thus, the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the dental resin. Our results show that resin with 3% MA-POSS is a potential candidate for resin-based dental materials. PMID:24550674

  14. Structure-property relationships in hybrid dental nanocomposite resins containing monofunctional and multifunctional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguo; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Li; Gao, Yu; Ban, Jinghao; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS), have the potential to improve the mechanical properties of the methacrylate-based composites and resins used in dentistry. In this article, nanocomposites of methacryl isobutyl POSS (MI-POSS [bears only one methacrylate functional group]) and methacryl POSS (MA-POSS [bears eight methacrylate functional groups]) were investigated to determine the effect of structures on the properties of dental resin. The structures of the POSS-containing networks were determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Monofunctional POSS showed a strong tendency toward aggregation and crystallization, while multifunctional POSS showed higher miscibility with the dimethacrylate monomer. The mechanical properties and wear resistance decreased with increasing amounts of MI-POSS, indicating that the MI-POSS agglomerates act as the mechanical weak point in the dental resins. The addition of small amounts of MA-POSS improved the mechanical and shrinkage properties. However, samples with a higher MA-POSS concentration showed lower flexural strength and flexural modulus, indicating that there is a limited range in which the reinforcement properties of MA-POSS can operate. This concentration dependence is attributed to phase separation at higher concentrations of POSS, which affects the structural integrity, and thus, the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the dental resin. Our results show that resin with 3% MA-POSS is a potential candidate for resin-based dental materials.

  15. Comparing smooth arm movements with the two-thirds power law and the related segmented-control hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Magnus J E; Flash, Tamar

    2002-09-15

    The movements of the human arm have been extensively studied for a variety of goal-directed experimental tasks. Analyses of the trajectory and velocity of the arm have led to many hypotheses for the planning strategies that the CNS might use. One family of control hypotheses, including minimum jerk, snap and their generalizations to higher orders, comprises those that favor smooth movements through the optimization of an integral cost function. The predictions of each order of this family are examined for two standard experimental tasks: point-to-point movements and the periodic tracing of figural forms, and compared both with experiment and the two-thirds power law. The aim of the analyses is to generalize previous numerical observations as well as to examine movement segmentation. It is first shown that contrary to recent statements in the literature, the only members of this family of control theories that match reaching movement experiments well are minimum jerk and snap. Then, for the case of periodic drawing, both the ellipse and cloverleaf are examined and the experimentally observed power law is derived from a first-principles approach. The results for the ellipse are particularly general, representing a unification of the two-thirds power law and smoothness hypotheses for ellipses of all reasonable eccentricities. For complex shapes it is shown that velocity profiles derived from the cost-function approach exhibit the same experimental features that were interpreted as segmented control by the CNS. Because the cost function contains no explicit segmented control, this result casts doubt on such an interpretation of the experimental data.

  16. Hybrid Molecules Containing a 7-Chloro-4-aminoquinoline Nucleus and a Substituted 2-Pyrazoline with Antiproliferative and Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Montoya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four new hybrid analogues (15–38 containing 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline and 2-pyrazoline N-heterocyclic fragments were synthesized. Twelve of the new compounds were evaluated against 58 human cancer cell lines by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI. Compounds 25, 30, 31, 36, and 37 showed significant cytostatic activity, with the most outstanding GI50 values ranging from 0.05 to 0.95 µM. The hybrid compounds (15–38 were also evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. From the obtained results some structure–activity relationships were outlined.

  17. Hybrid Molecules Containing a 7-Chloro-4-aminoquinoline Nucleus and a Substituted 2-Pyrazoline with Antiproliferative and Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alba; Quiroga, Jairo; Abonia, Rodrigo; Derita, Marcos; Sortino, Maximiliano; Ornelas, Alfredo; Zacchino, Susana; Insuasty, Braulio

    2016-07-27

    Twenty-four new hybrid analogues (15-38) containing 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline and 2-pyrazoline N-heterocyclic fragments were synthesized. Twelve of the new compounds were evaluated against 58 human cancer cell lines by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Compounds 25, 30, 31, 36, and 37 showed significant cytostatic activity, with the most outstanding GI50 values ranging from 0.05 to 0.95 µM. The hybrid compounds (15-38) were also evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. From the obtained results some structure-activity relationships were outlined.

  18. Peptide-micelle Hybrids Containing Fasudil for Targeted Delivery to the Pulmonary Arteries and Arterioles to Treat PAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nilesh; Ibrahim, Hany M.; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the respirability and efficacy of peptide-micelle hybrid nanoparticles as carriers for inhalational therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). CARSKNKDC (CAR), a cell penetrating and lung homing peptide, conjugated DSPE-PEG micelles containing fasudil, an investigational anti-PAH drug, were prepared by solvent evaporation method and characterized for various physicochemical properties. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacological efficacy of hybrid particles containing fasudil were evaluated in healthy rats and monocrotaline induced PAH rats, respectively. CAR-micelles containing fasudil had an entrapment efficiency of ∼58%, showed controlled release of the drug, and were monodispersed with an average size of ∼14nm. NMR scan confirmed the drug's presence in the core of peptide-micelle hybrid particles. Compared with plain micelles, CAR peptide increased the cellular uptake by ∼1.7-fold and extended the drug half-life by ∼5-fold. The formulations were more prone to accumulate in the pulmonary vasculature than in the peripheral blood, which is evident from the ratio of the extent of reduction of pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures. On the whole, this study demonstrates that peptide-polymer hybrid micelles can serve as inhalational carriers for PAH therapy. PMID:25266507

  19. Peptide-micelle hybrids containing fasudil for targeted delivery to the pulmonary arteries and arterioles to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nilesh; Ibrahim, Hany M; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the respirability and efficacy of peptide-micelle hybrid nanoparticles as carriers for inhalational therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). CARSKNKDC (CAR), a cell-penetrating and lung-homing peptide, conjugated polyethylene glycol-distearoyl-phosphoethanolamine micelles containing fasudil, an investigational anti-PAH drug, were prepared by solvent evaporation method and characterized for various physicochemical properties. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacological efficacy of hybrid particles containing fasudil were evaluated in healthy rats and monocrotaline-induced PAH rats. CAR micelles containing fasudil had an entrapment efficiency of approximately 58%, showed controlled release of the drug, and were monodispersed with an average size of approximately 14 nm. Nuclear magnetic resonance scan confirmed the drug's presence in the core of peptide-micelle hybrid particles. Compared with plain micelles, CAR peptide increased the cellular uptake by approximately 1.7-fold and extended the drug half-life by approximately fivefold. The formulations were more prone to accumulate in the pulmonary vasculature than in the peripheral blood, which is evident from the ratio of the extent of reduction of pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures. On the whole, this study demonstrates that peptide-polymer hybrid micelles can serve as inhalational carriers for PAH therapy.

  20. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2011-03-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted.

  1. Efficient treatment of azo dye containing wastewater in a hybrid acidogenic bioreactor stimulated by biocatalyzed electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Cheng; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Wang, Shu-Sen; Cui, Dan; Han, Jing-Long; Hu, Ya-Ping; Su, Shi-Gang; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel scaled-up hybrid acidogenic bioreactor (HAB) was designed and adopted to evaluate the performance of azo dye (acid red G, ARG) containing wastewater treatment. Principally, HAB is an acidogenic bioreactor coupled with a biocatalyzed electrolysis module. The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and ARG loading rate on the performance of HAB were investigated. In addition, the influent was switched from synthetic wastewater to domestic wastewater to examine the key parameters for the application of HAB. The results showed that the introduction of the biocatalyzed electrolysis module could enhance anoxic decolorization and COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. The combined process of HAB-CASS presented superior performance compared to a control system without biocatalyzed electrolysis (AB-CASS). When the influent was switched to domestic wastewater, with an environment having more balanced nutrients and diverse organic matters, the ARG, COD and nitrogen removal efficiencies of HAB-CASS were further improved, reaching 73.3%±2.5%, 86.2%±3.8% and 93.5%±1.6% at HRT of 6 hr, respectively, which were much higher than those of AB-CASS (61.1%±4.7%, 75.4%±5.0% and 82.1%±2.1%, respectively). Moreover, larger TCV/TV (total cathode volume/total volume) for HAB led to higher current and ARG removal. The ARG removal efficiency and current at TCV/TV of 0.15 were 39.2%±3.7% and 28.30±1.48 mA, respectively. They were significantly increased to 62.1%±2.0% and 34.55±0.83 mA at TCV/TV of 0.25. These results show that HAB system could be used to effectively treat real wastewater.

  2. New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slamborova, Irena [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Zajicova, Veronika, E-mail: veronika.zajicova@tul.cz [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Karpiskova, Jana [Institute of Novel Technologies and Applied Informatics, Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Exnar, Petr; Stibor, Ivan [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol-gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 3 h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100 Degree-Sign C for 4.5 h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Polymers Containing Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yao XU; Xiao Yan GAO; Shan Yi GUANG; Feng Zhi CHANG

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid polymers, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-isobutyl styryl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes)s (PVP-POSS) were synthesized by one step polymerization and characterized using GPC and DSC. Addition of POSS significantly increases the Tg of polyvinylpyrrolidone at a fair high POSS content and obtained high molecular weight polymers with very narrow molecular distribution. The POSS content in the resulted hybrids can be controlled by varying the POSS feed ratio.

  4. Two-Thirds Law of Nitrogen Mineralization Under Undisturbed Soil Conditions: A New Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.SENEVIRATNE

    2008-01-01

    It is reported in literature that globally,only about two-thirds of N in nutrient sources is available to plants and microbes in soils under undisturbed conditions.The present study explores this phenomenon and suggests a new theory to explain this.Diffusion of NH+ from microsite sources is considered here and analyzed for a capillary of the soil system.It has been found that 68% of NH+ diffused from the nutrient source is initially preserved in the proximity of the nutrient source,whereas,the remaining 32% is diffused away from the nutrient source and possibly immobilized in the nonexchangeable abiotic pools or lost.The NH4+ that has been initially retained near the microsites is gradually released to the mineral pool.Thus,about two-thirds of NH+ released from microsites is available only to plants and microbes in the soil.This is a universal,natural mechanism of nutrient conservation for plant and microbial availabilities.The theory has important implications and applications in recommending N fertilizations in the forms of organic or mineral sources to plants grown across various soil textures,for which further studies are needed.Any deviations from this theory can mainly be attributed to various disturbances to the soil;for example,mechanical disturbances,nutrient leaching,and variations in pH and soil faunal activities.This theory may apply to other elements mineralized in the soils under undisturbed conditions,which must be investigated in future studies.

  5. A stable hybrid containing haploid genomes of two obligate diploid Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Uttara; Mohamed, Aiyaz; Kakade, Pallavi; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Sadhale, Parag P; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2013-08-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are diploid, predominantly asexual human-pathogenic yeasts. In this study, we constructed tetraploid (4n) strains of C. albicans of the same or different lineages by spheroplast fusion. Induction of chromosome loss in the tetraploid C. albicans generated diploid or near-diploid progeny strains but did not produce any haploid progeny. We also constructed stable heterotetraploid somatic hybrid strains (2n + 2n) of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by spheroplast fusion. Heterodiploid (n + n) progeny hybrids were obtained after inducing chromosome loss in a stable heterotetraploid hybrid. To identify a subset of hybrid heterodiploid progeny strains carrying at least one copy of all chromosomes of both species, unique centromere sequences of various chromosomes of each species were used as markers in PCR analysis. The reduction of chromosome content was confirmed by a comparative genome hybridization (CGH) assay. The hybrid strains were found to be stably propagated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays with antibodies against centromere-specific histones (C. albicans Cse4/C. dubliniensis Cse4) revealed that the centromere identity of chromosomes of each species is maintained in the hybrid genomes of the heterotetraploid and heterodiploid strains. Thus, our results suggest that the diploid genome content is not obligatory for the survival of either C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. In keeping with the recent discovery of the existence of haploid C. albicans strains, the heterodiploid strains of our study can be excellent tools for further species-specific genome elimination, yielding true haploid progeny of C. albicans or C. dubliniensis in future.

  6. KIC 10080943: An eccentric binary system containing two pressure- and gravity-mode hybrid pulsators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, V. S.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Murphy, S. J.; Van Reeth, T.; Pápics, P. I.; Bedding, T. R.; Keen, M. A.; Prša, A.; Menu, J.; Debosscher, J.; Hrudková, M.; De Smedt, K.; Lombaert, R.; Németh, P.

    2015-12-01

    Context. γ Doradus and δ Scuti pulsators cover the transition region between low mass and massive main-sequence stars, and as such, are critical for testing stellar models. When they reside in binary systems, we can combine two independent methods to derive critical information, such as precise fundamental parameters to aid asteroseismic modelling. In the Kepler light curve of KIC 10080943, clear signatures of gravity- and pressure-mode pulsations have been found. Ground-based spectroscopy revealed this target to be a double-lined binary system. Aims: We present the analysis of four years of Kepler photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy to derive observational constraints with which to evaluate theoretical predictions of the stellar structure and evolution for intermediate-mass stars. Methods: We used the method of spectral disentangling to determine atmospheric parameters for both components and derive the orbital elements. With phoebe, we modelled the ellipsoidal variation and reflection signal of the binary in the light curve and used classical Fourier techniques to analyse the pulsation modes. Results: We show that the eccentric binary system KIC 10080943 contains two hybrid pulsators with masses M1 = 2.0 ± 0.1 M⊙ and M2 = 1.9 ± 0.1 M⊙, with radii R1 = 2.9 ± 0.1 R⊙ and R2 = 2.1 ± 0.2 R⊙. We detect rotational splitting in the g and p modes for both stars and use them to determine a first rough estimate of the core-to-surface rotation rates for the two components, which will be improved by future detailed seismic modelling. Based on the data gathered with NASA's Discovery mission, Kepler, and with the HERMES spectrograph, installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the

  7. Stability of hybrid modes of a single-component electron plasma containing an admixture of background gas ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Yu. N.

    2014-05-01

    The spectrum of eigenmodes of a waveguide completely filled with a cold electron plasma containing a small admixture of ions produced due to electron-impact ionization of background gas atoms is calculated numerically. The calculations were performed within the entire range of allowable values of the radial electric and longitudinal magnetic fields for both magnetized and unmagnetized ions by using the earlier derived nonlocal dispersion relation [Plasma Phys. Rep. 36, 563 (2010)]. The spectrum consists of three families of electron modes with frequencies equal to the Doppler-shifted upper and lower hybrid frequencies and modified ion cyclotron (MIC) modes. When the Doppler shift caused by electron rotation in the crossed electric and magnetic fields compensates for the hybrid frequency, the electron modes become low-frequency modes and interact with the ion modes. For m = 1, only the lower hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones, whereas at m ≥ 2, both lower and upper hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones. The spectrum of modes having the azimuthal number m = 2 is thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, in this case, the lower hybrid modes behave similar to the m = 1 modes. The dispersion curves of the upper hybrid modes intersect with all harmonics of the MIC frequency (positive, negative, and zero) and are unstable in the vicinities of the intersections. The maximum value of the instability growth rate is several times higher than the ion plasma frequency. The MIC modes are unstable within a wide range of the field strengths, and their growth rates are two orders of magnitude slower. Instabilities are caused by the relative motion of electrons and ions (the transverse current) and the anisotropy of the ion distribution function.

  8. Polystyrene-Core-Silica-Shell Hybrid Particles Containing Gold and Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia; Vana, Philipp

    2016-02-18

    Polystyrene-core-silica-shell hybrid particles were synthesized by combining the self-assembly of nanoparticles and the polymer with a silica coating strategy. The core-shell hybrid particles are composed of gold-nanoparticle-decorated polystyrene (PS-AuNP) colloids as the core and silica particles as the shell. PS-AuNP colloids were generated by the self-assembly of the PS-grafted AuNPs. The silica coating improved the thermal stability and dispersibility of the AuNPs. By removing the "free" PS of the core, hollow particles with a hydrophobic cage having a AuNP corona and an inert silica shell were obtained. Also, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were encapsulated in the core, which resulted in magnetic core-shell hybrid particles by the same strategy. These particles have potential applications in biomolecular separation and high-temperature catalysis and as nanoreactors.

  9. Surficial Geologic Map of the Southern Two-Thirds of the Woodbury Quadrangle, Vermont, Washington County, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2015-3 Springston, G, Thomas, E, and Kim, J, 2015,�Surficial Geologic Map of the Southern Two-Thirds of the Woodbury Quadrangle, Vermont,...

  10. New polyoxometalates containing hybrid polymers and their potential for nano-patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Vishwanath; Satyanarayana, V S V; Singh, Vikram; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P; Ghosh, Subrata; Sharma, Satinder K; Gonsalves, Kenneth E

    2015-01-26

    Two new polyoxometalate (POM)-based hybrid monomers (Bu4 N)5 (H)[P2 V3 W15 O59 {(OCH2 )3 CNHCO(CH3 )CCH2 }] (2) and (S(CH3 )2 C6 H4 OCOC(CH3 )=CH2 )6 [PV  2Mo10 O40 ] (5) were developed by grafting polymerizable organic units covalently or electrostatically onto Wells-Dawson and Keggin-type clusters and were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques including ESI-MS and/or single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Radical initiated polymerization of 2 and 5 with organic monomers (methacryloyloxy)phenyldimethylsulfonium triflate (MAPDST) and/or methylmethacrylate (MMA) yielded a new series of POM/polymer hybrids that were characterized by (1) H, (31) P NMR and IR spectroscopic techniques, gel-permeation chromatography as well as thermal analyses. Preliminary tests were conducted on these POM/polymer hybrids to evaluate their properties as photoresists using electron beam (E-beam)/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic techniques. It was observed that the POM/polymer hybrid of 2 with MAPDST exhibited improved sensitivity under EUV lithographic conditions in comparison to the MAPDST homopolymer resist possibly due to the efficient photon harvesting by the POM clusters from the EUV source.

  11. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  12. Hydration of Hybrid Alkaline Cement Containing a Very Large Proportion of Fly Ash: A Descriptive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Garcia-Lodeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid alkaline fly ash cements, a new generation of binders, hydration, is characterized by features found in both ordinary portland cement (OPC hydration and the alkali activation of fly ash (AAFA. Hybrid alkaline fly ash cements typically have a high fly ash (70 wt % to 80 wt % and low clinker (20 wt % to 30 wt % content. The clinker component favors curing at ambient temperature. A hydration mechanism is proposed based on the authors’ research on these hybrid binders over the last five years. The mechanisms for OPC hydration and FA alkaline activation are summarized by way of reference. In hybrid systems, fly ash activity is visible at very early ages, when two types of gel are formed: C–S–H from the OPC and N–A–S–H from the fly ash. In their mutual presence, these gels tend to evolve, respectively, into C–A–S–H and (N,C–A–S–H. The use of activators with different degrees of alkalinity has a direct impact on reaction kinetics but does not modify the main final products, a mixture of C–A–S–H and (N,C–A–S–H gels. The proportion of each gel in the mix does, however, depend on the alkalinity generated in the medium.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of hybrid hydrogels based on poly(vinylpyrrolidone containing silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Jovana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work new hybrid hydrogels were prepared by radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, itaconic acid, poly(vinylpyrrolidone and silver particles. FTIR spectroscopy has confirmed binding of silver particels in hydrogels. Swelling studies performed in in vitro conditions showed dependence on PVP content and temperature. It can be seen that the antimicrobial activity of the Ag/P(HEMA/IAPVP hybrid hydrogels depends on the PVP moiety and with the increase of PVP content the microbial contamination is more efficiently reduced. The best sensitivity was obtained for the polymers tested for antimicrobial activity against the yeast C. albicans, one of the most commonly encountered human pathogens, causing a wide variety of infections ranging from mucosal infections in generally healthy persons to life-threatening systemic infections in individuals with impaired immunity. A slightly less susceptible to antimicrobial effect of hydrogels was obtained for the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus, where the reduction of cells was about 70 % after two hours of exposure, for the sample with the highest PVP content. The least susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels examined was the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, where the percent of cell reduction was below 20 %. Bearing in mind the influence of the time of exposure of microbes to the Ag/P(HEMA/IA/PVP hybrid hydrogels, it was observed that the reduction of the number of cells depends on time, microbial culture and type of hybrid hydrogel sample. Due to their swelling and antimicrobial properties, silver/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/itaconic acid/poly(vinylpyrrolidone hybrid hydrogles show potential to use in the field of biomedicine, especially for treatment of skin and burns in dermocosmetics.

  14. Flexible Pressure Sensor Based on PVDF Nanocomposites Containing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Titania Hybrid Nanolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Al-Saygh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible nanocomposite pressure sensor with a tensile strength of about 47 MPa is fabricated in this work. Nanolayers of titanium dioxide (titania nanolayers, TNL synthesized by hydrothermal method are used to reinforce the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF by simple solution mixing. A hybrid composite is prepared by incorporating the TNL (2.5 wt % with reduced graphene oxide (rGO (2.5 wt % synthesized by improved graphene oxide synthesis to form a PVDF/rGO-TNL composite. A comparison between PVDF, PVDF/rGO (5 wt %, PVDF/TNL (5 wt % and PVDF/rGO-TNL (total additives 5 wt % samples are analyzed for their sensing, thermal and dielectric characteristics. The new shape of additives (with sharp morphology, good interaction and well distributed hybrid additives in the matrix increased the sensitivity by 333.46% at 5 kPa, 200.7% at 10.7 kPa and 246.7% at 17.6 kPa compared to the individual PVDF composite of TNL, confirming its possible application in fabricating low cost and light weight pressure sensing devices and electronic devices with reduced quantity of metal oxides. Increase in the β crystallinity percentage and removal of α phase for PVDF was detected for the hybrid composite and linked to the improvement in the mechanical properties. Tensile strength for the hybrid composite (46.91 MPa was 115% higher than that of the neat polymer matrix. Improvement in the wettability and less roughness in the hybrid composites were observed, which can prevent fouling, a major disadvantage in many sensor applications.

  15. Layered double oxide (LDO) particle containing photoreactive hybrid layers with tunable superhydrophobic and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Ágota; Janovák, László; Csapó, Edit; Ungor, Ditta; Pálinkó, István; Puskás, Sándor; Ördög, Tibor; Ricza, Tamás; Dékány, Imre

    2016-12-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid layers have been prepared having superhydrophobic as well as photoreactive properties. The hybrid thin films with micro- and nanosized dual-scale surface roughness consist of ∼25 μm layered double oxide (LDO) photocatalyst particles and low surface energy poly(perfluorodecyl acrylate) [p(PFDAc)] fluoropolymer binder material. The application of [p(PFDAc)] resulted in the decrease in the surface free energy of the hydrophilic LDO. The structured surface LDO with ∼12% ZnO phase content were synthesized from layer double hydroxide (LDH) spheres. The determined excitation wavelength and the calculated band gap energy values were 386 nm and 3.23 eV, respectively. The hybrid thin films were prepared by a simple spray-coating method, which is a low-cost, fast and scalable film-forming technique. The surface roughness and also the wetting properties of the two-component hybrid layers proved to be finely adjustable by the LDO:fluoropolymer ratio. It was found that at 80-90 wt% LDO content, the thin films with a surface free energy value of ∼12 mJ/m2 displayed superhydrophobic behaviour (Θ > 150°) with satisfactory photocatalytic properties. This means special photoreactive surfaces with superhydrophobic properties instead of the conventional superhydropilic photocatalyst layers. According to the benzoic acid photodegradation test experiments of benzoic acid, the hybrid layers with 80-90 wt% LDO content photooxidized 22-24% of the initial test molecule concentration (0.17 g/L) under UV-A (λmax = 365 nm) illumination.

  16. FAK deletion accelerates liver regeneration after two-thirds partial hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Na; Arteaga, Maribel; Chitsike, Lennox; Wang, Fang; Viswakarma, Navin; Breslin, Peter; Qiu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration is essential to improve the survival rate of patients after surgical resection of large amounts of liver tissue. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates different cellular functions, including cell survival, proliferation and cell migration. The role of FAK in liver regeneration remains unknown. In this study, we found that Fak is activated and induced during liver regeneration after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx). We used mice with liver-specific deletion of Fak and investigated the role of Fak in liver regeneration in 2/3 PHx model (removal of 2/3 of the liver). We found that specific deletion of Fak accelerates liver regeneration. Fak deletion enhances hepatocyte proliferation prior to day 3 post-PHx but attenuates hepatocyte proliferation 3 days after PHx. Moreover, we demonstrated that the deletion of Fak in liver transiently increases EGFR activation by regulating the TNFα/HB-EGF axis during liver regeneration. Furthermore, we found more apoptosis in Fak-deficient mouse livers compared to WT mouse livers after PHx. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Fak is involved in the process of liver regeneration, and inhibition of FAK may be a promising strategy to accelerate liver regeneration in recipients after liver transplantation. PMID:27677358

  17. Optical properties of polysiloxane hybrid thin films containing nano-sized Ag-As-Se chalcogenide clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Congji; Osvath, Peter; Wilson, Gerry; Launikonis, Anton

    2009-02-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are attractive for all-optical signal processing due to their outstanding optical properties, including large optical nonlinearity, a high refractive index and high photosensitivity. In device fabrication, a challenge lies in the difficulty of obtaining thin films with a high stability and good uniformity. In this paper, optical thin films containing nano-sized chalcogenide clusters in polysiloxane matrices are fabricated by a modified plasma deposition process. The optical absorption and luminescence emission properties of the hybrid thin films were characterized by UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Luminescent emission from Ag-As-Se nano-sized clusters was observed for the first time in these nano-hybrid thin films, and the mechanism was discussed.

  18. Photo-triggered molecular release based on auto-degradable polymer-containing organic-inorganic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Ohashi, Wataru; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-07-01

    The photo-triggered molecular release from the organic-inorganic polymer hybrids is presented in this manuscript. Initially, the preparation of the auto-degradable polymer is explained with the photo-cleavable group at the end of the polymer main-chain. The silica-based dye-loaded hybrids containing these polymers were fabricated. It was found that by UV irradiation, the end capping was removed, and then the auto-degradation occurs through the polymer main-chain. Finally, the molecular release of the loaded dyes was accomplished in various media by the UV irradiation. In particular, it was shown that both of hydrophobic and hydrophilic dyes can be applied in this system.

  19. Hybridization accompanying FRET event in labeled natural nucleoside-unnatural nucleoside containing chimeric DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Subhendu Sekhar; Das, Suman K; Pradhan, Manoj Kumar; Jana, Subhashis

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a highly efficient strategy in illuminating the structures, structural changes and dynamics of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules and thus is being widely utilized in studying such phenomena, in designing molecular/biomolecular probes for monitoring the hybridization event of two single stranded DNA to form duplex, in gene detection and in many other sensory applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. Moreover, FRET can give information about the positional status of chromophores within the associated biomolecules with much more accuracy than other methods can yield. Toward this end, we want to report here the ability of fluorescent unnatural nucleoside, triazolylphenanthrene ((TPhen)BDo) to show FRET interaction upon hybridization with fluorescently labeled natural nucleosides, (Per)U or (OxoPy)U or (Per)U, forming two stable chimeric DNA duplexes. The pairing selectivity and the thermal duplex stability of the chimeric duplexes are higher than any of the duplexes with natural nucleoside formed. The hybridization results in a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor triazolylphenanthrene of (TPhen)BDo to acceptor oxopyrene of (OxoPy)U and/or to perylene chromophore of (Per)U, respectively, in two chimeric DNA duplexes. Therefore, we have established the FRET process in two chimeric DNA duplexes wherein a fluorescently labeled natural nucleoside ((OxoPy)U or (Per)U) paired against an unnatural nucleoside ((TPhen)BDo) without sacrificing the duplex stability and B-DNA conformation. The hybridization accompanying FRET event in these classes of interacting fluorophores is new. Moreover, there is no report of such designed system of chimeric DNA duplex. Our observed phenomenon and the design can potentially be exploited in designing more of such efficient FRET pairs for useful application in the detection and analysis of biomolecular interactions and in material science application. Copyright

  20. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of hybrid aluminum matrix composite containing boron carbide and Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahmood; Zulfaqar, Muhammad; Ali, Fahad; Subhani, Tayyab

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid aluminum matrix composites containing particles of boron carbide and quasicrystals were manufactured to explore the combined effect of reinforcements on microstructural evolution and mechanical performance of the composites. The particles were incorporated at a loading of 6 wt% each making a total of 12 wt% reinforcement in pure aluminum. For comparison, two composites containing individually reinforced 12 wt% particles were also prepared along with a reference specimen of pure aluminum. Ball milling technique was employed to mix the composite constituents. The green bodies of composite powders were prepared by uniaxial pressing at room temperature followed by consolidation by pressureless sintering under inert atmosphere. The microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy while phase identification was carried out by X-ray diffraction. The mechanical characterization was performed by Vickers hardness and compression tests. Hybrid composites showed increased compressive properties while the composites containing solely quasicrystals demonstrated improved hardness. The increase in mechanical performance was related to the microstructural evolution due to the presence and uniform dispersion of binary particles.

  1. A radiation hybrid map of human chromosome 11q22-q23 containing the ataxia-telangiectasia disease locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, C.W. III; Cox, D.R.; Kapp, L.; Murnane, J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Cornelis, F.; Julier, C.; Lathrop, M.; James, M.R. (Centre d' Etude du Polymorphisme Humain, Paris (France))

    1993-07-01

    The authors describe a high-resolution radiation hybrid map of human chromosome 11q22-q23 containing the ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) disease gene loci. The order and intermarker distances of 32 chromosome 11q22-q23 markers were determined by a multipoint maximum likelihood method analysis of the cosegregation of markers in 100 radiation hybrids. The radiation hybrid map of polymorphic loci was consistent with genetic linkage maps of common markers. Several genes, including [alpha]B-crystallin, adrenal ferrodoxin, CBL2, collagenase, dopamine receptor type 2, neural cell adhesion molecule, progesterone receptor, and stromelysins 1 and 2, were placed in relation to previously ordered, genetically mapped polymorphic loci. Five new markers ([alpha]B-crystallin, adrenal ferrodoxin, CJ52.114, CJ52.3, and D11S535) were ordered within the current published flanking markers for the AT group A and group C disease loci. A candidate AT group D gene (ATDC) identified by Kapp et al. was mapped telomeric to THY1, outside the flanking markers identified by multipoint linkage analysis for the major AT locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Novel lithium titanate-graphene hybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiyi, Li; Tengyuan, Chen; Beibei, Sun [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zaijun, Li [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Key Laboratory of Food Colloids and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhiquo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: We developed a new Novel lithium titanate-graphene nanohybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks. The unique architecture creates fast electron transfer and rapid mass transport of electrolyte. The hybrid electrode provides excellent electrochemical performances for lithium-ion batteries, including high specific capacity, outstanding rate capability and intriguing cycling stability. - Highlights: • We reported a new LTO-graphene nanohybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks. • One graphene framework greatly improves the electrical conductivity of LTO crystal. • Another graphene framework enhances electrical conductivity of between LTO crystals and electrolyte transport. • The unique architecture creates big tap density, ultrafast electron transfer and rapid mass transport. • The hybrid electrode provides excellent electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries. - ABSTRACT: The paper reported the synthesis of lithium titanate(LTO)-graphene hybrid containing two graphene conductive frameworks (G@LTO@G). Tetrabutyl titanate and graphene were dispersed in tertbutanol and heated to reflux state by microwave irradiation. Followed by adding lithium acetate to produce LTO precursor/graphene (p-LTO/G). The resulting p-LTO/G offers homogeneous morphology and ultra small size. All graphene sheets were buried in the spherical agglomerates composed of primitive particles through the second agglomeration. The p-LTO/G was calcined to LTO@graphene (LTO@G). To obtain G@LTO@G, the LTO@G was further hybridized with graphene. The as-prepared G@LTO@G shows well-defined three-dimensional structure and hierarchical porous distribution. Its unique architecture creates big tap density, fast electron transfer and rapid electrolyte transport. As a result, the G@LTO@G provides high specific capacity (175.2 mA h g{sup −1} and 293.5 mA cm{sup −3}), outstanding rate capability (155.7 mAh g{sup −1} at 10C) and intriguing cycling

  3. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater.

  4. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  5. Novel Gas-liquid Hybrid Discharge Reactor for 4-CP Containing Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve 4-CP degradation efficiency, a novel gas-liquid hybrid discharge (HD) reactor was developed. Removal of 4-CP with spark-spark discharge (SSD) was higher than that with spark-corona discharge (SCD). Amount of H2O2 and O3 produced with SSD were larger than that with SCD. ·OH formation was increased by the combination of H2O2 and O3.The contribution of ·OH (38 % formed by O3 conversion) oxidation on removal of 4-CP accounted for nearly 60 %. The other effects of ultraviolet radiation, intense shock waves and pyrolysis,played partial roles in about 40 % of removal rate.

  6. Hybrid calcium carbonate/polymer microparticles containing silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlugosz, Maciej; Bulwan, Maria; Kania, Gabriela; Nowakowska, Maria; Zapotoczny, Szczepan, E-mail: zapotocz@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2012-12-15

    We report here on synthesis and characterization of novel hybrid material consisting of silver nanoparticles (nAgs) embedded in calcium carbonate microparticles ({mu}-CaCO{sub 3}) serving as carriers for sustained release. nAgs are commonly used as antimicrobial agents in many commercial products (textiles, cosmetics, and drugs). Although they are considered to be safe, their interactions with human organisms are still not fully understood; therefore it is important to apply them with caution and limit their presence in the environment. The synthesis of the new material was based on the co-precipitation of CaCO{sub 3} and nAg in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Such designed system enables sustained release of nAg to the environment. This hybrid colloidal material (nAg/{mu}-CaCO{sub 3}) was characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic methods. The release of nAg from {mu}-CaCO{sub 3} microparticles was followed in water at various pH values. Microbiological tests confirmed the effectiveness of these microparticles as an antibacterial agent. Importantly, the material can be stored as a dry powder and subsequently re-suspended in water without the risk of losing its antimicrobial activity. nAg/{mu}-CaCO{sub 3} was applied here to insure bacteriostatic properties of down feathers that may significantly prolong their lifetime in typical applications. Such microparticles may be also used as, e.g., components of coatings and paints protecting various surfaces against microorganism colonization.

  7. Magnetic amphiphilic hybrid carbon nanotubes containing N-doped and undoped sections: powerful tensioactive nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purceno, Aluir D.; Machado, Bruno F.; Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Medeiros, Tayline V.; Benyounes, Anas; Beausoleil, Julien; Menezes, Helvecio C.; Cardeal, Zenilda L.; Lago, Rochel M.; Serp, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen.In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and

  8. Fluid movement along the coronal two-thirds of root fillings placed by three different gutta-percha techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, MK; van der Sluis, LWM; Ardila, CN; Wesselink, PR

    2003-01-01

    Aim To compare fluid movement (FM) along the coronal two-thirds of gutta percha/sealer root fillings placed by three different techniques. Methodology Three groups consisting of the roots of mandibular incisors were instrumented and obturated by cold lateral compaction (LC), warm vertical compaction

  9. Formulation, Casting, and Evaluation of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic and Novel Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Desain, John D.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Borduin, Russell; Koo, Joseph H.; Brady, Brian B.; Curtiss, Thomas J.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    This investigation studied the inclusion of various additives to paraffin wax for use in a hybrid rocket motor. Some of the paraffin-based fuels were doped with various percentages of LiAlH4 (up to 10%). Addition of LiAlH4 at 10% was found to increase regression rates between 7 - 10% over baseline paraffin through tests in a gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor. Mass burn rates for paraffin grains with 10% LiAlH4 were also higher than those of the baseline paraffin. RDX was also cast into a paraffin sample via a novel casting process which involved dissolving RDX into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and then drawing a vacuum on the mixture of paraffin and RDX/DMF in order to evaporate out the DMF. It was found that although all DMF was removed, the process was not conducive to generating small RDX particles. The slow boiling generated an inhomogeneous mixture of paraffin and RDX. It is likely that superheating the DMF to cause rapid boiling would likely reduce RDX particle sizes. In addition to paraffin/LiAlH4 grains, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were cast in paraffin for testing in a hybrid rocket motor, and assorted samples containing a range of MWNT percentages in paraffin were imaged using SEM. The fuel samples showed good distribution of MWNT in the paraffin matrix, but the MWNT were often agglomerated, indicating that a change to the sonication and mixing processes were required to achieve better uniformity and debundled MWNT. Fuel grains with MWNT fuel grains had slightly lower regression rate, likely due to the increased thermal conductivity to the fuel subsurface, reducing the burning surface temperature.

  10. A Hybrid Decision-Making Model for Selecting Container Seaport in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sayareh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ports have always played a vital role in international transportation. Port selection decision is a process that requires consideration of many important and relevant criteria. The selection of the influential decision-making criteria is also a significant and vital issue which demands cautious thoughts. The main objective of this paper is to weigh the most dominant decision-making criteria by Technique for Order Preference to Similarity by Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and select an optimised container seaport in the Persian Gulf by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP according to decisive port selection factors. This paper presents an extensive review of port selection decision-making attributes in different past studies. Finally, by using TOPSIS and AHP, the findings of this research suggest that the working time, stevedoring rate, safety, port entrance, sufficient draft, capacity of port facilities, operating cost, number of berths, ship chandelling, and international policies are critical factors for selecting container seaport in the Persian Gulf.

  11. Expanding the crystal chemistry of uranyl peroxides: four hybrid uranyl-peroxide structures containing EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jie; Ling, Jie; Sieradzki, Claire; Nguyen, Kevin; Wylie, Ernest M; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Burns, Peter C

    2014-11-17

    The first four uranyl peroxide compounds containing ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (EDTA) were synthesized and characterized from aqueous uranyl peroxide nitrate solutions with a pH range of 5-7. Raman spectra demonstrated that reaction solutions that crystallized [NaK15[(UO2)8(O2)8(C10H12O10N2)2(C2O4)4]·(H2O)14] (1) and [Li4K6[(UO2)8(O2)6(C10H12O10N2)2(NO3)6]·(H2O)26] (2) contained excess peroxide, and their structures contained oxidized ethylenediaminetetraacetate, EDTAO2(4-). The solutions from which [K4[(UO2)4(O2)2(C10H13O8N2)2(IO3)2]·(H2O)16] (3) and LiK3[(UO2)4(O2)2(C10H12O8N2)2(H2O)2]·(H2O)18 (4) crystallized contained no free peroxide, and the structures incorporated intact EDTA(4-). In contrast to the large family of uranyl peroxide cage clusters, coordination of uranyl peroxide units in 1-4 by EDTA(4-) or EDTAO2(4-) results in isolated tetramers or dimers of uranyl ions that are bridged by bidentate peroxide groups. Two tetramers are bridged by EDTAO2(4-) to form octamers in 1 and 2, and dimers of uranyl polyhedra are linked through iodate groups in 3 and EDTA(4-) in 4, forming chains in both cases. In each structure the U-O2-U dihedral angle is strongly bent, at ∼140°, consistent with the configuration of this linkage in cage clusters and other recently reported uranyl peroxides.

  12. Evaluation of rheological behavior of 10W40 lubricant containing hybrid nano-material by measuring dynamic viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Nadooshan, Afshin; Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Afrand, Masoud

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper, the dynamic viscosity of 10W40 lubricant containing hybrid nano-materials has been examined. Hybrid nano-materials were composed of 90% of silica (SiO2) with 20-30 nm mean particle size and 10% of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with inner diameter of 2-6 nm and outer diameter of 5-20 nm. Nano-lubricant samples were prepared by two-step method with solid volume fractions of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%. Dynamic viscosity of the samples was measured at temperatures between 5 and 55 °C and at shear rates of 666.5 s-1 up to 11,997 s-1. Experimental results indicated that the nano-lubricant had non-Newtonian behavior at all temperatures, while 10w40 oil was non-Newtonian only at high temperatures. With the use of the curve fitting technique of experimental data, power law and consistency indexes were obtained; furthermore, these coefficients were assessed by shear stress and viscosity diagram.

  13. Dynamics of hybrid amoeba proteus containing zoochlorellae studied using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-H.; Fong, B. A.; Alfano, S. A., Jr.; Rakhlin, I.; Wang, W. B.; Ni, X. H.; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R. C.; Alfano, R. R.

    2011-03-01

    The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae, plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well as many other diseases. In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative

  14. Structural characterization and physicochemical features of new hybrid compound containing chlorate anions of cadmate (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; García-Granda, Santiago

    2017-08-01

    The present paper reports the synthesis of a single crystal of a new organic-inorganic hybrid compound, with the formula (C6H14N2) CdCl4·H2O, by slow evaporation method at room temperature. It was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Hirshfeld surface, spectroscopy measurement, thermal study and photoluminescence (PL) properties. A preliminary SCXRD structural analysis revealed that it crystallized in the monoclinic system (space group P21/c) with the following unit cell parameters: a = 12.95823(16) Å, b = 14.92449(16) Å, c = 7.13838(9) Å and β = 103.2108(12)° with Z = 4. The refinement converged to R = 0.0164 and ωR = 0.0393. Its atomic arrangement can be described as an alternation of organic and inorganic layers along the a-axis. The crystal packing was governed by the N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding interaction between the 1.2-diammoniumcyclohexane cations, the [CdCl42n-]n anions and water molecule. The Hirshfeld surface analysis was conducted to investigate intermolecular interactions and associated 2D fingerprint plots, revealing the relative contribution of these interactions in the crystal structure quantitatively. Furthermore, the room temperature infrared (IR) spectrum of the title compound was recorded and analyzed on the basis of data found in the literature. Besides, the thermal analysis studies were performed, but no phase transition was found in the temperature range between 30 and 450 °C. The optical and PL properties of the compound were investigated in the solid state at room temperature and exhibited three bands at 225, 268 and 315 nm and a strong fluorescence at 443 nm.

  15. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of SiO2/PEG hybrid materials containing quercetin as implants with antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Gloria, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, Silica/Polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid nanocomposites containing an antioxidant agent, the quercetin, were synthesized via sol-gel to be used as implants with antioxidant properties. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis proved that a modification of both polymer and quercetin occurs due to synthesis process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the proposed materials were hybrid nanocomposites. The bioactivity was ascertained by soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF).

  16. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid materials containing quercetin as implants with antioxidant properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Gloria, Antonio [Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials - National Research Council of Italy, V.le J. F. Kennedy 54 - Mostra d’Oltremare Pad. 20, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In the present work, Silica/Polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid nanocomposites containing an antioxidant agent, the quercetin, were synthesized via sol-gel to be used as implants with antioxidant properties. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis proved that a modification of both polymer and quercetin occurs due to synthesis process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the proposed materials were hybrid nanocomposites. The bioactivity was ascertained by soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF).

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of Inorganic /Organic Hybrid Complex Containing Tungstophsphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Su-rong; ZHANG Lian-meng; LIU Shi-zhong; ZHAO Wei-feng

    2004-01-01

    A new complex [Cu(C12H8N2)2]1.5PW12O40·1.5H2O was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The complex was characterized by the elemental analysis, SEM, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, IR,UV-Vis spectroscopy,and TG thermal analysis,respectively. The experimental result shows that the heteropolyanion is of a Keggin structure containing coordinated cations. Photochromism studies show that the electron transfer takes place from the organic compound to the heteropolyanion.

  18. Hybridized reactive iron-containing nano-materials for water purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.

    for interaction with the aqueous pollutant. This study employed a synthetic organo-functionalized magnesium-based aminoclay (MgAC) for this exact purpose. By varying the ratio of MgAC to nZVI and monitoring the change in physical characteristics and reactivity, a composite material was formed that improved...... as extremely efficient carriers of nZVI for maintaining colloidal stability. In one case, the COP used (COP-19) increased the colloidal stability of nZVI by two orders of magnitude. Building on the application of these composite materials, investigating how best to handle the synthesized materials can prolong...... more difficult to analyze compounds in real-world sources. Ultimately, the primary goal of this PhD study was to develop a robust nanocomposite material containing nZVI for water treatment systems. Taking the lessons learned from initial composite work using MgAC and COPs, the final material combined...

  19. Selective nitrogen capture by porous hybrid materials containing accessible transition metal ion sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Woong; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Seung-Joon; Hwang, Young Kyu; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Su-Kyung; Lee, Ji Sun; Jang, Seunghun; Yoon, Tae-Ung; Kwac, Kijeong; Jung, Yousung; Pillai, Renjith S.; Faucher, Florian; Vimont, Alexandre; Daturi, Marco; Férey, Gérard; Serre, Christian; Maurin, Guillaume; Bae, Youn-Sang; Chang, Jong-San

    2017-05-01

    Selective dinitrogen binding to transition metal ions mainly covers two strategic domains: biological nitrogen fixation catalysed by metalloenzyme nitrogenases, and adsorptive purification of natural gas and air. Many transition metal-dinitrogen complexes have been envisaged for biomimetic nitrogen fixation to produce ammonia. Inspired by this concept, here we report mesoporous metal-organic framework materials containing accessible Cr(III) sites, able to thermodynamically capture N2 over CH4 and O2. This fundamental study integrating advanced experimental and computational tools confirmed that the separation mechanism for both N2/CH4 and N2/O2 gas mixtures is driven by the presence of these unsaturated Cr(III) sites that allows a much stronger binding of N2 over the two other gases. Besides the potential breakthrough in adsorption-based technologies, this proof of concept could open new horizons to address several challenges in chemistry, including the design of heterogeneous biomimetic catalysts through nitrogen fixation.

  20. Preparation and antifrictional properties of surface modified hybrid fluorine-containing silica particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, T. I.; Zapevalov, A. Ya.; Beketov, I. V.; Demina, T. M.; Timoshenkova, O. R.; Murzakaev, A. M.; Gaviko, V. S.; Safronov, A. P.; Saloutin, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    Modified SiO2 particles were successfully prepared via [(perfluorobutyl)methyl]oxirane and [(perfluorobutyl)methyl]thiirane in sol-gel conditions using basic catalysis. As a result of acid catalysis non-modified nano-sized SiO2 particles were formed. Chemically modified SiO2 particles were characterized by means of FT-IR, BET, TEM, XRD- and XPS-analyses. Friction coefficients were determined at steel surface for base oil with modified SiO2 additives (5, 10 and 15 wt.%) at 10, 20, 30 and 60 N loads. Friction was reduced most strongly in the oil mix with the lowest content of the additive. A possible mechanism of antifrictional improvement is the formation of boundary lubrication layers containing iron salts.

  1. Synthesis of waterborne polyurethane containing alkoxysilane side groups and the properties of the hybrid coating films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Guo, Longhai; Qiu, Teng; Xiao, Weidong; Du, Dianxing; Li, Xiaoyu

    2016-07-01

    A series of waterborne polyurethane (WPU) containing alkoxysilane side groups were synthesized by using the dihydroxy functionalized alkoxysilane. The diol with trimethoxysilane groups at the side chains was synthesized via Michael addition between 3-(methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (MAPTS) and diethanolamine (DEA). The silane diol was applied as the chain extender for the NCO-endcapped prepolymer of isophorone diisocyanate, polycarbonate diol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) butyric acid and 1,4-butanediol. The products with the silane content varied from 1.2 to 16.5 wt% were dispersed in water after neutralization. The effect of the silane diol on the particle size and morphology of the WPU dispersion was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization was carried out on the coating film of the WPU, revealing that the long flexible side chain is favorable for the silane components to emigrate toward the film surface and crosslink during the film formation process. As a result, both the surface contact angle to water and water adsorption of the WPU coating films increased with the silane content. Furthermore, the mechanical properties including the modulus and tensile strength of the films were also improved by the incorporation of silane diol.

  2. PVDF membranes containing hybrid nanoparticles for adsorbing cationic dyes: physical insights and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Maya; Madras, Giridhar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, Fe (iron) and Ag (silver) based adsorbents were synthesized using solution combustion and in situ reduction techniques. The synthesized adsorbents were comprehensively characterized by different techniques including electron microscopy, BET, XRD, Zeta potential etc. Three chlorinated cationic dyes used were malachite green, methyl violet and pyronin Y. These dyes were adsorbed on various synthesized adsorbents [iron III oxide (Fe2O3)], iron III oxide decorated silver nanoparticles by combustion synthesis technique [Fe2O3-Ag(C)] and iron III oxide decorated silver nanoparticles using in situ reduction, [Fe2O3-Ag (S)]. The isotherm and the adsorption kinetics have been studied systematically. The kinetic data can be explained by the pseudo second order model and the adsorption equilibrium followed Langmuir isotherm. The equilibrium and kinetics results suggest that Fe2O3-Ag(S) nanoparticles showed the maximum adsorption among all the adsorbents. Hence, Polyvinylidene fluoride based membranes containing Fe2O3-Ag(S) nanoparticles were prepared via phase inversion (precipitation immersion using DMF/water) technique. The adsorption kinetics were studied in detail and it was observed that the composite membrane showed synergistic improvement in dye adsorption. Such membranes can be used for water purification.

  3. Exposure to nanoscale particles and fibers during machining of hybrid advanced composites containing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Dhimiter; Wardle, Brian L.; Yamamoto, Namiko; Guzman deVilloria, Roberto; Garcia, Enrique J.; Hart, Anastasios J.; Ahn, Kwangseog; Ellenbecker, Michael J.; Hallock, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated airborne exposures to nanoscale particles and fibers generated during dry and wet abrasive machining of two three-phase advanced composite systems containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), micron-diameter continuous fibers (carbon or alumina), and thermoset polymer matrices. Exposures were evaluated with a suite of complementary instruments, including real-time particle number concentration and size distribution (0.005-20 μm), electron microscopy, and integrated sampling for fibers and respirable particulate at the source and breathing zone of the operator. Wet cutting, the usual procedure for such composites, did not produce exposures significantly different than background whereas dry cutting, without any emissions controls, provided a worst-case exposure and this article focuses here. Overall particle release levels, peaks in the size distribution of the particles, and surface area of released particles (including size distribution) were not significantly different for composites with and without CNTs. The majority of released particle surface area originated from the respirable (1-10 μm) fraction, whereas the nano fraction contributed 10% of the surface area. CNTs, either individual or in bundles, were not observed in extensive electron microscopy of collected samples. The mean number concentration of peaks for dry cutting was composite dependent and varied over an order of magnitude with highest values for thicker laminates at the source being >1 × 106 particles cm-3. Concentration of respirable fibers for dry cutting at the source ranged from 2 to 4 fibers cm-3 depending on the composite type. Further investigation is required and underway to determine the effects of various exposure determinants, such as specimen and tool geometry, on particle release and effectiveness of controls.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid compounds containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane for conservation of stone heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seunghwan; Won, Jongok; Kim, Jeong-Jin; Jang, Yun Deuk; Kang, Yong Soo; Kim, Sa Dug

    2009-02-01

    Alkoxysilane solutions based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) have been widely used for the consolidation of decaying heritage stone surfaces. TEOS-based products polymerize within the porous structure of the decaying stone, significantly increasing the cohesion of the grains of stone components. However, they suffer from practical drawbacks, such as crack formation of the gel during the drying phase due to the developing capillary force and dense gel fractures left inside of the stone. In this study, a TEOS-based stone consolidant containing functional (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) has been prepared in order to reduce gel crack formation during the drying phase. The addition of nanometer-sized POSS and/or GPTMS having a flexible segment reduces the capillary force developed during solvent evaporation. The properties of the TEOS/GPTMS/POSS composite solutions were compared with those of commercial products (Wacker OH and Unil sandsteinfestiger OH 1:1). The gelation time was similar to that of commercial consolidants, and the TEOS/GPTMS/POSS solution was stable over a period of up to 6 months. The addition of POSS and GPTMS provided a crack-free gel, while the gel from the commercial consolidants exhibited cracks after drying. The surface hydrophobicity of the treated decayed granite increased with the addition of POSS and GPTMS, and it was higher than that of the commercial product, implying the possibility of POSS and GPTMS as barriers to the penetration of water. This result implies that the TEOS/GPTMS/POSS solution showed a high suitability for the consolidation of granite heritage.

  5. Synthesis of waterborne polyurethane containing alkoxysilane side groups and the properties of the hybrid coating films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qi; Guo, Longhai [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Qiu, Teng, E-mail: qiuteng@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Xiao, Weidong; Du, Dianxing [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Xiaoyu, E-mail: lixy@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • A diol with side-chain trimethoxysilane (DEA-Si) was synthesized using 3-(methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (MAPTS) and diethanolamine (DEA). • The crosslinking structure could in situ formed within the WPU matrix through sol-gel process. • The Si tends to shift to the polymer-air interface due to the flexible long alkyl-ester side chain. • The incorporation of DEA-Si enhanced mechanical and surface hydrophobic properties of WPU films. - Abstract: A series of waterborne polyurethane (WPU) containing alkoxysilane side groups were synthesized by using the dihydroxy functionalized alkoxysilane. The diol with trimethoxysilane groups at the side chains was synthesized via Michael addition between 3-(methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (MAPTS) and diethanolamine (DEA). The silane diol was applied as the chain extender for the NCO-endcapped prepolymer of isophorone diisocyanate, polycarbonate diol, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) butyric acid and 1,4-butanediol. The products with the silane content varied from 1.2 to 16.5 wt% were dispersed in water after neutralization. The effect of the silane diol on the particle size and morphology of the WPU dispersion was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization was carried out on the coating film of the WPU, revealing that the long flexible side chain is favorable for the silane components to emigrate toward the film surface and crosslink during the film formation process. As a result, both the surface contact angle to water and water adsorption of the WPU coating films increased with the silane content. Furthermore, the mechanical properties including the modulus and tensile strength of the films were also improved by the incorporation of silane diol.

  6. A new precursor for the immobilization of enzymes inside sol-gel-derived hybrid silica nanocomposites containing polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchipunov, Yurii A; Karpenko, Tat'yana Yu; Bakunina, Irina Yu; Burtseva, Yuliya V; Zvyagintseva, Tat'yana N

    2004-01-30

    Tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl) orthosilicate (THEOS) introduced by Hoffmann et al. (J. Phys. Chem. B., 106 (2002) 1528) was first used to prepare hybrid nanocomposites containing various polysaccharides and immobilize enzymes in these materials. Two different types of O-glycoside hydrolyses (EC3.2.1), 1-->3-beta-D-glucanase LIV from marine mollusk Spisula sacchalinensis and alpha-D-galactosidase from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, were taken for the immobilization. To reveal whether the polysaccharide inside the hybrid material influences the enzyme entrapment and functioning, negatively charged xanthan, cationic derivative of hydroxyethylcellulose and uncharged locust bean gum were examined. The mechanical properties of these nanocomposites were characterized by a dynamic rheology and their structure by a scanning electron microscopy. It was found that 1-->3-beta-D-glucanase was usually immobilized without the loss of its activity, while the alpha-D-galactosidase activity in the immobilized state depended on the polysaccharide type of material. An important point is that the amount of immobilized enzymes was small, comparable to their content in the living cells. It was shown by the scanning electron microscopy that the hybrid nanocomposites are sufficiently porous that allows the enzymatic substrates and products to diffuse from an external aqueous solution to the enzymes, whereas protein molecules were immobilized firmly and not easily washed out of the silica matrix. A sharp increase of the enzyme lifetime (more than a hundred times) was observed after the immobilization. As established, the efficient entrapment of enzymes is caused by few advantages of new precursor over the currently used TEOS and TMOS: (i) organic solvents and catalysts are not needed owing to the complete solubility of THEOS in water and the catalytic effect of polysaccharides on the sol-gel processes; (ii) the entrapment of enzymes can be performed at any pH which is suitable

  7. Inlfuences of Iodonium Salts on the Properties of a Hybrid Composite Resin Containing BisS-GMA and Expanding Monomer Modiifed Epoxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenjia; FU Jing; WU Xiangnan; MA Yuanyuan; LIU Xiaoqing; LIAO Yunmao; WANG Hang

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce shrinkage and improve the mechanical properties of dental composite resins, we designed a hybrid resin formulation containing a novel matrix resin, BisS-GMA [bisphenol-S-bis(3-methacrylato-2-hydroxypropyl)ether], and epoxy modiifed by a spiro-orthocarbonate (SOC) expanding monomer. Then, we tested the effects of an iodonium salt, diphenyliodonium hexalfuorphosphate (DPIHFP), on the properties of the hybrid resin with seven different concentrations. The hybrid resin was polymerized by a ternary photo-initiator system. The volumetric shrinkage (VS), degree of conversion (DC) and compressive strength (CS) were assessed using AcuVolTM , FTIR and a universal testing machine, respectively. The VS, DC and CS were improved with increasing DPIHFP concentration, but a high concentration of DPIHFP had a negative inlfuence on the mechanical properties of the hybrid resin and offered no added improvement in the VS and DC. The best performance of a composite resin containing BisS-GMA and SOC-modiifed epoxy was achieved with 2wt%DPIHFP. The results also indicated that the resin containing BisS-GMA was superior to that containing Bis-GMA in terms of VS, DC and CS.

  8. Polyoxometalate-based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds containing transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes of N-containing and pyridinecarboxylate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Chuan; Hu, Yang-Yang; Ding, Hong; Guo, Hai-Yang; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Xiao; Huo, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2015-05-21

    Five new organic–inorganic hybrid compounds based on the Keggin-type polyoxoanion [SiW12O40]4−, namely [Cu3(2,2′-bpy)3(inic)(μ2-OH)(H2O)][SiW12O40]·2H2O (1), [Cu6(phen)6(μ3-Cl)2(μ2-Cl)2Cl2(inic)2][SiW12O40]·6H2O (2), [Cu2(hnic)(2,2′-bpy)2Cl]2[H2SiW12O40] (3), [Cu2(nic)(phen)2Cl2]2[SiW12O40] (4) and [Cu2(pic)(2,2′-bpy)2Cl]2[SiW12O40] (5) (inic = isonicotinic acid, hnic = 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid, nic = nicotinic acid, pic = picolinic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, XPS, XRD, cyclic voltammetric measurements, photoluminescence analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal analysis reveals that compound 1 exhibits a 2-D double layered framework structure constructed from [SiW12O40]4− and copper-aqua-2,2′-bipy-hydroxyl-isonicotinate complexes. Compound 2 is a 0-D discrete structure formed by [SiW12O40]4− and copper-chloro-isonicotinate-phenanthroline complexes. Compound 3 shows a 1-D single chain structure based on the linkage of copper-2,2-bpy-chloro-2-hydroxy-nicotinate complexes and [SiW12O40]4−. Compounds 4 and 5 both contain polyoxometalate supported transition metal complexes, one is a polyoxometalate supported copper-chloro-nicotinate-phenanthroline complex in 4, and the other is a polyoxometalate supported copper-2,2-bpy-chloro-nicotinate complex in 5. It should be noted that nicotinic, isonicotinic and picolinic acids are structural isomers and 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid is an in situ hydroxylated product of nicotinic acid. In addition, photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) by compounds 1–5 has been investigated in aqueous solutions.

  9. A Modular Approach to Triazole-Containing Chemical Inducers of Dimerisation for Yeast Three-Hybrid Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Westwood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The yeast three-hybrid (Y3H approach shows considerable promise for the unbiased identification of novel small molecule-protein interactions. In recent years, it has been successfully used to link a number of bioactive molecules to novel protein binding partners. However despite its potential importance as a protein target identification method, the Y3H technique has not yet been widely adopted, in part due to the challenges associated with the synthesis of the complex chemical inducers of dimerisation (CIDs. The development of a modular approach using potentially “off the shelf” synthetic components was achieved and allowed the synthesis of a family of four triazole-containing CIDs, MTX-Cmpd2.2-2.5. These CIDs were then compared using the Y3H approach with three of them giving a strong positive interaction with a known target of compound 2, TgCDPK1. These results showed that the modular nature of our synthetic strategy may help to overcome the challenges currently encountered with CID synthesis and should contribute to the Y3H approach reaching its full potential as an unbiased target identification strategy.

  10. Characterizations of Polystyrene-Based Hybrid Particles Containing Hydrophobic Mg(OH2 Powder and Composites Fabricated by Employing Resultant Hybrid Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kimura

    2007-01-01

    unchanged, even when the ST-1 powder content increased from 10 to 50 phr. Furthermore, a composite fabricated by employing the hybrid particles achieved homogenous distribution of ST-1 powder and showed a higher oxygen index than that of a composite fabricated by directly mixing of PS pellets and ST-1 powder.

  11. Silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles as antibacterial/antifungal coatings for monumental stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflori, Magdalena [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Simionescu, Bogdana [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); “Costin D. Nenitescu” Centre of Organic Chemistry, 202B Splaiul Independentei, 7114 Bucharest (Romania); Bordianu, Irina-Elena; Sacarescu, Liviu; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Doroftei, Florica; Nicolescu, Alina [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Olaru, Mihaela, E-mail: olaruma@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocomposites with noble metals having high antibacterial efficiency. • Silver nanoparticles antibacterial activity for monumental stone conservation. • A high antibacterial activity while assuring good stone protection. -- Abstract: The present paper reports on the evaluation of two silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles aimed as antibacterial coatings for monumental stones. Sol–gel reaction of titanium isopropoxide and/or 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, in the presence of silver nitrate and a primary amine surfactant, yielded new types of hybrid nanocomposites with high antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. Different polymer behaviours regarding a frequently used monumental stone originating from Romania were evidenced through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Conclusions regarding the stones acid-resistant character and lower influence of salt weathering on its durability, as well as a better protective coating containing titania units were revealed.

  12. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrs, Richard Wood [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by 31P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 Å of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an α-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  13. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrs, R.W.

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by [sup 31]P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 [Angstrom] of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an [alpha]-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  14. Structural properties and surface wettability of Cu-containing diamond-like carbon films prepared by a hybrid linear ion beam deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng; Sun, Lili; Li, Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xu, Sheng [Gao Hong Coating Technology Co., Ltd, Huzhou 313000 (China); Ke, Peiling [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (Cu-DLC) films were deposited on Si/glass substrate by a hybrid ion beam deposition system. The Cu concentration (0.1–39.7 at.%) in the film was controlled by varying the sputtering current. The microstructure and composition of Cu-DLC films were investigated systematically. The surface topography, roughness and surface wettability of the films were also studied. Results indicated that with increasing the Cu concentration, the water contact angle of the films changed from 66.8° for pure carbon film to more than 104.4° for Cu-DLC films with Cu concentration larger than 24.4 at.%. In the hydrophilic region, the polar surface energy decreased from 30.54 mJ/m{sup 2} for pure carbon film to 2.48 mJ/m{sup 2} for the film with Cu 7.0 at.%. - Highlights: • Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by a hybrid ion beam system. • Cu-containing DLC films exhibited a wide range of water contact angle. • The water contact angles vary with the surface energies and surface roughness.

  15. [FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF EHRLICH CARCINOMA CELLS AFTER TREATMENT WITH HYBRID NANOCOMPLEXES CONTAINING ORTHOVANADATES OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS, CHOLESTEROL AND LUMINESCENT DYE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, A N; Babenko, N N; Gaevskaya, A; Chelombitko, O V; Bondarovich, N A; Dubrava, T G; Ostankov, M V; Klochkov, V K; Kavok, N S; Malyukin, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    Tumor development is the consequence of expanding the population of low differentiated cells with unlimited self-maintenance potential, i.e. cancer stem cells (CSCs). Application of new forms of nanocomposites capable of binding to CSCs and inducing the tumor destruction is perspective direction for treating this pathology. There have been developed the methods of obtaining hybrid nanocomplexes containing rare-earth orthovanadates GdYVO4:Eu³⁺, cholesterol and luminescent dye Dil. By immune fluorescence method using monoclonal antibodies to CD44, CD24, CD117 and Sca-1 markers there has been established the change in the ratio of tumor progenitors of various differentiation levels in a general pool of Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) after treatment with hybrid nanocomplexes. Essential reduction in the concentration of the most tumorogenic CD44high cells with simultaneous rise in the number of CD117⁺-cells resulted in an increased index of CD44high/CD117⁺ ratio. It has been demonstrated that application of hybrid nanocomplexes suppressed the tumor growth almost by 80%. The value of cooperative interactions of the cells with different phenotype signs in tumor sites has been proved. The index of CD44high/CD117⁺ ratio can be used as one of diagnostic and prognostic parameters of development and inactivation rate of tumor process when using different types of anti-tumor therapy.

  16. Aluminum corrosion mitigation in alkaline electrolytes containing hybrid inorganic/organic inhibitor system for power sources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Danny; Lasman, Itay; Elfimchev, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-07-01

    The severe corrosion accompanied with hydrogen evolution process is the main obstacle preventing the implementation of Al as an anode in alkaline batteries. It impairs the functionality of alkaline battery, due to a drastic capacity loss and a short shelf life. The possibility to reduce Al corrosion rate in alkaline solution with the use of hybrid organic∖inorganic inhibitor based on poly (ethylene glycol) di-acid (PEG di-acid) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was examined in this work. A correlation between an Al corrosion rates and the concentrations of both PEG di-acid and ZnO in alkaline is shown. Selecting 5000 ppm PEG di-acid and 16 gr/l ZnO provides substantial corrosion protection of Al, reducing the corrosion rate in a strong alkaline solution by more than one order of magnitude. Moreover, utilizing the same formulation results in increase in Al-air battery discharge capacity, from 44.5 (for a battery utilizing only KOH in the electrolyte) to 70 mhA/cm2 (for a battery utilizing ZnO/PEG di-acid hybrid inhibitor in the electrolyte). The morphology and composition of the Al electrode surface (studied by SEM, EDS, and XRD) depend on PEG di-acid and ZnO concentrations.

  17. Disaggregation of Amylin Aggregate by Novel Conformationally Restricted Aminobenzoic Acid containing α/β and α/γ Hybrid Peptidomimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ashim; Kalita, Sourav; Kalita, Sujan; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Mandal, Bhubaneswar

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a threat to the current world. More than ninety five per cent of all the diabetic population has type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aggregates of Amylin hormone, which is co-secreted with insulin from the pancreatic β-cells, inhibit the activities of insulin and glucagon and cause T2DM. Importance of the conformationally restricted peptides for drug design against T2DM has been invigorated by recent FDA approval of Symlin, which is a large conformationally restricted peptide. However, Symlin still has some issues including solubility, oral bioavailability and cost of preparation. Herein, we introduced a novel strategy for conformationally restricted peptide design adopting a minimalistic approach for cost reduction. We have demonstrated efficient inhibition of amyloid formation of Amylin and its disruption by a novel class of conformationally restricted β-sheet breaker hybrid peptidomimetics (BSBHps). We have inserted β, γ and δ -aminobenzoic acid separately into an amyloidogenic peptide sequence, synthesized α/β, α/γ and α/δ hybrid peptidomimetics, respectively. Interestingly, we observed the aggregation inhibitory efficacy of α/β and α/γ BSBHps, but not of α/δ analogues. They also disrupt existing amyloids into non-toxic forms. Results may be useful for newer drug design against T2DM as well as other amyloidoses and understanding amyloidogenesis.

  18. Investigation of Coating Performance of UV-Curable Hybrid Polymers Containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane Coated on Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakır

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes preparation and characterization of fluorine-containing organic-inorganic hybrid coatings. The organic part consists of bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol diacrylate resin and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate reactive diluent. The inorganically rich part comprises trimethoxysilane-terminated urethane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane, 3-(trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate and sol–gel precursors that are products of hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol diacrylate resin was added to the inorganic part in predetermined amounts. The resultant mixture was utilized in the preparation of free films as well as coatings on aluminum substrates. Thermal and mechanical tests such as DSC, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA, and tensile and shore D hardness tests were performed on free films. Water contact angle, gloss, Taber abrasion test, cross-cut and tubular impact tests were conducted on the coated samples. SEM examination and EDS analysis was performed on the fractured surfaces of free films. The hybrid coatings on the aluminum sheets gave rise to properties such as moderately glossed surface; low wear rate and hydrophobicity. Tensile strength of free films increased with up to 10% inorganic content in the hybrid structure and this increase was approximately three times that of the control sample. As expected; the % strain value decreased by 17.3 with the increase in inorganic content and elastic modulus values increased by a factor of approximately 6. Resistance to ketone-based solvents was proven and an increase in hardness was observed as the ratio of the inorganic part increased. Samples which contain 10% sol–gel content were observed to provide optimal properties.

  19. Semi-interpenetrating hybrid membranes containing ADOGEN{sup ®} 364 for Cd(II) transport from HCl media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Tamez, Lucía; Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; Briones-Guerash, Ulrich; Munguía-Acevedo, Nadia M.; Gyves, Josefina de, E-mail: degyves@unam.mx

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Semi-interpenetrating hybrid membranes are used for quantitative cadmium(II) recovery. • Optimization of membrane and solutions compositions is performed. • Membranes present increased stability respect to polymer inclusion membranes. • Models for cadmium (II) extraction and transport are proposed. • Excellent selectivity for Cd(II) over Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) was achieved. - Abstract: Cd(II) transport from 1 mol dm{sup −3} HCl media was investigated across semi-interpenetrating hybrid membranes (SIHMs) that were prepared by mixing an organic matrix composed of ADOGEN{sup ®} 364 as an extracting agent, cellulose triacetate as a polymeric support and nitrophenyloctyl ether as a plasticizer with an organic/inorganic network (silane phase, SP) composed of polydimethylsiloxane and a crosslinking agent. The stripping phase used was a 10{sup −2} mol dm{sup −3} ethanesulfonic acid solution. The effects of tetraorthoethoxysilane, phenyltrimethoxysilane and N′,N′-bis[3-tri(methoxysilyl)propyl]ethylendiamine as crosslinking agents on the transport were studied. H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was used as an acid catalyst during the SP synthesis and optimized for transport performance. Solid–liquid extraction experiments were performed to determine the model that describe the transport of Cd(II) via ADOGEN{sup ®} 364. The transport was found to be chained-carrier controlled with a percolation threshold of 0.094 mmol g{sup −1}. The selective recovery of Cd(II) was studied with respect to Ni(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II) at a 1:1 molar ratio, and the optimized membrane system was applied for the recovery of Cd(II) from a real sample consisting of a Ni/Cd battery with satisfactory results. Finally, stability experiments were performed using the same membrane for 14 cycles. The results obtained showed that SIHMs had excellent stability and selectivity, with permeabilities comparable to those of PIMs.

  20. Controllable Assembly of Vanadium-Containing Polyoxoniobate-Based Three-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compounds and Their Photocatalytic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jufang; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinning; Chi, Yingnan; Yang, Song; Li, Jikun; Hu, Changwen

    2016-08-01

    The controllable synthesis of two vanadium-containing polyoxoniobate-based three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, [Co(pn)2]4[HPNb10V(IV)2O40(V(IV)O)4]·17H2O (1) and [Co(pn)2]5[PNb12O40(V(IV)O)6](OH)7·15H2O (2), where pn = 1,2-diaminopropane, is realized by changing the hydrothermal temperature or adding N-(aminoethyl)piperazine as an additive. Both compounds 1 and 2 are structurally characterized by single-crystal/powder X-ray diffraction and IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compound 1 features a new divanadium-substituted Keggin polyoxoniobate capped by four vanadyl groups, and the polyanion in 2 exhibits the highest coordination number (10-connected) in polyoxoniobate chemistry. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of 1 and 2 for hydrogen evolution are preliminarily assessed.

  1. Synthesis and DNA-binding properties of novel DNA cyclo-intercalators containing purine-glucuronic acid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renshuai; Chen, Shaopeng; Wang, Xueting; Yu, Rilei; Li, Mingjing; Ren, Sumei; Jiang, Tao

    2016-06-24

    Novel DNA cyclo-intercalators, which incorporated two intercalator subunits linked by two bridges, were synthesized. Binding of the compounds to calf-thymus DNA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and docking simulations were used to predict the binding modes of these cyclic compounds. The spectral data demonstrated that all of these compounds can interact with CT-DNA. The sugar moiety played an important role in the process of binding between the intercalators containing glucuronic acid and DNA. The length and flexibility of the connecting bridges affected the binding affinity of the resultant cyclo-intercalators. Docking simulations showed that compounds 7 and 8 interact with DNA as mono-intercalators.

  2. In vitro Cyto and Blood Compatibility of Titanium Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared by Hybrid Sputtering Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnasamy NAVANEETHA PANDIYARAJ; Jan HEEG; Andreas LAMPKA; Fabian JUNGE; Torsten BARFELS; Marion WIENECKE; Young Ha RHEE; Hyoung Woo KIM

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, diamond-like carbon films (DLC) have been given more attention in research in the biomedical industry due to their potential application as surface coating on biomedical materials such as metals and polymer substrates. There are many ways to prepare metal containing DLC films deposited on polymeric film substrates, such as coatings from car- bonaceous precursors and some means that incorporate other elements. In this study, we in- vestigated both the surface and biocompatible properties of titanium containing DLC (Ti-DLC) films. The Ti-DLC films were prepared on the surface of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film as a function of the deposition power level using reactive sputtering technique. The films' hydrophilicity was studied by contact angle and surface energy tests. Their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their elemental chemical composition was analyzed using energy dispersive X-spectra (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Their blood and cell compatibility was studied by in vitro tests, including tests on platelet adhesion, thrombus formation, whole blood clotting time and osteoblast cell compatibility. Significant changes in the morphological and chemical composition of the Ti-DLC films were observed and found to be a function of the deposition level. These morphological and chemical changes reduced the interfacial tension between Ti-DLC and blood proteins as well as resisted the adhesion and activation of platelets on the surface of the Ti-DLC films. The cell compatibility results exhibited significant growth of osteoblast cells on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC film compared with that of DLC film surface.

  3. Preparation of electrospun fiber mats using siloxane-containing vaterite and biodegradable polymer hybrids for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Kie; Lin, Sen; Nakamura, Jin; Obata, Akiko; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2013-11-01

    An electrospun fiber mat using a new composite consisting of siloxane-containing vaterite (SiV) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (denoted by SiPLGVH) was prepared with the aim of applying it as a membrane for use in a guided bone regeneration (GBR) system. Another electrospun fiber mat using a previously described composite consisting of SiV and poly(L-lactic acid) (denoted by SiPVH) was also prepared as a comparative sample. SiPLG VH fiber mats showed superior results in terms of mechanical tensile properties and cellular behavior. Their elongation before failure was about eight times higher than that of SiPVH. The numbers of osteoblast-like cells that proliferated on the SiPLGVH fiber mats, regardless of the hydroxyapatite coating, were comparable to that of SiPVH. The cells spread more, two dimensionally, on the SiPLGVH fiber mats, since the pores between fibers were narrowed down because of swelling of the PLGA matrix during cell culture. This two-dimensional cellular proliferation quality on the SiPLGVH fiber mats is expected to be suitable for materials used in GBR, leading to control of infiltration of the soft tissue and great tissue integration with the surrounding tissue.

  4. Discovery of potent β-secretase (bace-1) inhibitors by the synthesis of isophthalamide-containing hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiping ZHU; Kun XIAO; Haiping YU; Lanping MA; Bing XIONG; Haiyan ZHANG; Xin WANG; Jingya LI; Jia LI; Jingkang SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:The aim of this study was to design and synthesize a series of high activity compounds against aspartyl protease β-secretase (BACE-1) bearing hydroxyethylene (HE) framework.Methods: First,we designed the small library based on our previous work and rational analysis.Subsequently,thirteen compounds were selected and synthesized using skilled solid phase synthetic methods to explore the relationship between structure and activity.We then used molecular modeling to explain the possible binding mode.Results: Thirteen new compounds (6-18) have been designed,synthesized and bioassayed.Their structures were deter-mined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra,low- and high-resolution mass spectra and optical rotation.Most compounds have shown moderate to excellent activities,and compound 10,which contains fewer amino acids and amide bonds than GRL-7234,was about 5-fold more potent than the control compound 4 discovered by Merck.The molecular modeling results have indicated the possible binding mode and explained the difference between compounds 10 and 16,providing direction for further study.Conclusion: This study yielded several high activity compounds bearing fewer amino acids and amide bonds than previous compounds,providing insight into the further development of potent BACE-1 inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Intelligent hybrid genetic algorithm for container ship loading%集装箱船装载问题的混合遗传智能优化算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莹; 向先波; 杨运桃; 王英伟

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of optimizing the efficiency of the container,a mathematical model of con-tainer ship loading problem was established with the goal of maximizing the utilization of space.An intelligent hybrid genetic algorithm combined with a new encoding method consisting of the sequence and the placement of the cargo was presented.The genetic operators including partial mapped cross-over operator,two-point crossover operator,sequence reversed mutation operator and basic bit muta-tion operator were applied to the loading problem.Simulations were performed to validate the pro-posed algorithm.By taking two sets of test data in the classic Loh′s algorithm test,the space utiliza-tion respectively reached 94.31% and 91.41% which had an obvious improvement compared with the other algorithms.The results show the effectiveness of the intelligent hybrid genetic algorithm for ad-dressing the container ship loading problem.%为了提高集装箱的利用率,以空间利用率最大化为优化目标,建立集装箱船装载问题的数学模型,提出了一种新型混合遗传智能算法.算法中设计了一种包含货物装填顺序和放置状态的两段编码方式,构造适应集装箱船装载问题的部分映射交叉算子、两点交叉算子、顺序逆转变异算子和基本位变异算子,并对此算法进行了仿真验证.以 Loh 和 Nee 的两组经典测试数据为实例进行算法测试,空间利用率分别达到94.3%和91.4%,与相同类型装箱算法进行对比,空间利用率有明显提升,验证了混合遗传智能优化算法的有效性.

  6. A direct assay of carboxyl-containing small molecules by SALDI-MS on a AgNP/rGO-based nanoporous hybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Min; Xu, Lidan; Wang, Fangli; Geng, Zhirong; Li, Haibo; Wang, Huaisheng; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-04-25

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid nanoporous structures fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LBL) electrostatic self-assembly have been applied as a simple platform for the rapid analysis of carboxyl-containing small molecules by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (D/I) mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). By the simple one-step deposition of analytes onto the (AgNP/rGO)9 multilayer film, the MS measurements of various carboxyl-containing small molecules (including amino acids, fatty acids and organic dicarboxylic acids) can be done. In contrast to other energy transfer materials relative to AgNPs, the signal interferences of a Ag cluster (Agn(+) or Agn(-)) and a C cluster (Cn(+) or Cn(-)) have been effectively reduced or eliminated. The effects of various factors, such as the pore structure and composition of the substrates, on the efficiency of D/I have been investigated by comparing with the (AgNP)9 LBL nanoporous structure, (AgNP/rGO)9/(SiO2NP)6 LBL multilayer film and AgNP/prGO nanocomposites.

  7. Growth, body fatty acid composition, immune response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus, fed diets containing various levels of linoleic and linolenic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietary linoleic (LA) and linolenic acids (LN) on growth and immunity of all-male hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus, were evaluated for 10 weeks. Fish fed 0.12% LA + 0% LN had the lowest weight gain (WG) but was not significantly different from diets containing 0.5% LA...

  8. High flux MWCNTs-interlinked GO hybrid membranes survived in cross-flow filtration for the treatment of strontium-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Lu, Ying; Liu, Ying-Ling; Li, Ming; Zhao, Hai-Yang; Hou, Li-An

    2016-12-15

    Graphene oxide (GO)-based membranes provide an encouraging opportunity to support high separation efficiency for wastewater treatment. However, due to the relatively weak interaction between GO nanosheets, it is difficult for bare GO-based membranes to survive in cross-flow filtration. In addition, the permeation flux of the bare GO membrane is not high sufficiently due to its narrow interlayer spacing. In this study, GO membranes interlinked with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via covalent bonds were fabricated on modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) supports by vacuum filtration. Due to the strong bonds between GO, MWCNTs and the PAN membrane, the membranes could be used for the treatment of simulated nuclear wastewater containing strontium via a cross-flow process. The result showed a high flux of 210.7L/(m(2)h) at 0.4MPa, which was approximately 4 times higher than that of commercial nanofiltration membranes. The improved water permeation was attributed to the nanochannels created by the interlinked MWCNTs in the GO layers. In addition, the hybrid membrane exhibited a high rejection of 93.4% for EDTA-chelated Sr(2+) in an alkaline solution, and could also be used to separate Na(+)/Sr(2+) mixtures. These results indicate that the MWCNTs-interlinked GO membrane has promising prospects for application in radioactive waste treatment.

  9. A novel Ni/Na - Containing inorganic-organic hybrid supramolecule based on polyoxometalate and EDTA with ultraviolet-visible light photochromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han-Xi; Teng, Chun-Lin; Cai, Qing; Sun, Su-Qin; Cai, Tie-Jun; Deng, Qian

    2016-08-01

    A novel Ni/Na - containing inorganic-organic hybrid supramolecule {(PW12O40)·[Na2(NiH2EDTA·H2O)(H4EDTA)·2H2O]·2H2O·H3O}n (short for NiEDTA-PW12) has been successfully synthesized by solution method, and investigated by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), photoluminescence (PL), ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). NiEDTA-PW12 exhibits intriguing infinite supramolecular structure with Na+ ions as linker. Furthermore, NiEDTA-PW12 displays a fast-responsive reversible photochromism under ultraviolet or visible light. The photochromic property of NiEDTA-PW12 has been investigated by techniques of UV-vis DRS and PL, and the impact of the O2 on fading of the colored NiEDTA-PW12 has been investigated.

  10. Synthesis of a Novel Core-shell Type Acrylic-polyurethane Hybrid Emulsion Containing Siloxane and Fluorine as well as Water and the Oil Resistances of Cured Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing CHAO; Xing Yuan ZHANG; Jia Bing DAI; Zhen GE; Lin Lin FENG

    2006-01-01

    Siliconated polyurethane (Si-PU) was synthesized using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), hydroxybutyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMG), polypropylene glycol (PPG), 1,6-hexanediol (HDO), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) and triethylamine (TEA). Based on butyl acrylate (BA), 2, 2, 2-trifluoroethylmethacrylate (TFEMA) and Si-PU as a seed emulsion, a novel core-shell type acrylic-polyurethane hybrid emulsion, containing siloxane and fluorine (F-Si-PU), was prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization. The contents of siloxane and fluorine were determined according to the feed ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identify the chain structures of Si-PU and F-Si-PU. Investigation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the core-shell structure of F-Si-PU emulsion. Measurement results of water contact angle and the swelling ratio in water and n-octane for cured film showed that the water and the oil resistances for F-Si-PU had been significantly improved at a suitable content of fluorine and siloxane.

  11. Construction of organic–inorganic hybrid nano-coatings containing α-zirconium phosphate with high efficiency for reducing fire hazards of flexible polyurethane foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Pan, Haifeng; Yuan, Bihe [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Hong, Ningning; Zhan, Jing; Wang, Bibo [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Song, Lei, E-mail: leisong@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Nano-architecture on the flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) was built by layer by layer (LbL) self-assembling of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) and two biopolymers. Through electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between α-ZrP, chitosan and alginate, the nano-coatings were successfully deposited on the substrate. The LbL self-assembly coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This loaded nano-coating endowed FPUF with excellent flame retardancy. Compared with pure FPUF, the reduction in the peak heat release rate of the modified foam with 12.3 wt% weight gain was achieved 71%, and the melt-dripping during combustion disappeared. Meanwhile, the thermal degradation of coated FPUF under nitrogen atmosphere was obviously retarded compared with pure FPUF. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the treated FPUFs were investigated. After loaded with 12.3 wt% nano-coating, the tensile and tear strength were enhanced by 13% and 54%, respectively. These investigations indicated that the study has great potential to add new dimensions in the fire retardancy modification of FPUF. - Highlights: • The nano-coatings containing α-ZrP and two biopolymers were successfully loaded on the FPUF by LbL self-assembly method. • The hybrid nano-coatings exhibited marked reduction in the peak heat release rate of the foam. • The coating resulted in enhanced tensile and tear strength of the foam.

  12. Quantitative use of fluorescent in situ hybridization to examine relationships between mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes and foaming in activated sludge plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, R J; Curtis, T P; Goodfellow, M; Stainsby, F M; Bingley, M

    2000-03-01

    The formation of viscous foams on aeration basins and secondary clarifiers of activated sludge plants is a common and widespread problem. Foam formation is often attributed to the presence of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes (mycolata). In order to examine the relationship between the number of mycolata and foam, we developed a group-specific probe targeting the 16S rRNA of the mycolata, a protocol to permeabilize mycolata, and a statistically robust quantification method. Statistical analyses showed that a lipase-based permeabilization method was quantitatively superior to previously described methods (P < 0.05). When mixed liquor and foam samples were examined, most of the mycolata present were rods or cocci, although filamentous mycolata were also observed. A nested analysis of variance showed that virtually all of the measured variance occurred between fields of view and not between samples. On this basis we determined that as few as five fields of view could be used to give a statistically meaningful sample. Quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to examine the relationship between foaming and the concentration of mycolata in a 20-m(3) completely mixed activated sludge plant. Foaming occurred when the number of mycolata exceeded a certain threshold value. Baffling of the plant affected foaming without affecting the number of mycolata. We tentatively estimated that the threshold foaming concentration of mycolata was about 2 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) or 4 x 10(12) cells m(-2). We concluded that quantitative use of FISH is feasible and that quantification is a prerequisite for rational investigation of foaming in activated sludge.

  13. The hybrid-cluster protein ('prismane protein') from Escherichia coli. Characterization of the hybrid-cluster protein, redox properties of the [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-2S-2O] clusters and identification of an associated NADH oxidoreductase containing FAD and[2Fe-2S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.A.M.; Hagen, W.R.; Dongen, van W.M.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid-cluster proteins ('prismane proteins') have previously been isolated and characterized from strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. These proteins contain two types of Fe/S clusters unique in biological systems: a [4Fe-4S] cubane cluster with spin-admixed S = 3/2 ground-state

  14. The hybrid-cluster protein ('prismane protein') from Escherichia coli. Characterization of the hybrid-cluster protein, redox properties of the [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-2S-2O] clusters and identification of an associated NADH oxidoreductase containing FAD and[2Fe-2S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den W.A.M.; Hagen, W.R.; Dongen, van W.M.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid-cluster proteins ('prismane proteins') have previously been isolated and characterized from strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. These proteins contain two types of Fe/S clusters unique in biological systems: a [4Fe-4S] cubane cluster with spin-admixed S = 3/2 ground-state paramagnet

  15. Fluorescence detection of KRAS2 mRNA hybridization in lung cancer cells with PNA-peptides containing an internal thiazole orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Mahesh V; Wampole, Matthew E; Jin, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Chang-Po; Thakur, Mathew L; Wickstrom, Eric

    2014-09-17

    We previously developed reporter-peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-peptides for sequence-specific radioimaging and fluorescence imaging of particular mRNAs in cells and tumors. However, a direct test for PNA-peptide hybridization with RNA in the cytoplasm would be desirable. Thiazole orange (TO) dye at the 5' end of a hybridization agent shows a strong increase in fluorescence quantum yield when stacked upon a 5' terminal base pair, in solution and in cells. We hypothesized that hybridization agents with an internal TO could distinguish a single base mutation in RNA. Thus, we designed KRAS2 PNA-IGF1 tetrapeptide agents with an internal TO adjacent to the middle base of the 12th codon, a frequent site of cancer-initiating mutations. Our molecular dynamics calculations predicted a disordered bulge with weaker hybridization resulting from a single RNA mismatch. We observed that single-stranded PNA-IGF1 tetrapeptide agents with an internal TO showed low fluorescence, but fluorescence escalated 5-6-fold upon hybridization with KRAS2 RNA. Circular dichroism melting curves showed ∼10 °C higher Tm for fully complementary vs single base mismatch TO-PNA-peptide agent duplexes with KRAS2 RNA. Fluorescence measurements of treated human lung cancer cells similarly showed elevated cytoplasmic fluorescence intensity with fully complementary vs single base mismatch agents. Sequence-specific elevation of internal TO fluorescence is consistent with our hypothesis of detecting cytoplasmic PNA-peptide:RNA hybridization if a mutant agent encounters the corresponding mutant mRNA.

  16. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of SiO2/PCL hybrid materials containing quercetin as new materials for antioxidant implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Papale, Ferdinando; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina

    2016-01-01

    The development of biomaterials with intrinsic antioxidant properties could represent a valuable strategy for preventing peri-implant disease onset. In this context quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been entrapped, at different weight percentages in a silica/poly(ε-caprolactone)-based hybrid material by a sol-gel route. FT-IR and UV spectroscopic techniques were employed in order to characterize the hybrids. FT-IR analysis indicated changes in stretching frequencies of the quercetin dienonic moiety, suggesting that a flavonol oxidized derivative was formed during the sol-gel process. The establishment of hydrogen-bonded interactions between quercetin and silica and polymer matrices,was strongly affected by the amount of polymer. Poly(ε-caprolactone) did not interact with quercetin when it was loaded at high doses (50 wt.%). The morphology of the synthesized materials was observed by using SEM. The obtained images proved that the materials are hybrid nanocomposites. Their bioactivity was shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on samples' surface soaked in a fluid simulating the composition of the human plasma. The antiradical properties of the investigated systems were evaluated by DPPH and ABTS methods and their cytotoxicity by the MTT assay. Data obtained revealed that the synthesized materials are biocompatible and that the hybrid system,with 6 wt.% of PCL and 15 wt.% of quercetin, produced the strongest antiradical efficacy.

  17. Fabrication, characterization and application of Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} absorber layer via a hybrid ink containing ball milled powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chunran [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yao, Bin, E-mail: binyao@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Yongfeng, E-mail: liyongfeng@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Xiao, Zhenyu [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Ding, Zhanhui [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao, Haifeng; Zhang, Ligong; Zhang, Zhenzhong [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • CZTS powders are prepared from binary sulfides by a low cost ball milling process. • Elaborated on phase evolution and formation mechanism of CZTS. • Proposed a hybrid ink approach to resolve difficulty in deposition of CZTS film. • CZTSSe solar cells with highest efficiency of 4.2% are fabricated. • Small-grained CZTS layer hinders the collection of minority carriers. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) powder with kesterite structure was prepared by ball milling of mixture of Cu{sub 2}S, ZnS and SnS{sub 2} powders for more than 15 h. By dispersing the milled CZTS powder in a Cu-, Zn- and Sn-chalcogenide precursor solution, a hybrid ink was fabricated. With the hybrid ink, a precursor CZTS film was deposited on Mo coated soda-lime glass by spin-coating. In order to obtain Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) absorber film with kesterite structure, the CZTS film was annealed at 560 °C for 15 min in Se ambient. It is demonstrated that the annealed film is dominated by a thick layer of kesterite CZTSSe with larger grain size and Cu{sub 8}Fe{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}(S,Se){sub 12} impurity phase with the exception of a very thin layer of kesterite CZTS with smaller grain size at interface between the CZTSSe and Mo layers. Solar cell device was fabricated by using the annealed CZTSSe film as absorber layer, and its conversion efficiency reached 4.2%. Mechanism of formation of the kesterite CZTS powder and CZTSSe film as well as effect of impurity phases on conversion efficiency are discussed in the present paper. The present results suggest that the hybrid ink approach combining with ball milling is a simple, low cost and promising method for preparation of kesterite CZTSSe absorber film and CZTSSe-based solar cell.

  18. Corn silage management I: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on chemical and physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Robutti, J L; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of whole plant corn on chemical and physical characteristics, particle size, pack density, and dry matter recovery. In the first experiment, hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. In the second experiment, hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with a theoretical length-of-cut of 12.7 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing by using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. The percentage of intact corn kernels present in unprocessed corn silage explained 62% of variation in total tract starch digestibility. As the amount of intact kernels increased, total tract starch digestibility decreased. Post-ensiled vitreousness of corn kernels within the corn silage explained 31 and 48% of the variation of total tract starch digestibility for processed and unprocessed treatments, respectively. For a given amount of vitreous starch in corn kernels, total tract starch digestibility was lower for cows fed unprocessed corn silage compared with processed corn silage. This suggests that processing corn silage disrupts the dense protein matrix within the corn kernel where starch is embedded, therefore making the starch more available for digestion. Particle size of corn silage and orts that contained corn silage was reduced when it was processed. Wet pack density was greater for processed compared with unprocessed corn silage.

  19. Limited fitness advantages of crop-weed hybrid progeny containing insect-resistant transgenes (Bt/CpTI in transgenic rice field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spread of insect-resistance transgenes from genetically engineered (GE rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea populations via gene flow creates a major concern for commercial GE rice cultivation. Transgene flow to weedy rice seems unavoidable. Therefore, characterization of potential fitness effect brought by the transgenes is essential to assess environmental consequences caused by crop-weed transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Field performance of fitness-related traits was assessed in advanced hybrid progeny of F(4 generation derived from a cross between an insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI rice line and a weedy strain. The performance of transgene-positive hybrid progeny was compared with the transgene-negative progeny and weedy parent in pure and mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants under environmental conditions with natural vs. low insect pressure. Results showed that under natural insect pressure the insect-resistant transgenes could effectively suppress target insects and bring significantly increased fitness to transgenic plants in pure planting, compared with nontransgenic plants (including weedy parent. In contrast, no significant differences in fitness were detected under low insect pressure. However, such increase in fitness was not detected in the mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants due to significantly reduced insect pressure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Insect-resistance transgenes may have limited fitness advantages to hybrid progeny resulted from crop-weed transgene flow owning to the significantly reduced ambient target insect pressure when an insect-resistant GE crop is grown. Given that the extensive cultivation of an insect-resistant GE crop will ultimately reduce the target insect pressure, the rapid spread of insect-resistance transgenes in weedy populations in commercial GE crop fields may be not likely to happen.

  20. Characterization of Hybrid Bioactive Glass-polyvinyl Alcohol Scaffolds Containing a PTHrP-derived Pentapeptide as Implants for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, D.J.; Lozano, D.; Rocha-Oliveira, A.A.; Mortarino, P.; Bumaguin, G.E.; Vitelli, E.; Vena, R.; Missana, L.; Jammal, M. V.; Portal-Núñez, S.; Pereira, M.; Esbrit, P.; Feldman, S.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid foam (BG-PVA) with 50 % Bioactive glass (BG) and 50 % polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was prepared by sol-gel process to produce scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The pore structure of hydrated foams was evaluated by 3-D confocal microscopy, confirming 70% porosity and interconnected macroporous network. In this study, we assessed the putative advantage of coating with osteostatin pentapeptide into BG-PVA hybrid scaffolds to improve their bioactivity. In vitro cell culture experiments were performed using mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. The exposure to osteostatin loaded-BG-PVA scaffolds increase cell proliferation in contrast with the unloaded scaffolds. An in vivo study was selected to implant BG-PVA scaffolds, non-coated (Group A) or coated (Group B) with osteostatin into non critical bone defect at rabbit femur. Both groups showed new compact bone formation on implant surface, with lamellae disposed around a haversian canal forming osteons-like structure. We observed signs of inflammation around the implanted unloaded scaffold at one month, but resolved at 3 months. This early inflammation did not occur in Group B; supporting the notion that osteostatin may act as anti-inflammatory inhibitor. On the other hand, Group B showed increased bone formation, as depicted by many new trabeculae partly mineralized in the implant regenerating area, incipient at 1 month and more evident at 3 months after implantation. PVA/BG hybrid scaffolds present a porous structure suitable to support osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Our in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that osteostatin coating improves the osteogenic features of these scaffolds PMID:24772196

  1. Photochromic hybrid containing in situ-generated benzyl viologen and novel trinuclear [Bi3Cl14]5-: improved photoresponsive behavior by the π···π interactions and size effect of inorganic oligomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Guang; Xu, Gang; Lu, Gang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Li, Pei-Xin; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2014-06-02

    Two new member of (V)((2n+2)/2)[Bi(2n)Cl(8n+2)] series hybrids, (BzV)2[Bi2Cl10] (1) and (BzV)5[Bi3Cl14]2·(C6H5CH2)2O (2) (where BzV(2+) = N,N'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium and (C6H5CH2)2O = dibenzyl ether) have been obtained, and compound 2 contains an unprecedented discrete trimer [Bi3Cl14](5-) counterion. The novel in situ-synthesized symmetric viologen cation with aromatic groups on both sides of 4,4'-bipy would provide more opportunities to create π···π interactions to optimize the photochromic property of the hybrid, and different bismuthated-halide oligomers enable us to discuss the size effect in this series of compounds. Both 1 and 2 are photochromic, and their photoresponsive rate is faster than that of reported viologen-metal halide hybrids. Experimental and theoretical data illustrated that the size of the inorganic oligomer can significantly influence the photoresponsive rate of the viologen dication, and the π···π interaction behaves as not only a powerful factor to stabilize the viologen monocation radical but also the second electron-transfer pathway, from a π-conjugated substituent to a viologen cation, for the photochromic process.

  2. Fabrication of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)-based hybrid proton-conducting membranes containing carboxyl or amino acid-functionalized titania by in situ sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongheng; Xu, Tao; He, Guangwei; Jiang, Zhongyi; Wu, Hong

    2015-02-01

    Functionalized titania are used as fillers to modify the sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membrane for improved proton conductivity and methanol barrier property. The functionalized titania sol which contains proton conductive carboxylic acid groups or amino acid groups are derived from a facile chelation method using different functional additives. Then the novel SPEEK/carboxylic acid-functionalized titania (SPEEK/TC) and SPEEK/amino acid-functionalized titania (SPEEK/TNC) hybrid membranes are fabricated via in situ sol-gel method. The anti-swelling property and thermal stability of hybrid membranes are enhanced owing to the formation of electrostatic force between SPEEK and titania nanoparticles. The hybrid membranes exhibit higher proton conductivity than plain SPEEK membrane because more proton transfer sites are provided by the functionalized titania nanoparticles. Particularly, the proton conductivity of SPEEK/TNC membrane with 15% filler content reaches up to 6.24 × 10-2 S cm-1, which is 3.5 times higher than that of the pure SPEEK membrane. For methanol permeability, the SPEEK/TNC membranes possess the lowest values because the acid-base interaction between sulfonic acid groups in SPEEK and amino groups in functionalized titania leads to a more compact membrane structure.

  3. Investigation of the microstructure, mechanical properties and tribological behaviors of Ti-containing diamond-like carbon films fabricated by a hybrid ion beam method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Wei [Ningbo Key Laboratory of Marine Protection Materials, Division of Surface Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Future Convergence Technology Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Ke, Peiling [Ningbo Key Laboratory of Marine Protection Materials, Division of Surface Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol [Future Convergence Technology Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Key Laboratory of Marine Protection Materials, Division of Surface Engineering, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2012-07-31

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with various titanium contents were investigated using a hybrid ion beam system comprising an anode-layer linear ion beam source and a DC magnetron sputtering unit. The film composition and microstructure were characterized carefully by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, revealing that the doped Ti atoms had high solubility in the DLC films. The maximum solubility was found to lie between about 7 and 13 at.%. When the Ti content was lower than this solubility, the doped Ti atoms dissolved in the DLC matrix and the films exhibited the typical features of the amorphous DLC structure and displayed low compressive stresses, friction coefficients and wear rates. However, as the doped content exceeded the solubility, Ti atoms bonded with C atoms, resulting in the formation of carbide nano-particles embedded in the DLC matrix. Although the emergence of the carbide nano-particles promoted graphitizing due to a catalysis effect, the film hardness was enhanced to a great extent. On the other hand, the hard carbides particles caused abrasive wear behavior, inducing a high friction coefficient and wear rate. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti doped DLC films (Ti {approx} 24 at.% )were deposited by a hybrid ion beam system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solubility of the Ti atoms in the DLC films was found around 7 {approx} 13 at .%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure evolution from DLC to nanocomposite played key role in film behaviors.

  4. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  5. A comparative study on the performance of hybrid solar cells containing ZnSTe QDs in hole transporting layer and photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Aziz, Fakhra; Ahmad, Zubair; Shakoor, R. A.; Mohamed, A. M. A.; Khalil, Uzma; Swelm, Wageh; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, ZnSTe quantum dots-based hybrid solar cells (HSC) with two different device architectures have been investigated. The improved performance of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM)-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells by the incorporation of ZnSTe quantum dots (QDs) with an average size of 2.96 nm in PEDOT:PSS layer and active layer that have been demonstrated. Although the efficiency of both types of devices is almost the same, a close comparison reveals different reasons behind their improved performance. The device prepared with QDs in the HTL has shown reduced series resistance, increased shunt resistance, and improved mobility. On the other hand, QDs in the photoactive layer demonstrates increased photo-generation leading to improved efficiency.

  6. Solvent-dependent switch of ligand donor ability and catalytic activity of ruthenium(II) complexes containing pyridinylidene amide (PYA) N-heterocyclic carbene hybrid ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Vivienne; Carleton, Daniel J; Olguin, Juan; Mueller-Bunz, Helge; Wright, L James; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-08-04

    Chelating ligands incorporating both N-[1-alkylpyridin-4(1H)-ylidene]amide (PYA) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donor sites were prepared and used for the synthesis of ruthenium(II) complexes. Cyclic voltammetry, NMR, and UV-vis spectroscopy of the complexes indicate a solvent-dependent contribution of the limiting resonance structures associated with the ligand in solution. The neutral pyridylidene imine structure is more pronounced in apolar solvents (CH2Cl2), while the mesoionic pyridinium amide form is predominant in polar solvents (MeOH, DMSO). The distinct electronic properties of these hybrid PYA-NHC ligands in different solvents have a direct influence on the catalytic activity of the ruthenium center, e.g., in the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The activity in different solvents qualitatively correlates with the solvent permittivity.

  7. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities of g-C3N4 via Hybridization with a Bi-Fe-Nb-Containing Ferroelectric Pyrochlore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaofeng; Li, Xiaoning; Gu, Wen; Wang, Fangfang; Zou, Yijun; Sun, Shujie; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin

    2017-06-14

    Ferroelectricity may promote photocatalytic performance because the carrier-separation efficiency can be effectively improved by the internal electrostatic field caused by spontaneous polarization. Heterostructures that combine ferroelectric materials with other semiconductor materials can be further advantageous to the photocatalysis process. In this work, Bi1.65Fe1.16Nb1.12O7 was hybridized with g-C3N4 via a facile low-temperature method. The results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed that a tight interface was formed between g-C3N4 and Bi1.65Fe1.16Nb1.12O7, which gave the (g-C3N4)-(Bi1.65Fe1.16Nb1.12O7) heterojunction a more superior visible light photocatalytic performance. The degradation of rhodamine B by optimized (g-C3N4)0.5-(Bi1.65Fe1.16Nb1.12O7)0.5 under visible light was almost 3.3 times higher than that by monomer Bi1.65Fe1.16Nb1.12O7 and 7.4 times higher than that by g-C3N4. The (g-C3N4)0.5-(Bi1.65Fe1.16Nb1.12O7)0.5 sample also showed the highest photocurrent in the photoelectrochemical tests. To further verify the benefit of the built-in electric field in terms of the photocatalytic performance, Bi2FeNbO7, with a higher spontaneous polarization, was also synthesized and hybridized with g-C3N4. Both Bi2FeNbO7 and (g-C3N4)0.5-(Bi2FeNbO7)0.5 exhibited better photocatalytic activities than those of Bi1.65Fe1.16Nb1.12O7 and (g-C3N4)0.5-(Bi1.65Fe1.16Nb1.12O7)0.5, although the latter ones had a stronger visible-light absorbance. This implies the very promising prospects of applying ferroelectric materials for solar energy harvest.

  8. Efficacy and tolerance of an injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid: a monocentric 16 weeks open-label evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparavigna A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi DermIng srl, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Monza, MB, Italy Background: An injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA has been developed with characteristics suited for a global improvement of facial esthetics. Objective: To evaluate the HA product performance in improving some key facial esthetic features. The study employed clinical scales, subjective evaluations, and facial skin objective measurements. Methods: A single Italian site treated 64 female subjects aged 38–60 years, with injections at five predetermined points, on each side of the face, with a 4-week time lapse between the first and the second product administration. Subjects were evaluated after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, using validated clinical scales, subjective evaluation, and objective quantitative outcome measures. Assessment of esthetic results included photographic documentation. Results: Both the clinical and subjective assessments, and the majority of objective instrumental parameters indicated an improvement throughout the study and were already significant at week 4 or 8 and were still significant at week 16 (3 months after the second treatment. Minor and temporary local skin reactions were observed in 23% of subjects at the site of the injections, and the global judgment on tolerability was good or excellent, both in the investigators’ opinion and volunteers’ self-evaluation. Conclusion: Both subjective and objective improvement of the facial parameters was consistent with the bio-remodeling purpose, and persistent and still statistically significant at the end of the study. The tolerability and safety profile of the product were judged good or excellent both by investigators and volunteers. This study supports the claim for bio-remodeling of these stable hybrid cooperative complexes of low- and high-molecular-weight HA. Keywords

  9. 含磷有机硅杂化环氧树脂固化体系性能研究%PROPERTIES OF PHOSPHORUS-CONTAINING ORGANIC SILICON/EPOXY HYBRID RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振杰; 刘伟区; 李宏静; 马松琪; 闫振龙

    2012-01-01

    A phosphorus-containing organic silicone was synthesized from γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and phosphoric acid reacting. Phosphorus-containing organic silicone/epoxy hybrid resins were prepared by sol-gel method, and the cured resins were prepared from the in situ curing of the bisphenol-A type epoxy resin/4, 4'-diaminodiphenylmethane,and phosphorus-containing organic silicone. The properties of the hybrid resin and neat epoxy resin were studied by using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, limited oxygen index, tensile strength and impact strength measurements. The flame retardancy was indicated by the limited oxygen index in the range of 25. 8 ~ 29. 3, higher than that of the neat epoxy resin. The glass transition temperature is in the range of 161 - 179℃, higher than that of the neat epoxy by resin. The thermal stability of the hybrid resin is not superior to that of the neat epoxy resin at low temperature, however, the char yield of it can reach 26. 5% , higher than that of the neat epoxy by 36% at 800℃. The tensile strengths of the hybrid resin are 60 ~ 80 Mpa, higher than that of the neat epoxy resin and the impact strengths can reach 14. 36 kJ/ m2,higher than that of the neat epoxy resin by 14%. Compared to the neat epoxy resin, the hybrid resin possesses better flame retardancy and thermal stability, and the tensile strength and impact strength are improved.%通过磷酸与γ-环氧丙氧基三甲氧基硅烷反应得到含磷有机硅氧烷,并加入到环氧树脂/4,4’-二氨基二苯基甲烷体系中混合,通过溶胶-凝胶的方法制备了含磷有机硅杂化环氧树脂固化物.对固化体系进行了玻璃化转变温度、热失重、阻燃、拉伸强度、冲击强度测试分析.结果表明,该固化体系的阻燃性得到提高,极限氧指数在25.8~29.3,玻璃化转变温度得到提高,在161~179℃;虽然初始分解温度比纯环氧树脂固化物低,但800℃残炭率可以达到26.5

  10. Quantitative Use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization To Examine Relationships between Mycolic Acid-Containing Actinomycetes and Foaming in Activated Sludge Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, Russell J.; Curtis, Thomas P; GOODFELLOW, Michael; Stainsby, Fiona M.; Bingley, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The formation of viscous foams on aeration basins and secondary clarifiers of activated sludge plants is a common and widespread problem. Foam formation is often attributed to the presence of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes (mycolata). In order to examine the relationship between the number of mycolata and foam, we developed a group-specific probe targeting the 16S rRNA of the mycolata, a protocol to permeabilize mycolata, and a statistically robust quantification method. Statistical an...

  11. Syntheses and structure characterization of ten acid-base hybrid crystals based on N-containing aromatic brønsted bases and mineral acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhihao; Jin, Shouwen; Li, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Kaikai; Guo, Ming; Chi, Xinchen; Liu, Hui; Wang, Daqi

    2017-10-01

    Cocrystallization of the aromatic brønsted bases with a series of mineral acids gave a total of ten hybrid salts with the compositions: (2-methylquinoline)2: (hydrochloride acid): 3H2O [(HL1)+. (L1)·· (Cl-) · (H2O)3] (1), (6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine): (hydrochloride acid) [(HL2)+. (Cl-)] (2), (6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine): (nitric acid) [(HL2)+. (NO3-)] (3), (6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine): (sulfuric acid) [(HL2)+ · (HSO4)-] (4), (6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine): (phosphoric acid) [(HL2)+ · (H2PO4)-] (5), (5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine): (hydrochloride acid): 3H2O [(HL3)+ · (Cl-) (H2O)3] (6), (5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine): (hydrobromic acid): CH3OH [(HL3)+ · (Br)- · CH3OH] (7), (5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine): (sulfuric acid): H2O [(HL3)+ · (HSO4)- · H2O] (8), (2-aminophenol): (phosphoric acid) [(HL4)+ · (H2PO4)-] (9), and (2-amino-4-chlorophenol): (phosphoric acid) [(HL5)+ · (H2PO4)-] (10). The ten salts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the ten investigated crystals the ring N of the heterocycle or the NH2 in the aminophenol are protonated when the acids are deprotonated, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong charge-assisted classical hydrogen bonds between the NH+/NH3+ and deprotonated acidic groups. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts indicated that a different family of additional CHsbnd O, CHsbnd Cl, CH3sbnd N, CH3sbnd O, CHsbnd Br, CH3sbnd Br, Brsbnd Cl, Clsbnd S, Osbnd S, Osbnd O, Brsbnd S, Hsbnd H, and π-π associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional frameworks. For the coexistence of the various weak nonbonding interactions these structures adopted homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some classical

  12. High-Resolution Crystal Structure of a Silver(I)-RNA Hybrid Duplex Containing Watson-Crick-like C-Silver(I)-C Metallo-Base Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Jiro; Tada, Yoshinari; Dairaku, Takenori; Saneyoshi, Hisao; Okamoto, Itaru; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Ono, Akira

    2015-11-02

    Metallo-base pairs have been extensively studied for applications in nucleic acid-based nanodevices and genetic code expansion. Metallo-base pairs composed of natural nucleobases are attractive because nanodevices containing natural metallo-base pairs can be easily prepared from commercially available sources. Previously, we have reported a crystal structure of a DNA duplex containing T-Hg(II)-T base pairs. Herein, we have determined a high-resolution crystal structure of the second natural metallo-base pair between pyrimidine bases C-Ag(I)-C formed in an RNA duplex. One Ag(I) occupies the center between two cytosines and forms a C-Ag(I)-C base pair through N3-Ag(I)-N3 linear coordination. The C-Ag(I)-C base pair formation does not disturb the standard A-form conformation of RNA. Since the C-Ag(I)-C base pair is structurally similar to the canonical Watson-Crick base pairs, it can be a useful building block for structure-based design and fabrication of nucleic acid-based nanodevices.

  13. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  14. A novel method for fabricating hybrid biobased nanocomposites film with stable fluorescence containing CdTe quantum dots and montmorillonite-chitosan nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yawen; Ge, Xuesong; Guan, Jing; Wu, Lin; Zhao, Fuhua; Li, Hui; Mu, Xindong; Jiang, Yijun; Chen, Aibing

    2016-07-10

    A method was presented for fabricating the fluorescent nanocomposites containing CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and montmorillonite (MMT)-chitosan (CS). MMT-CS/CdTe QDs nanocomposites were prepared via a simple, versatile and robust approach combination of covalent and electrostatic assembly methods (Scheme 1). The negatively charged MMT was initially modified with positively charged CS through electrostatic assembly, followed by incorporation of CdTe-QDs into the MMT-CS nanosheets by covalent connections between the amino groups of CS and the carboxylic acid groups of thioglycollic acid (TGA). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the FTIR were used to prove the QDs have intercalated into the MMT-CS matrix. The fluorescence emission spectra showed that the MMT-CS/CdTe QDs nanocomposites had the best fluorescence intensity compared with the bare CdTe QDs and CS-QDs.

  15. A novel cotton fabric with anti-bacterial and drug delivery properties using SBA-15-NH2/polysiloxane hybrid containing tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemikia, Samaneh; Hemmatinejad, Nahid; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Montazer, Majid

    2016-02-01

    Here, mesoporous silica particles containing tetracycline were loaded on cotton fabric for possible application on the infected human skin. Amino functionalized mesoporous silica, SBA-15-NH2, was chosen as a safe drug carrier loaded with tetracycline via post impregnation method. Diverse content of the drug loaded silica particles were then attached on the cotton fabric surface using polysiloxane reactive softener as a soft and safe fixing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to study the drug delivery properties of the mesoporous silica on the treated cotton fabrics. The treated fabric with long drug release properties was selected as the optimized sample. Further analysis was carried out on this sample including anti-bacterial, water contact angle, bending length, mineral content and washing durability. Also, SEM images, EDX patterns, X-Ray spectra and thermal behavior of the optimum sample were studied. The optimized treated sample indicated the gradual release profile of tetracycline in PBS buffer media within 48h along with excellent anti-bacterial efficiency as a good feature for biological application.

  16. Efficacy and tolerance of an injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid: a monocentric 16 weeks open-label evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Background An injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) has been developed with characteristics suited for a global improvement of facial esthetics. Objective To evaluate the HA product performance in improving some key facial esthetic features. The study employed clinical scales, subjective evaluations, and facial skin objective measurements. Methods A single Italian site treated 64 female subjects aged 38–60 years, with injections at five predetermined points, on each side of the face, with a 4-week time lapse between the first and the second product administration. Subjects were evaluated after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, using validated clinical scales, subjective evaluation, and objective quantitative outcome measures. Assessment of esthetic results included photographic documentation. Results Both the clinical and subjective assessments, and the majority of objective instrumental parameters indicated an improvement throughout the study and were already significant at week 4 or 8 and were still significant at week 16 (3 months after the second treatment). Minor and temporary local skin reactions were observed in 23% of subjects at the site of the injections, and the global judgment on tolerability was good or excellent, both in the investigators’ opinion and volunteers’ self-evaluation. Conclusion Both subjective and objective improvement of the facial parameters was consistent with the bio-remodeling purpose, and persistent and still statistically significant at the end of the study. The tolerability and safety profile of the product were judged good or excellent both by investigators and volunteers. This study supports the claim for bio-remodeling of these stable hybrid cooperative complexes of low- and high-molecular-weight HA. PMID:27713647

  17. Synthesis and characterization of organic–inorganic hybrid materials prepared by sol–gel and containing Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1−x}S nanoparticles prepared by a colloidal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Luis F.F.F., E-mail: luisf@quimica.uminho.pt [Centro de Química, Departamento de Química, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Centro de Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Silva, Carlos J.R. [Centro de Química, Departamento de Química, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kanodarwala, Fehmida K.; Stride, John A. [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Pereira, Mário R.; Gomes, Maria J.M. [Centro de Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-12-15

    Nanocomposite materials based on a hybrid organic–inorganic ureasilicate matrix doped with Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1−x}S nanoparticles were prepared. Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1−x}S nanoparticles with different compositions (Zn/Cd mole ratio) were prepared through a colloidal method using reverse micelles. Previously to dispersion within the matrix precursors used to prepare the hybrid gel composite, the nanoparticles surface was modified in order to improve compatibility and stability with the matrix and to assure the preservation of the original optical properties of the nanoparticles. The matrix was obtained by the reaction between a silicon alkoxide modified by an isocyanate group and a di-amine functionalized oligopolyoxyethylene (Jeffamine ED-600), which by subsequent hydrolysis and condensation reactions formed a mechanically stable and highly transparent solid network containing the Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1−x}S nanoparticles. The materials were characterized by absorption, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and by HRTEM. The obtained nanocomposites show a high transparency in the visible range accounting for the good dispersion of the nanoparticles within the matrix. The results obtained confirmed the preservation of the original optical properties of the nanoparticles after their incorporation into the ureasilicate matrix, showing that the developed method is suitable for the production of materials with potential applications in which it is necessary to take advantage of the optical properties of the nanoparticles incorporated. The HRTEM analysis confirmed that the dispersed nanoparticles show a high level of crystallinization. -- Highlights: • Synthesis of a hybrid ureasilicate matrix doped with Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1−x}S nanoparticles. • The influence of the composition of the nanoparticles plays an important role in the optical properties of the nanocomposites. • Preservation of the optical properties of the nanoparticles associated with

  18. Clinical trial to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of an oral inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli prototype vaccine containing CFA/I overexpressing bacteria and recombinantly produced LTB/CTB hybrid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, A; Leach, S; Tobias, J; Carlin, N; Gustafsson, B; Jertborn, M; Bourgeois, L; Walker, R; Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A-M

    2013-02-06

    We have developed a new oral vaccine against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea containing killed recombinant E. coli bacteria expressing increased levels of ETEC colonization factors (CFs) and a recombinant protein (LCTBA), i.e. a hybrid between the binding subunits of E. coli heat labile toxin (LTB) and cholera toxin (CTB). We describe a randomized, comparator controlled, double-blind phase I trial in 60 adult Swedish volunteers of a prototype of this vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of the prototype vaccine, containing LCTBA and an E. coli strain overexpressing the colonization factor CFA/I, was compared to a previously developed oral ETEC vaccine, consisting of CTB and inactivated wild type ETEC bacteria expressing CFA/I (reference vaccine). Groups of volunteers were given two oral doses of either the prototype or the reference vaccine; the prototype vaccine was administered at the same or a fourfold higher dosage than the reference vaccine. The prototype vaccine was found to be safe and equally well-tolerated as the reference vaccine at either dosage tested. The prototype vaccine induced mucosal IgA (fecal secretory IgA and intestine-derived IgA antibody secreting cell) responses to both LTB and CFA/I, as well as serum IgA and IgG antibody responses to LTB. Immunization with LCTBA resulted in about twofold higher mucosal and systemic IgA responses against LTB than a comparable dose of CTB. The higher dose of the prototype vaccine induced significantly higher fecal and systemic IgA responses to LTB and fecal IgA responses to CFA/I than the reference vaccine. These results demonstrate that CF over-expression and inclusion of the LCTBA hybrid protein in an oral inactivated ETEC vaccine does not change the safety profile when compared to a previous generation of such a vaccine and that the prototype vaccine induces significant dose dependent mucosal immune responses against CFA/I and LTB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  20. Preparation and thermal properties of titanium-containing hybrid silicone resin%含钛杂化硅树脂的制备与耐热性能研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟倩倩; 严岑琪; 赵士贵; 周传健; 周凯运

    2014-01-01

    以钛酸四正丁酯、甲基三乙氧基硅烷、二甲基二乙氧基硅烷、甲基苯基二甲氧基硅烷为原料,乙酰丙酮(acac)为螯合剂、盐酸为催化剂、乙醇为溶剂,利用溶胶-凝胶法、控制 n (Ti)∶n (Si)=0.1~0.5,50℃水解温度下制备了含钛硅树脂,钛的引入使得杂化硅树脂在不使用催化剂和室温固化剂的情况下,140℃3 d实现固化.通过涂层外观分析、光学显微镜、扫描电镜、紫外-可见吸收光谱、傅里叶变换红外光谱、变温傅里叶变换红外光谱、热重进行了表征.结果表明成功合成了含 Si—O—Ti 共价键的杂化硅树脂;当n (acac)/n (Ti)=0.3时,含钛硅树脂预聚物的储存稳定性较好;R/(Si+Ti)≥1.36时,能制备表面光滑的硅树脂;含钛杂化硅树脂具有较好的耐热性且其热性能随钛含量的增大而提高.%In this paper,a kind of titanium-containing hydrid silicone resin was prepared by the hydrolysis-con-densation of tetra-n-butyltitanate,methyltriethoxysilane,dimethyldiethoxylsilane and methylphenyldimethox-ysilane through sol-gel method in ethanol system,using hydrochloric acid as catalyst,acetylacetone as comple-xing agent,hydrolysis temperature 50 ℃,and n (Ti)∶n (Si)=0.1-0.5.The curing condition was 140 ℃ for 3 d. The appearance and structure of titanium-containing hybrid silicone resin was characterized by optical micro-scope,scanning electron microscope (SEM),energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS),ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR )and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).The results indicate that,titanium-containing hybrid silicone resin consists of Ti—O—Si covalent bond,when n (acac)/n (Ti)=0.3,the storage stability was well,and when R/(Si+Ti)≥1.36,the resin had a smooth surface without cracks.The introduction of Ti improves its thermal property.

  1. Catalytically-relevant electron transfer between two hemes bL in the hybrid cytochrome bc1-like complex containing a fusion of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and capsulatus cytochromes b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla, Monika; Cieluch, Ewelina; Borek, Arkadiusz; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2013-06-01

    To address mechanistic questions about the functioning of dimeric cytochrome bc1 new genetic approaches have recently been developed. They were specifically designed to enable construction of asymmetrically-mutated variants suitable for functional studies. One approach exploited a fusion of two cytochromes b that replaced the separate subunits in the dimer. The fusion protein, built from two copies of the same cytochrome b of purple bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, served as a template to create a series of asymmetrically-mutated cytochrome bc1-like complexes (B-B) which, through kinetic studies, disclosed several important principles of dimer engineering. Here, we report on construction of another fusion protein complex that adds a new tool to investigate dimeric function of the enzyme through the asymmetrically mutated forms of the protein. This complex (BS-B) contains a hybrid protein that combines two different cytochromes b: one coming from R. capsulatus and the other - from a closely related species, R. sphaeroides. With this new fusion we addressed a still controversial issue of electron transfer between the two hemes bL in the core of dimer. Kinetic data obtained with a series of BS-B variants provided new evidence confirming the previously reported observations that electron transfer between those two hemes occurs on a millisecond timescale, thus is a catalytically-relevant event. Both types of the fusion complexes (B-B and BS-B) consistently implicate that the heme-bL-bL bridge forms an electronic connection available for inter-monomer electron transfer in cytochrome bc1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bi-level Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Three-dimensional Container Loading Problem with Balancing Constrains%带平衡约束三维装箱问题的双层混合遗传算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱向; 雷定猷

    2015-01-01

    Based on a framed-layout concept, a bi-level hybrid genetic algorithm (BHGA) is presented for the three-dimensional container loading problem (3DCLP) with balancing constraints. Firstly, the concept of core block and its generation tactics are proposed according to the freight characters. Then a construction process adapt to the balance loading is introduced combined with the concepts of extreme-point and anchor-distance. Based on the initial frame and the co-evolution of internal and external searches of BHGA, the optimal placement for the freights can be determined. Lastly, the approach is tested on standard benchmark test data and is compared with the existed researches involving balance constrains. The results demonstrate that it is effective in improving the space use rate and balance level of the center gravity.%针对带重心平衡约束的三维装箱问题,基于框架式布局思想,设计双层混合遗传算法进行求解。根据装载物的特性定义核心货物元素及进行核心堆的构造,再结合极点、锚距等概念提出适合货物平衡装载的布局过程;在典型布局形成初始框架基础上,通过双层混合遗传算法的内、外层搜索分工与协作,获得货物最优装载方案。基于标准算例的实验及对比分析,证明所提出方法在提高装载率及实现重心平衡方面取得了较好效果。

  3. The medial gastrocnemius muscle with an achilles tendon sheath extension flap as a versatile myo-tendon sheath flap for coverage of the upper two-thirds of the tibia and pre-tibial area: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghamry, Ashraf Hussein

    2014-02-01

    The idea of using the leg tendon sheath as a pedicled fascial flap was first described by the author in April 2003. To extend this new idea, the author studied the blood supply and gross features of the outer layer of the Achilles tendon sheath. The findings of that study supported the feasibility of using the medial gastrocnemius muscle with an Achilles tendon sheath extension flap to cover defects over the upper two-thirds of the tibia. Six flaps of the Achilles tendon sheath survived, and the split skin grafts over the tibia took; but, in one flap, the distal 1 cm was lost. The length of follow-up was 3 years for all cases. The results demonstrated safe elevation of up to 8 cm of distal extension.

  4. 含氟硅聚氨酯-丙烯酸酯复合乳液的合成%Synthesis of Polyurethane-Acrylate Hybrid Emulsion Containing Siloxane and Fluorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘季荣; 肖新颜; 黄森

    2012-01-01

    以异佛尔酮二异氰酸(IPDI)、聚丙二醇(PPG)、端羟丙基硅氧烷(PDMS)、二羟甲基丙酸(DMPA)及1,4-丁二醇(BDO)为主要原料,采用溶液聚合法合成有机硅改性水性聚氨酯(SiPU)。以SiPU为种子乳液,并作为复合乳液的壳层,加入核层单体丙烯酸丁酯(BA)、甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)及甲基丙烯酸十二氟庚酯(DFMA),通过乳液聚合得到氟硅改性聚氨酯-聚丙烯酸酯(FSiPUA)复合乳液。考察了PDMS及DFMA用量对乳液聚合过程及乳胶膜表面疏水性能的影响。采用FT-IR、CA、TEM、DSC及TG等表征复合乳液涂膜结构与性能。结果表明,FSiPUA复合乳液呈现核壳结构,在PDMS和DFMA的协同作用下,当PDMS和DFMA用量分别为m(PDMS)/m(PU)=5.5/100和m(DFMA)/m(AA)=15/100时,涂膜的表面自由能低至21.67 mN/m,对去离子水接触角达102.3°,涂膜耐热性有一定提高。%Waterborne siliconated polyurethane(SiPU) was synthesized via solution polymerization using isophorone diisocyanate(IPDI),polypropylene glycol(PPG) and hydroxypropyl terminated polydimethyl sioxane(PDMS),dimethylol propionic acid(DMPA) and 1,4-butanediol(BDO) as main materials.Further,a new type of polyurethane-acrylate hybrid emulsion containing siloxane and fluorine(FSiPUA) was synthesized via a seeded emulsion polymerization,in which the core phase consisting of butyl acrylate(BA),methyl methacrylate(MMA) and dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate(DFMA),and the shell phase SiPU.The influence of the amounts of PDMS and DFMA on emulsion polymerization process and the surface properties of the latex was discussed.The structure and properties of the hybrid emulsion were characterized by FT-IR,CA,TEM,DSC and TG analysis.The results indicate that the resultant particles have the core shell structure owing to the synergistic effect of PDMS and DFMA.The surface free energy is as low as 21.67 mN/m and

  5. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  6. Molecular Design of Low-Density Multifunctional Hybrid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Structure -Property Relationships of Hybrid Mixed Oxide Organic - Inorganic Films for Multilayer Adhesive Bonding”, MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, San Francisco...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT No distribution limitation. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Low-density hybrid materials, which contain organic and... hybrid materials, which contain organic and inorganic molecular components, can be engineered over a wide range of length scales to exhibit unique

  7. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  8. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  9. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  10. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  11. Early effects of liver regeneration on endocrine pancreas: in vivo change in islet morphology and in vitro assessment of systemic effects on β-cell function and viability in the rat model of two-thirds hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, F; Seyfritz, E; Toti, F; Sigrist, S; Bietigier, W; Pinget, M; Kessler, L

    2014-12-01

    Liver and pancreas share key roles in glucose homeostasis. Liver regeneration is associated with systemic modifications and depends especially on pancreatic hormones. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of systemic factors released after two-thirds hepatectomy (2/3H) on early possible consequences of liver regeneration on endocrine pancreas structure and function. The pancreas and serum were harvested 1, 2, or 3 days after 2/3H or sham operation in Lewis rats. The HGF and VEGF serum concentrations and plasma microparticles levels were measured. The fate of endocrine pancreas was examined through islets histomorphometry and function in sham and 2/3H rats. β-Cell line RIN-m5F viability was assessed after 24 h of growth in media supplemented with 10% serum from 2/3H or sham rats instead of FCS. Three days after surgery, the pancreas was heavier in 2/3H compared to sham rats (0.56 vs. 0.40% of body weight, p viability of RIN-m5F cells (99 vs. 67%, p concentration and a significant increase in microparticles levels, were observed in 2/3H vs. sham rats (9.8 vs. 6.5 nM Phtd Ser Eq., p influence β-cell viability and function by systemic effect.

  12. Bounded hybrid superiority in an avian hybrid zone: effects of mate, diet, and habitat choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, T P; Ellis, J C; Annett, C A; Pierotti, R

    2000-10-01

    There has been considerable debate in the study of hybrid zones as to whether hybrids may be superior to parental types within the area of contact (bounded hybrid superiority). In birds, naturally occurring hybridization is relatively common, and hybridization within this group always involves mate choice. If hybrids are superior, females choosing heterospecific mates should be expected to show higher fitness under the conditions prevalent in the hybrid zone. Hybrid superiority under these circumstances would reduce reinforcement and thereby help to maintain the hybrid zone. To examine this issue, we studied reproductive performances of hybrids and parental species of gulls (Larus occidentalis and Larus glaucescens) at two colonies within a linear hybrid zone along the west coast of the United States. This hybrid zone contains predominantly gulls of intermediate phenotype. Previous studies indicated that hybrids were superior to one or both parental types, but provided no data on possible mechanisms that underlie this hybrid superiority. Using a hybrid index designed specifically for these species, we identified to phenotype more than 300 individuals associated with nests, including both individual males and females within 73 pairs in the central portion of the hybrid zone and 74 pairs in the northern portion of the hybrid zone. There was little evidence of assortative mating, and what little there was resulted solely because of pairings within intergrades. In the central hybrid zone, females paired with hybrid males produced larger clutches and hatched and fledged more chicks compared with females paired to western gull males. This was a result of heavy predation on eggs in sand habitat, where male western gulls established territories. In contrast, many hybrid males established territories in vegetated cover that was less vulnerable to predation. In the northern part of the hybrid zone, clutch size did not differ among pair categories, however, there were

  13. Quantitative in situ hybridization analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA in developing rat cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcutts, M D; Morrison-Bogorad, M

    1991-11-19

    The appearance and relative amounts of GAD mRNA in rat cerebellar neurons during postnatal development was studied by in situ hybridization. GAD mRNA content within all GABAergic neurons increased during the first month of postnatal development, but the degree and time course of the increase varied among different neuronal types. In newborn rats, GAD mRNA was present only in the prenatally-formed Purkinje and Golgi cells. GAD mRNA in Golgi cells had reached adult levels by postnatal day 14, while GAD mRNA levels in Purkinje cells reached adult levels one week later. Most basket cells expressed GAD mRNA by postnatal day 14, and final levels were attained one week later. Stellate cells in the bottom two-thirds of the molecular layer attained their final GAD mRNA content by postnatal day 21 whereas stellate cells in close proximity to the pial surface were not yet mature at this age. No GAD mRNA was detected within the external granular layer at any time during development. In adult rat, approximately 40% of cerebellar GAD mRNA was contained within the Purkinje cell population, 38% within the stellate cells, 17% within the basket cells, and only 5% within the Golgi cells. Increases in GAD mRNA within GABAergic neurons during cerebellar development correlated with the timing of neuronal maturation and synaptogenesis in these cell populations, suggesting that synaptic activity affects GAD gene expression in developing cerebellum.

  14. Hybrid models for complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    This paper formulates a new approach to complex fluid dynamics, which accounts for microscopic statistical effects in the micromotion. While the ordinary fluid variables (mass density and momentum) undergo usual dynamics, the order parameter field is replaced by a statistical distribution on the order parameter space. This distribution depends also on the point in physical space and its dynamics retains the usual fluid transport features while containing the statistical information on the order parameter space. This approach is based on a hybrid moment closure for Yang-Mills Vlasov plasmas, which replaces the usual cold-plasma assumption. After presenting the basic properties of the hybrid closure, such as momentum map features, singular solutions and Casimir invariants, the effect of Yang-Mills fields is considered and a direct application to ferromagnetic fluids is presented. Hybrid models are also formulated for complex fluids with symmetry breaking. For the special case of liquid crystals, a hybrid formul...

  15. Species hybridization in the genus Pinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    Results of a breeding program in which a large number of pine species were tested indicate that a number of species and hybrids may be useful in the northeastern United States. Austrian black pine x Japanese black pine and hybrids containing Japanese red pine all had good growth rates. While none of the soft pines grew faster than eastern white pine, a number of...

  16. Container II

    OpenAIRE

    Baraklianou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  17. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  18. New Inorganic-organic Hybrid Compound Containing One Dimensional Keggin Polyoxometalate[SiW11O39Co]6- Chains:Preparation,Characterization and Application in Chemically Bulk-modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-li; LIN Hong-yan; LIU Guo-cheng; CHEN Bao-kuan; BI Yan-feng

    2008-01-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid compound based on polyoxometalate and organic ligand formulated as (H2bpp)3[SiW11O39Co]~2H2O(1)[bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane]was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis,single-crystal X-ray diffraction,IR,TG,and cyclic voltammetry.Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 consists of interesting cobalt-monosubstituted POMs one dimensional chain together with protonated bpp ligands.Additionally,the polyoxoanions combined with the discrete organic substrates by hydrogen bond interactions to afford a supramolecular 3D network structure.The hybrid compound 1 was used as a bulk modifier to fabricate a three-dimensional chemically modified carbon paste electrode(1-CPE)by direct mixing.The electrochemical behavior and electrocatalysis of 1-CPE were studied in detail.The results indicate that 1-CPE has good electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of nitrite or bromate in 1mol/L H2SO4 aqueous solution.1-CPE shows remarkable stability that can be ascribed to the insolubility of compound 1 and the supramolecular interactions existed between 1D POM anion chains and organic ligand bpp,which is very important for practical applications in electrode modification.

  19. Development of a Hybrid Photopolymer for Stereolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    New liquid free radical-cationic hybrid photopolymer, consisting of acrylate-based photocurable resin and epoxy-based photosensitive resin for stereolithography by UV laser was developed.The experiment results indicated that the hybrid photopolymer exhibits advantages of both the acrylate- based photosensitive resin and the epoxy- based photosensitive polymer contained in the hybrid system with relatively high photospeed and low linear shrinkage.Stereolithography parts without obvious distortion were built on the stereolithography apparatus HRPLAI from this hybrid resin successfully and efficiently.

  20. Preparation and modification of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-containing hybrid monolithic capillary columns%含多面体低聚倍半硅氧烷杂化毛细管整体柱的制备及修饰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧俊杰; 林辉; 刘哲益; 张振宾; 董靖; 邹汉法

    2013-01-01

    Two kinds of hybrid monolithic capillary columns were prepared via free radical polymerization. First, the hybrid monolithic column was in situ fabricated by using two polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) , POSS-methacryl substituted ( cage mixture, n = 8 , 10, 12) (POSS-MA) and POSS-( 1-propylmethacrylate )-heptaisobutyl substituted ( Bu-POSS ) , as crosslinker and monomer, respectively, in the presence of porogenic solvents ( propanol/ PEG400) and initiator (azodisobutyronitrile). Second, the hybrid monolithic column was similarly prepared by using POSS-MA, as sole monomer under the same conditions. The resulting two kinds of hybrid monolithic columns, poly( Bu-POSS-co-POSS-MA) and poly ( POSS-MA) , were characterized and applied for the separation of alkylbenzenes by capillary liquid chroma-tography (cLC) , showing good mechanical stability and reproducibility. Additionally, the poly (POSS-MA) monolith could be easily modified with other organic monomers, such as stearyl methacrylate (SMA) and benzyl metacrylate (BeMA) , with the presence of methacryl groups on the surface of the poly( POSS-MA) monolith. Compared with the raw poly( POSS-MA) monolith, the post-modified poly (POSS-MA) monolith exhibited higher column efficiency and better selectivity. This simple process of using POSS reagents via free radical polymerization is providing a novel way for the preparation of the organic-silica hybrid monolithic columns.%本文采用自由基聚合法原位制备了两种杂化毛细管整体柱.首先以含有一个甲基丙烯酸基团的多面体低聚倍半硅氧烷(POSS)试剂(Bu-POSS)为单体、以含有多个甲基丙烯酸基团的POSS试剂(POSS-MA)为交联剂在二元致孔剂(正丙醇/聚乙二醇400)和引发剂(偶氮二异丁腈)存在下发生热引发聚合,在毛细管中形成聚(Bu-POSS-co-POSS-MA)杂化整体柱;另外仅以POSS-MA为单体在相同条件下制备聚(POSS-MA)杂化整体柱,并将这两种杂化整体柱应用于小

  1. Collapsing Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  2. Foldable container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusuma, G.; Herder, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a foldable container (1) having a bottom plate (2), upstanding long sidewalls (3) and upstanding short sidewalls (4) that are connected to the bottom plate with a hinge, and an optionally detachable roof (5), wherein at least one of the long sidewalls and short sidewalls and

  3. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  4. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  5. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  6. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  7. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  8. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  9. Effect of bone decalcification procedures on DNA in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization. EDTA is highly preferable to a routinely used acid decalcifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Alers (Janneke); P-J. Krijtenburg (Pieter-Jaap); K.J. Vissers (Kees); H. van Dekken (Herman)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDecalcification is routinely performed for histological studies of bone-containing tissue. Although DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have been successfully employed on archival material, little has been reported on

  10. Polyoxometalate (POM)-based, multi-functional, inorganic-organic, hybrid compounds: syntheses and molecular structures of silanol- and/or siloxane bond-containing species grafted on mono- and tri-lacunary Keggin POMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shotaro; Kurashina, Takayuki; Kasahara, Yuhki; Nishijima, Tadashi; Nomiya, Kenji

    2011-02-14

    Using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (HS(CH₂)₃Si(OMe)₃) as a silane-coupling agent (SCA), mono- and tri-lacunary Keggin polyoxometalate (POM)-based, multi-functional, inorganic-organic, hybrid compounds, (Et₄N)₃[α-PW₁₁O₃₉{(HS(CH₂)₃Si)₂O}] EtN-1 (the 1 : 2 complex of a POM unit and organosilyl groups), (Bu₄N)₃[A-PW₉O₃₄(HS(CH₂)₃SiOH)₃] BuN-2 (the 1 : 3 complex) and (Bu₄N)₃[A-α-PW₉O₃₄(HS(CH₂)₃SiO)₃(Si(CH₂)₃SH)] BuN-3 (the 1 : 4 complex) were synthesized and unequivocally characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), FTIR, solid-state (²⁹Si and ³¹P) CPMAS NMR, solution (²⁹Si, ³¹P, ¹H and ¹³C) NMR, and X-ray crystallography. [Note: The moieties of their polyoxoanions are abbreviated simply as 1-3, respectively.] The X-ray molecular structures of EtN-1 and BuN-3 were determined. In EtN-1, two organic groups connected through a siloxane bond (-Si-O-Si- bond) were grafted on a mono-lacunary site of a Keggin POM, whereas in BuN-3 four organic groups connected through siloxane bonds were grafted on a tri-lacunary site of a Keggin POM. In BuN-2, three organic groups were grafted in the form of silanol (-SiOH) on a tri-lacunary site, i.e., in BuN-2 there was no siloxane bond. BuN-3 was synthesized as BuN-3a and BuN-3b by two methods, respectively; (1) BuN-3a was obtained by a 1 : 1 molar-ratio reaction of BuN-2 and an SCA in CH₃CN, and (2) BuN-3b was prepared by a direct 1 : 4 molar-ratio reaction of a tri-lacunary Keggin POM and SCA in water-CH₃CN. X-Ray crystallography revealed that BuN-3a is the same as BuN-3b. It is probable that BuN-2 is an intermediate in the formation of BuN-3. Terminal -SH groups in 1-3, as well as -OH groups in 2, can be utilized for immobilization of POMs and, also, as building blocks for the formation of novel hybrid compounds.

  11. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  12. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  13. Double-hybrid density-functional theory made rigorous

    CERN Document Server

    Sharkas, Kamal; Savin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of a class of double-hybrid approximations, combining Hartree-Fock exchange and second-order Moller-Plesset correlation with a semilocal exchange-correlation density functional. These double-hybrid approximations contain only one empirical parameter and use a density-scaled correlation energy functional. Neglecting density scaling leads to an one-parameter version of the standard double-hybrid approximations. We assess the performance of these double-hybrid schemes on representative test sets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights, and we compare to other hybrid approximations, including range-separated hybrids. Our best one-parameter double-hybrid approximation, called 1DH-BLYP, roughly reproduces the two parameters of the standard B2-PLYP or B2GP-PLYP double-hybrid approximations, which shows that these methods are not only empirically close to an optimum for general chemical applications but are also theoretically supported.

  14. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  15. Hybrid percolation transition in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Byungnam

    Percolation has been one of the most applied statistical models. Percolation transition is one of the most robust continuous transitions known thus far. However, recent extensive researches reveal that it exhibits diverse types of phase transitions such as discontinuous and hybrid phase transitions. Here hybrid phase transition means the phase transition exhibiting natures of both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions simultaneously. Examples include k-core percolation, cascading failures in interdependent networks, synchronization, etc. Thus far, it is not manifest if the critical behavior of hybrid percolation transitions conforms to the conventional scaling laws of second-order phase transition. Here, we investigate the critical behaviors of hybrid percolation transitions in the cascading failure model in inter-dependent networks and the restricted Erdos-Renyi model. We find that the critical behaviors of the hybrid percolation transitions contain some features that cannot be described by the conventional theory of second-order percolation transitions.

  16. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  17. Complex hybrid inflation and baryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine, David; Martínez, Carlos; Ureña-López, L Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  18. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  19. Hybrid optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joshua W.

    Optofluidics, born of the desire to create a system containing microfluidic environments with integrated optical elements, has seen dramatic increases in popularity over the last 10 years. In particular, the application of this technology towards chip based molecular sensors has undergone significant development. The most sensitive of these biosensors interface liquid- and solid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). These sensor chips are created using conventional silicon microfabrication. As such, ARROW technology has previously been unable to utilize state-of-the-art microfluidic developments because the technology used--soft polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micromolded chips--is unamenable to the silicon microfabrication workflows implemented in the creation of ARROW detection chips. The original goal of this thesis was to employ hybrid integration, or the connection of independently designed and fabricated optofluidic and microfluidic chips, to create enhanced biosensors with the capability of processing and detecting biological samples on a single hybrid system. After successful demonstration of this paradigm, this work expanded into a new direction--direct integration of sensing and detection technologies on a new platform with dynamic, multi-dimensional photonic re-configurability. This thesis reports a number of firsts, including: • 1,000 fold optical transmission enhancement of ARROW optofluidic detection chips through thermal annealing, • Detection of single nucleic acids on a silicon-based ARROW chip, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and passive PDMS microfluidic chips, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and actively controllable PDMS microfluidic chips with integrated microvalves, • On-chip concentration and detection of clinical Ebola nucleic acids, • Multimode interference (MMI) waveguide based wavelength division multiplexing for detection of single influenza virions,

  20. Hybrid microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Substrates, particularly inert synthetic organic resin beads (10) or sheet (12) such as polystyrene are coated with a covalently bound layer (24) of polyacrolein by irradiation a solution (14) of acrolein or other aldehyde with high intensity radiation. Individual microspheres (22) are formed which attach to the surface to form the aldehyde containing layer (24). The aldehyde groups can be converted to other functional groups by reaction with materials such as hydroxylamine. Adducts of proteins such as antibodies or enzymes can be formed by direct reaction with the surface aldehyde groups.

  1. 改性硅炔树脂及其复合材料的耐热性能%Modification and Heat-Resistance of Hybrid Composite Containing Silicon and Acetylene Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 周权; 倪礼忠

    2012-01-01

    通过格氏试剂反应制得了改性硅炔杂化树脂(GMD)。采用DSC、TGA等分析方法研究了GMD的固化反应及耐热性能。结果表明:GMD固化物在氮气气氛下质量损失5%时的温度(Td。)为631℃,1000℃时的质量残留率为59%。所制备的玻璃纤维增强复合材料在常温下的弯曲强度为320MPa,在240℃的弯曲强度保留率高达90%,空气条件下经500℃处理7rain后,质量保留率仍达到99.7%。该复合材料的玻璃化温度大于400℃,具有优异的耐热性能、力学性能及介电性能。%The silicon-containing poly(arylaeetylene) resin (GMD) was synthesized by condensation reac- tion. The curing mechanism and heat resistance were studied with DSC and TGA. Results showed that the temperature of 5% mass loss (Tds) of the cured GMD was 631℃ in nitrogen. The residual of mass was 59% based on the initial mass at 1 000 ℃. The flexural strength at room temperature of the composite was 324 MPa and the retention rate of flexural strength was 90% at 240 ℃. After heat treated for 7 rain at 500℃ in air, the retain ratio of the composite was 99.7%. The composite of which Tg was more than 400 ℃ possessed excellent high temperature-resistance properties, excellent mechanical and dielectric properties.

  2. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  3. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  4. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  6. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  7. Hybridization and Selective Release of DNA Microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Baker, B; Piggott, T; Maberry, S; Hara, C M; DeOtte, J; Benett, W; Mukerjee, E; Dzenitis, J; Wheeler, E K

    2011-11-29

    DNA microarrays contain sequence specific probes arrayed in distinct spots numbering from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, depending on the platform. This tremendous degree of multiplexing gives microarrays great potential for environmental background sampling, broad-spectrum clinical monitoring, and continuous biological threat detection. In practice, their use in these applications is not common due to limited information content, long processing times, and high cost. The work focused on characterizing the phenomena of microarray hybridization and selective release that will allow these limitations to be addressed. This will revolutionize the ways that microarrays can be used for LLNL's Global Security missions. The goals of this project were two-fold: automated faster hybridizations and selective release of hybridized features. The first study area involves hybridization kinetics and mass-transfer effects. the standard hybridization protocol uses an overnight incubation to achieve the best possible signal for any sample type, as well as for convenience in manual processing. There is potential to significantly shorten this time based on better understanding and control of the rate-limiting processes and knowledge of the progress of the hybridization. In the hybridization work, a custom microarray flow cell was used to manipulate the chemical and thermal environment of the array and autonomously image the changes over time during hybridization. The second study area is selective release. Microarrays easily generate hybridization patterns and signatures, but there is still an unmet need for methodologies enabling rapid and selective analysis of these patterns and signatures. Detailed analysis of individual spots by subsequent sequencing could potentially yield significant information for rapidly mutating and emerging (or deliberately engineered) pathogens. In the selective release work, optical energy deposition with coherent light quickly provides the thermal energy

  8. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  9. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  10. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  11. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  12. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  13. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  14. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  15. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  16. Pulse detonation assembly and hybrid engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Adam (Inventor); Dean, Anthony John (Inventor); Vandervort, Christian Lee (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A pulse detonation (PD) assembly includes a number of PD chambers adapted to expel respective detonation product streams and a number of barriers disposed between respective pairs of PD chambers. The barriers define, at least in part, a number of sectors that contain at least one PD chamber. A hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and barriers. The hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly having at least one turbine stage, being in flow communication with the PD chambers and being configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams. A segmented hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and segments configured to receive and direct the detonation product streams from respective PD chambers. The segmented hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams.

  17. Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Koivisto, Tomi S; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the phenomenology of f(R) gravity has been scrutinized motivated by the possibility to account for the self-accelerated cosmic expansion without invoking dark energy sources. Besides, this kind of modified gravity is capable of addressing the dynamics of several self-gravitating systems alternatively to the presence of dark matter. It has been established that both metric and Palatini versions of these theories have interesting features but also manifest severe and different downsides. A hybrid combination of theories, containing elements from both these two formalisms, turns out to be also very successful accounting for the observed phenomenology and is able to avoid some drawbacks of the original approaches. This article reviews the formulation of this hybrid metric-Palatini approach and its main achievements in passing the local tests and in applications to astrophysical and cosmological scenarios, where it provides a unified approach to the problems of dark energy and dark matter.

  18. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  19. Hybridization characteristics of biomolecular adaptors, covalent DNA streptavidin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeyer, CM; Burger, W; Hoedemakers, RMJ

    1998-01-01

    Semisynthetic, covalent streptavidin-DNA adducts are versatile molecular connectors for the fabrication of both nano-and microstructured protein arrays by use of DNA hybridization. In this study, the hybridization characteristics of six adduct species, each containing a different DNA sequence of 21

  20. A Neuroblastoma × Glioma Hybrid Cell Line with Morphine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Werner A.; Nirenberg, Marshall

    1974-01-01

    A neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cell line with well-developed neural properties was found that has high-affinity morphine receptors. The average cell contains approximately 3 × 106 receptors. In contrast, parent cells and other neuroblastoma or hybrid cell lines tested had few or no morphine receptors. PMID:4530316

  1. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  2. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  3. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  4. Luminescent hybrid materials based on laponite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanrong; Li, Man; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-08-11

    The spectroscopic behavior of ionic Eu(3+) or Tb(3+) complexes of an aromatic carboxyl-functionalized organic salt as well as those of the hybrid materials derived from adsorption of the ionic complexes on Laponite clay are reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns suggest that the complexes are mainly adsorbed on the outer surfaces of the Laponite disks rather than intercalated within the interlayer spaces. Photophysical data showed that the energy-transfer efficiency from the ligand to Eu(3+) ions in the hybrid material is increased remarkably with respect to the corresponding ionic complex. The hybrid material containing the Eu(3+) complex shows bright red emission from the prominent (5) D0 →(7) F2 transition of Eu(3+) ions, and that containing the Tb(3+) complex exhibits bright green emission due to the dominant (5) D4 →(7) F5 transition of Tb(3+) ions.

  5. High performance carbon nanotube - polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S.; Bradford, Philip D.

    2015-10-01

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m-2 exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities.Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical

  6. Titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid film on 6061 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuanghong WANG; Lei WANG; Changsheng LIU

    2011-01-01

    Three titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid films were formed on AA6061 aluminum alloy by immersing in fluorotitanic acid and fluorozirconic acid based solution containing different phosphonic acids for protective coatings of aluminium alloy. The corrosion resistance of three hybrid films as the substitute for chromate film were evaluated and compared. The neutral salt spray test was explored,the immersion test was conducted and electrochemical test was also executed. The hybrid films exhibited well-pleasing corrosion resistance and adhesion to epoxy resin paints. It was found out that the hybrid films could efficiently be a substitute for chromate based primer over aluminium alloy.

  7. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendices B1-B4. [HYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    These four appendices to the report on the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) report contain information on: HYBRID computer program documentation; material substitution study for advanced hybrid vehicles; NTHV market potential; battery compartment weight distribution; and vehicle handling dynamics. (LCL)

  8. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  9. Hybrid proteins between Pseudomonas exotoxin A and poliovirus protease 2Apro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, I; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1994-11-21

    Two hybrid proteins between Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE) and poliovirus protease 2Apro have been generated. One hybrid protein contains the poliovirus 2Apro sequence replacing the region of PE corresponding to amino acids 413-607. The other hybrid contains in addition the transforming growth factor sequence. The two hybrid proteins were efficiently synthesized in E. coli cells using the inducible pET vectors. Both hybrid toxins cleaved p220 (eIF-4 gamma) when the recombinant plasmids were transfected in COS cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus bearing the T7 RNA polymerase gene.

  10. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  11. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  12. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  13. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  15. [Absence of heterosis in hybrid corn. Description of the effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalyk, S T

    2000-08-01

    Three unrelated homozygous maize lines, TS11, P22, and ST156, that produced hybrids in which heterosis was either absent or insignificant were identified. These hybrids were phenotypically similar to self-pollinated homozygous lines. Reciprocal crosses showed that the absence of heterosis is controlled by nuclear genes and is not associated with the cytoplasm of inbred lines. Analysis of F2 plants demonstrated that lines TS11, P22, and ST156 contained allelic genes determining the absence of heterosis in hybrid plants. Crosses of lines TS11, P22, and ST156 with a common selection line 092 generated hybrids with normal heterosis. It was concluded that heterozygosity or homozygosity of particular genes in lines TS11, P22, and ST156 play a pivotal role in the manifestation or the absence of hybrid vigor in hybrids.

  16. Hybrid Unifying Variable Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare new phenomenon of topology change,evolution,hybrid ratio and network characteristics of unified hybrid network theoretical model with unified hybrid supernetwork model,this paper constructed unified hybrid variable supernetwork model(HUVSM).The first layer introduces a hybrid ratio dr,the

  17. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  18. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems...

  19. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  20. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  1. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  2. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Wörterbuchform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Textsegmentklassen aufweisen (vgl. die Stichwörter.

    Stichwörter: ANGABERELATION, ELEMENTENHETEROGENE TRÄGERMENGE, FUNKTIONALER ANGABEZUSATZ, FUNKTIONAL-POSITIONALE SEGMENTATION, HIERARCHISCHE ARCHITEKTONISCH ANGEREICHERTE ARTIKELMIKROSTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE ANGABENKONSTITUENTENSTRUKTUR MIT GLOSSATBEDINGTER TEILSTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE ANGABENSTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE ARTIKELKONSTITUENTENSTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE ARTIKELMIKROSTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE EXHAUSTIVE ANGABENSTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE GLOSSATBEDINGTE ANGABESTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE FLACHE DOPPELGLOSSATBEDINGTE ANGABESTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE MINIMIERTE GLOSSATBEDINGTE ANGABESTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE TEXTKONSTITUENTENSTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE HYBRIDE TIEFE DOPPELGLOSSATBEDINGTE ANGABESTRUKTUR, HIERARCHISCHE REINE TEXTKONSTITUENTENSTRUKTUR, HYBRIDE VERWEISKENNZEICHNUNG, NICHTFUNKTIONALE-POSITIONALE SEGMENTATION, ORDNUNGSRELATION, SEGMENTATIVE ISOLIERUNG, VERTIKALE ANGABEARCHITEKTUR

     

    ABSTRACT: Hybrid textual structures and hybrid textual units. A contribution to the theory of dictionary structures. In this contribution, the formation, presentation and performance of hybrid textual structures that display accessible entries are discussed by using examples from dictionary articles. The features of hybrid textual units are also explained. A dictionary article in a printed dictionary always displays both a hierarchical pure and a hierarchical hybrid text constituent structure, when it contains at least one functional item addition, e.g. an upward- or downward- or an internally-expanded one. Because functional item additions are text segments with an item function but without text constituent status, they are enabled by means of non-functional segmentation, so that both functional and non-functional text segments prevail. During the formation of structures they then enter the structure-carrying set so that the structurecarrying set of all hybrid

  3. Third-strand in situ hybridization (TISH) to non-denatured metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M D; Fresco, J R

    1999-07-01

    A methodology has been developed for binding oligodeoxyribonucleotide 'third strands' to duplex DNA targets in fixed but not additionally denatured metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei under conditions found to be optimal in solution. Third-strand in situ hybridization (TISH) at pH 6.0 of a psoralen- and biotin-modified 16-nucleotide homopyrimidine third strand to a unique multicopy target sequence in human chromosome 17 alpha-satellite (D17Z1 locus) is described. UVA-photofixed third strands, rendered fluorescent by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled avidin, are reproducibly centromere-specific for chromosome 17, and visible without amplification of the signal in lymphocyte and somatic cell hybrid spreads and interphase nuclei. Two third-strand-specific D17Z1 haplotypes were identified. TISH has potential diagnostic, biochemical, and flow cytometric applicability to native metaphase and interphase chromatin.

  4. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroki; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  5. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Nakano

    Full Text Available Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  6. Hybrid modelling of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, A; Bernard, O; Genovesi, A; Dochain, D; Benhammou, A; Steyer, J P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for the modelling of an anaerobic digestion process. The hybrid model combines a feed-forward network, describing the bacterial kinetics, and the a priori knowledge based on the mass balances of the process components. We have considered an architecture which incorporates the neural network as a static model of unmeasured process parameters (kinetic growth rate) and an integrator for the dynamic representation of the process using a set of dynamic differential equations. The paper contains a description of the neural network component training procedure. The performance of this approach is illustrated with experimental data.

  7. Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Wei, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-12-15

    RFBs having solid hybrid electrodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption, electrode passivation, and metal electrode dendrite growth that can be characteristic of traditional batteries, especially those operating at high current densities. The RFBs each have a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a solution or contained in a suspension. The solution or suspension can flow from a reservoir to the first half cell. A second half cell contains the solid hybrid electrode, which has a first electrode connected to a second electrode, thereby resulting in an equipotential between the first and second electrodes. The first and second half cells are separated by a separator or membrane.

  8. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  9. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  10. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  11. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  12. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  13. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  14. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  15. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)

    2005-11-01

    o} from the long axis for approximately two-thirds of the laminate volume (discounting skin layers), with reinforcing carbon fibers oriented axially comprising the remaining one-third of the volume. Finite element analysis of each laminate has been performed to examine first ply failure. Three failure criteria--maximum stress, maximum strain, and Tsai-Wu--have been compared. Failure predicted by all three criteria proves generally conservative, with the stress-based criteria the most conservative. For laminates that respond nonlinearly to loading, large error is observed in the prediction of failure using maximum strain as the criterion. This report documents the methods and results in two volumes. Volume 1 contains descriptions of the laminates, their fabrication and testing, the methods of analysis, the results, and the conclusions and recommendations. Volume 2 contains a comprehensive summary of the individual test results for all laminates.

  16. High performance carbon nanotube--polymer nanofiber hybrid fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozkan; Stano, Kelly; Faraji, Shaghayegh; Stone, Corinne; Willis, Colin; Zhang, Xiangwu; Jur, Jesse S; Bradford, Philip D

    2015-10-28

    Stable nanoscale hybrid fabrics containing both polymer nanofibers and separate and distinct carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are highly desirable but very challenging to produce. Here, we report the first instance of such a hybrid fabric, which can be easily tailored to contain 0-100% millimeter long CNTs. The novel CNT - polymer hybrid nonwoven fabrics were created by simultaneously electrospinning nanofibers onto aligned CNT sheets which were drawn and collected on a grounded, rotating mandrel. Due to the unique properties of the CNTs, the hybrids show very high tensile strength, very small pore size, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity. In order to further examine the hybrid fabric properties, they were consolidated under pressure, and also calendered at 70 °C. After calendering, the fabric's strength increased by an order of magnitude due to increased interactions and intermingling with the CNTs. The hybrids are highly efficient as aerosol filters; consolidated hybrid fabrics with a thickness of 20 microns and areal density of only 8 g m(-2) exhibited ultra low particulate (ULPA) filter performance. The flexibility of this nanofabrication method allows for the use of many different polymer systems which provides the opportunity for engineering a wide range of nanoscale hybrid materials with desired functionalities.

  17. Simultaneous covalent and noncovalent hybrid polymerizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhilin; Tantakitti, Faifan; Yu, Tao; Palmer, Liam C.; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)

    2016-01-28

    Covalent and supramolecular polymers are two distinct forms of soft matter, composed of long chains of covalently and noncovalently linked structural units, respectively. We report a hybrid system formed by simultaneous covalent and supramolecular polymerizations of monomers. The process yields cylindrical fibers of uniform diameter that contain covalent and supramolecular compartments, a morphology not observed when the two polymers are formed independently. The covalent polymer has a rigid aromatic imine backbone with helicoidal conformation, and its alkylated peptide side chains are structurally identical to the monomer molecules of supramolecular polymers. In the hybrid system, covalent chains grow to higher average molar mass relative to chains formed via the same polymerization in the absence of a supramolecular compartment. The supramolecular compartments can be reversibly removed and re-formed to reconstitute the hybrid structure, suggesting soft materials with novel delivery or repair functions.

  18. Portraits of colloidal hybrid nanostructures: controlled synthesis and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic hybrid nanostructures containing two or more nanocomponents have been emerging in many areas of materials science in recent years. The particle-particle interactions in a hybrid particle system could significantly improve existing local electronic structure and induce tunable physiochemical responses. The current work reviews the diverse inorganic hybrid nanostructures formed by adhesion of the different single components via seed-mediated method. The hybrid nanomaterials have great potentials for real applications in many other fields. The nanohybrids have been used as efficient heterocatalysts for carbon monoxide conversion and photodegradation of organic contaminants. The enhanced catalytic activity of these hybrid nanocatalysts could be attributed the formation of oxygen vacancies and electron transfer across the structural junction in a hybrid system as a result of the interfacial particle-particle interactions. The synergistic combination of up-converting and semiconducting properties in an up-converting semiconducting hybrid particle results in appearance of sub-band-gap photoconductivity. This behavior has a great significance for the design of photovoltaic devices for effective solar energy conversion. The functionalization and subsequent bioconjugation of the hybrid nanostructures to afford the multifunctional nanomedical platforms for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy are reviewed. The conjugated multifunctional hybrid nanostructures exhibit high biocompatibility and highly selective binding with functional groups-fabricated alive organs through delivering them to the tumor sites. The clever combinations of multifunctional features and antibody conjugation within these vehicles make them to generally offer new opportunities for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.

  19. Analysis of chromosome aberration data by hybrid-scale models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indrawati, Iwiq [Research and Development on Radiation and Nuclear Biomedical Center, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia); Kumazawa, Shigeru [Nuclear Technology and Education Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Honkomagome, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing data of chromosome aberrations, which is useful to understand the characteristics of dose-response relationships and to construct the calibration curves for the biological dosimetry. The hybrid scale of linear and logarithmic scales brings a particular plotting paper, where the normal section paper, two types of semi-log papers and the log-log paper are continuously connected. The hybrid-hybrid plotting paper may contain nine kinds of linear relationships, and these are conveniently called hybrid scale models. One can systematically select the best-fit model among the nine models by among the conditions for a straight line of data points. A biological interpretation is possible with some hybrid-scale models. In this report, the hybrid scale models were applied to separately reported data on chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes as well as on chromosome breaks in Tradescantia. The results proved that the proposed models fit the data better than the linear-quadratic model, despite the demerit of the increased number of model parameters. We showed that the hybrid-hybrid model (both variables of dose and response using the hybrid scale) provides the best-fit straight lines to be used as the reliable and readable calibration curves of chromosome aberrations. (author)

  20. 酵母双杂交诱饵表达载体pGBKT7-cide-3的构建、鉴定以及毒性、自激活效应的检测%Construction, identification and transformation of "bait plasmid" containing human cide-3 gene in yeast two-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵婕; 李青; 马楠; 康艳霞; 李娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective;To construct a bait vector containing human cide -3 gene in yeast two -hybrid system in order to screen the human liver cDNA library. Methods; The fragment including all exons of cide -3 gene was amplified by RT-PCR and was inserted into the multiple cloning sites of the shuttle vector pGBKT7. After confirmation with restricted endonuclease digestion and sequence analysis,by using PEG/LiAC method,the plasmid pGBKT7 - cide -3 was transformed into yeast AH109. The plasmid and protein isolated from the positive yeast AH109 clone was tested its expression,toxicity and transcriptional activation. Results:The human cide -3 cDNA was amplified. The restrictive endonuclease digestion and DNA sequencing proved that the plasmid pGBKT7 - cide - 3 was obtained. The yeast AH109 clone transformed with pGBKT7 - cide - 3 was screened out by the SD/ - Trp nutritional media. Sequence analysis revealed that the fragment was correctly inserted into pGBKT7 with a right reading frame and its expression in yeast was verified. Conclusion; The bait plasmid pGBKT7 -cide -3 constructed expresses correctly,and can not activate the transcription of reporter gene alone in yeast two - hybrid system.%目的:构建并转化酵母双杂交体系中“诱饵”载体pGBKT7-cide-3以便用于人肝cDNA文库的筛选.方法:用RT-PCR方法从人肝细胞株QZG中扩增cide-3基因全外显子片段,并定向克隆入细菌-酵母穿梭表达质粒pGBKT7中;用PEG/LiAC法将pGBKT7-cide-3转化感受态酵母菌AH109.提取转化酵母菌的质粒DNA和总蛋白进行鉴定.同时检测表达产物对报告基因的激活作用及对酵母株AH109的毒性.结果:成功扩增出人cide-3 cDNA片段,限制性内切酶酶切和DNA测序证实获得正确的重组质粒pGBKT7-cide-3;获得可在色氨酸缺陷培养基(SD/-Trp)上生长含pGBKT7-cide-3的酵母菌克隆.鉴定表明pG-BKT7-cide-3已转化入酵母菌AH109,无自主激活报告基因的能力及对酵母的生长无毒性.结

  1. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  2. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  3. Hybrid Bloch Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  4. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  5. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  6. Vaccine engineering improved by hybrid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2004-08-01

    The term 'vaccination' describes the induction of protective immune responses against infectious diseases, but is also used to define antigen-specific forms of immunotherapy for allergy, cancer and autoimmunity. Successful vaccination requires either immune modulation or the induction of robust specific immunity to several disease-causing antigens. However, natural antigen sources may contain greatly varying amounts of these antigens and some of them may exhibit low immunogenicity. An approach for overcoming the latter problems has been developed for allergy vaccines recently. This approach is based on the genetic engineering of hybrid molecules, consisting of several major disease-eliciting antigens/epitopes. Such hybrid molecules can be built to include the most relevant epitopes of complex antigen sources. Moreover, fusion of different antigens in the form of hybrid molecules strongly increases their immunogenicity. The hybrid approach can also be used for the generation of mosaic antigens with altered immunological properties, which consist of re-shuffled antigen pieces. We exemplify the use of hybrid technology for the generation of new allergy vaccines and discuss its potential applicability for the development of vaccines for infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmunity.

  7. Evolution of a Laser Hybrid Welding Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.; Frostevarg, Jan; Ilar, Torbjörn; Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur

    Laser arc hybrid welding combines the advantages but also the complex physical mechanisms of gas metal arc welding and laser keyhole welding. From manifold mainly experimental but also theoretical research results a map with versatile functions was initiated for the first time. The purpose is to survey the overall context and to facilitate navigation to the various phenomena that are shown through case studies accompanied by theoretical explanations and guidelines for optimization. Though not complete, the map enables systematic and graphical navigation to relevant publications. Based on a fundamental structure of the map, which was decided early, it is inherently extendable in the future by adding existing and new knowledge, also from other research groups, enabling evolution. The fundament of the map structure comprises gouge thickness, joint type and metal grade, in coherence with product and weld designers' starting points. The next hierarchy level of the map offers options in the joint type as well as in hybrid welding techniques. The latter contains techniques like double-sided welding, pulse shaping management of the arc or laser, CMT arcs, tandem arcs, or remelting of undercuts. In addition to laser-arc hybrid welding, other hybrid laser techniques like multilayer hot-wire laser welding of narrow gaps or hybrid laser friction stir welding can be taken into account. At the other end of the hierarchy, the map offers via a database-like archive electronic navigation to research results like weld macrographs, high speed imaging or numerical simulation results of the welding process.

  8. Characteristics of fertile somatic hybrids of G. hirsutum L. and G. trilobum generated via protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X S; Chu, B J; Liu, R E; Sun, J; Brian, Joseph Jones; Wang, H Z; Shuijin, Zhu; Sun, Y Q

    2012-11-01

    Fertile somatic hybrids between tetraploid upland cotton G. hirsutum L. cv. Coker 312 and wild cotton G. trilobum were generated by symmetric electrofusion. Comparisons of morphology, combined with flow cytometric, RAPD, SRAP and AFLP analyses confirmed the hybrid nature of the regenerated plants. The hybrids differed morphologically from the parent plants. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the hybrids had DNA similar in amount to the total combined DNA content of the two parents, and the use of molecular markers revealed that the hybrids contained genomic fragments from both fusion parents, further indicating the hybrid nature of the regenerated plants. The stability of the morphological features of the hybrids was examined in following generations. The hexaploid fusion plants showed strong photosynthesis and a high expression level of some photosystem-related genes. Our results suggest that novel traits may be incorporated in cotton breeding programs through the production of somatic hybrids and the backcrossing of these plants with elite cultivars.

  9. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  10. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  11. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  12. Functional hybrid materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmi, Amir; Pietsch, Torsten; Mendoza, Cesar; Cheval, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper describes our group's achievements towards the development of multifunctional nanostructures via self-assembly of hybrid systems based on the block copolymer PS-b-P4VP and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs...

  13. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  14. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  15. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  16. Radiation sterilization of enzyme hybrids with biodegradable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2002-03-01

    Ionizing radiations, which have already been utilized for the sterilization of medical supplies as well as gas fumigation, should be the final candidate to decontaminate 'hybrid' biomaterials containing bio-active materials including enzymes because irradiation induces neither heat nor substances affecting the quality of the materials and our health. In order to check the feasibility of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays on these materials, we selected commercial proteases including papain and bromelain hybridized with commercial activated chitosan beads and demonstrated that these enzyme-hybrids suspended in water showed the significant radiation durability of more than twice as much as free enzyme solution at 25-kGy irradiation. Enhanced thermal and storage stability of the enzyme hybrids were not affected by the same dose level of irradiation, either, indicating that commercial irradiation sterilization method is applicable to enzyme hybrids without modification.

  17. Biological activities of cecropin B-thanatin hybrid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbiao, W; Baolong, N; Mengkui, X; Lihua, H; Weifeng, S; Zhiqi, M

    2005-12-01

    Ten kinds of hybrid peptides containing the N-terminal residues of cecropin B (CB) and C-terminal of thanatin (TH) were constructed and expressed as gluthathion S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins. Variants were screened for the better biological activity, which was paralleled with the degree of growth inhibition of the transformant cells. The hybrid CB-TH g was selected as the best one among those hybrids by in vivo monitoring method and was chemical synthesized for in vitro antimicrobial activity analysis. The hybrid peptide showed rescued activity against several test strains when compared with the truncated isoforms of TH, suggesting that the peptides with different structure and mechanism could be used as templates for hybrid peptides design.

  18. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  19. Hybrid Baryon Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2000-01-01

    We discuss whether a low-lying hybrid baryon should be defined as a three quark - gluon bound state or as three quarks moving on an excited adiabatic potential. We show that the latter definition becomes exact, not only for very heavy quarks, but also for specific dynamics. We review the literature on the signatures of hybrid baryons, with specific reference to strong hadronic decays, electromagnetic couplings, diffractive production and production in psi decay.

  20. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  1. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard...V. Peetz, and S. Wolf. The functional mockup interface for tool independent exchange of simulation models. In Proc. of the 8-th International

  2. High-resolution mapping of genotype-phenotype relationships in cridu chat syndrome using array comparative genomic hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Snijders, Antoine; Segraves, Richard; Zhang,Xiuqing; Niebuhr, Anita; Albertson, Donna; Yang, Huanming; Gray, Joe; Niebuhr, Erik; Bolund, Lars; Pinkel, Dan

    2007-07-03

    We have used array comparative genomic hybridization to map DNA copy-number changes in 94 patients with cri du chat syndrome who had been carefully evaluated for the presence of the characteristic cry, speech delay, facial dysmorphology, and level of mental retardation (MR). Most subjects had simple deletions involving 5p (67 terminal and 12 interstitial). Genotype-phenotype correlations localized the region associated with the cry to 1.5 Mb in distal 5p15.31, between bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing markers D5S2054 and D5S676; speech delay to 3.2 Mb in 5p15.32-15.33, between BACs containing D5S417 and D5S635; and the region associated with facial dysmorphology to 2.4 Mb in 5p15.2-15.31, between BACs containing D5S208 and D5S2887. These results overlap and refine those reported in previous publications. MR depended approximately on the 5p deletion size and location, but there were many cases in which the retardation was disproportionately severe, given the 5p deletion. All 15 of these cases, approximately two-thirds of the severely retarded patients, were found to have copy-number aberrations in addition to the 5p deletion. Restriction of consideration to patients with only 5p deletions clarified the effect of such deletions and suggested the presence of three regions, MRI-III, with differing effect on retardation. Deletions including MRI, a 1.2-Mb region overlapping the previously defined cri du chat critical region but not including MRII and MRIII, produced a moderate level of retardation. Deletions restricted to MRII, located just proximal to MRI, produced a milder level of retardation, whereas deletions restricted to the still-more proximal MRIII produced no discernible phenotype. However, MR increased as deletions that included MRI extended progressively into MRII and MRIII, and MR became profound when all three regions were deleted.

  3. Formation of diploid and triploid hybrid groupers (hybridization of Epinephelus coioides ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) and their 5S gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Qin, Qinbo; Yang, Huirong; Li, Shuisheng; Hu, Chaoqun; Wang, Yude; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Shaojun; Lin, Haoran

    2016-10-07

    Interspecies hybridization is widely used to achieve heterosis or hybrid vigor, which has been observed and harnessed by breeders for centuries. Natural allopolyploid hybrids generally exhibit more superior heterosis than both the diploid progenies and their parental species. However, polyploid formation processes have been long ignored, the genetic basis of heterosis in polyploids remains elusive. In the present study, triploid hybrids had been demonstrated to contain two sets of chromosomes from mother species and one set from father species. Cellular polyploidization process in the embryos had been traced. The triploid hybrids might be formed by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the second meiosis stage. Four spindle centers were observed in anaphase stage of the first cell division. Three spindle centers were observed in side of cell plate after the first cell division. The 5S rDNA genes of four types of groupers were cloned and analyzed. The diploid and triploid hybrids had been proved to contain the tandem chimera structures which were recombined by maternal and paternal monomer units. The results indicated that genome re-fusion had occurred in the hybrid progenies. To further elucidate the genetic patterns of diploid and triploid hybrids, fluorescence chromosome location had been carried out, maternal 5S gene (M-386) were used as the probe. The triploid hybrids contained fewer fluorescence loci numbers than the maternal species. The results indicated that participation of paternal 5S gene in the triploid hybrid genome had degraded the match rates of M-386 probe. Our study is the first to investigate the cellular formation processes of natural allopolyploids in hybrid fish, the cellular polyploidization process may be caused by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the meiosis, and our results will provide the molecular basis of hybrid vigor in interspecies hybridization.

  4. Heavy Hybrids: decay to and mixing with Heavy Quarkonium

    CERN Document Server

    Oncala, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    We report on a recent QCD based research on hybrid mesons containing $c\\bar c$ or $b\\bar b$ quarks. We present results for the spectrum, the decay widths to heavy quarkonium, and the role of mixing with the latter. We point out that mixing with heavy quarkonium provides a potentially large source of spin symmetry breaking. We identify candidates to hybrid mesons among the so called XYZ states in the charmonium and bottomonium spectrum.

  5. Stabilization of composition fluctuations in mixed membranes by hybrid lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Samuel; Palmieri, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    A ternary mixture model is proposed to describe composition fluctuations in mixed membranes composed of saturated, unsaturated and hybrid lipids. The asymmetric hybrid lipid has one saturated and one unsaturated hydrocarbon chain and it can reduce the packing incompatibility between saturated and unsaturated lipids. A methodology to recast the free-energy of the lattice in terms of a continuous isotropic field theory is proposed and used to analyze composition fluctuations above the critical temperature. The effect of hybrid lipids on fluctuations domains rich in saturated/unsaturated lipids is predicted. The correlation length of such fluctuations decreases significantly with increasing amounts of hybrids even if the temperature is maintained close to the critical temperature. This provides an upper bound for the domain sizes expected in rafts stabilized by hybrids, above the critical temperature. When the hybrid composition of the membrane is increased further, a crossover value is found above which ``stripe-like'' fluctuations are observed. The wavelength of these fluctuations decreases with increasing hybrid fraction and tends toward a molecular size in a membrane that contains only hybrids.

  6. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  7. Some durability aspects of hybrid alkaline cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatello S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blended cements that contain a high content of fly ash and a low content of Portland cement typically suffer from low early strength development and long setting times. Recently, one method of overcoming these problems has been to use an alkali activator to enhance the reactivity of fly ash particles at early ages. Such cements can be grouped under the generic term “hybrid alkaline cements”, where both cement clinker and fly ash, encouraged by the presence of alkalis, are expected to contribute to cementitious gel formation. The work presented here examines some of the durability aspects of high fly ash content hybrid alkaline cement. Specifically, the aspects investigated were: exposure at high temperatures (up to 1000°C, resistance to immersion in aggressive solutions and susceptibility to the alkali aggregate reaction. All tests were repeated with a commercially available sulfate resistant Portland cement for comparison. When exposed to high temperatures, the hybrid alkaline cement showed strikingly different behaviour compared to the control Portland cement, showing fewer micro-cracks and maintaining residual compressive strengths at least equal to original strengths. Beyond 700°C, the hybrid alkaline cement began to sinter, which resulted in shrinkage of around 5% and a 100% increase in residual compressive strengths. No such sintering event was noted in the control Portland cement, which showed a drastic loss in residual compressive strengths upon heating. In immersion tests, the hybrid alkaline cement possessed excellent resistance to sulfate and seawater attack, similar to the control sulfate resistant cement. Both cements were however severely degraded by immersion in 0.1M HCl for 90 days. Both binders complied with the accelerated alkali-aggregate test but when this test was extended, the hybrid alkaline binder showed much greater dimensional stability. Possible reasons for the differences in durability behaviour in both cements

  8. Generic Fortran Containers (GFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The Fortran language does not provide a standard library that implements generic containers, like linked lists, trees, dictionaries, etc. The GFC software provides an implementation of generic Fortran containers natively written in Fortran 2003/2008 language. The following containers are either already implemented or planned: Stack (done), Linked list (done), Tree (done), Dictionary (done), Queue (planned), Priority queue (planned).

  9. The Hybrids of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BĂDULESCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization is a fundamental characteristic of postmodernism, included by Ihab Hassan in his “catena” of features. This paper looks into the hybrids of postmodernism, which are the result of migration, displacement and uprooting, the re-visitation of myths, folklore and legends, or projections of their author’s imagination. The hybrids used as examples here are drawn from several novels written by Salman Rushdie, especially The Satanic Verses, two short stories, one by Márquez and the other by Donald Barthelme, Borges’s Book of Imaginary Beings, Cărtărescu’s Encyclopaedia of Dragons and Michelle Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven. Diverse as they may be, these hybrids emphasize a defining characteristic of postmodernism, which is its pluralism. I conclude that the hybrids of postmodernism are aesthetically or politically subversive. Besides, what makes them difficult to grasp is their unfixed and protean nature. They ask for high leaps of the imagination, a total suspension of disbelief and a complete surrender to the powerful seduction of imagination on the reader’s part.

  10. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  11. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  12. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  13. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  14. Porosity in hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.W.; Beaucage, G.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Multicomponent, or hybrid composites are emerging as precursors to porous materials. Sacrifice of an ephemeral phase can be used to generate porosity, the nature of which depends on precursor structure. Retention of an organic constituent, on the other hand, can add desirable toughness to an otherwise brittle ceramic. We use small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering to examine porosity in both simple and hybrid materials. We find that microphase separation controls porosity in almost all systems studied. Pore distributions are controlled by the detailed bonding within and between phases as well as the flexibility of polymeric constituents. Thus hybridization opens new regions of pore distributions not available in simple systems. We look at several sacrificial concepts and show that it is possible to generate multimodal pore size distributions due to the complicated phase structure in the precursor.

  15. Photoproduction of Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, T

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution I discuss prospects for photoproducing hybrid mesons at CEBAF, based on recent model results and experimental indications of possible hybrids. One excellent opportunity appears to be a search for the I=1, JPC=2+-, neutral "(b2)o" hybrid in (a2 pi)o through diffractive photoproduction. Other notable possibilities accessible through pi+ or pio exchange photoproduction are I=1, JPC=1-+, charged "pi1+" in f1 pi+, (b1 pi)+ and (rho pi)+; piJ(1770)+ in f2 pi+ and (b1 pi)+; pi(1800)+ in f0 pi+, f2 pi+, omega rho+ and (rho pi)+; a1 in f1 pi+ and f2 pi+; and omega in (rho pi)o, omega eta and (K1 K)o.

  16. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  17. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  18. Hybrid Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Luo, Xi; Dai, Xi; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    We construct a tight-binding model realizing one pair of Weyl nodes and three distinct Weyl semimetals. In the type-I (type-II) Weyl semimetal, both nodes belong to type-I (type-II) Weyl nodes. In addition, there exists a third type, previously undiscovered and dubbed "hybrid Weyl semimetal", in which one Weyl node is of type I while the other is of type II. For the hybrid Weyl semimetal, we further demonstrate the bulk Fermi surfaces and the topologically protected surface states, analyze the unique Landau-level structure and quantum oscillation, and discuss the conditions for possible material realization.

  19. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  20. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  1. THERMALLY CLEAVABLE HYBRID MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gaina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermally cleavable hybrid materials were prepared by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of poly(vinyl furfural to N phenylmaleimido-N’-(triethoxysilylpropylurea followed by the sol-gel condensation reaction of trietoxysilyl groups with water and acetic acid. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis, dielectric and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The size of the inorganic silica particles in the hybrid material varied dependent on the silica content. The DSC study of the prepared materials revealed that the cleavage process of the formed cycloadducts takes place at temperatures varying between 143-165°C and is an endothermic process.

  2. The hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has 2 engines, its main purpose being to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a typical hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI is also composed of 2 BCIs or at least one BCI and another system. Such a hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfil the following four criteria: (i the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii real time processing; and (iv the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces some hybrid BCIs which have already been published or are currently in development or validation, and some concepts for future work. The BCIs described classify 2 EEG patterns: One is the event-related (desynchronisation (ERD, ERS of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. The hybrid BCI can either have more than one input whereby the inputs are typically processed simultaneously or operate 2 systems sequentially, whereby the first system can act as a “brain switch”. In the case of self-paced operation of a SSVEP-based hand orthosis control with an motor imagery-based switch it was possible to reduce the rate of false positives during resting periods by about 50% compared to the SSVEP BCI alone. It is shown that such a brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Another interesting approach is a hybrid BCI with simultaneous operations of ERD- and SSVEP-based BCIs. Here it is important to prove the existing promising offline simulation results with online experiments. Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and another input. Such an additional input can be a physiological signal like the heart rate but also a signal from an external device like, an eye gaze control system.

  3. [Opening medicine containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-09

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients.

  4. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  5. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  6. Design, synthesis and in vitro antimalarial evaluation of triazole-linked chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guantai, Eric M; Ncokazi, Kanyile; Egan, Timothy J; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Smith, Peter J; Chibale, Kelly

    2010-12-01

    A targeted series of chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds containing aminoquinoline and nucleoside templates was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antimalarial activity. The Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes was applied as the hybridization strategy. Several chalcone-chloroquinoline hybrid compounds were found to be notably active, with compound 8b the most active, exhibiting submicromolar IC(50) values against the D10, Dd2 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum.

  7. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  8. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  9. (Hybrid) Baryons Symmetries and Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and construct the flavour, spin and J^P of hybrid baryons from the symmetries of the system. The lowest mass hybrid baryon is estimated at approximately 2 GeV.

  10. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  11. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  12. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een s

  13. Organics go hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; Petrozza, Annamaria; Caironi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    From displays to solar cells, the field of organic optoelectronics has come a long way over the past 50 years, but the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser remains elusive. The answer may lie with hybrid organic-inorganic materials called perovskites.

  14. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational powe...

  15. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  16. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  17. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  18. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  19. Limited proteolysis of Hansenula polymorpha yeast amine oxidase: isolation of a C-terminal fragment containing both a copper and quino-cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastino, J; Klinman, J P

    1995-09-11

    Limited proteolysis of recombinant Hansenula polymorpha yeast amino oxidase produces a 48 kDa fragment which corresponds to the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein. The fragment contains both TOPA (2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine) and copper, as well as the histidine ligands implicated in copper binding. The fragment is proposed to be the domain responsible for cofactor production in yeast amine oxidase.

  20. Hybrid ventilation systems. Principles, design and calculation, case studies. Final report; Hybride Lueftungssysteme. Prinzipien, Planung und Berechnung, Beispiele. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, R.; Roloff, J. [and others

    2003-09-01

    This report contains the most important information achieved within the IEA-ECBCS project Annex 35 of the national and international level. The first chapters are a translation of the main parts of the international final report 'Principles of Hybrid Ventilation' (ed. Per Heiselberg). The international report including a CD-ROM is enclosed in this report. Based on a definition of hybrid ventilation it is motivated why to deal with hybrid ventilation. The explanations are underlined by precise data of the investigated case studies. The variety of solutions with hybrid ventilation is large, but there are three main principles, natural and mechanical ventilation, fan-assisted natural ventilation, stack- and wind-assisted mechanical ventilation. A hybrid ventilation systems is most suitable to implement if this idea is taken into account in the early design phases. Therefore decision tools are compiled to make it clear whether a hybrid ventilation concept could be successful under the given conditions or not. Moreover, important aspects of control strategies are summarized, which are crucial for an optimal operation of a hybrid ventilation system. If there is an option for installing a hybrid ventilation system it is necessary to carry out calculations and evaluations during the design phases. The available tools are presented and classified. Beside the substantial data of the case studies of the international project partners the national studies are presented in detail. These are the investigation of an existing hybrid ventilation system in the school building 'Bertolt-Brecht-Gymnasium', Dresden and the development of an innovative hybrid ventilation system at the Fraunhofer-Institute of Building Physics in Holzkirchen. (orig.)

  1. Synthesizing topological structures containing RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Shao, Yaming; Chen, Gang; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching; Piccirilli, Joseph A.; Weizmann, Yossi

    2017-03-01

    Though knotting and entanglement have been observed in DNA and proteins, their existence in RNA remains an enigma. Synthetic RNA topological structures are significant for understanding the physical and biological properties pertaining to RNA topology, and these properties in turn could facilitate identifying naturally occurring topologically nontrivial RNA molecules. Here we show that topological structures containing single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) free of strong base pairing interactions can be created either by configuring RNA-DNA hybrid four-way junctions or by template-directed synthesis with a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) topological structure. By using a constructed ssRNA knot as a highly sensitive topological probe, we find that Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I has low RNA topoisomerase activity and that the R173A point mutation abolishes the unknotting activity for ssRNA, but not for ssDNA. Furthermore, we discover the topological inhibition of reverse transcription (RT) and obtain different RT-PCR patterns for an ssRNA knot and circle of the same sequence.

  2. ROMP Synthesis of Iron-Containing Organometallic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragutan, Ileana; Dragutan, Valerian; Filip, Petru; Simionescu, Bogdan C; Demonceau, Albert

    2016-02-06

    The paper overviews iron-containing polymers prepared by controlled "living" ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Developments in the design and synthesis of this class of organometallic polymers are highlighted, pinpointing methodologies and newest trends in advanced applications of hybrid materials based on polymers functionalized with iron motifs.

  3. Genetic architecture of nonadditive inheritance in Arabidopsis thaliana hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Danelle K; Chae, Eunyoung; Grimm, Dominik G; Martín Pizarro, Carmen; Habring-Müller, Anette; Vasseur, François; Rakitsch, Barbara; Borgwardt, Karsten M; Koenig, Daniel; Weigel, Detlef

    2016-11-15

    The ubiquity of nonparental hybrid phenotypes, such as hybrid vigor and hybrid inferiority, has interested biologists for over a century and is of considerable agricultural importance. Although examples of both phenomena have been subject to intense investigation, no general model for the molecular basis of nonadditive genetic variance has emerged, and prediction of hybrid phenotypes from parental information continues to be a challenge. Here we explore the genetics of hybrid phenotype in 435 Arabidopsis thaliana individuals derived from intercrosses of 30 parents in a half diallel mating scheme. We find that nonadditive genetic effects are a major component of genetic variation in this population and that the genetic basis of hybrid phenotype can be mapped using genome-wide association (GWA) techniques. Significant loci together can explain as much as 20% of phenotypic variation in the surveyed population and include examples that have both classical dominant and overdominant effects. One candidate region inherited dominantly in the half diallel contains the gene for the MADS-box transcription factor AGAMOUS-LIKE 50 (AGL50), which we show directly to alter flowering time in the predicted manner. Our study not only illustrates the promise of GWA approaches to dissect the genetic architecture underpinning hybrid performance but also demonstrates the contribution of classical dominance to genetic variance.

  4. Container Monitoring Device (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.; Ruijsbroek, W.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Stage Gate 11 is een bedrijf dat technologische innovaties naar de markt brengt. De drie ondernemers hebben een nieuw product ontwikkeld, de Container Monitoring Device, een product dat stalen containers ‘smart’ maakt door er allerlei sensoren aan te koppelen. Maar waar ligt precies de toegevoegde w

  5. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relation with the Host States

    2001-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

  6. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  7. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  8. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  9. Origin of African Physacanthus (Acanthaceae via wide hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Tripp

    Full Text Available Gene flow between closely related species is a frequent phenomenon that is known to play important roles in organismal evolution. Less clear, however, is the importance of hybridization between distant relatives. We present molecular and morphological evidence that support origin of the plant genus Physacanthus via "wide hybridization" between members of two distantly related lineages in the large family Acanthaceae. These two lineages are well characterized by very different morphologies yet, remarkably, Physacanthus shares features of both. Chloroplast sequences from six loci indicate that all three species of Physacanthus contain haplotypes from both lineages, suggesting that heteroplasmy likely predated speciation in the genus. Although heteroplasmy is thought to be unstable and thus transient, multiple haplotypes have been maintained through time in Physacanthus. The most likely scenario to explain these data is that Physacanthus originated via an ancient hybridization event that involved phylogenetically distant parents. This wide hybridization has resulted in the establishment of an independently evolving clade of flowering plants.

  10. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Characterization of Hybrid CNT Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Pressley, James; Sauti, Godfrey; Czabaj, Michael W.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied extensively since their discovery and demonstrated at the nanoscale superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties in comparison to micro and macro scale properties of conventional engineering materials. This combination of properties suggests their potential to enhance multi-functionality of composites in regions of primary structures on aerospace vehicles where lightweight materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity are desirable. In this study, hybrid multifunctional polymer matrix composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets into Hexcel® IM7/8552 prepreg, a well-characterized toughened epoxy carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The resin content of these interleaved CNT sheets, as well as ply stacking location were varied to determine the effects on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance of the composites. The direct-current electrical conductivity of the hybrid CNT composites was characterized by in-line and Montgomery four-probe methods. For [0](sub 20) laminates containing a single layer of CNT sheet between each ply of IM7/8552, in-plane electrical conductivity of the hybrid laminate increased significantly, while in-plane thermal conductivity increased only slightly in comparison to the control IM7/8552 laminates. Photo-microscopy and short beam shear (SBS) strength tests were used to characterize the consolidation quality of the fabricated laminates. Hybrid panels fabricated without any pretreatment of the CNT sheets resulted in a SBS strength reduction of 70 percent. Aligning the tubes and pre-infusing the CNT sheets with resin significantly improved the SBS strength of the hybrid composite To determine the cause of this performance reduction, Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the CNT sheet to CFRP interface was characterized by double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) testing, respectively. Results are compared to the

  12. Novel hybrid polymeric materials for barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, Erin Christine

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites, described as the inclusion of nanometer-sized layered silicates into polymeric materials, have been widely researched due to significant enhancements in material properties with the incorporation of small levels of filler (1--5 wt.%) compared to conventional micro- and macro-composites (20--30 wt.%). One of the most promising applications for polymer-clay nanocomposites is in the field of barrier coatings. The development of UV-curable polymer-clay nanocomposite barrier coatings was explored by employing a novel in situ preparation technique. Unsaturated polyesters were synthesized in the presence of organomodified clays by in situ intercalative polymerization to create highly dispersed clays in a precursor resin. The resulting clay-containing polyesters were crosslinked via UV-irradiation using donor-acceptor chemistry to create polymer-clay nanocomposites which exhibited significantly enhanced barrier properties compared to alternative clay dispersion techniques. The impact of the quaternary alkylammonium organic modifiers, used to increase compatibility between the inorganic clay and organic polymer, was studied to explore influence of the organic modifier structure on the nanocomposite material properties. By incorporating just the organic modifiers, no layered silicates, into the polyester resins, reductions in film mechanical and thermal properties were observed, a strong indicator of film plasticization. An alternative in situ preparation method was explored to further increase the dispersion of organomodified clay within the precursor polyester resins. In stark contrast to traditional in situ polymerization methods, a novel "reverse" in situ preparation method was developed, where unmodified montmorillonite clay was added during polyesterification to a reaction mixture containing the alkylammonium organic modifier. The resulting nanocomposite films exhibited reduced water vapor permeability and increased mechanical properties

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  14. Hybrid ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: report of a case and review of hybrid variations in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Manabu; Maruyama, Satoshi; Abé, Tatsuya; Babkair, Hamzah; Fujita, Hajime; Takagi, Ritsuo; Koyama, Jun-Ichi; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Hybrid odontogenic tumors including 2 or more different histologic types have been documented, but their occurrences are not very common. We present a case of hybrid odontogenic tumor composed of ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) arising in the mandibular molar region of a 31-year-old Japanese woman who had a history of familial adenomatous polyposis. The tumor, measuring 10 mm in diameter, was surgically removed from the alveolar bone. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of both follicular and plexiform types of ameloblastoma in which multiple and smaller foci of AOT were intermingled. There have been 3 reported cases of hybrid ameloblastoma and AOT, all of which presented unicystic types as ameloblastoma components. This, however, is the first report of a hybrid tumor containing an authentic solid-type ameloblastoma compartment and an AOT compartment in a patient with a background of familial adenomatous polyposis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lanthanide-containing polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation of a variety of lanthanide-containing polyimide films is described, and results of their characterization are presented. The properties investigated include the glass transition temperature, thermooxidative stability, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity of the polymer. Films containing lanthanide chlorides, fluorides, and sulfides are flexible, but those containing lanthanide nitrates are extremely brittle. The addition of lanthanide acetates and acetylacetonates caused immediate gelation of two of the synthesis-mixture ingredients. It was found that, in general, the addition of lanthanide to the polyimide increases the density and glass transition temperature of the polymer but slightly decreases the thermooxidative stability.

  16. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  17. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  18. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  19. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  20. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  1. Improved performance of students instructed in a hybrid PBL format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiqin; He, Fengtian

    2013-01-01

    As a result of enrollment expansion, increasing numbers of students are entering into medical school in China. This combined with a shortage of teachers, means that the learning environment typically consists of a large classroom setting with traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) as the major mode to teaching and learning. In this article, we investigate the preferences for hybrid problem-based learning (hybrid-PBL) or LBL in a large classroom setting. Two hundred five second-year undergraduate students in Third Military Medical University were randomly divided to two groups. The hybrid-PBL group contained 101 students and was taught by hybrid LBL (60%) and tutor-less PBL(40%) in a large classroom. The LBL group consisted of 104 students and was taught by LBL in a large classroom too. Post-teaching performance was assessed by multiple choice questions, short-essay questions, and case-analysis questions, while the students' teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed by questionnaires. Analysis of the results of both groups in the examination of biochemistry revealed significantly higher scores on short-essay questions and case-analysis questions in the hybrid-PBL group. Students considered hybrid-PBL to be an effective learning method and favored it over the lecture format. Furthermore, students reported positive effects of hybrid-PBL in terms of additional learning resources, critical thinking, and fun learning experiences. These results suggest that hybrid-PBL is better than the traditional LBL method at improving students' basic knowledge and problem-solving skills. Students preferred hybrid-PBL and were satisfied with it. The tutor-less PBL pattern in a large classroom setting may be feasible in Chinese medical schools. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Time course of programmed cell death, which included autophagic features, in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Naoya; Nihei, Saori; Miyakawa, Naoto; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Marubashi, Wataru; van Doorn, Wouter G; Yamada, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    PCD with features of vacuolar cell death including autophagy-related features were detected in hybrid tobacco cells, and detailed time course of features of vacuolar cell death were established. A type of interspecific Nicotiana hybrid, Nicotiana suaveolens × N. tabacum exhibits temperature-sensitive lethality. This lethality results from programmed cell death (PCD) in hybrid seedlings, but this PCD occurs only in seedlings and suspension-cultured cells grown at 28 °C, not those grown at 36 °C. Plant PCD can be classified as vacuolar cell death or necrotic cell death. Induction of autophagy, vacuolar membrane collapse and actin disorganization are each known features of vacuolar cell death, but observed cases of PCD showing all these features simultaneously are rare. In this study, these features of vacuolar cell death were evident in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality. Ion leakage, plasma membrane disruption, increased activity of vacuolar processing enzyme, vacuolar membrane collapse, and formation of punctate F-actin foci were each evident in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that macroautophagic structures formed and tonoplasts ruptured in these cells. The number of cells that contained monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-stained structures and the abundance of nine autophagy-related gene transcripts increased just before cell death at 28 °C; these features were not evident at 36 °C. We assessed whether an autophagic inhibitor, wortmannin (WM), influenced lethality in hybrid cells. After the hybrid cell began to die, WM suppressed increases in ion leakage and cell deaths, and it decreased the number of cells containing MDC-stained structures. These results showed that several features indicative of autophagy and vacuolar cell death were evident in the hybrid tobacco cells subject to lethality. In addition, we documented a detailed time course of these vacuolar cell death features.

  3. A Pseudoscalar Hybrid Meson?

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    New experimental information on the non--exotic J^{PC} = 0^{-+} isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux--tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  4. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  5. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  6. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  7. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  8. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  9. Lightweight flywheel containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James R.

    2004-06-29

    A lightweight flywheel containment composed of a combination of layers of various material which absorb the energy of a flywheel structural failure. The various layers of material act as a vacuum barrier, momentum spreader, energy absorber, and reaction plate. The flywheel containment structure has been experimentally demonstrated to contain carbon fiber fragments with a velocity of 1,000 m/s and has an aerial density of less than 6.5 g/square centimeters. The flywheel containment, may for example, be composed of an inner high toughness structural layer, and energy absorbing layer, and an outer support layer. Optionally, a layer of impedance matching material may be utilized intermediate the flywheel rotor and the inner high toughness layer.

  10. Regular Expression Containment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    We present a new sound and complete axiomatization of regular expression containment. It consists of the conventional axiomatiza- tion of concatenation, alternation, empty set and (the singleton set containing) the empty string as an idempotent semiring, the fixed- point rule E* = 1 + E × E......* for Kleene-star, and a general coin- duction rule as the only additional rule. Our axiomatization gives rise to a natural computational inter- pretation of regular expressions as simple types that represent parse trees, and of containment proofs as coercions. This gives the axiom- atization a Curry......-Howard-style constructive interpretation: Con- tainment proofs do not only certify a language-theoretic contain- ment, but, under our computational interpretation, constructively transform a membership proof of a string in one regular expres- sion into a membership proof of the same string in another regular expression. We...

  11. Isothermal Containment Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Isothermal Containment Modules are the temperature-controlling carrier that BioServe built to carry Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) and in the future, Space Automated Bioproduct Lab (SABL) to the International Space Station.

  12. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...

  13. complexes containing isocyanide and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR. S. O. OWALUDE

    Synthesis of new ruthenium(II) complexes containing isocyanide and labile nitrile ligands. Owalude,* S. O. ... both compounds has distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Key words: Nitrile ... commercial product from Acros Organics. All.

  14. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations avec les Pays hôtes

    2000-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152

  15. Container System Hardware, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) ................................ 27 Shipping Fram e, 4’ x 62/3’ x 8...Objective. NSNs 8115-01-194-4017 (old) 8115-01-354-0797 (new) Part I - Containers 25 Equipment Deployment and Storage System ( EDSS ) 26 Part I...Containers Equipment Deployment 0* ad Storage System ( EDSS ) POINTQ OCNTACT: Mr oUn 1le US Army Evor:RD&E-*Center,* SATBE-r-MR:Port Belvifr, VA 22o060-5606

  16. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  17. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1) It takes into account the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2) For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, the hybrid auction can result in significantly higher revenue. 3) An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's es...

  18. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  19. Hybrid surface structures for efficiency enhancement of fluorescent SiC for white LED application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Xiong, Meng; Lu, Weifang

    Hybrid structures contain structures in both micro- and nano-meter scale have been fabricated on fluorescent SiC by applying a fast fabrication method. Luminescence efficiency of f-SiC was enhanced significantly compared with normal nanostructures....

  20. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. An improved method for producing radiation hybrids applied to human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    At the initiation of the grant we had just produced radiation hybrids from a monochromosomal microcell hybrid containing human chromosome 19 as its only human component. Radiation hybrids were produced using doses of radiation ranging from 1000--8000 rads. Lethally irradiated cells were then fused to hamster recipients (CHTG49) and selected for growth in histidinol. Approximately 240 clones were isolated and 75 clones were expanded for the isolation of DNA. This report describes in situ hybridization studies and the introduction of markers into human chromosome 19.

  2. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 3. Appendices. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A design study for a central receiver/fossil fuel hybrid power system using molten salts for heat transfer and heat storage is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (A) parametric salt piping data; (B) sample heat exchanger calculations; (C) salt chemistry and salt/materials compatibility evaluation; (D) heliostat field coordinates; (E) data lists; (F) STEAEC program input data; (G) hybrid receiver design drawings; (H) hybrid receiver absorber tube thermal math model; (I) piping stress analysis; (J) 100-MWe 18-hour storage solar central receiver hybrid power system capital cost worksheets; and (K) 500-MWe 18-hour solar central receiver hybrid power system cost breakdown. (WHK)

  3. Supernumerary ring chromosome 20 characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langen, Irene M.; Otter, Mariëlle A.; Aronson, Daniël C.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W.C.G.; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; Leschot, Nico J.; Hoovers, Jan M.N.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a boy with mild dysmorphic features and developmental delay, in whom karyotyping showed an additional minute ring chromosome in 60% of metaphases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromere specific probe demonstrated that the ring chromosome contained the centromeric r

  4. Design of Hybrid Solid Polymer Electrolytes: Structure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Lyudmila M.; Karlinsey, Robert L.; Ritter, Kyle; Joo, Chan Gyu; Stein, Barry; Zwanziger, Josef W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports synthesis, structure, and properties of novel hybrid solid polymer electrolytes (SPE's) consisting of organically modified aluminosilica (OM-ALSi), formed within a poly(ethylene oxide)-in-salt (Li triflate) phase. To alter the structure and properties we fused functionalized silanes containing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) tails or CN groups.

  5. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  6. Hybrid pigment organelles in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliwa, M; Euteneuer, U

    1979-02-28

    Observations of a number of vertebrate chromatophores have revealed the presence of more than one type of pigment organelles, suggesting that the different types are all derived from an equipotential organelle able to differentiate into any of the major pigment-containing organelles (Bagnara, 1972). Observations are presented concerning the occurrence of hybrid pigment inclusions, i.e., all kinds of intergrades between melanosomes, pterinosomes, and reflecting platelets in pigment cells of the daddy-long-legs. It therefore seems possible that pigment organelles in some invertebrates may also be derived from a common pluripotential primordial organelle.

  7. Explosion containment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  8. A Lactuca universal hybridizer, and its use in creation of fertile interspecific somatic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, M C; Maisonneuve, B; Bellec, Y; Chupeau, Y

    1994-10-28

    A Lactuca sativa cv. Ardente line heterozygous for a gene encoding resistance to kanamycin, a positive and dominant trait, was crossed with cv. Girelle, which is heterozygous for a recessive albinism marker. The resulting seeds yielded 25% albino seedlings, of which 50% were also resistant to kanamycin. Such plantlets (KR, a) grown in vitro were used for preparation of universal hybridizer protoplasts, since green buds that can develop on kanamycin containing-medium should result from fusion with any wild-type protoplast. To test the practicability of this selection scheme, we fused L. sativa KR, a protoplasts with protoplasts derived from various wild Lactuca as well as various other related species. Protoplast-derived cell colonies were selected for resistance to kanamycin at the regeneration stage. Green buds were regenerated after fusion with protoplasts of L. tatarica and of L. perennis. So far, 9 interspecific hybrid plants have been characterized morphologically. In addition, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with selected primers confirmed that these plants are indeed interspecific hybrids. Some plants are female-fertile and production of backcross progenies with L. sativa is in progress. Since many desirable traits such as resistances to viruses, bacteria and fungi (Bremia lactucae) have been characterized in wild Lactuca species, the use of somatic hybridization in breeding programmes now appears a practical possibility.

  9. In situ hybridization of carbon nanotubes with bacterial cellulose for three-dimensional hybrid bioscaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subeom; Park, Jooyeon; Jo, Insu; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Sung, Dongchul; Ryu, Seungmi; Park, Minsung; Min, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Jangho; Hong, Suklyun; Hong, Byung Hee; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great potential in biomedical fields. However, in vivo applications of CNTs for regenerative medicine have been hampered by difficulties associated with the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds of CNTs due to CNTs' nano-scale nature. In this study, we devised a new method for biosynthesis of CNT-based 3D scaffold by in situ hybridizing CNTs with bacterial cellulose (BC), which has a structure ideal for tissue-engineering scaffolds. This was achieved simply by culturing Gluconacetobacter xylinus, BC-synthesizing bacteria, in medium containing CNTs. However, pristine CNTs aggregated in medium, which hampers homogeneous hybridization of CNTs with BC scaffolds, and the binding energy between hydrophobic pristine CNTs and hydrophilic BC was too small for the hybridization to occur. To overcome these problems, an amphiphilic comb-like polymer (APCLP) was adsorbed on CNTs. Unlike CNT-coated BC scaffolds (CNT-BC-Imm) formed by immersing 3D BC scaffolds in CNT solution, the APCLP-adsorbed CNT-BC hybrid scaffold (CNT-BC-Syn) showed homogeneously distributed CNTs throughout the 3D microporous structure of BC. Importantly, in contrast to CNT-BC-Imm scaffolds, CNT-BC-Syn scaffolds showed excellent osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity that led to high bone regeneration efficacy. This strategy may open a new avenue for development of 3D biofunctional scaffolds for regenerative medicine.

  10. Evaluation of different genetic procedures for the generation of artificial hybrids in Saccharomyces genus for winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2012-05-15

    Several methods based on recombinant DNA techniques have been proposed for yeast strain improvement; however, the most relevant oenological traits depend on a multitude of loci, making these techniques difficult to apply. In this way, hybridization techniques involving two complete genomes became interesting. Natural hybrid strains between different Saccharomyces species have been detected in diverse fermented beverages including wine, cider and beer. These hybrids seem to be better adapted to fluctuating situations typically observed in fermentations due to the acquisition of particular physiological properties of both parental strains. In this work we evaluated the usefulness of three different hybridization methods: spore to spore mating, rare-mating and protoplast fusion for the generation of intra- and inter-specific stable hybrids, being the first report about the comparison of different methods to obtain artificial hybrids to be used in fermentations. Spore to spore mating is an easy but time-consuming method; hybrids generated with this technique could lack some of the industrially relevant traits present in the parental strains because of the segregation occurred during meiosis and spore generation prior to hybridization. Hybrids obtained by protoplast fusion get the complete information of both parents but they are currently considered as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Finally, hybrids obtained by rare-mating are easily obtained by the optimized methodology described in this work, they originally contain a complete set of chromosomes of both parents and they are not considered as GMOs. Hybrids obtained by means of the three methodological approaches showed a high genetic variability; however, a loss of genetic material was detected in most of them. Based on these results, it became evident that a last crucial aspect to be considered in every hybridization program is the genetic stabilization of recently generated hybrids that guarantee its

  11. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  12. Hybrid photonic chip interferometer for embedded metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Maxwell, G.; Jiang, X.

    2014-03-01

    Embedded metrology is the provision of metrology on the manufacturing platform, enabling measurement without the removal of the work piece. Providing closer integration of metrology upon the manufacturing platform can lead to the better control and increased throughput. In this work we present the development of a high precision hybrid optical chip interferometer metrology device. The complete metrology sensor system is structured into two parts; optical chip and optical probe. The hybrid optical chip interferometer is based on a silica-on-silicon etched integrated-optic motherboard containing waveguide structures and evanescent couplers. Upon the motherboard, electro-optic components such as photodiodes and a semiconductor gain block are mounted and bonded to provide the required functionality. The key structure in the device is a tunable laser module based upon an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL). Within the cavity is a multi-layer thin film filter which is rotated to select the longitudinal mode at which the laser operates. An optical probe, which uses a blazed diffracting grating and collimating objective lens, focuses light of different wavelengths laterally over the measurand. Incident laser light is then tuned in wavelength time to effectively sweep an `optical stylus' over the surface. Wavelength scanning and rapid phase shifting can then retrieve the path length change and thus the surface height. We give an overview of the overall design of the final hybrid photonic chip interferometer, constituent components, device integration and packaging as well as experimental test results from the current version now under evaluation.

  13. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  14. Hybridization in geese: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Herbert H. T. Prins

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridizatio...

  15. Material containment enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.O.

    1991-04-01

    An isolation enclosure and a group of isolation enclosures was designed which is useful when a relatively large containment area is required. The enclosure is in the form of a ring having a section removed so that a technician may enter the center area of the ring. in a preferred embodiment, an access zone is located in the transparent wall of the enclosure and extends around the inner perimeter of the ring so that a technician can insert his hands into the enclosure to reach any point within. The inventive enclosures provide more containment area per unit area of floor space than conventional material isolation enclosures.

  16. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  17. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, M. [Briggs Marine Environmental Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  18. Livet er en container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær

    2008-01-01

    Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm.......Med Container går Lukas Moodysson for alvor filmeksperimentets vej. Filmen har en række indholdsmæssige træk til fælles med Moodyssons tidligere værker, men den formmæssige tilgang skal især findes i den amerikanske avantgardefilm....

  19. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  20. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  1. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  2. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  3. Template-free electrochemical nanofabrication of polyaniline nanobrush and hybrid polyaniline with carbon nanohorns for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Di; Andrew, Piers; Ryhaenen, Tapani [Nokia Research Centre Cambridge, Broers Building, 21 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Wang, Haolan; Hiralal, Pritesh; Amaratunga, Gehan A J [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Hayashi, Yasuhiko, E-mail: di.wei@nokia.com, E-mail: gaja1@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2010-10-29

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanobrushes were synthesized by template-free electrochemical galvanostatic methods. When the same method was applied to the carbon nanohorn (CNH) solution containing aniline monomers, a hybrid nanostructure containing PANI and CNHs was enabled after electropolymerization. This is the first report on the template-free method to make PANI nanobrushes and homogeneous hybrid soft matter (PANI) with carbon nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the interaction between CNH and PANI. Electrochemical nanofabrication offers simplicity and good control when used to make electronic devices. Both of these materials were applied in supercapacitors and an improvement capacitive current by using the hybrid material was observed.

  4. Hybrid vigor between native and introduced salamanders raises new challenges for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2007-10-02

    Hybridization between differentiated lineages can have many different consequences depending on fitness variation among hybrid offspring. When introduced organisms hybridize with natives, the ensuing evolutionary dynamics may substantially complicate conservation decisions. Understanding the fitness consequences of hybridization is an important first step in predicting its evolutionary outcome and conservation impact. Here, we measured natural selection caused by differential viability of hybrid larvae in wild populations where native California Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma californiense) and introduced Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium) have been hybridizing for 50-60 years. We found strong evidence of hybrid vigor; mixed-ancestry genotypes had higher survival rates than genotypes containing mostly native or mostly introduced alleles. Hybrid vigor may be caused by heterozygote advantage (overdominance) or recombinant hybrid vigor (due to epistasis or complementation). These genetic mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and we find statistical support for both overdominant and recombinant contributions to hybrid vigor in larval tiger salamanders. Because recombinant homozygous genotypes can breed true, a single highly fit genotype with a mosaic of native and introduced alleles may eventually replace the historically pure California Tiger Salamander (listed as Threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act). The management implications of this outcome are complex: Genetically pure populations may not persist into the future, but average fitness and population viability of admixed California Tiger Salamanders may be enhanced. The ecological consequences for other native species are unknown.

  5. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  6. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  7. Hybrid Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freno, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an exciting new synthesis of directed and undirected, discrete and continuous graphical models. Combining elements of Bayesian networks and Markov random fields, the newly introduced hybrid random fields are an interesting approach to get the best of both these worlds, with an added promise of modularity and scalability. The authors have written an enjoyable book---rigorous in the treatment of the mathematical background, but also enlivened by interesting and original historical and philosophical perspectives. -- Manfred Jaeger, Aalborg Universitet The book not only marks an

  8. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  9. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the ...

  10. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    . In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  11. Container shipping in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two years, the global maritime trade, and in particular container throughput, has been growing, although more slowly than in the exceptional year 2010, after a rapid collapse in 2009. Container fleet has also been growing well, but financial results achieved by the majority of leading container carrier companies (TOP 20 are very bad. When in 2009 their losses amounted to several billions dollars, carriers explained that it was an exceptional year because of the economic crisis and unusual collapse of container throughput accompanied by increasing expenses (especially on fuel. However, looking at financial results for the four years period of 2008-2011, year 2010 appears to be exceptionally profitable and the sum of financial results for the entire period for fifteen carriers from the TOP 20 group is 5.5 billion dollars loss. Debt of carriers is already over 90 billion dollars. Many of them are actually on the verge of bankruptcy and the prospects are not the best.

  12. Confinement contains condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Roberts, C. D.; Shrock, R.;

    2012-01-01

    been viewed as constant empirical mass scales that fill all space-time, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical...

  13. PANAMINT: Containment data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B.; Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-03-01

    The PANAMINT event was detonated in hole U2gb of the Nevada Test Site at 13:59 PDT on May 21, 1986. This paper contains a discussion of that event, with special attention given to the instrumentation designed to monitor stemming emplacement and performance. Data from those instruments are presented.

  14. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  15. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  16. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  17. The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cara Francesca; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-09-15

    Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated. The current study investigates both phenomena resulting from the hybridization of a male snake with type I degradative venom, Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), and a female snake with type II highly toxic venom, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave Rattlesnake). SDS-PAGE, enzymology, Western blot and reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) were used to characterize the venom of the C. o. helleri male, the C. s. scutulatus female and their two hybrid offspring as they aged. In general, Crotalus o. helleri × C. s. scutulatus hybrid venoms appeared to exhibit overlapping parental venom profiles, and several different enzyme activity patterns. Both hybrids expressed C. o. helleri father-specific myotoxins as well as C. s. scutulatus mother-specific Mojave toxin. Snake venom metalloprotease activity displayed apparent sex-influenced expression patterns, while hybrid serine protease activities were intermediate to parental activities. The C. s. scutulatus × C. o. helleri hybrid male's venom profile provided the strongest evidence that type I and type II venom characteristics are expressed simultaneously in hybrid venoms, as this snake contained distinctive characteristics of both parental species. However, the possibility of

  18. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  19. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A

    2011-08-23

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.

  20. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  1. Landmarks in Hybrid Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkawkagy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although planning techniques achieved a significant progress during recent years, solving many planning problem still difficult even for modern planners. In this paper, we will adopt landmark concept to hybrid planning setting - a method that combines reasoning about procedural knowledge and causalities. Land-marks are a well-known concept in the realm of classical planning. Recently, they have been adapted to hierarchical approaches. Such landmarks can be extracted in a pre-processing step from a declarative hierarchical planning domain and problem description. It was shown how this technique allows for a considerable reduction of the search space by eliminating futile plan development options before the actual planning. Therefore, we will present a new approach to in¬tegrate landmark pre-processing technique in the context of hierarchical planning with landmark technique in the classical planning. This integration allows to incorporate the ability of using extracted landmark tasks from hierarchical domain knowledge in the form of HTN and using landmark literals from classical planning. To this end, we will construct a transformation technique to transform the hybrid planning domain into a classical domain model. The method¬ologies in this paper have been implemented successfully, and we will present some experimental results that give evidence for the consid-erable performance increase gained through planning system.

  2. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  3. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  4. Hybrid internet access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vivek; Baras, John S.; Dillon, Douglas; Falk, Aaron; Suphasindhu, Narin

    1995-01-01

    Access to the Internet is either too slow (dial-up SLIP) or too expensive (switched 56 kbps, frame relay) for the home user or small enterprise. The Center for Satellite and Hybrid Communication Networks and Hughes Network Systems have collaborated using systems integration principles to develop a prototype of a low-cost hybrid (dial-up and satellite) newtork terminal which can deliver data from the Internet to the user at rates up to 160 kbps. An asymmetric TCP/IP connection is used breaking the network link into two physical channels: a terrestrial dial-up for carrying data from the terminal into the Internet and a receive-only satellite link carrying IP packets from the Internet to the user. With a goal of supporting bandwidth hungry Internet applications such as Mosaic, Gopher, and FTP, this system has been designed to support any Intel 80386/486 PC, any commercial TCP/IP package, any unmodified host on the Internet, and any of the routers, etc., within the Internet. The design exploits the following three observations: 1) satellites are able to offer high bandwidth connections to a large geographical area, 2) a receive-only VSAT is cheap to manufacture and easier to install than one which can also transmit, and 3) most computer users, especially those in a home environment, will want to consume much more information than they generate. IP encapsulation, or tunneling, issued to manipulate the TCP/IP protocols to route packets asymmetrically.

  5. Unified Hybrid Network Theoretical Model Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first of the unified hybrid network theoretical model trilogy (UHNTF) is the harmonious unification hybrid preferential model (HUHPM), seen in the inner loop of Fig. 1, the unified hybrid ratio is defined.

  6. GPU-accelerated discontinuous Galerkin methods on hybrid meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jesse; Wang, Zheng; Modave, Axel; Remacle, Jean-Francois; Warburton, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a time-explicit discontinuous Galerkin (DG) solver for the time-domain acoustic wave equation on hybrid meshes containing vertex-mapped hexahedral, wedge, pyramidal and tetrahedral elements. Discretely energy-stable formulations are presented for both Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto (Spectral Element) nodal bases for the hexahedron. Stable timestep restrictions for hybrid meshes are derived by bounding the spectral radius of the DG operator using order-dependent constants in trace and Markov inequalities. Computational efficiency is achieved under a combination of element-specific kernels (including new quadrature-free operators for the pyramid), multi-rate timestepping, and acceleration using Graphics Processing Units.

  7. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  8. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."

  10. Hybrid black-hole binary initial data

    CERN Document Server

    Mundim, Bruno C; Zlochower, Yosef; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class.Quant.Grav.27:114005,2010], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculation was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features.

  11. Hybrid black-hole binary initial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Bruno C; Zlochower, Yosef; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY14623 (United States); Kelly, Bernard J, E-mail: bcmsma@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: bernard.j.kelly@nasa.gov, E-mail: yosef@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: nakano@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: manuela@astro.rit.edu [CRESST and Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Traditional black-hole (BH) binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al (2010, Class. Quantum Grav. 27 114005), a new binary BH initial data with radiation content derived from post-Newtonian (PN) theory was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless 'wavy' metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesirable features: unphysical horizon mass loss and large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features.

  12. Recent advances on hybrid approaches for designing intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Pedrycz, Witold; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for diverse areas of application, such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain a group of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of type-2 fuzzy logic, which basically consists of papers that propose new models and applications for type-2 fuzzy systems. The second part contains papers with the main theme of bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques to achieve optimization of complex optimization problems in diverse areas of application. The third part contains pape...

  13. Polymer composites containing nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer composite materials containing carbon nanotubes, particularly to those containing singled-walled nanotubes. The invention provides a polymer composite comprising one or more base polymers, one or more functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers and carbon nanotubes. The invention also relates to functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers, particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having side chain functionalization, and more particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having olefin side chains and alkyl epoxy side chains. The invention further relates to methods of making polymer composites comprising carbon nanotubes.

  14. Chaotic Dynamics in Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  15. Chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  16. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  17. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  18. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  19. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  20. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  1. Hybrid Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X Q

    2006-01-01

    We review our recent results on the JPC = 0¡¡ exotic hybrid charmonium mass and JPC = 0¡+, 1¡¡ and 1++ nonexotic hybrid charmonium spectrum from anisotropic improved lattice QCD and discuss the relevance to the recent discovery of the Y(4260) state and future experimental search for other states.

  2. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  3. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Reyneri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  4. Containment: Relevant or Relic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Member Kevin P. Shea, Ed.D. Accepted this 10th day of June 2011 by: , Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F...occasionally affect the ideology plank as well. With rare exception however, military operations against non-states and phenomenon like terrorism and...one or more planks of the Terrorism Triangle can assist crafting a more effective containment or deterrence strategy. International Deterrence and

  5. Silicon Containing Photoresists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-13

    generation of high resolution patterns. The vast majority of the commercial positive photoresists are comprised of a base soluble Novolac type resin (Cresol...plays a passive role. The generation of silicon containing Novolac- type resins represents one such effort. Workers at AT&T Bell Labs have prepared a...and formaldehyde (20). The silylated Novolac type resins were designed for use with substituted 1,2-napthoquinone-2-diazide sensitizers employed in

  6. Hydrogen storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  7. Hybrid lipid-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayani, Yasaman

    Biological membranes serve several important roles, such as structural support of cells and organelles, regulation of ionic and molecular transport, barriers to non-mediated transport, contact between cells within tissues, and accommodation of membrane proteins. Membrane proteins and other vital biomolecules incorporated into the membrane need a lipid membrane to function. Due to importance of lipid bilayers and their vital function in governing many processes in the cell, the development of various models as artificial lipid membranes that can mimic cell membranes has become a subject of great interest. Using different models of artificial lipid membranes, such as liposomes, planar lipid bilayers and supported or tethered lipid bilayers, we are able to study many biophysical processes in biological membranes. The ability of different molecules to interact with and change the structure of lipid membranes can be also investigated in artificial lipid membranes. An important application of lipid bilayer-containing interfaces is characterization of novel membrane proteins for high throughput drug screening studies to investigate receptor-drug interactions and develop biosensor systems. Membrane proteins need a lipid bilayer environment to preserve their stability and functionality. Fabrication of materials that can interact with biomolecules like proteins necessitates the use of lipid bilayers as a mimic of cell membranes. The objective of this research is to develop novel hybrid lipid-based nanostructures mimicking biological membranes. Toward this aim, two hybrid biocompatible structures are introduced: lipid bilayer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydrogel-anchored liposomes with double-stranded DNA anchors. These structures have potential applications in biosensing, drug targeting, drug delivery, and biophysical studies of cell membranes. In the first developed nanostructure, lipid molecules are covalently attached to the surfaces of MWCNTs, and

  8. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  9. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  10. Molecular evidence for hybridization in Colias (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): are Colias hybrids really hybrids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Heather E; Jasieniuk, Marie; Okada, Miki; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow and hybridization among species dramatically affect our understanding of the species as a biological unit, species relationships, and species adaptations. In North American Colias eurytheme and Colias eriphyle, there has been historical debate over the extent of hybridization occurring and the identity of phenotypically intermediate individuals as genetic hybrids. This study assesses the population structure of these two species to measure the extent of hybridization and the genetic identity of phenotypic intermediates as hybrids. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker analysis was performed on 378 specimens collected from northern California and Nevada. Population structure was inferred using a Bayesian/Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which probabilistically assigns individuals to genetic clusters. Three genetic clusters provided the best fit for the data. C. eurytheme individuals were primarily assigned to two closely related clusters, and C. eriphyle individuals were mostly assigned to a third, more distantly related cluster. There appeared to be significant hybridization between the two species. Individuals of intermediate phenotype (putative hybrids) were found to be genetically indistinguishable from C. eriphyle, indicating that previous work based on the assumption that these intermediate forms are hybrids may warrant reconsideration. PMID:26306172

  11. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  12. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Mateescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the main principles that drive the technology strategy in order to maximize the value added by IT assets in the business products. Section two summarizes the frameworks leveraged by our approach in order to implement the safety and profitability computation algorithms described in the third section. The paper concludes with benefits of our personal frameworks and presents the future developments.

  13. Hybrid Noncoherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Skachek, Vitaly; Nedic, Angelia

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel extension of subspace codes for noncoherent networks, suitable for use when the network is viewed as a communication system that introduces both dimension and symbol errors. We show that when symbol erasures occur in a significantly large number of different basis vectors transmitted through the network and when the min-cut of the networks is much smaller then the length of the transmitted codewords, the new family of codes outperforms their subspace code counterparts. For the proposed coding scheme, termed hybrid network coding, we derive two upper bounds on the size of the codes. These bounds represent a variation of the Singleton and of the sphere-packing bound. We show that a simple concatenated scheme that represents a combination of subspace codes and Reed-Solomon codes is asymptotically optimal with respect to the Singleton bound. Finally, we describe two efficient decoding algorithms for concatenated subspace codes that in certain cases have smaller complexity than subspace decoder...

  14. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  16. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  17. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  18. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  19. Characterization of hybridization between synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides and RNA in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politz, J C; Taneja, K L; Singer, R H

    1995-01-01

    Cells internalized synthetic oligonucleotides (oligos) in culture. The hybridization of these molecules to target RNA in the living cell was subsequently detected and characterized after fixation of the cells, with or without previous detergent extraction. Hybridized oligo was distinguished from free oligo in the cell using an in situ reverse transcription technique. This assay exploited the ability of the hybridized oligo to prime synthesis of a specific cDNA strand; unhybridized oligo present in the cell could not act as a primer for reverse transcription. Phosphorothioate and fluorochrome-labeled phosphodiester oligo dT were found to enter cells rapidly and hybridize to poly (A) RNA within 30 min. Hybrids containing phosphorothioate oligo dT were detectable in cells after up to 4 h of efflux time. Phosphodiester bonded oligo dT containing covalently-linked fluorochromes appeared more stable in the cell than unmodified phosphodiester oligo dT; hybrids containing these oligos could be detected in cells as long as 18h after efflux began. The in situ transcription assay was also sensitive enough to detect hybridization of anti-actin oligos to actin mRNA in the cell. It is probable, therefore, that this assay can be used to help assess the efficacy of antisense oligos by their hybridization to a target mRNA in cells or tissues; hybridized oligos are more likely to induce a specific antisense effect. Additionally, this assay will help to identify probes that would be useful as stable hybridization tags to follow RNA movement in living cells. Images PMID:8559650

  20. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians......’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  1. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  2. Confinement Contains Condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  3. Does propolis contain tannins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Marco A S; Lima, Carolina A; Tomba, Augusto C B; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although polyphenols have been reported as common constituents of propolis, tannins have rarely been mentioned as its constituents. Propolis samples from seven localities in Brazil were analyzed for detection of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) and determination of the tannin content. Positive reaction for proanthocyanidins was observed for all samples tested. The contents of tannins varied in the range 0.6-4.1%. A high degree of correlation was noted between total phenols and tannin content. Red and green propolis contained high contents of tannins, while in brown propolis the content was lower. It is suggested that the contents of tannins should be a parameter to be considered in propolis characterization.

  4. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  5. Hybrid Algorithm for Optimal Load Sharing in Grid Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Grid Computing is the fast growing industry, which shares the resources in the organization in an effective manner. Resource sharing requires more optimized algorithmic structure, otherwise the waiting time and response time are increased and the resource utilization is reduced. Approach: In order to avoid such reduction in the performances of the grid system, an optimal resource sharing algorithm is required. In recent days, many load sharing technique are proposed, which provides feasibility but there are many critical issues are still present in these algorithms. Results: In this study a hybrid algorithm for optimization of load sharing is proposed. The hybrid algorithm contains two components which are Hash Table (HT and Distributed Hash Table (DHT. Conclusion: The results of the proposed study show that the hybrid algorithm will optimize the task than existing systems.

  6. Optically thin hybrid cavity for terahertz photo-conductive detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. J.; Siday, T.; Glass, S.; Luk, T. S.; Reno, J. L.; Brener, I.; Mitrofanov, O.

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of photoconductive (PC) devices, including terahertz detectors, is constrained by the bulk optical constants of PC materials. Here, we show that optical absorption in a PC layer can be modified substantially within a hybrid cavity containing nanoantennas and a Distributed Bragg Reflector. We find that a hybrid cavity, consisting of a GaAs PC layer of just 50 nm, can be used to absorb >75% of incident photons by trapping the light within the cavity. We provide an intuitive model, which describes the dependence of the optimum operation wavelength on the cavity thickness. We also find that the nanoantenna size is a critical parameter, small variations of which lead to both wavelength shifting and reduced absorption in the cavity, suggesting that impedance matching is key for achieving efficient absorption in the optically thin hybrid cavities.

  7. Heavy hybrid mesons in the QCD sum rule

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Peng-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    We study the spectra of the hybrid mesons containing one heavy quark ($q\\bar{Q}g$) within the framework of QCD sum rules in the heavy quark limit. The derived sum rules are stable with the variation of the Borel parameter within their corresponding working ranges. The extracted binding energy for the heavy hybrid doublets $H(S)$ and $M(T)$ is almost degenerate. We also calculate the pionic couplings between these heavy hybrid and the conventional heavy meson doublets using the light-cone QCD sum rule method. The extracted coupling constants are rather small as a whole. With these couplings we make a rough estimate of the partial widths of these pionic decay channels.

  8. Wastewater Treatment in a Hybrid Biological Reactor (HBR) :Nitrification Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; LI-BO WU

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the nitrifying characteristics of both suspended- and attached- biomass in a hybrid bioreactor. Methods The hybrid biological reactor was developed by introducing porous ceramic particles into the reactor to provide the surface for biomass attachment. Microorganisms immobilized on the ceramics were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analyses were performed in accordance with standard methods. Results The suspended- and attached-biomass had approximately the same nitrification activity. The nitrifying kinetic was independent of the initial biomass concentration, and the attached-biomass had a stronger ability to resist the nitrification inhibitor. Conclusion The attached biomass is superior to suspended-biomass for nitrifying wastewater, especially that containing toxic organic compounds. The hybrid biological reactor consisting of suspended- and attached-biomass is advantageous in such cases.

  9. Thermoresponsive AuNPs Stabilized by Pillararene-Containing Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaojuan; Guo, Lei; Chang, Junxia; Liu, Sha; Xie, Meiran; Chen, Guosong

    2015-08-01

    Pillararene-containing thermoresponsive polymers are synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using pillararene derivatives as the effective chain transfer agents for the first time. These polymers can self-assemble into micelles and form vesicles after guest molecules are added. Furthermore, such functional polymers can be further applied to prepare hybrid gold nanoparticles, which integrate the thermoresponsivity of polymers and molecular recognition of pillararenes.

  10. Cobalt-60 Container Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a special container scanner in which the radiation source is a conventional radiography 60Co projector of (100-300)×3 .7×1010Bq. With a specia l sensitive array detector, invented by Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology ( INET) of Tsinghua University and other technical innovations, t he characteristics of the 60Co scanner qualify it for use in c ontainer insp ection. Its contrast indicator (CI) and image quality indicator (IQI) for 10 0 mm steel are equal to 0.7% and 2.5%, respectively, and the steel penetration ( SP) is about 240 mm. The 60Co container scanner is much more ec onomical and more reliable than those scanners using an accelerator source. Also, its penetr ation ability is much better than that of an X-ray machine scanner. This paper p resents the system design, the main difficulties and their technical solutions, the inspection characteristics and the special features of the 60Co sc anner.

  11. Intrauterine devices containing progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, F

    1977-05-01

    Characteristics of progesterone-releasing IUDs are reported. At present, the only progesterone-containing IUD on the market is Progestasert, a T-shaped ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer device containing 38 mg progesterone in silicone. The device releases approximately 65 mcg/day into the uterine cavity over the course of 1-year. The device does not alter pituitary function or ovulation, nor does it depend on a local mechanical effect. Rather, it may exert its effect by inhibiting sperm capacitation or survival, or it may prevent nidation by alterning the endometrium. The reported pregnancy rate for Progestasert is 1.9% in parous women and 2.5% in nulliparous women. This efficacy rate is similar to that for other IUDs and low-dose progestin-only oral contraceptives. Breakthrough bleeding is the most common side effect, and perhaps 10-15% of the acceptors will have the device removed for either bleeding, pain, or infection. The rate of spontaneous expulsion of the device is about 3-8%. It is recommended that the device be inserted during or shortly after the menstrual period.

  12. Wankel engine for hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butti, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy); Site, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Wankel engine is suited to be used to drive hybrid propulsion systems. The main disadvantage of hybrid propulsion systems is the complexity that causes a high weight and large dimensions. For these reason hybrid systems are more suitable for large size vehicle (buses, vans) rather than for small passenger cars. A considerable reduction of hybrid systems weight and dimensions can be obtained using a Wankel rotary engine instead of a conventional engine. The Wankel engine is light, compact, simple, and produces low noise and low vibrations. Therefore a Wankel engine powered hybrid system is suited to be used on small cars. In this paper a 1,000 kg parallel hybrid car with continuously variable transmission and a 6,000 kg series hybrid minibus both equipped with Wankel engines are considered. The Wankel engine works at steady state to minimize fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The simulation of the behavior of these two vehicles during a ECE + EUDC test cycle is presented in order to evaluate the performances of the systems.

  13. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  14. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  15. Pseudovector mesons, hybrids and glueballs

    CERN Document Server

    Burakovsky, L; Burakovsky, Leonid; Page, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    We consider glueball- (hybrid) meson mixing for the low-lying four pseudovector states. The h_1'(1380) decays dominantly to K*K with some presence in rho pi and omega eta. The newly observed h_1(1600) has a D- to S-wave width ratio to omega eta which does not enable differentiation between a conventional and hybrid meson interpretation. We predict the decay pattern of the isopartner conventional or hybrid meson b_1(1650). A notably narrow s sbar partner h_1'(1810) is predicted.

  16. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  17. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  18. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  19. A method for generating subtractive cDNA libraries retaining clones containing repetitive elements.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Here we describe a two-stepped photobiotin-based procedure to enrich a target (canine retinal) cDNA library for tissue specific clones without removing those containing repetitive ( SINE ) elements, despite the presence of these elements in the driver population. In a first hybridization excess SINE elements were hybridized to a driver (canine cerebellar) cDNA. In a second hybridization target cDNA was added to this reaction. The resulting cDNA library was enriched for retinal specific clones...

  20. Highly luminescent hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe quantum dots: synthesis and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Novel hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were created using CdTe QDs coated with a hybrid SiO2 shell containing Cd(2+) ions and a sulfur source via a sol-gel process in aqueous solution. Aqueous CdTe QDs with tunable emitting color created through a reaction between cadmium chloride and sodium hydrogen telluride was used as cores for the preparation of hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. In our experiments we found that the surface state of the cores and preparation conditions that affect the formation of the hybrid SiO2 shell also greatly affect photoluminescence of the hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. The generation of CdS-like clusters in the vicinity of the CdTe QDs, caused the quantum size effect of the QDs to be greatly reduced, which changes photoluminescence properties of the hybrid QDs fundamentally. Namely, the novel hybrid SiO2 shell played an important role in generating a series of specific optical properties. In addition, the novel hybrid SiO2 shell can be created if no CdTe QD is added. In order to gain an insight into the inter structure of the hybrid shell, we characterized the hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs using X-ray diffraction analysis and discuss the formation mechanism of such a hybrid structure. This work is significant because the novel hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs with its excellent properties can be used in many applications, such as biolabeling and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    morphine via high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC peak corresponding to an authentic morphine standard had its morphine level determined via radioimmune assay. The identity of this material was established by Q-TOF-MS analysis. RESULTS: Each glioma exhibited an endogenous morphine presence....... Tumor extractions demonstrated a molecular mass of 286.14 da, identical to authentic morphine. Subsequent fragmentation analysis of this molecule revealed fragment masses of 129.01 da, 183.09 da and 201.07 da, corresponding to authentic morphine fragments. This material was not found in any......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  2. FUEL CONTAINER CLOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, C.C.; Noland, R.A.

    1962-07-17

    A method of producing a spherical closed end on a small thin-walled tube forming a container for reactor fuel is described. An end cap inserted in the tube has a long slender external projection extending axially of the tube. A heavy electrical current is applied to the projection, and simultaneously a portion of the tube very near the end cap is chilled. A part of the projection is vaporized, and the balance is melted, along with portions of the end cap and the tube. As a result, the end cap is welded to the tube, and the projection in melting is spread out to form a spherical surface on the end cap. (AEC)

  3. LABAN containment data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, T.; Heinle, R.

    1995-05-01

    The LABAN event was detonated in hole U2ff of the Nevada Test Site. The device had a depth-of-burial of 326 m in the alluvium of Area 4, about 240 m above the standing water level (SWL). Stemming of the 2.44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes and Narver. Detonation time was 06:33 PDT on August 3, 1983. About 75 minutes later the chimney began collapsing to the surface. A major collapse event occurred 5 minutes later with episodes continuing for the next 20 minutes. No radiation arrivals were detected in the emplacement hole at depths less than 106 m and the LABAN containment was considered successful.

  4. Does Propolis Contain Tannins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. S. Mayworm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although polyphenols have been reported as common constituents of propolis, tannins have rarely been mentioned as its constituents. Propolis samples from seven localities in Brazil were analyzed for detection of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins and determination of the tannin content. Positive reaction for proanthocyanidins was observed for all samples tested. The contents of tannins varied in the range 0.6–4.1%. A high degree of correlation was noted between total phenols and tannin content. Red and green propolis contained high contents of tannins, while in brown propolis the content was lower. It is suggested that the contents of tannins should be a parameter to be considered in propolis characterization.

  5. HYBRIDIZATION AND CHAMELEONIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schryver Kurtz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda a crescente hibridização entre o Jornalismo e demais formatos midiáticos como resultado natural de um processo que já está na própria raiz da comunicação enquanto atividade histórica. A lógica interna e as potencialidades estéticas e discursivas do fenômeno são analisadas a partir das convergências entre jornalismo e cinema. Para tanto, utiliza o falso documentário Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido por natureza, postulado como um microcosmo rico em pistas e sugestões para refletir sobre a fusão entre conteúdos informativos e não informativos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hibridização; Jornalismo; Cinema; Zelig.       ABSTRACT The text discusses the growing hybridization between journalism and other media formats as a natural result of a process that is already in the very root of communication while historical activity. The internal logic and the aesthetic and discursive potential of the phenomenon are analyzed through the convergences between journalism and cinema. Therefore, uses the mockumentary Zelig (1983, filmic text of Woody Allen, hybrid by nature, postulated as a microcosm rich in clues and suggestions to reflect about the merger between informative and uninformative content.      KEYWORDS: Hybridization; Journalism; Cinema; Zelig.     RESUMEN El texto aborda la creciente hibridación entre el periodismo y otros formatos de medios como um resultado natural de un proceso que ya está en la raíz misma de la comunicación mientras actividad histórica. Se analizan la lógica interna y el potencial estético y discursivo del fenómeno a través de las convergencias entre el periodismo y el cine. Para ello, utiliza el falso documental Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido en su naturaleza, postulado como un microcosmos rico en pistas y sugerencias para reflexionar sobre la fusión entre contenidos informativos y no informativos.      PALABRAS CLAVE: Hibridaci

  6. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  7. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  8. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  9. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  10. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  11. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has been...

  12. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  13. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  14. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  15. Hybrid Platforms, Tools, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.; Bruenjes, Linda S.; Smith, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses common tools and resources for building a hybrid course in a higher education setting and provides recommendations for best practices in Learning Management Systems and Open Educational Resources.

  16. Thermodynamically unfavorable DNA hybridizations can be made to occur by a water to ice phase change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Guajardo, Cristian; Somasundrum, Mithran; Surareungchai, Werasak

    2013-02-01

    In an apparent contradiction to Debye-Hückel theory, it was possible to hybridize DNA in solutions of Milli-Q water (resistivity>18MΩcm(-1)) containing no added ions. This was demonstrated by hybridizing four bi-complementary DNA sequences to form an 'X' shape, as indicated by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The requirement for hybridization was that a water-to-ice phase change should occur. Comparative experiments, using freezing by liquid nitrogen and thawing at different temperatures, showed that hybridization could take place during either the freezing or thawing process provided either was slow enough. We speculate that the low solubility of DNA in ice creates liquid inclusions of extremely high DNA and counter-ion concentration prior to complete freezing, and that hence in these inclusions hybridization was actually in accordance with Debye-Hückel theory.

  17. Silica xerogel-chitosan nano-hybrids for use as drug eluting bone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Jun, Shin-Hee; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Kim, Hae-Won; Koh, Young-Hag; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2010-01-01

    Silica xerogel-chitosan hybrids containing vancomycin were fabricated by the sol-gel process at room temperature and their potential as a drug eluting bone replacement was evaluated in terms of their mechanical properties and drug release behaviors. Regardless of the content of chitosan, all of the prepared hybrids had a uniform mesoporous structure, which would allow the effectual loading of vancomycin. As the content of chitosan was increased, the strength, strain to failure, and work of fracture of the hybrids were significantly enhanced, while the elastic modulus was decreased. These changes in the mechanical properties were mainly attributed to the mitigation of the brittleness of the silica xerogel through its hybridization with the flexible chitosan phase. In addition, the initial burst-effect was remarkably reduced by increasing the content of chitosan. The hybrids with more than 30% chitosan could release the vancomycin for an extended period of time in a controlled manner.

  18. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  19. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  20. Characterization of hybrids between bovine (MDBK) and mouse (L-cell) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, V G; Floyd, A D; Chinchar, G D; Taylor, M W

    1979-02-01

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)-deficient mutants of a bovine kidney cell line (MDBK) were selected following mutagenesis with ethylmethane sulfonate or ICR-170G. MDBK mutants were hybridized to thymidine kinase-deficient L cells and selected in HAT medium. Parental and hybrid cells were characterized for isozyme patterns of lactic dehydrogenase malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutamate oxalate transaminase. Chromosomes of MDBK can be distinguished from mouse L cells by configuration and by fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33-258 stain. Hybrid cells contained both MDBK and L-cell chromosomes and had elevated DNA content. MDBK cells are normally restrictive for mengovirus replication. Both permissive and restrictive hybrids were found. Our data indicate that there was preferential loss of MDBK chromosomes in the hybrid cell lines.

  1. Synthesis of Polythiophene–Fullerene Hybrid Additives as Potential Compatibilizers of BHJ Active Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kakogianni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorophenyl functionalities have been introduced as side chain substituents onto regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene (rr-P3HT, under various percentages. These functional groups were then converted to azides which were used to create polymeric hybrid materials with fullerene species, either C60 or C70. The P3HT–fullerene hybrids thus formed were thereafter evaluated as potential compatibilizers of BHJ active layers comprising P3HT and fullerene based acceptors. Therefore, a systematic investigation of the optical and morphological properties of the purified polymer–fullerene hybrid materials was performed, via different complementary techniques. Additionally, P3HT:PC70BM blends containing various percentages of the herein synthesized hybrid material comprising rr-P3HT and C70 were investigated via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM in an effort to understand the effect of the hybrids as additives on the morphology and nanophase separation of this typically used active layer blend for OPVs.

  2. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Aiqin, E-mail: aiqinhou@dhu.edu.c [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen Huawei [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  3. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  4. Ion-atom hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Willitsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The study of interactions between simultaneously trapped cold ions and atoms has emerged as a new research direction in recent years. The development of ion-atom hybrid experiments has paved the way for investigating elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions between these species at very low temperatures, for exploring new cooling mechanisms of ions by atoms and for implementing new hybrid quantum systems. The present lecture reviews experimental methods, recent results and upcoming developments in this emerging field.

  5. Information component of hybrid war

    OpenAIRE

    Bohdanov, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid warfare in the three-dimensional coordinate system «Matter-Information-measure» is considering. In particular, the information component is highlighted and analyzed. The factors of preparation of information operations is defined, which are disclosed as an example of experience of volunteer group information warfare of Institute of special communication and information security of NTUU «KPI».Keywords: coordinate system «Matter-Information-Measure» hybrid warfare, information componen...

  6. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems....

  7. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  8. Hybrid cluster identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Herrero, J.

    2004-10-01

    I present a hybrid method for the labelling of clusters in two-dimensional lattices, which combines the recursive approach with iterative scanning to reduce the stack size required by the pure recursive technique, while keeping its benefits: single pass and straightforward cluster characterization and percolation detection parallel to the labelling. While the capacity to hold the entire lattice in memory is usually regarded as the major constraint for the applicability of the recursive technique, the required stack size is the real limiting factor. Resorting to recursion only for the transverse direction greatly reduces the recursion depth and therefore the required stack. It also enhances the overall performance of the recursive technique, as is shown by results on a set of uniform random binary lattices and on a set of samples of the Ising model. I also show how this technique may replace the recursive technique in Wolff's cluster algorithm, decreasing the risk of stack overflow and increasing its speed, and the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm in the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm, allowing effortless characterization during generation of the samples and increasing its speed.

  9. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  10. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  11. Hybrid manifold embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yan; Chan, Keith C C; Hua, Kien A

    2014-12-01

    In this brief, we present a novel supervised manifold learning framework dubbed hybrid manifold embedding (HyME). Unlike most of the existing supervised manifold learning algorithms that give linear explicit mapping functions, the HyME aims to provide a more general nonlinear explicit mapping function by performing a two-layer learning procedure. In the first layer, a new clustering strategy called geodesic clustering is proposed to divide the original data set into several subsets with minimum nonlinearity. In the second layer, a supervised dimensionality reduction scheme called locally conjugate discriminant projection is performed on each subset for maximizing the discriminant information and minimizing the dimension redundancy simultaneously in the reduced low-dimensional space. By integrating these two layers in a unified mapping function, a supervised manifold embedding framework is established to describe both global and local manifold structure as well as to preserve the discriminative ability in the learned subspace. Experiments on various data sets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  13. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  14. A Wine-Water Container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This exquisite bronze object is a combination wine container and water container. It was excavated from the tomb of Zeng Houyi, a prince of the State of Zeng. The upper part is a wine container, measuring 30. 1 cm tall and the lower part is a water or ice container, measuring 58 cm in diameter. The two parts resemble a

  15. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  16. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  17. From containment to ... syzygy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, H.M.

    1995-04-18

    The U S. is at an historic crossroads following the end of the Cold War. The old twin themes of containment and deterrence must now give way to a newer vision of the U.S. role as we approach the 21st century. This paper follows a visioning process requiring development of alternatives based on signposts, values and frameworks. Signposts are current domestic and global environments revealing a U.S. in economic trouble with budget and trade defidts, a falling dollar and multiplying peace operations at a time when Europe and Japan are becoming economic superpowers. Although U.S. values must be protected, economic competition requires increased emphasis on realpolitik. A balanced framework of internationalism and reduced multilateralism will suit the current environment and U.S. purposes. Recognizing that the U.S. must retain leadership to protect national interests, the vision unfolds as an alignment of major powers-a syzygy of purpose-with Europe, Japan, and the U.S. in a concert of power, sharing economic, political and military burdens to ensure world stability. Thus, the new U.S. role could be primus inter pares of a Pax Consortis with common interests and goals, allowing the U.S. time to restore its economic vitality.

  18. CARNELIAN containment data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, T [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The CARNELIAN event was detonated in hole U4af of the Nevada Test Site as indicated in figure 1 .l. The CARNELIAN device had a depth-of-burial (DOB) of 208 m in the alluvium of Area 4 , about 70 m above the Paleozoic formation and 330 m above the standing water level, as shown in the geologic cross-sections of figure 1.2(l) Figure 1 3 displays the local surface area showing nearby events Stemming of the 2 44 m diameter emplacement hole followed the plan shown in figure 1 4. A log of the stemming operations was maintained by Holmes & Narver(2) Detonation time was about 07 00 PDT on July 28,1977, and collapse progressed to the surface at about 19 minutes after the detonation resulting in a crater having a "cookie-cutter" geometry (steep walls with a relatively flat bottom) with a mean radius of 32 2 m and a maximum depth of 10 5 m No radiation arrivals were detected above ground and the CARNELIAN containment was considered successful

  19. Do pyrotechnics contain radium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Musilek, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    Many pyrotechnic devices contain barium nitrate which is used as an oxidizer and colouring agent primarily for green-coloured fireworks. Similarly, strontium nitrate is used for red-coloured pyrotechnic effects. Due to their chemical similarities to radium, barium and strontium ores can accumulate radium, causing a remarkable activity in these minerals. Radium in such contaminated raw materials can be processed together with the barium or strontium, unless extensive purification of the ores was undertaken. For example, the utilization of 'radiobarite' for the production of pyrotechnic ingredients can therefore cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols when the firework is displayed, resulting in negative health effects upon inhalation of these aerosols. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of gamma-photon-emitting radionuclides in several pyrotechnic devices. The highest specific activities were due to K-40 (up to 20 Bq g-1, average value 14 Bq g-1). Radium-226 activities were in the range of 16-260 mBq g-1 (average value 81 mBq g-1). Since no uranium was found in any of the samples, indeed, a slight enrichment of Ra-226 in coloured pyrotechnics can be observed. Radioactive impurities stemming from the Th-232 decay chain were found in many samples as well. In the course of novel developments aiming at the 'greening' of pyrotechnics, the potential radioactive hazard should be considered as well.

  20. Relative biocompatibility of micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid light-activated composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi Arigbede, Abiodun; Folasade Adeyemi, Bukola; Femi-Akinlosotu, Omowumi

    2017-01-01

    Background. In vitro studies have revealed a direct association between resin content and cytotoxicity of composite resins; however, implantation studies in this regard are sparse. This study investigates the relationship between filler content of composite resins and biocompatibility. Methods. This research employed twelve 180‒200-gr male Wistar rats, 1 nano-hybrid (Prime-Dent Inc.) and 1 micro-hybrid (Medental Inc.) composite resins containing 74% and 80‒90% filler content, respectively. The samples were assessed on the 2nd, 14th and 90th day of implantation. Four rats were allocated to each day in this experimental study. A section of 1.5mm long cured nano-hybrid and micro-hybrid materials were implanted into the right and left upper and lower limbs of the rats, respectively. Eight samples were generated on each day of observation. Inflammation was graded according to the criteria suggested by Orstavik and Major. Pearson's chi-squared test was employed to determine the relationship between the tissue responses of the two materials. Statistical significance was set at P composite resins with higher filler content elicited a significantly lower grade of inflammation irrespective of the duration (χ=20.000, df=8, P=0.010) while the composite resins with lower filler content elicited a significantly lower inflammatory response on the 90th day (χ=4.000, df=1, P=0.046). Conclusion. The composite resins with higher filler content generally elicited significantly lower grades of inflammation, and the composite resins with lower filler content exhibited significantly lower inflammatory response on the 90th day of implantation.

  1. Sawtooth Instability in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfindal, J. L.; Maurer, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Ennis, D. A.; Knowlton, S. F.

    2015-11-01

    Sawtooth instabilities have been observed in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a current-carrying stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. The sawtooth instability is driven by ohmic heating of the core plasma until the safety factor drops below unity resulting in the growth of an m = 1 kink-tearing mode. Experiments varying the vacuum rotational transform from 0.02 to 0.13 are being conducted to study sawtooth property dependance on vacuum flux surface structure. The frequency of the sawtooth oscillations increase from 2 kHz to 2.8 kHz solely due the decrease in rise time of the oscillation, the crash time is unchanged. CTH has three two-color SXR cameras, a three-channel 1mm interferometer, and a new bolometer system capable of detecting the signatures of sawtooth instabilities. The new bolometer system consists of two cameras, each containing a pair of diode arrays viewing the plasma directly or through a beryllium filter. Electron temperature measurements are found with the two-color SXR cameras through a ratio of the SXR intensities. Impurity radiation can drastically affect the electron temperature measurement, therefore new filters consisting of aluminum and carbon were selected to avoid problematic line radiation while maximizing the signal for a 100 eV plasma. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  2. Hybrid plasmonic-photonic resonators (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, A. Femius; Doeleman, Hugo M.; Ruesink, Freek; Verhagen, Ewold; Osorio, Clara I.

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid nanophotonic structures are structures that integrate different nanoscale platforms to harness light-matter interaction. We propose that combinations of plasmonic antennas inside modest-Q dielectric cavities can lead to very high Purcell factors, yielding plasmonic mode volumes at essentially cavity quality factors. The underlying physics is subtle: for instance, how plasmon antennas with large cross sections spoil or improve cavities and vice versa, contains physics beyond perturbation theory, depending on interplays of back-action, and interferences. This is evident from the fact that the local density of states of hybrid systems shows the rich physics of Fano interferences. I will discuss recent scattering experiments performed on toroidal microcavities coupled to plasmon particle arrays that probe both cavity resonance shifts and particle polarizability changes illustrating these insights. Furthermore I will present our efforts to probe single plasmon antennas coupled to emitters and complex environments using scatterometry. An integral part of this approach is the recently developed measurement method of `k-space polarimetry', a microscopy technique to completely classify the intensity and polarization state of light radiated by a single nano-object into any emission direction that is based on back focal plane imaging and Stokes polarimetry. I show benchmarks of this technique for the cases of scattering, fluorescence, and cathodoluminescence applied to directional surface plasmon polariton antennas.

  3. Introgressive hybridization in a trophically polymorphic cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, C Darrin; García-de-León, Francisco J

    2013-11-01

    Trophically polymorphic species could represent lineages that are rapidly diverging along an ecological axis or could phenotypically mark the collapse of species through introgressive hybridization. We investigated patterns of introgression between the trophically polymorphic cichlid fish Herichthys minckleyi and its relative H. cyanoguttatus using a combination of population genetics and species tree analyses. We first examined the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes within the alternative H. minckleyi pharyngeal jaw morphotypes that are endemic to the small desert valley of Cuatro Ciénegas. We recovered two clusters of mitochondrial haplotypes. The first contained a number of slightly differentiated cytochrome b (cytb) haplotypes that showed some phylogeographic signal and were present in both jaw morphotypes. The other haplotype was monomorphic, highly differentiated from the other cluster, present in equal frequencies in the morphotypes, and identical to H. cyanoguttatus haplotypes found outside Cuatro Ciénegas. Then, we investigated whether H. minckleyi individuals with the H. cyanoguttatus cytb were more evolutionarily similar to H. cyanoguttatus or other H. minckleyi using a species tree analysis of 84 nuclear loci. Both H. minckleyi pharyngeal morphotypes, regardless of their cytb haplotype, were quite distinct from H. cyanoguttatus. However, hybridization could be blurring subdivision within H. minckleyi as the alternative jaw morphotypes were not genetically distinct from one another. Accounting for introgression from H. cyanoguttatus will be essential to understand the evolution of the trophically polymorphic cichlid H. minckleyi.

  4. Antibacterial Properties of Novel Bacterial Cellulose Nanofiber Containing Silver Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨加志; 刘晓丽; 黄立勇; 孙东平

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we describe a novel facile method to prepare long one-dimensional hybrid nanofibers by using hydrated bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCF) as a template. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles with an average di-ameter of 1.5 nm were well dispersed on BCF via a simple in situ chemical-reduction between AgNO3 and NaBH4 at a relatively low temperature. A growth mechanism is proposed that Ag nanoparticles are uniformly anchored onto BCF by coordination with BC-containing hydroxyl groups. The bare BCF and as-prepared Ag/BCF hybrid nanofibers were characterized by several techniques including transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogra-vimetric analyses, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra. The antibacterial properties of Ag/BCF hybrid nanofibers against Escherichia coli (E. coli, Gram-negative) and Staphylococcu saureus (S. saureus, Gram-positive) bacteria were evaluated by using modified Kirby Bauer method and colony forming count method. The results show that Ag nanoparticles are well dispersed on BCF surface via in situ chemical-reduction. The Ag/BCF hybrid nanofiber presents strong antibacterial property and thus offers its candidature for use as functional antimicrobial agents.

  5. Using the Two-Hybrid Screen in the Classroom Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Odom, Daniel P.; Grossel, Martha J

    2002-01-01

    The National Science Foundation and others have made compelling arguments that research be incorporated into the learning of undergraduates. In response to these arguments, a two-hybrid research project was incorporated into a molecular biology course that contained both a lecture section and a laboratory section. The course was designed around specific goals for educational outcomes, including introducing research to a wide range of students, teaching students experimental design and data an...

  6. Ways of Developing Plants in Interspecific Hybridization of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAKHMANKULOV; S; DAMINOVA; D; RAKHMANKULOV; M

    2008-01-01

    It is known,that there are various barriers to fertilization,development of embryos,and endosperm because of different number of chromosomes in parents in the interspecific hybridization of cotton.Thus the factors providing normal cell fission of a germ and endosperm are necessary.It is necessary to culture embryos in vitro on the artificial environments containing various phytohormones,or to

  7. Utilization of MATLAB in Simulation of Linear Hybrid Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    BRANCIK, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper a MATLAB-based method for simulating transient phenomena in linear hybrid circuits containing parts with both lumped and distributed parameters is presented. Distributed parts of the circuit are multiconductor transmission lines, which can generally be nonuniform, with frequency-dependent parameters, and under nonzero initial voltage and/or current distributions. In principle a solution is formulated using the modified nodal analysis method in the frequency domain. Subsequently a...

  8. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  9. Gestodene-containing contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, H; Jung-Hoffmann, C; Wiegratz, I

    1995-12-01

    As GSD is the most potent progestogen used in oral contraceptives, the doses of GSD can be lower than those of other progestogen components. The monophasic (30 micrograms EE + 75 micrograms GSD) and the triphasic formulation (30 micrograms EE + 50 micrograms GSD/40 micrograms EE + 70 micrograms GSD/30 micrograms EE + 100 micrograms GSD) suppress gonadotropin release and ovarian function profoundly and inhibit ovulation reliably. The strong anti-estrogenic and progestogenic effectiveness of GSD is based on the high GSD serum concentrations achieved during daily intake. Because of the weak androgenic properties of GSD, both formulations can be characterized as estrogen-dominant with respect to their hepatic effects. Except for the first cycles, both formulations afford good cycle control, and the rate of side effects is similar to that with comparable low-dose oral contraceptives. The levels of total and free androgens and androgen precursors, as well as of peripheral androgen activity, are significantly reduced, resulting in a reduced incidence of acne. The concentrations of SHBG and other serum-binding globulins are elevated considerably, and thyroid function is almost unaffected. The estrogen-dominant effect on hepatic metabolism of both formulations also is reflected by a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides and VLDL, HDL, and some apolipoproteins, while LDL-CH and total CH remain unchanged. Similar to other low-dose oral contraceptives, the GSD-containing preparations cause a slight impairment of glucose tolerance that does not appear to be of clinical relevance. However, a significant increase exists in pro-coagulatory and fibrinolytic activity that leads to a considerable stimulation of fibrin turnover. In predisposed women, this may contribute to an elevated risk of venous and arterial thromboembolic diseases.

  10. An Obliquely Propagating Electromagnetic Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in Plasmas with Negative Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feihu; ZHANG Zhou; CHEN Yinhua; HUANG Feng

    2007-01-01

    In this study,by employing a local fluid theory for warm plasma containing negative ions,an obliquely propagating electromagnetic instability in the lower hybrid frequency range driven by cross-field currents or relative drifts between electrons and ions Was investigated.It is found that the growth rate of the lower-hybrid-drift instability(LHDI)can be controlled by appropriate selection of the propagation direction,the wave number and the relative population of the negative ions.

  11. Hardness and degree of conversion of dental restorative composites based on an organic-inorganic hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Aurélio de Souza Venter; Silvia Luciana Fávaro; Eduardo Radovanovic; Emerson Marcelo Girotto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a factorial design (mixture design) used to analyze the hardness and degree of monomer conversion into composites containing conventional monomers and an organic-inorganic hybrid polymer-based methacryloyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MEMO). For this purpose, resins (composites with SiO2) were formulated with the hybrid polymer (polycondensed, pMEMO), and two conventional monomers used in dentistry, bisphenol-A dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (T...

  12. In situ hybridization analysis of isodicentric X-chromosomes with short arm fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, J E; Kølvraa, S; Hertz, Jens Michael;

    1990-01-01

    We present here an alternative approach to the study of mosaic cell lines containing dicentric chromosomes. The approach is based on chromosome-specific non-radioactive in situ hybridization with centromere (alpha satellite DNA) probes. The hybridization analysis may be used as an alternative...... it for the analysis of two cases of isodicentric X-chromosomes. The approach is expected to be generally applicable, so that it may be applied to the scoring of other types of chromosomal mosaicism as well....

  13. Selection of a Planning Horizon for a Hybrid Microgrid Using Simulated Wind Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Craparo Dashi I. Singham Naval Postgraduate School 1411 Cunningham Road Monterey, CA, 93943 USA ABSTRACT Hybrid microgrids containing renewable energy ...produced is at least as great as the total load. Energy is produced by generators, wind turbines, purchases from the commercial grid, and discharge of the...A PLANNING HORIZON FOR A HYBRID MICROGRID USING SIMULATED WIND FORECASTS Mumtaz Karatas Turkish Naval Academy Tuzla, Istanbul, 34942, TURKEY Emily M

  14. Thermal stability and thermodynamic properties of hybrid proton-conducting polyaryl etherketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, D; Di Vona, M L; Traversa, E; Licoccia, S; Beurroies, I; Llewellyn, P L; Knauth, P

    2006-08-17

    The thermal and structural stability of sulfonated cross-linked PEEK (polyether ether ketone) and its silicon-containing class II hybrid derivatives were characterized by combination of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Thermodynamic properties of the hybrids were determined, including glass-transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, and thermal stability. The decomposition processes of the hybrid polymers could be consistently interpreted and their energetics quantitatively determined. The introduction of inorganic silanol moieties improves the thermal stability compared to sulfonated products.

  15. Development of a hybrid scaffold and a bioreactor for cartilage regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Seung-Jae; LEE In Hwan; PARK Jeong Hun; GWAK So-Jung; RHIE Jong-Won; CHO Dong-Woo; KO Tae Jo; KIM Dong Sung

    2009-01-01

    We developed a hybrid scaffold and a bioreactor for cartilage regeneration. The hybrid scaffold was developed as combination of two components: a biodegradable framework and hydrogel-containing chondrocytes. We performed the MTT cell proliferation assay to compare the proliferation and viability of chondrocytes on three types of scaffolds: an alginate gel, the hybrid scaffold, and an alginate sponge. Cells were encapsulated in 2% agarose gel. The bioreactor consisted of a circulation system and a compression system. We performed dynamic cell culture on these agarose gels in the bioreactor for 3 days.

  16. Testing of the front-end hybrid circuits for the CMS Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadek, T.; Blanchot, G.; Honma, A.; Kovacs, M.; Raymond, M.; Rose, P.

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the CMS Tracker for the HL-LHC requires the design of new double-sensor, silicon detector modules, which implement Level 1 trigger functionality in the increased luminosity environment. These new modules will contain two different, high-density front-end hybrid circuits, equipped with flip-chip ASICs, auxiliary electronic components and mechanical structures. The hybrids require qualification tests before they are assembled into modules. Test methods are proposed together with the corresponding test hardware and software. They include functional tests and signal injection in a cold environment to find possible failure modes of the hybrids under real operating conditions.

  17. Testing of the Front-End Hybrid Circuits for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gadek, Tomasz; Honma, Alan; Kovacs, Mark Istvan; Raymond, David Mark; Rose, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the CMS tracker for the HL-LHC requires the design of new double-sensor, silicon detector modules, which implement Level 1 trigger functionality in the increased luminosity environment. These new modules will contain two different, high density front-end hybrid circuits, equipped with flip-chip ASICs, auxiliary electronic components and mechanical structures. The hybrids require qualification tests before they are assembled into modules. Test methods are proposed together with the corresponding test hardware and software. They include functional tests and signal injection in a cold environment to find possible failure modes of the hybrids under real operating conditions.

  18. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  19. Hybrid Photocatalytic-Biological Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M. I.; Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Oller, I.; Gernjak, W.; Perez-Estrada, L.

    2006-07-01

    This contribution is presenting the tests and operational results performed for designing a new hybrid solar photocatalytic-biological demonstration plant built in a chemical industry located near Almeria (Spain). It will treat saline wastewater (sea water) containing a nonbiodegradable compound up to 550 mg/L and a Total Organic Carbon up to 600 mg/L. Initially, the wastewater (WW) is partly oxidized by solar photo-Fenton process to render the wastewater biodegradable. At pilot-plant scale the wastewater was successfully treated and the conditions for coupling with a biological treatment using Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) as pre-treatment were determined. Samples were collected along the AOP process and their biodegradability was evaluated with the Zahn-Wellens (ZW) test. Enhancement of WW biodegradability was confirmed (>70% biodegradable). Hydrogen peroxide management for reduced consumption is also discussed in detail and the principal parameters for designing the demonstration plant have been obtained. (Author)

  20. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.