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Sample records for hybridization study shows

  1. Dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids useful as vaginal microbicides also show reverse transcriptase inhibition: design, synthesis, docking and pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Veenu; Jangir, Santosh; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gupta, Sonal; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Lal, Nand; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Chandasana, Hardik; Krishna, Shagun; Rawat, Kavita; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Bhatta, Rabi S; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Tripathi, Rajkamal; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-02-15

    Prophylactic prevention is considered as the most promising strategy to tackle STI/HIV. Twenty-five dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids (14-38) were synthesized as woman controlled topical vaginal microbicides to counter Trichomonas vaginalis and sperm along with RT inhibition potential. The four promising compounds (18, 26, 28 and 33) were tested for safety through cytotoxic assay against human cervical cell line (HeLa) and compatibility with vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Docking study of most promising vaginal microbicide (33) revealed that it docked in a position and orientation similar to known reverse transcriptase inhibitor Nevirapine. The preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetics of compound 33 was performed in NZ-rabbits to evaluate systemic toxicity in comparison to Nonoxynol-9.

  2. The embryo rescue derived intergeneric hybrid between chrysanthemum and Ajania przewalskii shows enhanced cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanming; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Fei

    2011-12-01

    Five intergeneric hybrids between the chrysanthemum cultivar 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and Ajania przewalskii (as male) were obtained with the help of embryo culture. While 'Zhongshanjingui' bears a standard anemone type flower and A. przewalskii a non-anemone type one, the inflorescence type of the hybrids varied. The diameter of the hybrids' flowers was intermediate between those of the parents. The chromosome number of the hybrids was 2n = 45, of which GISH analysis was able to establish that 27 were inherited from 'Zhongshanjingui' and the other 18 from A. przewalskii. A combination of various assays was used to show that the cold tolerance of the hybrids was equivalent to that of the highly tolerant A. przewalskii parent. Enhanced cold tolerance was correlated with an increase in free proline and a decrease in malondialdehyde content.

  3. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  4. STD studies show spermicides protect against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that spermicides provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is accumulating. Laboratory tests have repeatedly demonstrated that spermicides are capable of killing the bacteria responsible for several types of STDs, as well as the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Recently, studies conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and in New York City suggest that these protective effects are not confined to the laboratory but that they also occur among women who use spermicides in the real world. In the New York City study, Family Health International (FHI), using data collected by Planned Parenthood of New York City, compared STD prevalence rates for women using different contraceptive methods. Women who used spermicides, in comparison with women who used oral contraceptives (OCs), were 20% less likely to have contracted a STD, 30% less likely to have gonorrhea, and 60% less likely to have chlamydia. In the Thai study, conducted jointly by the FHI and the Ministry of Health, women at high risk of STDs were allocated either to a group which was instructed to use a vaginal sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9 during intercourse or to a control group which received no vaginal contraceptives. All the women were either sterilized or using OCs, IUDs, or injectable contraceptives. Preliminary results suggest that the women who used the vaginal sponges were significantly less likely to contract chlamydia than the control group. In regard to the incidence of gonorrhea, no differences between the 2 groups was detected. In the Thai study methodological problems forced the researchers to redesign the study. In accordance with the new design, the women in the 2 groups will be crossed over after 6 weeks. This will allow the researchers to examine the effect of using or not using a vaginal spermicide on specific individuals. The findings of the 2 studies have special relevance given the increasing prevalence of STDs in many

  5. Low temperature-induced necrosis shows phenotypic plasticity in wheat triploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumi, Shigeo; Mizuno, Nobuyuki

    2011-10-01

    Hybrid necrosis sometimes appears in triploid hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii Coss. Two types of hybrid necrosis (type II and type III) were observed when cultivar Langdon was used as female parent for hybrid production. Type II necrosis symptoms occurred only under low temperature conditions, whereas bushy and dwarf phenotypes were observed under normal temperature conditions. The developmental plasticity might be related to a temperature-responsive alteration of meristematic activity at the crown tissue of triploid hybrids. Epistatic interaction between the AB and D genomes induced not only upregulation of a number of defense-related genes, but also extensive changes in plant architecture in the type II necrosis hybrids. Such phenotypic plasticity was also observed in other cross combinations between cultivated tetraploid wheat and type II necrosis-induced Ae. tauschii accessions. Wild tetraploid wheat, Triticum turgidum subspecies dicoccoides, did not induce type II necrosis in the triploid hybrids, indicating the possibility of identifying the chromosomal location of a causal gene for type II necrosis in the AB genome.

  6. Theoretical study on stability of hybrid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago S.; de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sèrgio

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental realization of the hybrid nanostructure of graphene and boron nitride (h-BN) sheet, and studies of gap modulation by strain, we use first principles calculations based on density functional theory to investigate the effects of strain in hybrid bilayers composed of two monolayers of graphene with a nanodomain of {{B}3}{{N}3}. The calculations were made with two different approximations for the functional exchange-correlation, GGA and VDW-DF. We investigate the modification in the electronic structure and structural properties of various configurations of the hybrid bilayers. Among the configurations, those with Bernal stacking are found to be more stable when compared to the others. Studies of the compressive strain influence were made only in the structure that has been shown to be the most stable. We have found that the two approximations used in the calculations exhibit the same results for the electronic properties of all structures. The opening of the energy gap due to strain was possible in the calculations by using the GGA approximation, but the same does not happen in the calculations using the VDW-DF approximation. Our analysis shows that the VDW-DF approximation is better suited for studies involving surfaces.

  7. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THREE HYBRID BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, E. C.; Lister, M. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kharb, P. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Marshall, H. L. [Center for Space Research, Room NE80-6031, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); O’Dea, C.; Baum, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    We present multiwavelength imaging observations of PKS 1045−188, 8C 1849+670, and PKS 2216−038, three radio-loud active galactic nuclei from the MOJAVE-Chandra Sample that straddle the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) boundary between low- and high-power jets. These hybrid sources provide an excellent opportunity to study jet emission mechanisms and the influence of the external environment. We used archival VLA observations, and new Hubble and Chandra observations to identify and study the spectral properties of five knots in PKS 1045−188, two knots in 8C 1849+670, and three knots in PKS 2216−038. For the seven X-ray visible knots, we constructed and fit the broadband spectra using synchrotron and inverse Compton/cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission models. In all cases, we found that the lack of detected optical emission ruled out the X-ray emission from the same electron population that produces radio emission. All three sources have high total extended radio power, similar to that of FR II sources. We find this is in good agreement with previously studied hybrid sources, where high-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via IC/CMB and the low-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via synchrotron emission. This supports the idea that it is total radio power rather than FR morphology that determines the X-ray emission mechanism. We found no significant asymmetries in the diffuse X-ray emission surrounding the host galaxies. Sources PKS 1045−188 and 8C 1849+670 show significant differences in their radio and X-ray termination points, which may result from the deceleration of highly relativistic bulk motion.

  8. Hybrid cells derived from breast epithelial cell/breast cancer cell fusion events show a differential RAF-AKT crosstalk

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    Özel Cem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to several characteristics of tumour progression, including an enhanced metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance of hybrid cells. We demonstrated recently that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics spontaneously fused with MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, thereby giving rise to stable M13MDA435 hybrid cells, which are characterised by a unique gene expression profile and migratory behaviour. Here we investigated the involvement of the PLC-β/γ1, PI3K/AKT and RAS-RAF-ERK signal transduction cascades in the EGF and SDF-1α induced migration of two M13MDA435 hybrid cell clones in comparison to their parental cells. Results Analysis of the migratory behaviour by using the three-dimensional collagen matrix migration assay showed that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells as well as M13MDA435 hybrid cells, but not the breast cancer cell line, responded to EGF stimulation with an increased locomotory activity. By contrast, SDF-1α solely stimulated the migration of M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells, whereas the migratory activity of the other cell lines was blocked. Analysis of signal transduction cascades revealed a putative differential RAF-AKT crosstalk in M13MDA435-1 and -3 hybrid cell clones. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 effectively blocked the EGF induced migration of M13MDA435-3 hybrid cells, whereas the EGF induced locomotion of M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells was markedly increased. Analysis of RAF-1 S259 phosphorylation, being a major mediator of the negative regulation of RAF-1 by AKT, showed decreased pRAF-1 S259 levels in LY294002 treated M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells. By contrast, pRAF-1 S259 levels remained unaltered in the other cell lines. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT signalling by Ly294002 relieves the AKT mediated phosphorylation of RAF-1, thereby restoring MAPK signalling. Conclusions Here we show that hybrid cells could evolve exhibiting a

  9. Hybrid embryonic stem cell-derived tetraploid mice show apparently normal morphological, physiological, and neurological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Frieder; Zevnik, Branko; Brüning, Jens; Röhl, Mathias; Willuweit, Antje; Rode, Anja; Hennek, Thomas; Kauselmann, Gunther; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Kühn, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    ES cell-tetraploid (ES) mice are completely derived from embryonic stem cells and can be obtained at high efficiency upon injection of hybrid ES cells into tetraploid blastocysts. This method allows the immediate generation of targeted mouse mutants from genetically modified ES cell clones, in contrast to the standard protocol, which involves the production of chimeras and several breeding steps. To provide a baseline for the analysis of ES mouse mutants, we performed a phenotypic characterization of wild-type B6129S6F(1) ES mice in relation to controls of the same age, sex, and genotype raised from normal matings. The comparison of 90 morphological, physiological, and behavioral parameters revealed elevated body weight and hematocrit as the only major difference of ES mice, which exhibited an otherwise normal phenotype. We further demonstrate that ES mouse mutants can be produced from mutant hybrid ES cells and analyzed within a period of only 4 months. Thus, ES mouse technology is a valid research tool for rapidly elucidating gene function in vivo.

  10. High throughput RNA sequencing of a hybrid maize and its parents shows different mechanisms responsive to nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yong-Mei; Meyer, Ann; Downs, Gregory S; Shi, Xuejiang; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Lukens, Lewis; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-01-28

    Development of crop varieties with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is crucial for minimizing N loss, reducing environmental pollution and decreasing input cost. Maize is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide and its productivity is closely linked to the amount of fertilizer used. A survey of the transcriptomes of shoot and root tissues of a maize hybrid line and its two parental inbred lines grown under sufficient and limiting N conditions by mRNA-Seq has been conducted to have a better understanding of how different maize genotypes respond to N limitation. A different set of genes were found to be N-responsive in the three genotypes. Many biological processes important for N metabolism such as the cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process and the cellular amino acid metabolic process were enriched in the N-responsive gene list from the hybrid shoots but not from the parental lines' shoots. Coupled to this, sugar, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, glucose, and sorbitol transport pathways were all up-regulated in the hybrid, but not in the parents under N limitation. Expression patterns also differed between shoots and roots, such as the up-regulation of the cytokinin degradation pathway in the shoots of the hybrid and down-regulation of that pathway in the roots. The change of gene expression under N limitation in the hybrid resembled the parent with the higher NUE trait. The transcript abundances of alleles derived from each parent were estimated using polymorphic sites in mapped reads in the hybrid. While there were allele abundance differences, there was no correlation between these and the expression differences seen between the hybrid and the two parents. Gene expression in two parental inbreds and the corresponding hybrid line in response to N limitation was surveyed using the mRNA-Seq technology. The data showed that the three genotypes respond very differently to N-limiting conditions, and the hybrid clearly has a unique expression pattern

  11. Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160594.html Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows ... There's more bad news when it comes to Zika's effect on infants: A case study suggests the ...

  12. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration Scaling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration is a subsonic transport aircraft concept with the potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions compared to conventional concepts. Initial studies focused on very large applications with capacities for up to 800 passengers. More recent studies have focused on the large, twin-aisle class with passenger capacities in the 300-450 range. Efficiently scaling this concept down to the single aisle or smaller size is challenging due to geometric constraints, potentially reducing the desirability of this concept for applications in the 100-200 passenger capacity range or less. In order to quantify this scaling challenge, five advanced conventional (tube-and-wing layout) concepts were developed, along with equivalent (payload/range/technology) HWB concepts, and their fuel burn performance compared. The comparison showed that the HWB concepts have fuel burn advantages over advanced tube-and-wing concepts in the larger payload/range classes (roughly 767-sized and larger). Although noise performance was not quantified in this study, the HWB concept has distinct noise advantages over the conventional tube-and-wing configuration due to the inherent noise shielding features of the HWB. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project will continue to investigate advanced configurations, such as the HWB, due to their potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions.

  13. A Study on Person Deixis Used in TV Talk Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓

    2014-01-01

    Deixis means“pointing” via language. There are many scholars who study person deixis in different discourses. However, few of them have analyzed person deixis used in TV talk show, which is more popular in our daily life. TV talk show is an important face-to-face conversation in which the participants use some person deixis to reach certain goal. This thesis studies the person deixis used in TV talk show especial y three types of unconventional usage of person deixis in the TV talk show discourse.

  14. Oral hybrid verrucous carcinoma: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokavarapu, Sandhya; Rao S, L M Chandrasekhara; Tantravahi, Uma Sankar; Gundimeda, Sandhya Devi; Rao, T Subramaneshwar; Murthy, Sudha

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid Verrucous Carcinoma is an uncommon tumour wherein Verrucous Carcinoma (VC) is coexisting with conventional Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) within same maternal field. The heterogeneous nature, infrequency of occurrence and the difficulties associated with diagnosis and management of this tumor is discussed through a retrospective study. Patients of primary hybrid VC treated from Jan 2010 to May 2013 at a tertiary institute were analyzed on multivariate cox regression model. During the above mentioned period; 37 patients of hybrid VC were reported; 18(48.6 %) were male and 19(51.3 %) were female. Age ranged between 33 years to 78 years. Median follow up period was 32 months. T stage status and Stage grouping was not statistically significant for mortality (p value: 0.338). In the multivariate cox-regression model, the presence of second primary oral cancer was significantly associated with mortality, adjusted HR; 23.10 (95 % CI: 1.73, 307.65) (p = 0.017). Tumour staging is often unreliable in predicting prognosis of hybrid VC, occurrence of second primary oral cancer and recurrence appears to be significant factors effecting prognosis.

  15. Hybrid Arc Cell Studies: Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg J. S.

    2012-09-28

    I report on the status, at the end of FY12, of the studies of an arc cell for a hybrid synchrotron accelerating from 375 GeV/c to 750 GeV/c in momentum. Garren produced a complete lattice that gives a good outline of the structure of a hybrid synchrotron lattice. It is, however, lacking in some details: it does not maintain a constant time of flight, it lacks chromaticity correction, its cell structure is not ideal for removing aberrations from chromaticity correction, and it probably needs more space between magnets. I have begun studying cell structures for the arc cells to optimize the lattice performance and cost. I present some preliminary results for two magnets per half cell. I then discuss difficulties encountered, some preliminary attempts at resolving them, and the future plans for this work.

  16. Studies on CO2-laser Hybrid-Welding of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    CO2-laser welding of copper is known to be difficult due to the high heat conductivity of the material and the high reflectivity of copper at the wavelength of the CO2-laser light. THis paper presents a study of laser welding of copper, applying laser hybrid welding. Welding was performed...... as a hybrid CO2-laser and GTAW welding process in 2 mm pure copper sheets. The purpose was to identify maximum welding speeds for the three independent welding processes, i.e. GTAW alone, laser alone and combined processes. After welding, representative welds were quality assesed according to inernational...... norms. The paper describes the results obtained, showing significant productivity improvements and good weld qualities applying laser hybrid welding....

  17. Studies on CO2-laser Hybrid-Welding of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    CO2-laser welding of copper is known to be difficult due to the high heat conductivity of the material and the high reflectivity of copper at the wavelength of the CO2-laser light. THis paper presents a study of laser welding of copper, applying laser hybrid welding. Welding was performed...... as a hybrid CO2-laser and GTAW welding process in 2 mm pure copper sheets. The purpose was to identify maximum welding speeds for the three independent welding processes, i.e. GTAW alone, laser alone and combined processes. After welding, representative welds were quality assesed according to inernational...... norms. The paper describes the results obtained, showing significant productivity improvements and good weld qualities applying laser hybrid welding....

  18. Regression Rate Study in HTPB/GOX Hybrid Rocket Motors.

    OpenAIRE

    Philmon George; Krishnan, S; Lalitha Ramachandran; P. M. Varkey; Raveendran, M.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical and experimenIal studies on hybrid rocket motor combustion research are briefly reviewed and the need for a clear understanding of hybrid rocket fuel regression rate mechanism is brought out. A test facility established at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, for hybrid rocket motor research study is described.The results of an experimental study on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor are presented. Fuel grains with ammonium perchlor...

  19. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Mortensen, N Asger

    2015-03-01

    Within our recently proposed generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model, where nonlocal response is included by taking into account both convective and diffusive currents of the conduction electrons, we revisit the fundamental problem of an optically excited plasmonic dimer. We consider the transition from separated dimers via touching dimers to finally overlapping dimers. In particular, we focus on the touching case, showing a fundamental limit on the hybridization of the bonding plasmon modes due to nonlocality. Using transformation optics, we determine a simple analytical equation for the resonance energies.

  20. Hybrid functional study of α-uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Chinnappan, Ravi; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2016-05-01

    We have used the hybrid density functionals to study the structural and electronic properties of alpha-U. The fraction of exact Hartree Folk exchange used is varied from 0.0 to 0.6. The equilibrium volume is found to be underestimated and bulk modulus overestimated with HSE as compared to both calculated by PBE and the experimental values. Electronic bands below the Fermi level are found to shift to lower energy with respect to PBE electronic bands which itself gives the bands shifted to lower energies as compared to UPS experiments.

  1. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  2. The interrelation between plus-hybrid effect on grain yield and genetic distance of studied hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia is referred to as the Plus-Hybrid effect. A mixture of hybrids, in which one is a sterile female component and the other is a fertile pollinator, was sown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the increase of a hybrid genetic distance would result in the increased gain from Plus-hybrid effects on grain yield. Two ZP hybrids (ZP 1 and ZP 2, i.e. their sterile and fertile counterparts, as well as, five hybrid pollinators (ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4 and ZP 5 were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trail was set up according to the randomized split-plot design at Zemun Polje in 2009. SSR markers were used to determine the genetic distance between hybrids. Ten out of total 12 applied primers gave results. Coefficients of similarity were estimated according to Dice and Jaccard. The greatest (0.37, i.e. smallest genetic distance (0.08, according to Dice, was obtained between hybrids ZP 1 and ZP 5, i.e. ZP 1 and ZP 4, respectively. Values of genetic distance according to Jaccard were between 0.14 (ZP 1 and ZP 4 and 0.54 (ZP 1 i ZP 5 . By using the cluster analysis, four hybrids (ZP 1, ZP 4, ZP 3 and ZP 2 were grouped into one sub-cluster that was loosely linked to ZP 5. The Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield of the hybrid ZP 1 was negative. The greatest gain was detected in the ZP 2st ' ZP 1 combination, between two hybrids that were genetically very similar and belonged to the same sub-cluster, and then in ZP 2st x ZP 3 and ZP 2st x ZP 4 combinations, between hybrids that also belonged to the same sub-cluster. It can be concluded that the Plus-hybrid effect, after all, depends not on the hybrid genetic distance but on the hybrid genotype.

  3. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis shows different epidemiology of chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-carrying Clostridium perfringens type A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Lahti

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens, one of the most common causes of food poisonings, can carry the enterotoxin gene, cpe, in its chromosome or on a plasmid. C. perfringens food poisonings are more frequently caused by the chromosomal cpe-carrying strains, while the plasmid-borne cpe-positive genotypes are more commonly found in the human feces and environmental samples. Different tolerance to food processing conditions by the plasmid-borne and chromosomal cpe-carrying strains has been reported, but the reservoirs and contamination routes of enterotoxin-producing C. perfringens remain unknown. A comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis with a DNA microarray based on three C. perfringens type A genomes was conducted to shed light on the epidemiology of C. perfringens food poisonings caused by plasmid-borne and chromosomal cpe-carrying strains by comparing chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-positive and cpe-negative C. perfringens isolates from human, animal, environmental, and food samples. The chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-positive C. perfringens genotypes formed two distinct clusters. Variable genes were involved with myo-inositol, ethanolamine and cellobiose metabolism, suggesting a new epidemiological model for C. perfringens food poisonings. The CGH results were complemented with growth studies, which demonstrated different myo-inositol, ethanolamine, and cellobiose metabolism between the chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-carrying strains. These findings support a ubiquitous occurrence of the plasmid-borne cpe-positive strains and their adaptation to the mammalian intestine, whereas the chromosomal cpe-positive strains appear to have a narrow niche in environments containing degrading plant material. Thus the epidemiology of the food poisonings caused by two populations appears different, the plasmid-borne cpe-positive strains probably contaminating foods via humans and the chromosomal strains being connected to plant material.

  4. Regression Rate Study in HTPB/GOX Hybrid Rocket Motors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philmon George

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimenIal studies on hybrid rocket motor combustion research are briefly reviewed and the need for a clear understanding of hybrid rocket fuel regression rate mechanism is brought out. A test facility established at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, for hybrid rocket motor research study is described.The results of an experimental study on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor are presented. Fuel grains with ammonium perchlorate "additive" have shownenhanced oxidizermass flux dependence. Smallergrains have higher regression rates than those of the larger ones.

  5. Studies on synthetic LuxR solo hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePassos da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A sub-group of LuxR family of proteins that plays important roles in quorum sensing, a process of cell-cell communication, is widespread in proteobacteria. These proteins have a typical modular structure consisting of N-ter autoinducer binding and C-ter helix-turn-helix (HTH DNA binding domains. The autoinducer binding domain recognizes signaling molecules which are most often N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs but could also be other novel and yet unidentified molecules. In this study we carried out a series of specific domain swapping and promoter activation experiments as a first step to engineer synthetic signaling modules, taking advantage of the modularity and the versatile/diverse signal specificities of LuxR proteins. In our experiments the N-ter domains from different LuxR homologs were either interchanged or placed in tandem followed by a C-ter domain. The rational design of the hybrid proteins was supported by a structure-based homology modeling studies of three members of the LuxR family (i.e. LasR, RhlR and OryR being chosen for their unique ligand binding specificities and of selected chimeras. Our results reveal that these LuxR homologs were able to activate promoter elements that were not their usual targets; we also show that hybrid LuxR proteins retained the ability to recognize the signal specific for their N- ter autoinducer binding domain. However, the activity of hybrid LuxR proteins containing two AHL binding domains in tandem appears to depend on the organization and nature of the introduced domains. This study represents advances in the understanding of the modularity of LuxR proteins and provides additional possibilities to use hybrid proteins in both basic and applied synthetic biology based research.

  6. Studies on synthetic LuxR solo hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Daniel Passos; Patel, Hitendra K; González, Juan F; Devescovi, Giulia; Meng, Xianfa; Covaceuszach, Sonia; Lamba, Doriano; Subramoni, Sujatha; Venturi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A sub-group of LuxR family of proteins that plays important roles in quorum sensing, a process of cell-cell communication, is widespread in proteobacteria. These proteins have a typical modular structure consisting of N-ter autoinducer binding and C-ter helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding domains. The autoinducer binding domain recognizes signaling molecules which are most often N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) but could also be other novel and yet unidentified molecules. In this study we carried out a series of specific domain swapping and promoter activation experiments as a first step to engineer synthetic signaling modules, taking advantage of the modularity and the versatile/diverse signal specificities of LuxR proteins. In our experiments the N-ter domains from different LuxR homologs were either interchanged or placed in tandem followed by a C-ter domain. The rational design of the hybrid proteins was supported by a structure-based homology modeling studies of three members of the LuxR family (i.e., LasR, RhlR, and OryR being chosen for their unique ligand binding specificities) and of selected chimeras. Our results reveal that these LuxR homologs were able to activate promoter elements that were not their usual targets; we also show that hybrid LuxR proteins retained the ability to recognize the signal specific for their N- ter autoinducer binding domain. However, the activity of hybrid LuxR proteins containing two AHL binding domains in tandem appears to depend on the organization and nature of the introduced domains. This study represents advances in the understanding of the modularity of LuxR proteins and provides additional possibilities to use hybrid proteins in both basic and applied synthetic biology based research.

  7. Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

  8. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  9. Color-tunable luminescence of organoclay-based hybrid materials showing potential applications in white LED and thermosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianren; Li, Peng; Li, Huanrong

    2014-08-13

    Hybrid composites with great potential for white light LED and temperature sensing obtained through a simple, low cost, and environmental benign way is highly desirable and remains a challengeable task. Herein we present luminescent hybrid composites both in the form of powder and transparent film by simply mixing organic sensitizer, aminoclay (AC), and lanthanide (Ln(3+)) in aqueous solution, the emission color of which can be fine-tuned by changing various parameters such as the molar ratio of Eu(3+) to Tb(3+), excitation wavelength, and the temperature. White lights with satisfied color coordinates have been achieved. The emission intensity ratio of (5)D4 → (7)F5 transition (Tb(3+)) to (5)D0 → (7)F2 transition (Eu(3+)) of the composite containing both Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) can be linearly related to temperature in the range from 78 K to 288 K. These characteristics make the composites suitable for optoelectronic devices such as thermosensors and white light LED.

  10. A Multiwavelength Study of Three Hybrid Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Stanley, E C; Lister, M L; Marshall, H L; O'Dea, C; Baum, S

    2015-01-01

    We present multiwavelength imaging observations of PKS 1045-188, 8C 1849+670, and PKS 2216-038, three radio-loud active galactic nuclei from the MOJAVE-Chandra Sample that straddle the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) boundary between low- and high-power jets. These hybrid sources provide an excellent opportunity to study jet emission mechanisms and the influence of the external environment. We used archival VLA observations, and new Hubble and Chandra observations to identify and study the spectral properties of five knots in PKS 1045-188, two knots in 8C 1849+670, and three knots in PKS 2216-038. For the seven X-ray visible knots, we constructed and fit the broadband spectra using synchrotron and inverse Compton/cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission models. In all cases, we found that the lack of detected optical emission ruled out the X-ray emission from the same electron population that produces radio emission. All three sources have high total extended radio power, similar to that of FR II sources. We find th...

  11. Study of the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm for Hybrid Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic Artificial Fish Swarm (AFS Algorithm is a new type of an heuristic swarm intelligence algorithm, but it is difficult to optimize to get high precision due to the randomness of the artificial fish behavior, which belongs to the intelligence algorithm. This paper presents an extended AFS algorithm, namely the Cooperative Artificial Fish Swarm (CAFS, which significantly improves the original AFS in solving complex optimization problems. K-medoids clustering algorithm is being used to classify data, but the approach is sensitive to the initial selection of the centers with low quality of the divided cluster. A novel hybrid clustering method based on the CAFS and K-medoids could be used for solving clustering problems. In this work, first, CAFS algorithm is used for optimizing six widely-used benchmark functions, coming up with comparative results produced by AFS and CAFS, then Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is studied. Second, the hybrid algorithm with K-medoids and CAFS algorithms is used for data clustering on several benchmark data sets. The performance of the hybrid algorithm based on K-medoids and CAFS is compared with AFS and CAFS algorithms on a clustering problem. The simulation results show that the proposed CAFS outperforms the other two algorithms in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  12. Study of hybrid orientation structure wafer*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Kaizhou; Zhang Jing; Xu Shiliu; Zhang Zhengfan; Yang Yonghui; Chen Jun; Liang Tao

    2011-01-01

    Two types of 5 μm thick hybrid orientation structure wafers, which were integrated by (110) or (100) orientation silicon wafers as the substrate, have been investigated for 15-40 V voltage ICs and MEMS sensor applications. They have been obtained mainly by SOI wafer bonding and a non-selective epitaxy technique, and have been presented in China for the first time. The thickness of BOX SiO2 buried in wafer is 220 nm. It has been found that the quality of hybrid orientation structure with (100) wafer substrate is better than that with (110) wafer substrate by “Sirtl defect etching of HOSW”.

  13. Study on Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Hybrid GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Bahiyah Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the mechanical and physical behaviour of hybrid glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP. Hybrid GFRP was fabricated by three different types of glass fibre, namely, 3D, woven, and chopped, which were selected and combined with mixture of polyester resin and hardener. The hybrid GFRP was investigated by varying three parameters which were the composite volume fractions, hybrid GFRP arrangement, and single type fibre. The hybrid GFRP was fabricated by using open mould hand lay-up technique. Mechanical testing was conducted by tensile test for strength and stiffness whereas physical testing was performed using water absorption and hardness. These tests were carried out to determine the effect of mechanical and physical behaviour over the hybrid GFRP. The highest volume fraction of 0.5 gives the highest strength and stiffness of 73 MPa and 821 MPa, respectively. Varying hybrid fibre arrangement which is the arrangement of chopped-woven-3D-woven-chopped showed the best value in strength of 66.2 MPa. The stiffness is best at arrangement of woven-chopped-woven-chopped-woven at 690 MPa. This arrangement also showed the lowest water absorption of 4.5%. Comparing the single fibre type, woven had overtaken the others in terms of both mechanical and physical properties.

  14. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mace, Emily K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL, and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. The core of the HEVA methodology, the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, serves as an indirect method for the measurement of total neutron emission from the cylinder. A method for measuring the intrinsic efficiency of this “non-traditional” neutron signature and the results from a benchmark experiment are presented. Also discussed are potential perturbing effects on the non-traditional signature, including short-lived activation of materials in the HEVA module. Modeling and empirical results are presented to demonstrate that such effects are expected to be negligible for the envisioned implementation scenario. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  15. HD Diesel Hybrid Truck Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    These are typically connected through a power take-off on the transmission or in the drivetrain . - Other trucks such as over-the-road tractors need...technologies for MD and HD trucks and buses that may be provided as options for customers. • Hydraulic Hybrid drivetrains - uses a pressurized

  16. Rape and the prevalence of hybrids in broadly sympatric species: a case study using albatrosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievert Rohwer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conspecific rape often increases male reproductive success. However, the haste and aggression of forced copulations suggests that males may sometimes rape heterospecific females, thus making rape a likely, but undocumented, source of hybrids between broadly sympatric species. We present evidence that heterospecific rape may be the source of hybrids between Black-footed and Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes, and P. immutabilis, respectively. Extensive field studies have shown that paired (but not unpaired males of both of these albatross species use rape as a supplemental reproductive strategy. Between species differences in size, timing of laying, and aggressiveness suggest that Black-footed Albatrosses should be more successful than Laysan Albatrosses in heteropspecific rape attempts, and male Black-footed Albatrosses have been observed attempting to force copulations on female Laysan Albatrosses. Nuclear markers showed that the six hybrids we studied were F1s and mitochondrial markers showed that male Black-footed Albatrosses sired all six hybrids. Long-term gene exchange between these species has been from Black-footed Albatrosses into Laysan Albatrosses, suggesting that the siring asymmetry found in our hybrids has long persisted. If hybrids are sired in heterospecific rapes, they presumably would be raised and sexually imprinted on Laysan Albatrosses, and two unmated hybrids in a previous study courted only Laysan Albatrosses.

  17. DOES PRODUCTIVITY MATTER IN THE ADOPTION OF HYBRID RICE? A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Saeed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyze comparative economics of hybrid rice and basmati in the core rice growing area of Punjab. Cross-data was collected through well-structured questionnaires from 80 farmers during May and June 2011.Study results reveal that higher yield and less time required for maturity in production were the main reasons for planting of hybrid rice. Hybrid rice occupied 3.6 acres whereas area under basmati was 5.9 acres of the total farm area. Farmers obtained above 60 percent increase in yield of hybrid rice. Results show that cost of production of basmati rice was estimated as Rs.37364 per acre and total revenue was Rs.44768 per acre. The benefit cost ratio of basmati rice was 1.20 and that of hybrid rice was 1.80, implying that hybrid rice has brought comparatively more economic benefits to the farmers as compared to basmati in the study area. Shortage of buyers, much costly poor quality hybrid seed, late payment and higher transportation costs are among major constraints in rice production and marketing.

  18. A study on the control of a hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) system can combine the benefits of both Line Commutated Converter (LCC) and Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technologies in the form of reduced losses and flexibility to connect to weak and passive grids. In this paper, an analysis of control strategies used...... in a hybrid MTDC system is presented. A case study of a four terminal hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive AC network was considered for simulation study. A control scheme based on voltage margin was developed to cope with the condition of main DC voltage controlling station tripping. Two various control...... scenarios for controlling the VSCs connected to the passive network were presented and compared. The system performance was studied through EMTP-RV simulations under different disturbances. The results show the ability of selected converter control modes and proposed control schemes to operate the hybrid...

  19. Structure improvement and electrochemical studies of bipolar nickel metal hydride batteries for hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chao; SHI Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride battery in bipolar design offers some advantages for its application as a power storage system for electric and hybrid vehicles. This paper deals with the structure design and electrochemical studies of bipolar Ni/MH batteries for hybrid vehicles. An improvement is applied in bipolar battery design,and such bipolar Ni/MH batteries with 5 sub-cells have been assembled and investigated. Testing results show that bipolar batteries with improved structure have better compression tolerance and cycle performance than conventional ones. In addition, the improved bipolar batteries display excellent large current discharge ability and high power density. As simulating working conditions for hybrid vehicles, the batteries show good stability during pulse cycles, which verifies the possibility of being used as a power storage device on hybrid vehicles.

  20. CSEM-Steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

    1985-06-01

    Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 KOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Dry sliding wear studies of aluminum matrix hybrid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Monikandan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, hybrid composites are fabricated with self-lubricating characteristics to make them as resource-efficient materials. AA6061-10 wt. % B4C–MoS2 hybrid composites reinforced with 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt. % concentration of MoS2 particles are produced using stir casting technique, and mechanical and tribological properties are evaluated. Microstructural characterization of the hybrid composites revealed the uniform distribution of reinforcement (B4C and MoS2 particles in the matrix material. Hardness and fracture toughness of the hybrid composites are decreased monotonously with an increase in the addition of MoS2 particles. Dry sliding tribological studies conducted using a pin-on-disk tribotester under atmospheric conditions revealed the formation of MoS2-lubricated tribolayer on the worn pin surface which significantly influenced the tribological properties. The addition of MoS2 particles decreased the friction coefficient and wear rate of the hybrid composites. Delamination and abrasion are observed to be the controlling wear mechanisms and material in the form of platelet-shaped debris, and flow-type chip debris is formed, and a long and shallow crater on the worn pin surface of the hybrid composite is also observed.

  2. Typhoon Haiyan overwash sediments from Leyte Gulf coastlines show local spatial variations with hybrid storm and tsunami signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Janneli Lea A.; Switzer, Adam D.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Siringan, Fernando P.; Khan, Nicole S.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2017-08-01

    Marine inundation associated with the 5 to 8 m storm surge of Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 left overwash sediments inland on the coastal plains of the northwestern shores of Leyte Gulf, Philippines. The Haiyan overwash deposit provides a modern sedimentary record of storm surge deposition from a Category 5 landfalling typhoon. We studied overwash sediments at two locations that experienced similar storm surge conditions but represent contrasting sedimentological regimes, namely a siliciclastic coast and a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate coast. The contrasting local geology is significantly reflected in the differences in sediment grain size, composition and sorting at the two sites. The Haiyan overwash sediments are predominantly sand and silt and can be traced up to 1.6 km inland, extending farther beyond the previously reported tsunami deposits.

  3. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  4. Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S.

    1995-04-26

    We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO{sub x} emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO{sub x} concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today`s gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

  5. A Comparative Study of Several Hybrid Particle Swarm Algorithms for Function Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zhong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the researchers have made a lot of hybrid particle swarm algorithm in order to solve the shortcomings that the Particle Swarm Algorithms is easy to converge to local extremum, these algorithms declare that there has been better than the standard particle swarm. This study selects three kinds of representative hybrid particle swarm optimizations (differential evolution particle swarm optimization, GA particle swarm optimization, quantum particle swarm optimization and the standard particle swarm optimization to test with three objective functions. We compare evolutionary algorithm performance by a fixed number of iterations of the convergence speed and accuracy and the number of iterations under the fixed convergence precision; analyzing these types of hybrid particle swarm optimization results and practical performance. Test results show hybrid particle algorithm performance has improved significantly.

  6. A Comparative Study of Several Hybrid Particle Swarm Algorithms for Function Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the researchers have made a lot of hybrid particle swarm algorithm in order to solve the shortcomings that the Particle Swarm Algorithms is easy to converge to local extremum, these algorithms declare that there has been better than the standard particle swarm. This study selects three kinds of representative hybrid particle swarm optimizations (differential evolution particle swarm optimization, GA particle swarm optimization, quantum particle swarm optimization and the standard particle swarm optimization to test with three objective functions. We compare evolutionary algorithm performance by a fixed number of iterations of the convergence speed and accuracy and the number of iterations under the fixed convergence precision, analyzing these types of hybrid particle swarm optimization results and practical performance. Test results show hybrid particle algorithm performance has improved significantly.

  7. Performance study of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid optical fiber amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, O.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical study of a (macro-bending EDFA)/Raman hybrid optical amplifier. The bending radius is 4 mm with EDFA length 10 m with forward pump power in the range (100-500 mW) and Raman amplifier length (12-55 km) with backward pump power variations (80-200 mW) is considered in our model. Due to bending loss in EDFA, the gain of hybrid amplifier is increased to ~7 dB more than the normal EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier and the noise figure is decreased by ~2 dB rather than without macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier. The signal to noise ratio (OSNR) calculations shows a better performance of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier than without macro-bending one. A flat gain is obtained in the signal wavelength region (1560-1600 nm), which is the L-band. The calculated results for macro-bending case are compared with experimental results of normal case by Lee et al., in the L-band showing an increase in the gain, reduction in the noise figure and more gain flatness at the input signal -20 dBm for macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier.

  8. Chromogenic in situ hybridization: a multicenter study comparing silver in situ hybridization with FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J M S; Campbell, Fiona M; Ibrahim, Merdol; Wencyk, Peter; Ellis, Ian; Kay, Elaine; Connolly, Yvonne; O'Grady, Anthony; Di Palma, Silvana; Starczynski, Jane; Morgan, John M; Jasani, Bharat; Miller, Keith

    2009-10-01

    Our purposes were to perform a robust assessment of a new HER2 chromogenic in situ hybridization test and report on concordance of silver in situ hybridization (SISH) data with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data and on intraobserver and interlaboratory scoring consistency. HER2 results were scored from 45 breast cancers in 7 laboratories using the Ventana (Tucson, AZ) INFORM HER-2 SISH assay and in 1 central laboratory using a standard FISH assay. Overall, 94.8% of cases were successfully analyzed by SISH across the 6 participating laboratories that reported data. Concordance for diagnosis of HER2 amplification by SISH compared with FISH was high (96.0% overall). Intraobserver variability (8.0%) and intersite variability (12.66%) of absolute HER2/chromosome 17 ratios appear to be tightly controlled across all 6 participating laboratories. The Ventana INFORM HER-2 SISH assay is robust and reproducible, shows good concordance with a standard FISH assay, and complies with requirements in national guidelines for performance of diagnostic tests.

  9. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and "through-the-ground" parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains.

  10. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and ''through-the-ground'' parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains. (author)

  11. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  12. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis.

  13. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  14. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    include utility boom trucks and beverage haulers. Eaton Corp. manufactures a parallel hybrid-electric drivetrain that is used by many of the truck...Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). Most of the hybrid buses use series hybrid-electric drivetrains , and key manufacturers are BAE Systems, ISE...Competing Alternatives to Diesel-Electric Hybrid Powertrains ............................................ 153 6.1 Hydraulic Hybrid Drivetrains

  15. Microsatellites for the mangrove tree Avicennia germinans (Acanthaceae): Tools for hybridization and mating system studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Gustavo M; Zucchi, Maria I; Sampaio, Iracilda; Souza, Anete P

    2010-09-01

    We developed a new set of microsatellite markers for the black mangrove Avicennia germinans, to provide new informative tools for further studies of the mating system, interspecific hybridization, and population genetics. • We used the microsatellite-enriched library approach to isolate and characterize 25 new primer pairs. Sixteen of them are polymorphic, showing a variable degree of variation in A. germinans, while nine were monomorphic in the samples examined. Eight exhibited private alleles in A. schaueriana. • These results indicate that these new microsatellite markers will be useful molecular tools for further studies of A. germinans and A. schaueriana population genetics, mating systems, and hybridization.

  16. STUDY ON STRESS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INTRAPLY HYBRID COMPOSITE SHEET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆敦; 黄小清; 林雪慧

    2001-01-01

    A reasonably, simply and accurately modified shear-lag model was proposed.Based on the model, the stress redistributions due to the failure of some fibers in an intraply hybrid composite under tension were analyzed. The results show that the present calculating stress concentration factors very coincide with Fukuda and Chou' s results, thus verifying the reasonableness and correctness of the present model and methods.

  17. Hybrid ventilation systems. Principles, design and calculation, case studies. Final report; Hybride Lueftungssysteme. Prinzipien, Planung und Berechnung, Beispiele. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, R.; Roloff, J. [and others

    2003-09-01

    This report contains the most important information achieved within the IEA-ECBCS project Annex 35 of the national and international level. The first chapters are a translation of the main parts of the international final report 'Principles of Hybrid Ventilation' (ed. Per Heiselberg). The international report including a CD-ROM is enclosed in this report. Based on a definition of hybrid ventilation it is motivated why to deal with hybrid ventilation. The explanations are underlined by precise data of the investigated case studies. The variety of solutions with hybrid ventilation is large, but there are three main principles, natural and mechanical ventilation, fan-assisted natural ventilation, stack- and wind-assisted mechanical ventilation. A hybrid ventilation systems is most suitable to implement if this idea is taken into account in the early design phases. Therefore decision tools are compiled to make it clear whether a hybrid ventilation concept could be successful under the given conditions or not. Moreover, important aspects of control strategies are summarized, which are crucial for an optimal operation of a hybrid ventilation system. If there is an option for installing a hybrid ventilation system it is necessary to carry out calculations and evaluations during the design phases. The available tools are presented and classified. Beside the substantial data of the case studies of the international project partners the national studies are presented in detail. These are the investigation of an existing hybrid ventilation system in the school building 'Bertolt-Brecht-Gymnasium', Dresden and the development of an innovative hybrid ventilation system at the Fraunhofer-Institute of Building Physics in Holzkirchen. (orig.)

  18. Performance Study on ST/JT Hybrid Cryocoolers Working at Liquid Helium Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongli, Liu; Xuan, Tao; Xiao, Sun; Zhihua, Gan

    The ST/JT hybridcryocooler consists of a Stirling-typecryocooler and a J-T loop. The common process of steady-state operation is given. Pressure-Enthalpy map analysis and thermodynamic calculation showhow the precooling temperature, high pressure and recuperator effectiveness affect thecooling powerat liquid helium temperature. Applying the current performance level of the Stirling cooler,the overall COP of the hybrid cryocooleris roughly optimized. This performance study shows that the hybrid cryocooler can develop its performance potential with improved J-T compressors with larger pressure ratio and aprecooler working at lower temperature.

  19. Hybrid Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Siu-Lun Ting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a decision-making process involving considerations of political, social, economic and engineering factors with relevant risk assessments relating to a potential hazard. In the last decade, a number of risk management tools are introduced and employed to manage and minimize the uncertainty and threats realization to the organizations. However, the focus of these methodologies are different; in which companies need to adopt various risk management principles to visualize a full picture of the organizational risk level. Regarding to this, this paper presents a new approach of risk management that integrates Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM and Business Recovery Planning (BCP for identifying and assessing risks as well as managing the consequences of realized residual risks. To illustrate the procedures of the proposed methodology, a logistic company ABC Limited is chosen to serve as a case study Through applying HHM and ERM to investigate and assess the risk, ABC Limited can be better evaluated the potential risks and then took the responsive actions (e.g. BCP to handle the risks and crisis in near future.

  20. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  1. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The highest pollen viability was obtained in C. annuum var. abbreviatum (96.3%, followed by C. annuum var. grossum (95%, and C. annuum var. acuminatum (91.1%. The lowest pollen viability was recorded in C. frutescens var. baccatum (86.2%. The pollen viability was high in most varieties indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. Several intraspecific and interspecific crosses were performed among the Capsicum genotypes and three putative hybrid fruits were produced. Percentage successes obtained in the crosses were low and comparable in both intra and inter-specific crosses. In the entire crosses pattern, pollination success of 10% was recorded for C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum. Knowing the nature and viability of pollen grains may help in predicting the success rate of hybridization and the successful crosses between C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum suggest that these two varieties are the closest genetically.

  2. Study on diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in seeds of hybrid maize and their parental lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zuo, Shan; Xu, Liwen; Zou, Yuanyuan; Song, Wei

    2012-12-01

    The seeds of plants are carriers of a variety of beneficial bacteria and pathogens. Using the non-culture methods of building 16S rDNA libraries, we investigated the endophytic bacterial communities of seeds of four hybrid maize offspring and their respective parents. The results of this study show that the hybrid offspring Yuyu 23, Zhengdan958, Jingdan 28 and Jingyu 11 had 3, 33, 38 and 2 OTUs of bacteria, respectively. The parents Ye 478, Chang 7-2, Zheng 58, Jing 24 and Jing 89 had 12, 36, 6, 12 and 2 OTUs, respectively. In the hybrid Yuyu 23, the dominant bacterium Pantoea (73.38 %) was detected in its female parent Ye 478, and the second dominant bacterium of Sphingomonas (26.62 %) was detected in both its female (Ye 478) and male (Chang 7-2) parent. In the hybrid Zhengdan 958, the first dominant bacterium Stenotrophomonas (41.67 %) was detected in both the female (Zheng 58) and male (Chang 7-2) parent. The second dominant bacterium Acinetobacter (9.26 %) was also the second dominant bacterium of its male parent. In the hybrid Jingdan 28, the second dominant bacterium Pseudomonas (12.78 %) was also the second dominant bacterium of its female parent, and its third dominant bacterium Sphingomonas (9.90 %) was the second dominant bacterium of its male parent and detected in its female parent. In the hybrid Jingyu 11, the first dominant bacterium Leclercia (73.85 %) was the third dominant bacterium of its male parent, and the second dominant bacterium Enterobacter (26.15 %) was detected in its male parent. As far as we know, this was the first research reported in China on the diversity of the endophytic bacterial communities of the seeds of various maize hybrids with different genotypes.

  3. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Unlike in autogenous laser welding, hybrid laser welding of stainless steel could introduce grain boundary carbides due to low cooling rates. Formation of grain boundary carbides leads to reduced corrosion properties. Studies have initially been carried out on hybrid laser welding and subsequent...... laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L welds. Welding and laser treatment parameters were varied. General corrosion behaviour of the weld and laser treated surface was characterised using a gel visualization test. The local electrochemistry of the weld and laser...... treated surface was investigated using a novel micro electrochemical technique with a tip resolution of ~1 mm. Results show that hybrid laser welding of 316L has increased corrosion susceptibility probably as a result of grain boundary carbide formation. However a suitable post laser treatment could...

  4. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Unlike in autogenous laser welding, hybrid laser welding of stainless steel could introduce grain boundary carbides due to low cooling rates. Formation of grain boundary carbides leads to reduced corrosion properties. Studies have initially been carried out on hybrid laser welding and subsequent...... laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L welds. Welding and laser treatment parameters were varied. General corrosion behaviour of the weld and laser treated surface was characterised using a gel visualization test. The local electrochemistry of the weld and laser...... treated surface was investigated using a novel micro electrochemical technique with a tip resolution of ~1 mm. Results show that hybrid laser welding of 316L has increased corrosion susceptibility probably as a result of grain boundary carbide formation. However a suitable post laser treatment could...

  5. Studies on the Recross Heterosis Effect of Male-sterile Single-hybrids in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Liang-yue; HU YAN-min; LI Yong-liang; HUANG Su-xiang; JI Hong-qiang; HUANG Xi-lin

    2002-01-01

    Re-cross was conducted between five ES cytoplasm male-sterile hybrids and four high-oil hybrids, and five normal hybrids, respectively. The oil content, yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size were estimated. Results were as follows: The average kernel oil content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was 1.6 % higher than that of the female parent. The xenia effect value of oil genes was 0.30. The yield and 1000-kernel weight of male-sterile hybrids were 10.1% and 5.8 % higher than that of corresponding fertile hybrids respectively, which showed significant cytoplasm effect. The yield of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was similar to that of the female parent, but its 1000-kernel weight was 7.3% lower than that of the female parent. Compared with the high-oil male parent, grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid were higher. Seed-filling rate, the days of seed-filling and IAA content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid showed average heterosis tending the female parent, which may be perhaps one of the reasons resulting in the average heterosis tending to the female parent on kernel oil content,yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size.

  6. Advances in the study of hybrid finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some new concepts and research progress in hybrid finite elements advanced in recent years are in troduced. On the basis of incompatible energy consistency analysis, the optimal condition of hybrid elements is derived and the formulation for fulfilling this condition is given. A post-processing penalty equilibrium optimization technique of hybrid element is presented to create high quality hybrid model. For incompressible problems, a method of deviatoric hybrid element is proposed and unification of computation between compressible and incompressible media is achieved.

  7. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  8. A New Method to Study the Sol-gel Transition Process of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bin; GAO Jian-gang; CHEN Da-zhu; LIU Jian-ping; HE Ping-sheng; ZHANG Qi-jin

    2005-01-01

    The sol-gel transition process of PMMA/SiO2 hybrid materials was first studied by means of the dynamic torsional vibration method. The different stages of the transition can be described by the change of torque. The temperature-dependent measurement of the gel time(tg) gives the possibility to determine the apparent activation energy(Ea) of this transition according to Flory′s gelation theory. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic fluctuation theory was used to predict the transition behavior. The isothermal transition experiments on hybrid sols with different TEOS(tetraethyl orthosilicate) contents were carried out. The results show that the Ea of a hybrid sol is higher than that of a non- hybrid sol of a TEOS-water-ethanol system. The increasing of TEOS content in a hybrid sol has no obvious effect on the Ea value, but it can enhance the sol-gel reaction rate.

  9. A study of hybrid prediction method for ship parametric rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀华; 马宁; 鲁江; 顾民

    2016-01-01

    The parametric rolling (PR) in the head or following waves has been considered as one of the main stability failure modes in the development of the 2nd generation Intact Stability criterion by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). According to previous studies, the estimation methods of the roll damping affect the prediction of the PR significantly, and most of them are based on experiment data or Ikeda’s empirical formula. The accuracy of the estimation method for the roll damping could be a key aspect for the validity of its prediction for the full scale ship. In this research, a hybrid prediction method is developed for the numerical prediction of the parametric rolling when experiment data are not available for the roll damping. Comparison study is also carried out between the hybrid method and a nonlinear dynamics method, where the roll damping is estimated by the simplified Ikeda’s method and the direct CFD prediction method in a direct non-linear simulation based on the 3-D CFD approach in the model scale. It is shown that the results of the hybrid method are in satisfactory agreements with the model experiment results, and the method can be used for analysis especially at the early design stage where experiment data are often not available.

  10. F1 (CBA×C57) mice show superior hearing in old age relative to their parental strains: hybrid vigor or a new animal model for "golden ears"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Singh, Ameet; Bak, Matthew; Bozorg, Sara; Seth, Rahul; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2011-09-01

    Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the most common communication problem and third most prevalent chronic medical disorder of the aged. The CBA and C57BL/6 mouse strains are useful for studying features of presbycusis. The CBA loses its hearing slowly, like most humans. Because the C57 develops a rapid, high frequency hearing loss by middle age, it has an "old" ear but a relatively young brain, a model that helps separate peripheral (cochlear) from central (brain) etiologies. This field of sensory neuroscience lacks a good mouse model for the 5-10% of aged humans with normal cochlear sensitivity, but who have trouble perceiving speech in background noise. We hypothesized that F1 (CBA×C57) hybrids would have better hearing than either parental strain. Measurements of peripheral auditory sensitivity supported this hypothesis, however, a rapid decline in the auditory efferent feedback system, did not. Therefore, F1s might be an optimal model for studying cases where the peripheral hearing is quite good in old age; thereby allowing isolation of central auditory changes due to brain neurodegeneration.

  11. Plasma environment of Titan: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Titan possesses a dense atmosphere, consisting mainly of molecular nitrogen. Titan's orbit is located within the Saturnian magnetosphere most of the time, where the corotating plasma flow is super-Alfvénic, yet subsonic and submagnetosonic. Since Titan does not possess a significant intrinsic magnetic field, the incident plasma interacts directly with the atmosphere and ionosphere. Due to the characteristic length scales of the interaction region being comparable to the ion gyroradii in the vicinity of Titan, magnetohydrodynamic models can only offer a rough description of Titan's interaction with the corotating magnetospheric plasma flow. For this reason, Titan's plasma environment has been studied by using a 3-D hybrid simulation code, treating the electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas a completely kinetic approach is used to cover ion dynamics. The calculations are performed on a curvilinear simulation grid which is adapted to the spherical geometry of the obstacle. In the model, Titan's dayside ionosphere is mainly generated by solar UV radiation; hence, the local ion production rate depends on the solar zenith angle. Because the Titan interaction features the possibility of having the densest ionosphere located on a face not aligned with the ram flow of the magnetospheric plasma, a variety of different scenarios can be studied. The simulations show the formation of a strong magnetic draping pattern and an extended pick-up region, being highly asymmetric with respect to the direction of the convective electric field. In general, the mechanism giving rise to these structures exhibits similarities to the interaction of the ionospheres of Mars and Venus with the supersonic solar wind. The simulation results are in agreement with data from recent Cassini flybys.

  12. Astrocyte Cultures Mimicking Brain Astrocytes in Gene Expression, Signaling, Metabolism and K(+) Uptake and Showing Astrocytic Gene Expression Overlooked by Immunohistochemistry and In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Leif; Chen, Ye; Song, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Based on differences in gene expression between cultured astrocytes and freshly isolated brain astrocytes it has been claimed that cultured astrocytes poorly reflect the characteristics of their in vivo counterparts. This paper shows that this is not the case with the cultures of mouse astrocytes we have used since 1978. The culture is prepared following guidelines provided by Drs. Monique Sensenbrenner and John Booher, with the difference that dibutyryl cyclic AMP is added to the culture medium from the beginning of the third week. This addition has only minor effects on glucose and glutamate metabolism, but it is crucial for effects by elevated K(+) concentrations and for Ca(2+) homeostasis, important aspects of astrocyte function. Work by Liang Peng and her colleagues has shown identity between not only gene expression but also drug-induced gene upregulations and editings in astrocytes cultured by this method and astrocytes freshly isolated from brains of drug-treated animals. Dr. Norenberg's laboratory has demonstrated identical upregulation of the cotransporter NKCC1 in ammonia-exposed astrocytes and rats with liver failure. Similarity between cultured and freshly isolated astrocytes has also been shown in metabolism, K(+) uptake and several aspects of signaling. However, others have shown that the gene for the glutamate transporter GLT1 is not expressed, and rat cultures show some abnormalities in K(+) effects. Nevertheless, the overall reliability of the cultured cells is important because immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization poorly demonstrate many astrocytic genes, e.g., those of nucleoside transporters, and even microarray analysis of isolated cells can be misleading.

  13. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  14. Species-specific SSR alleles for studies of hybrid cattails (Typha latifolia x T. angustifolia; Typhaceae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Allison A; Travis, Steven E; Wildová, Radka; Fér, Tomás; Sweeney, Patricia M; Marburger, Joy E; Windels, Steven; Kubátová, Barbora; Goldberg, Deborah E; Mutegi, Evans

    2010-12-01

    Studies of hybridizing species are facilitated by the availability of species-specific molecular markers for identifying early- and later-generation hybrids. Cattails are a dominant feature of wetland communities, and a better understanding of the prevalence of hybrids is needed to assess the ecological and evolutionary effects of hybridization. Hybridization between Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia produce long-lived clones, known as Typha ×glauca, which are considered to be invasive. Although morphological variation in cattails makes it difficult to recognize early- and later-generation hybrids, several dominant, species-specific RAPD markers are available. Our goal was to find codominant, species-specific markers with greater polymorphism than RAPDs, to identify later-generation hybrids more efficiently. • We screened nine SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci that were described from populations in Ukraine, and we surveyed 31 cattail populations from the upper Midwest and eastern USA. • Seven SSR loci distinguished the parent taxa and were consistent with known species-specific RAPD markers, allowing easier detection of backcrossing. We used linear discriminant analysis to show that F(1) hybrid phenotypes were intermediate between the parent taxa, while those of backcrossed plants overlapped with the hybrids and their parents. Log(leaf length/leaf width), spike gap length, spike length, and stem diameter explained much of the variation among groups. • We provide the first documentation of backcrossed plants in hybridizing cattail populations in Michigan. The diagnostic SSR loci we identified should be extremely useful for examining the evolutionary and ecology interactions of hybridizing cattails in North America.

  15. Autoimmune response and repression of mitotic cell division occur in inter-specific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii Coss. that show low temperature-induced hybrid necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Hosogi, Naoki; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2011-10-01

    Common wheat is an allohexaploid species originating from a naturally occurring inter-specific cross between tetraploid wheat and the diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Artificial allopolyploidization can produce synthetic hexaploid wheat. However, synthetic triploid hybrids show four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: type II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. Of these hybrid abnormalities, type II necrosis is induced by low temperature. Under low temperature, elongation of stems and expansion of new leaves is repressed in type II necrosis lines, which later exhibit necrotic symptoms. Here, we characterize type II necrosis in detail. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes were highly up-regulated in seedling leaves that showed type II necrosis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive cell death in the leaves under low-temperature conditions, accompanied by abundant generation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, down-regulation of cell cycle-related genes was observed in shoot apices of type II necrosis lines under low-temperature conditions. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization showed repression of accumulation of histone H4 transcripts in the shoot apical meristem of type II necrosis lines. These results strongly suggest that an autoimmune response-like reaction and repression of cell division in the shoot apical meristem are associated with the abnormal growth phenotype in type II necrosis lines.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  17. Hybrid functional studies of defects and hole polarons in oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are ubiquitous, appearing in windows, flat-panel displays, solar cells, solid-state lighting, and transistors that all exploit TCOs' combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Thanks to this large and growing list of applications, there has been a surge of interest in the science of these materials, focusing on the fundamental properties and doping opportunities in traditional TCOs as well as the exploration of promising new candidate materials. Hybrid density functional theory has proven instrumental in elucidating the physics of TCOs. One example is the study of dopants and defects that determine the conductivity. Accurate formation energies and charge-state transition levels can now be obtained thanks to the accurate electronic structure provided by a hybrid functional. This allows us to address the origins of unintentional conductivity: for SnO2, In2O3, and Ga2O3, we demonstrate that this is not due to native defects such as oxygen vacancies, but must be attributed to unintentional incorporation of impurities. We can also provide guidelines for achieving higher doping levels, suggesting several impurities as candidate donors with high solubility. Limitations on doping due to the formation or incorporation of compensating centers are addressed as well. Hybrid functional calculations also overcome the shortcomings associated with traditional local or semi-local functionals, which do not properly describe charge localization. Hybrid functionals accurately describe polaron formation, i.e., the self-trapping of holes when p - type doping of the oxide materials is attempted. Consequences of polaron formation for optical characterization of the material will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with Anderson Janotti and Chris G. Van de Walle, and was in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Modeling Studies of New Oxadiazole-Stilbene Hybrids against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weilin; He, Daohang; Song, Shaoyun

    2016-08-01

    Natural stilbenes (especially resveratrol) play important roles in plant protection by acting as both constitutive and inducible defenses. However, their exogenous applications on crops as fungicidal agents are challenged by their oxidative degradation and limited availability. In this study, a new class of resveratrol-inspired oxadiazole-stilbene hybrids was synthesized via Wittig-Horner reaction. Bioassay results indicated that some of the compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity against Botrytis cinerea in vitro. Among these stilbene hybrids, compounds 11 showed promising inhibitory activity with the EC50 value of 144.6 μg/mL, which was superior to that of resveratrol (315.6 μg/mL). Remarkably, the considerably abnormal mycelial morphology was observed in the presence of compound 11. The inhibitory profile was further proposed by homology modeling and molecular docking studies, which showed the possible interaction of resveratrol and oxadiazole-stilbene hybrids with the cytochrome P450-dependent sterol 14α-demethylase from B. cinerea (BcCYP51) for the first time. Taken together, these results would provide new insights into the fungicidal mechanism of stilbenes, as well as an important clue for biology-oriented synthesis of stilbene hybrids with improved bioactivity against plant pathogenic fungi in crop protection.

  19. Study of a class of hybrid-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, I. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica-Culhuacan-IPN, Av. San Ana 1000 Col. San Fco. Culhuacan, Mexico D.F. 04430 (Mexico) and Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: ilse@calmecac.esimecu.ipn.mx; Femat, R. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Leyva-Ramos, J. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a class of hybrid-time systems. In particular, we concern about switched systems constituted by two linear second order systems with a time varying (sinusoidal type) translation term. By means of numerical simulations, system behavior and its relation to system parameters are studied. It is shown that system eigenvalues play a crucial role in the time evolution of the system leading either to regular behavior, oscillatory patterns or intermittent erratic-periodic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain conditions, presumable fractal structures can be obtained.

  20. Hybrid Combined Cycles with Biomass and Waste Fired Bottoming Cycle - a Literature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Miroslav P.

    2002-02-01

    incinerators is probably the option with the greatest efficiency improvement potential, within the reasonable cost and scale limits. Furthermore, a State-of-Art report is included in the study as a separate chapter. Descriptions of existing hybrid combined cycle installations with biofuel-fired bottoming cycle in Sweden and its surrounding countries are compiled in it. The presentation shows that hybrid combined cycles are a standard technology in many respects. These specific configurations have been chosen as the most rewarding ones out of various alternatives and have proved their advantages in commercial operation. The major research project following this literature study will focus on investigation of possible efficiency improvement of biomass energy utilization by application of hybrid configurations with natural gas fired gas turbine and internal combustion engines as topping cyclesof curve fitting procedures)

  1. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendices B1-B4. [HYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    These four appendices to the report on the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) report contain information on: HYBRID computer program documentation; material substitution study for advanced hybrid vehicles; NTHV market potential; battery compartment weight distribution; and vehicle handling dynamics. (LCL)

  2. The Efficacy of Lumbar Hybrid Stabilization Using the DIAM™ to Delay Adjacent Segment Degeneration: An Intervention Comparison Study With a Minimum Two-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Yoon, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2013-04-29

    BACKGROUND:: Although posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has a successful fusion rate, the long-term outcome of PLIF is occasionally below expectations because of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the ability of hybrid stabilization using DIAM(Device for Interspinous Assisted Motion) to delay ASD. METHODS:: An intervention comparison study of 75 patients (hybrid, 25; PLIF, 50) was performed. The indications for hybrid stabilization were facet joint degeneration, Pfirrmann grade II-III, and stenosis at the rostral adjacent segment. The PLIF group consisted of patients matched for age, gender, and fusion. The hybrid stabilization procedure included traditional PLIF and DIAM installation at a superior adjacent segment. The outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed model analysis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate the odds ratio for the association of surgical methods. RESULTS:: The hybrid group (24%) revealed fewer ASDs than the PLIF group (48%). Among ASDs, spondylolisthesis occurred more frequently in the PLIF group than the hybrid group. Hybrid surgery was significantly associated with ASD; the odds ratio for hybrid surgery was 0.28 when compared to PLIF. Foraminal height of the PLIF group decreased more than the hybrid group (P=.01). Segmental mobility showed a greater increase in the PLIF group than the hybrid group (P=.04). However, the clinical outcomes did not show significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION:: Hybrid stabilization using DIAM and pedicle screws can be used for patients with facet degeneration at adjacent segments but should be further investigated.

  3. A Study of MPLS Hybrid Switch Based on ATM Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    MPLS is the most successful integrating model of IP over ATM. The paper discusses some problems and their possible solutions when MPLS is supported by ATM switch. How to design the hardware, software and network management systems of such a switch device that has only one switching platform and one NMS but two sets of control planes at the same time, ATM and MPLS, is studied in details. The application of such a hybrid switch is presented in the last part of the paper.

  4. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -GRID SYSTEMS A CASE STUDY WIND POWER AFRICA 2010 S Szewczuk CSIR May 2010 PRESENTATION OUTLINE • Rationale for Projects • Renewable Energy for Rural Electrification in E Cape • Integrated Energy/Economic Framework • Hybrid mini-grid energy systems... • Impact of research work RATIONALE FOR OFF-GRID PROJECTS • Poverty Reduction: • Sustainable economic and social benefits • Meeting of Millennium Development Goals • Appropriate technology choice: • 500 million African people without access to modern...

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  6. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  7. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  8. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  9. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  10. Genetic incompatibility dampens hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability: yeast as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibo Xu

    Full Text Available Genetic incompatibility is believed to be the major cause of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Despite huge efforts seeking for speciation-related incompatibilities in the past several decades, a general understanding of how genetic incompatibility evolves in affecting hybrid fitness is not available, primarily due to the fact that the number of known incompatibilities is small. Instead of further mapping specific incompatible genes, in this paper we aimed to know the overall effects of incompatibility on fertility and viability, the two aspects of fitness, by examining 89 gametes produced by yeast S. cerevisiae-S. paradoxus F1 hybrids. Homozygous F2 hybrids formed by autodiploidization of F1 gametes were subject to tests for growth rate and sporulation efficiency. We observed much stronger defects in sporulation than in clonal growth for every single F2 hybrid strain, indicating that genetic incompatibility affects hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability in yeast. We related this finding in part to the fast-evolving nature of meiosis-related genes, and proposed that the generally low expression levels of these genes might be a cause of the observation.

  11. Study of the Productivity and Surface Quality of Hybrid EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Sandeepkumar Haribhau; Sharma, Sunil Bansilal

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, advanced engineering materials and the need for precise prototypes and low-volume production have made the electric discharge machining (EDM), an important manufacturing process to meet such demands. It is capable of machining geometrically complex and hard material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine such as heat treated tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics, carbides etc. Conversely the low MRR limits its productivity. Abrasive water jet machine (AJM) tools are quick to setup and offer quick turn-around on the machine and could make parts out of virtually any material. They do not heat the material hence no heat affected zone and can make any intricate shape easily. The main advantages are flexibility, low heat production and ability to machine hard and brittle materials. Main disadvantages comprise the process produces a tapered cut and health hazards due to dry abrasives. To overcome the limitations and exploit the best of each of above processes; an attempt has been made to hybridize the processes of AJM and EDM. The appropriate abrasives routed with compressed air through the hollow electrode to construct the hybrid process i.e., abrasive jet electric discharge machining (AJEDM), the high speed abrasives could impinge on the machined surface to remove the recast layer caused by EDM process. The main process parameters were varied to explore their effects and experimental results show that AJEDM enhances the machining efficiency with better surface finish hence can fit the requirements of modern manufacturing applications.

  12. A study of image reconstruction algorithms for hybrid intensity interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Peter N.; Murray-Krezan, Jeremy; Picard, Richard H.

    2011-09-01

    Phase retrieval is explored for image reconstruction using outputs from both a simulated intensity interferometer (II) and a hybrid system that combines the II outputs with partially resolved imagery from a traditional imaging telescope. Partially resolved imagery provides an additional constraint for the iterative phase retrieval process, as well as an improved starting point. The benefits of this additional a priori information are explored and include lower residual phase error for SNR values above 0.01, increased sensitivity, and improved image quality. Results are also presented for image reconstruction from II measurements alone, via current state-of-the-art phase retrieval techniques. These results are based on the standard hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm, as well as a recent enhancement to HIO that optimizes step lengths in addition to step directions. The additional step length optimization yields a reduction in residual phase error, but only for SNR values greater than about 10. Image quality for all algorithms studied is quite good for SNR>=10, but it should be noted that the studied phase-recovery techniques yield useful information even for SNRs that are much lower.

  13. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  14. Allergenic study and epitope analysis of Indo-American hybrid Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Jamakhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies have high negative impact on nutritional balance of human body. Allergic response is seen high to vegetables such as tomatoes, capsicum and spinach, next to fish, eggs and nuts. Allergen molecules and epitope regions of Indo- American hybrid variety tomatoes is not well studied. The present work shows the presence of putative allergen molecules in two Indio-American hybrid tomatoes, which are identified in 7 patient sera by SDS - Immunoblotting method and further identification of epitopes, putative peptides and cross reactivity of these putative allergens by Immunoinformatics tools. Linear B-cell epitopes predicted by 3 combined immunoinformatics tools viz. DNASTAR protean, ABC pred and IEDB Bipred. Cross reactivity of these allergens determined by sequence alignment method against the allergen online database and Allermatch databases, which shows significant cross reactivity to Capsicum annum, Hevea brasiliensi, archis hypogaea, pollen, actinidia chinesis and prunus avium.

  15. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  16. Hybrid rocket fuel combustion and regression rate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Anderson, F. A.; Cohen, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop hybrid fuels (1) with higher regression rates and reduced dependence on fuel grain geometry and (2) that maximize potential specific impulse using low-cost materials. A hybrid slab window motor system was developed to screen candidate fuels - their combustion behavior and regression rate. Combustion behavior diagnostics consisted of video and high speed motion pictures coverage. The mean fuel regression rates were determined by before and after measurements of the fuel slabs. The fuel for this initial investigation consisted of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder with coal and aluminum fillers. At low oxidizer flux levels (and corresponding fuel regression rates) the filled-binder fuels burn in a layered fashion, forming an aluminum containing binder/coal surface melt that, in turn, forms into filigrees or flakes that are stripped off by the crossflow. This melt process appears to diminish with increasing oxidizer flux level. Heat transfer by radiation is a significant contributor, producing the desired increase in magnitude and reduction in flow dependency (power law exponent) of the fuel regression rate.

  17. Study of Magnesium Diboride Clusters Using Hybrid Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using hybrid density functional theory and a relatively large basis set, the lowest energy equilibrium structure, vibrational spectrum, and natural orbital analysis were obtained for magnesium diboride clusters [(MgB2x for x=1,2, and 3]. For comparison, boron clusters [Bx for x=2,4, and 6] were also considered. The MgB2 and (MgB22 showed equilibrium structures with the boron atoms in arrangements similar to what was obtained for pure boron atoms, whereas, for (MgB23 a different arrangement of boron was obtained. From the population analysis, large electron density in the boron atoms forming the clusters was observed.

  18. Studying the mechanism of hybrid nanoparticle EUV photoresists

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ben

    2015-03-23

    This work focuses on the investigation of dual tone patterning mechanism with hybrid inorganic/organic photoresists. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) modified with acrylic acid was prepared and the influence of electrolyte solutions as well as pH on its particle size change was investigated. The average particle size and zeta potential of the nanoparticles in different electrolyte solutions were measured. The results show that addition of different concentrations of electrolytes changed the hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles in water. Increased concentration of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) caused the zeta potential of nanoparticles to change from positive to negative and its hydrodynamic diameter to increase from 40 nm to 165 nm. In addition, increasing concentration of triflic acid led to the decrease of particle size and zeta potential. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  19. DFT studies of CNT-functionalized uracil-acetate hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Gulseren, Oguz

    2015-09-01

    Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the stabilities and properties of hybrid structures consisting of a molecular carbon nanotube (CNT) and uracil acetate (UA) counterparts. The investigated models have been relaxed to minimum energy structures and then various physical properties and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have been evaluated. The results indicated the effects of functionalized CNT on the properties of hybrids through comparing the results of hybrids and individual structures. The oxygen atoms of uracil counterparts have been seen as the detection points of properties for the CNT-UA hybrids.

  20. Physicochemical studies on starches isolated from plantain cultivars, plantain hybrids and cooking bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, G.; Akoni, S. (International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria)); Swennen, R. (Catholic Univ. of Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Tropical Husbandry)

    1992-04-01

    Starches from mature, unripe fruit pulp of plantain cultivars (Musa supp., AAB group) representing the wide variability in Africa, tetraploid and diploid plantain hybrids and starchy cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB group) were isolated and characterised. In general, studies revealed very compact irregularly shaped and sized granules, with low amylose content (9.11-17.16%), highly resistant to bacterial {alpha}-amylase attack; Brabender amylograms showed very restricted swelling type patterns with great stability and negligible retrogradation. Results indicate that differences in physico-chemical properties exist amongst the three Musa fruit group starches. Plantains represent a chemical/molecular homogeneous group, but heterogeneous for granule structure. Ploidy level affected hybrid properties. ABB cooking bananas starches exhibited highly pronounced restricted swelling and high gelatinisation and pasting temperatures, indicating a more ordered, very strongly bonded granule structure; chemical and physical properties varied considerably within the ABB genotype. (orig.).

  1. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research.

  2. The silence at trade shows: : A case study at Hannover Messe

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Daniel; Bengtsson, Nicklas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the non-verbal communication such as the body language in the context of a trade show. The non-verbal communication is one of the primary conveyors of messages and trade shows are one of the major channels were firms attract new customers. However the combination of trade shows and non-verbal communication is overlooked. The method consists of interviews with visitors and observations of the booths and the visitors. The setting was chosen as the annual Hannover Messe were ...

  3. Recombinant hybrid infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) carrying viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G or NV genes show different virulence properities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Biacchesi, S.; Stegmann, Anders

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is the economically most important viral disease in European rainbow trout farming. The virus was introduced to fresh water farms in the 1950ies from a reservoir of VHSV in the marine environment. Isolates from wild marine fish and fresh water farms....... By a reverse genetics approach using the related novirrhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) as basis, four hybrid IHNV-VHSV variants were generated. These chimeric variants included substitution of the IHNV glyco(G) or nonstrutrual (Nv) protein with the corresponding G or Nv-protein from...... or fresh water VHSV. Recombinant IHNV gained higher virulence following substitution of the homologous G gene with the VHSV G gene, while the opposite was the case following substitution of the Nv gene. These findings suggest that higher virulence of VHSV compared to IHNV might be related to the G protein...

  4. Motivational study for an hybrid demonstrator; Dossier de motivation pour un demonstrateur hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boidron, M.; Fiorini, G.L.; Thomas, J.B. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Flocard, H. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS/IN2P3), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-15

    This document recalls first the role of hybrid accelerator driven systems (ADS) in the domain of transmutation of long-lived fission products and minor actinides. It presents the specific contribution of these systems in the management of radioactive wastes and their technical feasibility and safety aspects. Then, follows a motivational analysis for the construction of a demonstration facility with its specifications and R and D needs: feasibility, schedule, links with other ADS-related programs, cost, international cooperation, recommendations. (J.S.)

  5. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  6. Demonstrative Study of Chinese Hybrid Rice in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thailand is the kingdom of quality rice in the world, and China is the “pilgrimage” place of hybrid rice. There is a very attractive joint in the yield pre dominance of Chinese hybrid rice and the good quality of Thai rice, which maybe start a new agro - eco nomic increasing phase. This kind of cooperation initiate between China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center (CNHRRDC) and Charoen Pokphand Seeds Co., Ltd. (C. P. Group) in Thailand 2001. The main results of the program are reported as follows.

  7. Hybrid simulation: an active power filter case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Garcés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid simulation concept consisting of a combination of computer simulation and laboratory tests. This approach is a cost effective alternative to physically testing the whole system and allows better understanding of complex coupled systems.This paper describes implementing an active power filter (APF hybrid prototype where the source system and load are implemented as a real-time simulation and the system of static power converter acting as an active power filter is implemented in physical hardware. It also confirmed the hybrid simulation results by implementing the simulation in MATLAB-Simulink regarding the same system implemented during the active power filter analysis and design stage.

  8. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  9. Experimental Study of the Swirling Oxidizer Flow in HTPB/N2O Hybrid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of swirling oxidizer flow on the performance of a HTPB/N2O Hybrid rocket motor were studied. A hybrid propulsion laboratory has been developed, to characterize internal ballistics characteristics of swirl flow hybrid motors and to define the operating parameters, like fuel regression rate, specific impulse, and characteristics velocity and combustion efficiency. Primitive variables, like pressure, thrust, temperature, and the oxidizer mass flow rate, were logged. A modular motor with 70 mm outer diameter and variable chamber length is designed for experimental analysis. The injector module has four tangential injectors and one axial injector. Liquid nitrous oxide (N2O as an oxidizer is injected at the head of combustion chamber into the motor. The feed system uses pressurized air as the pressurant. Two sets of tests have been performed. Some tests with axial and tangential oxidizer injection and a test with axial oxidizer injection were done. The test results show that the fuel grain regression rate has been improved by applying tangential oxidizer injection at the head of the motor. Besides, it was seen that combustion efficiency of motors with the swirl flow was about 10 percent more than motors with axial flow.

  10. A Screened Hybrid DFT Study of Actinide Oxides, Nitrides, and Carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xiaodong; Martin, Richard L.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.

    2013-06-27

    A systematic study of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of actinide oxides, nitrides, and carbides (AnX1–2 with X = C, N, O) is performed using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional. Our computed results show that the screened hybrid HSE functional gives a good description of the electronic and structural properties of actinide dioxides (strongly correlated insulators) when compared with available experimental data. However, there are still some problems reproducing the electronic properties of actinide nitrides and carbides (strongly correlated metals). In addition, in order to compare with the results by HSE, the structures, electronic, and magnetic properties of these actinide compounds are also investigated in the PBE and PBE+U approximation. Interestingly, the density of states of UN obtained with PBE compares well with the experimental photoemission spectra, in contrast to the hybrid approximation. This is presumably related to the need of additional screening in the Hartree–Fock exchange term of the metallic phases.

  11. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  12. Identification of a male meiosis-specific gene, Tcte2, which is differentially spliced in species that form sterile hybrids with laboratory mice and deleted in t chromosomes showing meiotic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidotti, G; Barlow, D P

    1997-06-01

    Tcte2 (t complex testes expressed 2) is a male meiosis-specific gene that maps to band 3.3 of mouse chromosome 17. Two distinct male fertility defects, hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion, have previously been mapped to this region. Hybrid sterility arises in crosses between different mouse species and the F1 generation males have defects in the first meiotic division and are sterile. Transmission ratio distortion is shown by males heterozygous for the t haplotype form of chromosome 17 and is a type of meiotic drive in which male gametes function unequally at fertilization. The Tcte2 gene expresses a coding mRNA and a number of putative non-ORF transcripts in meiosis I. A deletion of the 5' part of the locus abolishes Tcte2 expression on the t haplotype form of chromosome 17. Additionally, the series of putative non-ORF RNAs at the Tcte2 locus are differentially spliced in species that show hybrid sterility when crossed to laboratory mice. The identification of polymorphisms in t haplotypes and in different mouse species allows alleles of Tcte2 to be proposed as candidates for loci which contribute to both meiotic drive and hybrid sterility phenotypes. While theoretical considerations have previously been used to propose that speciation and meiotic drive involve alleles of the same genes, Tcte2 is the first cloned candidate gene to support this link at a molecular level.

  13. Genomic markers reveal introgressive hybridization in the Indo-West Pacific mangroves: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Sun

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of mangrove ecosystems is difficult to assess, at least partly due to lack of genetic verification of morphology-based documentation of species. Natural hybridization, on the one hand, plays an important role in evolution as a source of novel gene combinations and a mechanism of speciation. However, on the other hand, recurrent introgression allows gene flow between species and could reverse the process of genetic differentiation among populations required for speciation. To understand the dynamic evolutionary consequences of hybridization, this study examines genomic structure of hybrids and parental species at the population level. In the Indo-West Pacific, Bruguiera is one of the dominant mangrove genera and species ranges overlap extensively with one another. Morphological intermediates between sympatric Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Bruguiera sexangula have been reported as a variety of B. sexangula or a new hybrid species, B. × rhynchopetala. However, the direction of hybridization and extent of introgression are unclear. A large number of species-specific inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were found in B. gymnorrhiza and B. sexangula, and the additive ISSR profiling of B. × rhynchopetala ascertained its hybrid status and identified its parental origin. The varying degree of scatterness among hybrid individuals in Principal Coordinate Analysis and results from NewHybrids analysis indicate that B. × rhynchopetala comprises different generations of introgressants in addition to F(1s. High genetic relatedness between B. × rhynchopetala and B. gymnorrhiza based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences suggests preferential hybrid backcrosses to B. gymnorrhiza. We conclude that B. × rhynchopetala has not evolved into an incipient hybrid species, and its persistence can be explained by recurrent hybridization and introgression. Genomic data provide insights into the hybridization dynamics of mangrove plants. Such information

  14. Spectroscopic study of Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O thin films showing intrinsic ferromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, S.; Thakur, P. [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bazylewski, P.; Bauer, R. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 Canada (Canada); Singh, A.P.; Kim, J.Y. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Subramanian, M.; Jayavel, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, JNU Campus, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Chae, K.H., E-mail: khchae@kist.re.kr [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, G.S., E-mail: gapsoo.chang@usask.ca [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 Canada (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors are widely studied due to their potential applications in spin-resolved electronics. We report the direct evidences of intrinsic ferromagnetism in the primarily ferromagnetic ZnO:Co thin films using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The single phase Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O thin films with nominal compositions (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) were synthesized by a spray pyrolysis technique, which exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism as revealed by alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM) measurements. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that most of Co dopants have substituted for Zn sites in ZnO matrix and they are present in divalent Co{sup 2+} (d{sup 7}) state with tetrahedral symmetry according to the atomic multiplet calculations. The O 1s NEXAFS spectra suggest strong hybridization between O 2p and Co 3d electrons within ZnO matrix. The Co 2p XMCD measurements rule out the magnetism due to the presence of Co clusters, and show that Co–O–Co bonding provides localized magnetic moments leading to ferromagnetism. - Highlights: • We have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of ZnO:Co thin films. • The study uses X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopies. • Co dopants substitute for Zn sites in ZnO matrix and are divalent Co{sup 2+}. • Measurements indicate Co clusters are not formed. • Co–O–Co bonding provide localized magnetic moments leading to ferromagnetism.

  15. Empirical Estimation of Hybrid Model: A Controlled Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Un Nisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scrum and Extreme Programming (XP are frequently used models among all agile models whereas Rational Unified Process (RUP is one of the widely used conventional plan driven software development models. The agile and plan driven approaches both have their own strengths and weaknesses. Although RUP model has certain drawbacks, such as tendency to be over budgeted, slow in adaptation to rapidly changing requirements and reputation of being impractical for small and fast paced projects. XP model has certain drawbacks such as weak documentation and poor performance for medium and large development projects. XP has a concrete set of engineering practices that emphasizes on team work where managers, customers and developers are all equal partners in collaborative teams. Scrum is more concerned with the project management. It has seven practices namely Scrum Master, Scrum teams, Product Backlog, Sprint, Sprint Planning Meeting, Daily Scrum Meeting and Sprint Review. Keeping above mentioned context in view, this paper intends to propose a hybrid model naming SPRUP model by combining strengths of Scrum, XP and RUP by eliminating their weaknesses to produce high quality software. The proposed SPRUP model is validated through a controlled case study.

  16. A spectroscopic study of the hybrid pulsator Gamma Pegasi

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, C P; Briquet, M; Jayakumar, K; Bisht, S; Sanwal, B B

    2011-01-01

    The recent detection of both pressure and high-order gravity modes in the classical B-type pulsator Gamma Pegasi offers promising prospects for probing its internal structure through seismic studies. To aid further modelling of this star, we present the results of a detailed NLTE abundance analysis based on a large number of time-resolved, high-quality spectra. A chemical composition typical of nearby B-type stars is found. The hybrid nature of this star is consistent with its location in the overlapping region of the instability strips for beta Cephei and slowly pulsating B stars computed using OP opacity tables, although OPAL calculations may also be compatible with the observations once the uncertainties in the stellar parameters and the current limitations of the stability calculations are taken into account. The two known frequencies f1 = 6.58974 and f2 = 0.68241 c/d are detected in the spectroscopic time series. A mode identification is attempted for the low-frequency signal, which can be associated to ...

  17. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  18. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Unlike in autogenous laser welding, hybrid laser welding of stainless steel could introduce grain boundary carbides due to low cooling rates. Formation of grain boundary carbides leads to reduced corrosion properties. Studies have initially been carried out on hybrid laser welding and subsequent ...... regain the corrosion resistance by desensitization....

  19. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  20. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  1. Contesting the “Nature” Of Conformity: What Milgram and Zimbardo's Studies Really Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen. D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right. PMID:23185132

  2. STUDY ON THE VOLUMETRIC RATIO OF THE HYBRID GM REGENERATOR OVER THE COLD CHAMBER WORKING AT 4K.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,L.

    1999-07-12

    This paper presents a computational analysis on the hybrid GM regenerator at liquid helium region. The effects of the ratio of the regenerator volume over the cold chamber volume on cooling performance were simulated numerically. The results show that there exits a minimum ratio of the regenerator volume over the cold chamber volume for a G-M cryocooler at 4K. The cooling capacity of the refrigerator drops sharply with smaller regenerator, and rises slowly with larger regenerator. The effects of the material combinations of the hybrid regenerator on the volumetric ratio were also studied. The design principle of the geometry size of the regenerator working at 4K was discussed.

  3. Laboratory study of fungal bioreceptivity of different fractions of composite flooring tiles showing efflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaphy, Segula; Lavi, Ido; Sultz, Stephan; Zabari, Limor

    2014-06-01

    Fungi can grow in extreme habitats, such as natural stone and mineral building materials, sometimes causing deterioration. Efflorescence-concentrated salt deposits-results from water movement through building material; it can damage masonry materials and other bricks. Fungal isolate KUR1, capable of growth on, and dissolution of stone chips composing terrazzo-type floor tiles, was isolated from such tiles showing fiber-like crystalline efflorescence. The isolate's ribosomal DNA sequences were 100 % identical to those of Nigrospora sphaerica. The ability of KUR1 to colonize and degrade the different stone chips composing the tiles was studied in axenic culture experiments. When exposed to each of the different mineral chip types composed of dolomite, calcite, or calcite-apatite mineral in low-nutrition medium, the fungus showed selective nutrient consumption, and different growth and stone mineral dissolution rates. Micromorphological examination of the fungus-colonized chips by electron microscopy showed the production of a fungal biofilm with thin films around the hyphae on the surface of the examined chips and disintegration of the calcite-apatite fraction. More than 70 % dissolution of the introduced powdered (mineral was obtained within 10 days of incubation for the soft calcite-apatite fraction.

  4. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M;

    2011-01-01

    To cite this article: Howarth P, Malling H-J, Molimard M, Devillier P. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients. Allergy 2012; 67: 321-327. ABSTRACT: Background:  The assessment of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) efficacy...... in the treatment for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR) symptoms is challenging. Allergen immunotherapy differs from symptomatic therapy in that while symptomatic therapy treats patients after symptoms appear and aims to reduce symptoms, AIT is administered before symptoms are present and aims to prevent...... them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective...

  5. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2011-03-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted.

  6. Preparation of Pt-Tl clusters showing new geometries. X-ray, NMR and luminescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belío, Úrsula; Fuertes, Sara; Martín, Antonio

    2014-07-28

    Square planar complexes [Pt(CNC)L] (CNC = C,N,C-2,6-NC5H3(C6H4-2)2; L = tht (tetrahydrothiophene, SC4H8, 1), L = CN(t)Bu (2)) react with TlPF6 in different Pt/Tl molar ratios (3/1 in the case of 1 and 1/1 in the case of 2) yielding the complexes [{Pt(CNC)(tht)}3Tl](PF6) (3) and [Pt(CNC)(CN(t)Bu)Tl](PF6) (4), respectively. The structures of 3 and 4 (X-ray) show the presence of Pt→Tl dative bonds unsupported by any bridging ligands. In complex 3, the only Tl centre is simultaneously bonded to three Pt atoms forming a perfect equilateral triangle with Pt-Tl distances of 2.9088(5) Å, remarkably short. Complex 4 is formed by three "Pt(CNC)(CN(t)Bu)Tl" units, disposed in a triangular fashion, linked together through η(6)-Tl-arene interactions, and showing Pt-Tl bonds with distances of ca. 3.04 Å. The study of these crystal structures would seem to indicate that the difference between the Pt/Tl ratios found in the complexes 3 and 4 is due to the steric requirements of the L ligand bonded to Pt. NMR studies both in solution and in the solid state show that the Pt-Tl bond persists in solutions of 3 and 4. The UV-vis spectra of 3 and 4 in solution display the same profiles as those of 1 and 2, which may suggest a partial dissociation of the Pt-Tl bond in solution. However, by DFT calculations it was proved that in this case the formation of the Pt-Tl dative bond does not produce the expected blue-shift in the UV-vis absorptions. The emissive behaviour of 1-4 in the solid state and in frozen solutions is also studied and included in this work.

  7. Confocal Raman imaging study showing macrophage mediated biodegradation of graphene in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Chundayil Madathil; Sasidharan, Abhilash; Gowd, G Siddaramana; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2013-11-01

    This study is focused on the crucial issue of biodegradability of graphene under in vivo conditions. Characteristic Raman signatures of graphene are used to three dimensionally (3D) image its localization in lung, liver, kidney and spleen of mouse and identified gradual development of structural disorder, happening over a period of 3 months, as indicated by the formation of defect-related D'band, line broadening of D and G bands, increase in ID /IG ratio and overall intensity reduction. Prior to injection, the carboxyl functionalized graphene of lateral size ∼200 nm is well dispersed in aqueous medium, but 24 hours post injection, larger aggregates of size up to 10 μm are detected in various organs. Using Raman cluster imaging method, temporal development of disorder is detected from day 8 onwards, which begins from the edges and grows inwards over a period of 3 months. The biodegradation is found prominent in graphene phagocytosed by tissue-bound macrophages and the gene expression studies of pro-inflammatory cytokines indicated the possibility of phagocytic immune response. In addition, in vitro studies conducted on macrophage cell lines also show development of structural disorder in the engulfed graphene, reiterating the role of macrophages in biodegradation. This is the first report providing clear evidence of in vivo biodegradation of graphene and these results may radically change the perspective on potential biomedical applications of graphene.

  8. A Detailed Experimental Study on Single-Pump Raman/EDFA Hybrid Amplifiers: Static, Dynamic, and System Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Han; Chang, You Min; Han, Young Geun; Chung, Haeyang; Hyuck Kim, Sang; Lee, Sang Bae

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the performance comparison of three different schemes of single-pump dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF)-based Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) hybrid amplifiers together with a DCF-based Raman-only amplifier in terms of static properties, dynamic properties, and system impact: Raman-only amplifier (Type I), Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifiers recycling residual Raman pump in a cascaded EDF located either after (Type II) or prior to (Type III) a DCF, and a Raman-assisted EDFA (Type IV), the concept of which was proposed by Kurosawa With respect to the overall gain and system impact based on bit error rate (BER) measurements in a transmission system, the hybrid amplifier of Type II was found to have the best performance among the four types while the Raman-only amplifier shows the best tolerance to transient response.

  9. Study of optimal control problems for hybrid dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Rui; Wang Lei; Wang Yuzhen

    2006-01-01

    From the viewpoint of continuous systems, optimal control problem is proposed for a class of controlled Hybrid dynamical systems. Then a mathematical method- HDS minimum principle is put forward, which can solve the above problem. The HDS minimum principle is proved by means of Ekeland's variational principle.

  10. Mechanical and tribological studies on nano particles reinforced hybrid aluminum based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muley Aniruddha V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are new class of materials due to their better mechanical properties which can be achieved through proper selection and combination of materials. The work reported in this paper is based on fabrication of hybrid composites by using nano particles as reinforcements. The hybrid composites were fabricated by reinforcing them with nano sized SiC and Al2O3 particles in order to study mechanical and tribological properties of these enhanced materials. A stir casting method was used to obtain hybrid composites. LM 6 aluminum alloy was used as a matrix material. The results shown increase in hardness as well as in ultimate tensile strength of the composites with small wt.% of nano-sized hybrid reinforcements. The composites produced also exhibit better tribological properties.

  11. Neural Correlates of Empathy with Pain Show Habituation Effects. An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira A Preis

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the actual experience of pain and the perception of another person in pain share common neural substrates, including the bilateral anterior insular cortex and the anterior midcingulate cortex. As many fMRI studies include the exposure of participants to repeated, similar stimuli, we examined whether empathic neural responses were affected by habituation and whether the participants' prior pain experience influenced these habituation effects.In 128 trials (four runs, 62 participants (31 women, 23.0 ± 4.2 years were shown pictures of hands exposed to painful pressure (pain pictures and unexposed (neutral pictures. After each trial, the participants rated the pain of the model. Prior to the experiment, participants were either exposed to the same pain stimulus (pain exposure group or not (touch exposure group. In order to assess possible habituation effects, linear changes in the strength of the BOLD response to the pain pictures (relative to the neutral pictures and in the ratings of the model's pain were evaluated across the four runs.Although the ratings of the model's pain remained constant over time, we found neural habituation in the bilateral anterior/midinsular cortex, the posterior midcingulate extending to dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the supplementary motor area, the cerebellum, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the left superior frontal gyrus, stretching to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. The participant's prior pain experience did neither affect their ratings of the model's pain nor their maintenance of BOLD activity in areas associated with empathy. Interestingly, participants with high trait personal distress and fantasy tended to show less habituation in the anterior insula.Neural structures showed a decrease of the BOLD signal, indicating habituation over the course of 45 minutes. This can be interpreted as a neuronal mechanism responding to the repeated exposure to

  12. Comparative Transcriptomic Study of Muscle Provides New Insights into the Growth Superiority of a Novel Grouper Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Yu; Hu, Guojun; Zhang, Xinhui; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Guo, Chuanyu; Tang, Zhujing; Li, Xiaofeng; You, Xinxin; Lin, Haoran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Grouper (Epinephelus spp.) is a group of fish species with great economic importance in Asian countries. A novel hybrid grouper, generated by us and called the Hulong grouper (Hyb), has better growth performance than its parents, E. fuscoguttatus (Efu, ♀) and E. lanceolatus (Ela, ♂). We previously reported that the GH/IGF (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor) system in the brain and liver contributed to the superior growth of the Hyb. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we analyzed RNA expression levels of comprehensive genes in the muscle of the hybrid and its parents. Our data showed that genes involved in glycolysis and calcium signaling in addition to troponins are up-regulated in the Hyb. The results suggested that the activity of the upstream GH/IGF system in the brain and liver, along with the up-regulated glycolytic genes as well as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and troponins related to the calcium signaling pathway in muscle, led to enhanced growth in the hybrid grouper. Muscle contraction inducing growth could be the major contributor to the growth superiority in our novel hybrid grouper, which may be a common mechanism for hybrid superiority in fishes.

  13. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  14. Study on the Practice and High-yielding Mechanism of Super-sparse-cultivation Associated with Maximum-tiller Seedling of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; TAO Shi-shun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new cultivation practice-super-sparse-cultivation associated with maximumtiller seedling (SSCMTS) of hybrid rice was proposed and its high-yielding mechanism was studied. The results showed that the practice of SSCMTS in hybrid rice could not only increase grain yield but also save seeds and labor. It was a new high-yielding way for the late transplanting seedlings and heavy panicle type hybrid rice cultivars to further utilize the high-yielding potential of hybrid rice cultivars. The increasing number of spikelets and ideal grain -filling were the direct factors for the high yield of SSCMTS in hybrid rice, and those high-yielding factors relied on high quality seedlings, sturdy individuals, high quality population and vigorous later growth.

  15. Iron–carbon hybrid capacitor: A proof-of-concept study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V R Chari; S R Aravamuthan; A K Shukla

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, cost-intensive Ni electrode is replaced by high surface-area activated carbon (AC) cathode and the possibility of the Fe anode, used in Ni–Fe battery, to function as Fe–C hybrid capacitor has been examined. The electrochemical properties of Fe–C hybrid capacitor assembly are studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles. Over 100 galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles for Fe–C hybrid capacitor are carried out and a maximum capacitance of 24 F g-1 is observed.

  16. Experimental study of hybrid-knife endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD versus standard ESD in a Western country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín de-la Peña

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is an effective but time-consuming treatment for early neoplasia that requires a high level of expertise. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and learning curve of gastric ESD with a hybrid knife with high-pressure water jet and to compare with standard ESD. Material and methods: We performed a prospective non-survival animal study comparing hybrid-knife and standard gastric ESD. Variables recorded were: Number of en-bloc ESD, number of ESD with all marks included (R0, size of specimens, time and speed of dissection and adverse events. Ten endoscopists performed a total of 50 gastric ESD (30 hybrid-knife and 20 standard. Results: Forty-six (92% ESD were en-bloc and 25 (50% R0 (hybrid-knife: n = 13, 44%; standard: n = 16, 80%; p = 0.04. Hybrid-knife ESD was faster than standard (time: 44.6 ± 21.4 minutes vs. 68.7 ± 33.5 minutes; p = 0.009 and velocity: 20.8 ± 9.2 mm²/min vs. 14.3 ± 9.3 mm²/min (p = 0.079. Adverse events were not different. There was no change in speed with any of two techniques (hybrid-knife: From 20.33 ± 15.68 to 28.18 ± 20.07 mm²/min; p = 0.615 and standard: From 6.4 ± 0.3 to 19.48 ± 19.21 mm²/min; p = 0.607. The learning curve showed a significant improvement in R0 rate in the hybrid-knife group (from 30% to 100%. Conclusion: despite the initial performance of hybrid-knife ESD is worse than standard ESD, the learning curve with hybrid-knife ESD is short and is associated with a rapid improvement. The introduction of new tools to facilitate ESD should be implemented with caution in order to avoid a negative impact on the results.

  17. Structural and optical study of spin-coated camphorsulfonic acid-doped polyaniline/titanium-di-oxide nanoparticles hybrid thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethalakshmi, D.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Balasundaraprabhu, R.

    2015-06-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) doped with Camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) has been prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization and blend with titanium-di-oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method to form CSA-doped PANI/TiO2 hybrid thin films. The properties of as-deposited and heat-treated (100 °C) hybrid thin films having different PANI:TiO2 weight ratios (1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2) have been compared. FTIR study indicated that chemical bonding between CSA-doped PANI and TiO2 has been formed. XRD studies reveal that the as-deposited hybrid thin films are of amorphous nature and heat-treatment of such films initiates crystallization. SEM study shows that as-deposited hybrid films are rough; increase in TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment increased the roughness due to coalescing and agglomeration. UV-visible absorbance of hybrid films shows its characteristic peak in the visible region along with a peak in UV range and its intensity increased with TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment due to agglomeration of TiO2 particles. Photoluminescence spectra revealed that emission occurs in visible region (495 nm) for as-deposited hybrid thin film and this emission increased with TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment of hybrid films.

  18. Study of KIC 8561221 observed by Kepler: an early red giant showing depressed dipolar modes

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, R A; Benomar, O; Aguirre, V Silva; Ballot, J; Davies, G R; Dogan, G; Stello, D; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Houdek, G; Lignieres, F; Mathur, S; Takata, M; Ceillier, T; Chaplin, W J; Mathis, S; Mosser, B; Ouazzani, R M; Pinsonneault, M H; Reese, D R; Regulo, C; Salabert, D; Thompson, M J; van Saders, J L; Neiner, C; De Ridder, J

    2013-01-01

    The continuous high-precision photometric observations provided by the CoRoT and Kepler space missions have allowed us to better understand the structure and dynamics of red giants using asteroseismic techniques. A small fraction of these stars shows dipole modes with unexpectedly low amplitudes. The reduction in amplitude is more pronounced for stars with higher frequency of maximum power. In this work we want to characterize KIC 8561221 in order to confirm that it is currently the least evolved star among this peculiar subset and to discuss several hypotheses that could help explain the reduction of the dipole mode amplitudes. We used Kepler short- and long-cadence data combined with spectroscopic observations to infer the stellar structure and dynamics of KIC 8561221. We then discussed different scenarios that could contribute to the reduction of the dipole amplitudes such as a fast rotating interior or the effect of a magnetic field on the properties of the modes. We also performed a detailed study of the...

  19. BRAIN VOLUMES OF THE LAMB, RAT AND BIRD DO NOT SHOW HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY: A STEREOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Sahin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there are functional differences between right and left brain hemispheres. However, it is not clear whether these functional differences are reflected in morphometric differences. This study was carried out to investigate the right-left asymmetry, and sex and species differences of the brains using the Cavalieri principle for volume estimation. Seventeen lambs, 10 rats and 12 avian brains were used to estimate brain volumes. A transparent point grid was superimposed on the slices of lamb brains directly and the slices of the rat and avian brains were projected onto a screen at 10x magnification. Surface areas of the cut slice faces were estimated by simply counting the points that hit the slices. Mean brain volumes were 37.74 cm3, 598.95 mm3 and 730.38 mm3 and the coefficients of variations were 0.08, 0.05 and 0.05 for lamb, rat and avian brains respectively. The differences between left and right hemispheres did not show statistical significance (P > 0.05. However, the male brain volumes were larger than the females for the lamb and bird (P < 0.05. In light of such findings, it will be necessary to evaluate neuron number of the brain hemispheres to provide more useful data regarding inter-hemispheric brain asymmetry.

  20. Watching a food-related television show and caloric intake. A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenlos, Jamie S; Wormuth, Bernadette M

    2013-02-01

    Television watching has been positively associated with overeating and obesity. How popular food-related television shows affects eating behavior has not been examined. An experimental study was conducted to examine how exposure to a food-related television program affects amount and type of food consumed in adults (N=80). Participants were randomized to watch a cooking or nature television program and were then presented with 800 total calories of chocolate covered candies, cheese curls, and carrots. Food was weighed before and after the ad libitum eating session to determine amount consumed. After controlling for dietary restraint, hunger and food preference, significantly more chocolate covered candies were consumed among individuals who watched the cooking program compared to the nature program. No significant differences between conditions were found for overall caloric intake or for cheese curl or carrot consumption. Findings suggest that watching food-related television programs may affect eating behavior and has implications for obesity prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geothermal-retrofit study for the National Orange Show Facilities in San Bernardino, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-17

    The cost and feasibility of retrofitting the National Orange Show Facilities to use geothermal heat instead of natural gas for heating are determined. Because of the limited usage of the smaller facilities the study was limited to the conversion of the six major buildings: Domed, Hobby, Citrus, Auditorium, Restaurant and Commercial. A major problem is that most of the buildings are used on a very limited basis. This drastically reduced the amount of savings that could be used to amortize the retrofit cost. Another problem is that the buildings are spread over a large area and so the below grade piping costs were high. Finally, all of the buildings except for the Auditorium have direct gas fired heaters that would require all new terminal heating systems. In order to limit the retrofit cost, the retrofit system was designed to handle less than the peak load. This seemed appropriate because the facility might not even be in operation when a peak load condition occurred. Also, the existing systems could be used to supplement the geothermal system if necessary. The calculated and design peak loads are summarized.

  2. Comparative Simulation Study of Production Scheduling in the Hybrid and the Parallel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela Maria L.R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is one of the most important decisions in production control. An approach is proposed for supporting users to solve scheduling problems, by choosing the combination of physical manufacturing system configuration and the material handling system settings. The approach considers two alternative manufacturing scheduling configurations in a two stage product oriented manufacturing system, exploring the hybrid flow shop (HFS and the parallel flow shop (PFS environments. For illustrating the application of the proposed approach an industrial case from the automotive components industry is studied. The main aim of this research to compare results of study of production scheduling in the hybrid and the parallel flow, taking into account the makespan minimization criterion. Thus the HFS and the PFS performance is compared and analyzed, mainly in terms of the makespan, as the transportation times vary. The study shows that the performance HFS is clearly better when the work stations’ processing times are unbalanced, either in nature or as a consequence of the addition of transport times just to one of the work station processing time but loses advantage, becoming worse than the performance of the PFS configuration when the work stations’ processing times are balanced, either in nature or as a consequence of the addition of transport times added on the work stations’ processing times. This means that physical layout configurations along with the way transport time are including the work stations’ processing times should be carefully taken into consideration due to its influence on the performance reached by both HFS and PFS configurations.

  3. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  4. Study on Applying Hybrid Machine Learning into Family Apparel Expenditure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Lei

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Machine Learning (HMD is a kind of advanced algorithm in the field of intelligent information process.It combines the induced learning based-on decision-making tree with the blocking neural network.And it provides a useful intelligent knowledge-based data mining technique.Its core algorithm is ID3 and Field Theory based ART (FTART).The paper introduces the principals of hybrid machine learning firstly, and then applies it into analyzing family apparel expenditures and their influencing factors systematically.Finally, compared with those from the traditional statistic methods, the results from HML is more friendly and easily to be understood.Besides, the forecasting by HML is more correct than by the traditional ways.

  5. Hybrid Computational Simulation and Study of Terahertz Pulsed Photoconductive Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, R.; Barani, N.; Safian, R.; Nezhad, A. Zeidaabadi

    2016-08-01

    A photoconductive antenna (PCA) has been numerically investigated in the terahertz (THz) frequency band based on a hybrid simulation method. This hybrid method utilizes an optoelectronic solver, Silvaco TCAD, and a full-wave electromagnetic solver, CST. The optoelectronic solver is used to find the accurate THz photocurrent by considering realistic material parameters. Performance of photoconductive antennas and temporal behavior of the excited photocurrent for various active region geometries such as bare-gap electrode, interdigitated electrodes, and tip-to-tip rectangular electrodes are investigated. Moreover, investigations have been done on the center of the laser illumination on the substrate, substrate carrier lifetime, and diffusion photocurrent associated with the carriers temperature, to achieve efficient and accurate photocurrent. Finally, using the full-wave electromagnetic solver and the calculated photocurrent obtained from the optoelectronic solver, electromagnetic radiation of the antenna and its associated detected THz signal are calculated and compared with a measurement reference for verification.

  6. Hybrid Computational Simulation and Study of Terahertz Pulsed Photoconductive Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, R.; Barani, N.; Safian, R.; Nezhad, A. Zeidaabadi

    2016-11-01

    A photoconductive antenna (PCA) has been numerically investigated in the terahertz (THz) frequency band based on a hybrid simulation method. This hybrid method utilizes an optoelectronic solver, Silvaco TCAD, and a full-wave electromagnetic solver, CST. The optoelectronic solver is used to find the accurate THz photocurrent by considering realistic material parameters. Performance of photoconductive antennas and temporal behavior of the excited photocurrent for various active region geometries such as bare-gap electrode, interdigitated electrodes, and tip-to-tip rectangular electrodes are investigated. Moreover, investigations have been done on the center of the laser illumination on the substrate, substrate carrier lifetime, and diffusion photocurrent associated with the carriers temperature, to achieve efficient and accurate photocurrent. Finally, using the full-wave electromagnetic solver and the calculated photocurrent obtained from the optoelectronic solver, electromagnetic radiation of the antenna and its associated detected THz signal are calculated and compared with a measurement reference for verification.

  7. Computational and experimental study of air hybrid engine concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cho-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University The air hybrid engine absorbs the vehicle kinetic energy during braking, stores it in an air tank in the form of compressed air, and reuses it to start the engine and to propel a vehicle during cruising and acceleration. Capturing, storing and reusing this braking energy to achieve stop-start operation and to give additional power can therefore improve fuel economy, particularly in cities and ...

  8. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  9. Studies on the Growth Habits and Characteristics of Two Polyploid Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice with Powerful Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao-jian; DU Chao-qun; DAI Bing-cheng; CHEN Dong-ling; CHEN Jian-guo; CAI De-tian

    2007-01-01

    Based on a series of polyploid indica-japonica hybrid plant lines obtained from a new breeding strategy of using double predominance of wide cross and polyploidization to breed super rice, two polyploid indica-japonica hybrids, PSR073 and PSR120 were studied in their growth periods to show the powerful heterosis in a larger scale and to study the characteristics of polyploid indica-japonica hybrids more elaborately. The leaf age, tiller growth, flowering habits, and agronomic traits of them were observed to analyze their growth habits and characteristics. The results showed that the.agronomic traits of PSR073 and PSR 120, such as the plant height, panicle length, grain length, grain width, and 1000-grain weight, all acquired obvious predominance of polyploidy, and that the seed setting rate was more than 83%. No significant difference was observed between the two tetraploids and common diploids in the leaf age, tiller growth, and flowering habits. It was concluded that the characteristics of the two powerful heterosis polyploid hybrids were different from those of the polyploid rice reported earlier. Wide cross and polyploidization had no negative effects on their growth habits and characteristics; on the contrary these had powerful heterosis. This had provided theoretic and practical evidences for their application to agricultural production.

  10. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  11. Feasibility study of a hybrid plants (photovoltaic–LPG generator system for rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adouane Mabrouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic/LPG (liquid petroleum gas generator hybrid power system for low-cost electricity production which can satisfy the energy load requirements of a typical remote and isolated rural area. In this context, the optimal dimensions to improve the technical and economical performances of the hybrid system are determined according to the load energy requirements. The proposed system's installation and operating costs are simulated using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER, the solar radiation and the system components costs as inputs; and then compared with those of other supply options such as diesel generation.

  12. Preliminary Study of the Supercritical CO{sub 2} Hybrid Cycle for the HTGR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong Jun; Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This study was conducted to explore the potential of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle for the HTGR application. The S-CO{sub 2} cycle is being considered as a PCS due to its high thermal efficiency, simplicity, compactness and so on. Generally, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is characterized as a highly recuperated cycle which means that to achieve high thermal efficiency, the cycle requires a highly effective recuperator. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) showed that direct application of the standard S-CO{sub 2} recompressing Brayton cycle to the HTGR or the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is difficult to achieve high thermal efficiency due to the mismatch of the temperature difference between the temperature drop of helium as the primary reactor coolant and the temperature rise of CO{sub 2} as the PCS coolant through an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX). Therefore, our research team suggests a novel S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton and Rankine hybrid cycle, to solve this limitation. This S-CO{sub 2} hybrid concept is utilizing the waste heat of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle as heat input to the S-CO{sub 2} Rankine cycle. Dividing the thermal capacity of the heat source in to the Brayton cycle part and Rankine cycle part of the S-CO{sub 2} hybrid cycle appropriately, the temperature difference at the IHX could be reduced, therefore the net system performance and operating range can be improved. In this study, the ANL research is reviewed by the in-house cycle analysis codes developed by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) research team. And the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton and Rankine hybrid cycle is studied as a PCS for the VHTR condition which was utilized by ANL research team; it was assumed that the core outlet temperature to be 850 .deg. C and the core inlet temperature of 400 .deg. C.

  13. Interspecific hybrids of dwarf hamsters and Phasianidae birds as animal models for studying the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-10-13

    Hybrid incompatibility is important in speciation as it prevents gene flow between closely related populations. Reduced fitness from hybrid incompatibility may also reinforce prezygotic reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. However, the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility in higher vertebrates remains poorly understood. Mammals and birds, both amniotes, have similar developmental processes, but marked differences in development such as the XY/ZW sex determination systems and the presence or absence of genomic imprinting. Here, we review the sterile phenotype of hybrids between the Phodopus dwarf hamsters P. campbelli and P. sungorus, and the inviable phenotype of hybrids between two birds of the family Phasianidae, chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We propose hypotheses for developmental defects that are associated with these hybrid incompatibilities. In addition, we discuss the genetic and developmental basis for these defects in conjunction with recent findings from mouse and avian models of genetics, reproductive biology and genomics. We suggest that these hybrids are ideal animal models for studying the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility in amniotes.

  14. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

    Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of flows describing swing dynamics with switching rules that are based on protection operation. This paper refers to data on a cascading outage in the September 2003 blackout in Italy and shows a hybrid dynamical system by which propagation of outages reproduced is consistent with the data. This result suggests that hybrid dynamical systems can provide an effective model for the analysis of cascading outages in power systems.

  15. Proximal deletion of chromosome 21 confirmed by in situ hybridization and molecular studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtens, W.; Peterson, M.B.; Noeel, J.C.; Flament-Durand, J.; Van Regemorter, N.; Delneste, D.; Cochaux, P.; Verschraegen-Spae, M.R.; Van Roy, N.; Speleman, F. [Brugmann Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Foetal blood sampling was performed at 35 weeks of gestation due to abnormal foetal ultrasound findings. There was apparent monosomy 21 (45,XX,-21) in all mitoses analyzed. The infant died at 37 weeks during delivery. Examination disclosed facial anomalies, clubfeet, hypoplasia of the left urogenital tract, agenesis of corpus callosum, ventricular dilatation, and heterotopias. Reevaluation of the karyotype showed an unbalanced translocation (1;21) (q44;q22.11) which resulted from a maternal balanced translocation. These findings were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular studies with chromosome 21 specific markers. The latter showed a proximal deletion of the maternally derived chromosome 21 including all loci from centrometer down to the D21S210 locus. This case illustrates the need for complementary cytogenetic and molecular investigations in cases of apparent monosomy 21. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The illusion of specific capture: surface and solution studies of suboptimal oligonucleotide hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization based assays and capture systems depend on the specificity of hybridization between a probe and its intended target. A common guideline in the construction of DNA microarrays, for instance, is that avoiding complementary stretches of more than 15 nucleic acids in a 50 or 60-mer probe will eliminate sequence specific cross-hybridization reactions. Here we present a study of the behavior of partially matched oligonucleotide pairs with complementary stretches starting well below this threshold complementarity length – in silico, in solution, and at the microarray surface. The modeled behavior of pairs of oligonucleotide probes and their targets suggests that even a complementary stretch of sequence 12 nt in length would give rise to specific cross-hybridization. We designed a set of binding partners to a 50-mer oligonucleotide containing complementary stretches from 6 nt to 21 nt in length. Results Solution melting experiments demonstrate that stable partial duplexes can form when only 12 bp of complementary sequence are present; surface hybridization experiments confirm that a signal close in magnitude to full-strength signal can be obtained from hybridization of a 12 bp duplex within a 50mer oligonucleotide. Conclusions Microarray and other molecular capture strategies that rely on a 15 nt lower complementarity bound for eliminating specific cross-hybridization may not be sufficiently conservative. PMID:23445545

  17. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  18. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  19. Studying the Effect of a Competitive Game Show in a Learning by Teaching Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Noboru; Yarzebinski, Evelyn; Keiser, Victoria; Raizada, Rohan; Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how competition among tutees in the context of learning by teaching affects tutors' engagement as well as tutor learning. We conducted this investigation by incorporating a competitive Game Show feature into an online learning environment where students learn to solve algebraic equations by teaching a synthetic…

  20. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  1. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  2. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  3. An hybrid and non-modern approach to urban studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Grau i Solés

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the so-called Forat de la Vergonya urban controversy and the urban transformation process of a neighborhood in Barcelona: el Casc Antic. Drawing on inputs from Actor-Network Theory (ANT, the city is explored as a multiple urban assemblage. Besides, we analyze the dichotomous nature of the modern notion of politics. Especially, the role of object-subject dichotomy is explored. Through the analysis of citizen participation opportunities we propose a new hybrid notion of citizen participation and urban policy.

  4. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    stone pine, Siberian stone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the less productive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structure showed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with the species' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generative cycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo. The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiated embryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to 44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the Upper Angara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however, it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine and Siberian stone pine species occurred.

  5. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    stone pine, Siberian stone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the less productive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structure showed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with the species' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generative cycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo. The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiated embryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to 44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the Upper Angara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however, it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine and Siberian stone pine species occurred.

  6. 1,5-Diarylpyrazole and vanillin hybrids: Synthesis, biological activity and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vázquez, Eduardo; Castañeda-Arriaga, Romina; Ramírez-Espinosa, Juan José; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Hernández-Luis, Francisco; Chaverri, José Pedraza; Estrada-Soto, Samuel

    2015-07-15

    Herein, we report the design and synthesis of 13 diarylpyrazole hybrids with vanillin constructed as dual compounds against oxidative stress and diabetes. Compounds were tested in two different antioxidant assays. It was found that all compounds showed an important antioxidant activity in both DPPH and ORAC models and the activity was even more remarkable than vanillin. In addition, the hypoglycemic effect of compounds 1, 2, 4 and 12 was evaluated. Interestingly, compound 1 had the most potent hypoglycemic effect with a glycemia reduction of 71%, which was higher than rimonabant. Finally, a DFT study to propose a reasonable antioxidant mechanism is detailed. Both thermodynamic and kinetic studies indicated that the most feasible mechanism consists in the HAT abstraction of the phenolic hydrogen due to the formation of an stable transition state through the most rapid and exergonic path, while the SPLET mechanism is the most significant at higher pH values.

  7. Diffusion of interstitial oxygen in silicon and germanium: a hybrid functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Davide; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-12-01

    The minimum-energy paths for the diffusion of an interstitial O atom in silicon and germanium are studied through the nudged-elastic-band method and hybrid functional calculations. The reconsideration of the diffusion of O in silicon primarily serves the purpose of validating the procedure for studying the O diffusion in germanium. Our calculations show that the minimum energy path goes through an asymmetric transition state in both silicon and germanium. The stability of these transition states is found to be enhanced by the generation of unpaired electrons in the highest occupied single-particle states. Calculated energy barriers are 2.54 and 2.14 eV for Si and Ge, in very good agreement with corresponding experimental values of 2.53 and 2.08 eV, respectively.

  8. Study on Absorption and Regeneration Performance of Novel Hybrid Solutions for CO2 Capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jie; Yin Jun; Zhu Feifei; Chen Xin; Tong Ming; Kang Wanzhong; Zhou Yanbo; Lu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a kind of hybrid solution MEA-methanol shows a better CO2 capture performance over aqueous MEA solution. However, the vaporization of methanol is the biggest disadvantage that hinders its application, so it is necessary to minimize the vaporization of methanol during both the absorption and regeneration processes. In this work, two kinds of hybrid solutions were studied and compared with aqueous MEA solution and MEA-methanol solution, including MEA/TEA/methanol solution and MEA/glycerol/methanol solution. The absorption property of MEA/glycerol/methanol solution is better than aqueous MEA solution within a certain period of time and the absorption property of MEA/TEA/methanol solution is too poor to be used in CO2 capture. By increasing the concentration of TEA and decreasing the concentration of MEA, the absorption rate, CO2 capture efifciency and absorption capacity all decreased. Upon adding glycerol, the cyclic capacity decreased and the generation temperature increased, and moreover, the density and viscosity also increased considerably. So after adding TEA and glycerol, the CO2 capture performance of MEA-methanol solvent cannot be improved.

  9. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  10. Retrospective study shows that doxapram therapy avoided the need for endotracheal intubation in most premature neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flint, R.B.; Halbmeijer, N.; Meesters, N.; Rosmalen, J. van; Reiss, I.; Dijk, M.; Simons, S.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Using doxapram to treat neonates with apnoea of prematurity might avoid the need for endotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation. We studied whether doxapram prevented the need for intubation and identified the predictors of the success. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of preterm

  11. Bounded hybrid superiority in an avian hybrid zone: effects of mate, diet, and habitat choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, T P; Ellis, J C; Annett, C A; Pierotti, R

    2000-10-01

    There has been considerable debate in the study of hybrid zones as to whether hybrids may be superior to parental types within the area of contact (bounded hybrid superiority). In birds, naturally occurring hybridization is relatively common, and hybridization within this group always involves mate choice. If hybrids are superior, females choosing heterospecific mates should be expected to show higher fitness under the conditions prevalent in the hybrid zone. Hybrid superiority under these circumstances would reduce reinforcement and thereby help to maintain the hybrid zone. To examine this issue, we studied reproductive performances of hybrids and parental species of gulls (Larus occidentalis and Larus glaucescens) at two colonies within a linear hybrid zone along the west coast of the United States. This hybrid zone contains predominantly gulls of intermediate phenotype. Previous studies indicated that hybrids were superior to one or both parental types, but provided no data on possible mechanisms that underlie this hybrid superiority. Using a hybrid index designed specifically for these species, we identified to phenotype more than 300 individuals associated with nests, including both individual males and females within 73 pairs in the central portion of the hybrid zone and 74 pairs in the northern portion of the hybrid zone. There was little evidence of assortative mating, and what little there was resulted solely because of pairings within intergrades. In the central hybrid zone, females paired with hybrid males produced larger clutches and hatched and fledged more chicks compared with females paired to western gull males. This was a result of heavy predation on eggs in sand habitat, where male western gulls established territories. In contrast, many hybrid males established territories in vegetated cover that was less vulnerable to predation. In the northern part of the hybrid zone, clutch size did not differ among pair categories, however, there were

  12. The Application of Statistical Design of Experiments to Study the In-Plane Shear Behaviour of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical aspect of experimental study on the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel with intermediate layer. The study was aimed at providing information of how significant the contribution of intermediate layer to the in-plane shear behaviour of new developed sandwich panel. The investigation was designed as a single factor experimental design and the results were throughly analysed with statistics software; Minitab 15. The panels were tested by applying a tensile force along the diagonal of the test frame simulating pure shear using a 100 kN MTS servo-hydraulic UTM. The result shows that the incorporation of intermediate layer has sinificantly enhanced the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel. The statistical analysis shows that the value of F0 is much higher than the value of Ftable, which has a meaning that the improvement provided by the incorporation of intermediate layer is statistically significant.

  13. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-01

    Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic-anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75d and 60d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4L/kgvs and 113.2L/kgvs. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  14. Study of Rapid-Regression Liquefying Hybrid Rocket Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilliac, Greg; DeZilwa, Shane; Karabeyoglu, M. Arif; Cantwell, Brian J.; Castellucci, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A report describes experiments directed toward the development of paraffin-based hybrid rocket fuels that burn at regression rates greater than those of conventional hybrid rocket fuels like hydroxyl-terminated butadiene. The basic approach followed in this development is to use materials such that a hydrodynamically unstable liquid layer forms on the melting surface of a burning fuel body. Entrainment of droplets from the liquid/gas interface can substantially increase the rate of fuel mass transfer, leading to surface regression faster than can be achieved using conventional fuels. The higher regression rate eliminates the need for the complex multi-port grain structures of conventional solid rocket fuels, making it possible to obtain acceptable performance from single-port structures. The high-regression-rate fuels contain no toxic or otherwise hazardous components and can be shipped commercially as non-hazardous commodities. Among the experiments performed on these fuels were scale-up tests using gaseous oxygen. The data from these tests were found to agree with data from small-scale, low-pressure and low-mass-flux laboratory tests and to confirm the expectation that these fuels would burn at high regression rates, chamber pressures, and mass fluxes representative of full-scale rocket motors.

  15. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac, E-mail: jaehacko@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  16. NIH study shows increased risk for two types of myotonic muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) may be at increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  17. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2016-04-16

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  18. Material Rhetoric: Spreading Stones and Showing Bones in the Study of Prehistory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reybrouck, D.; de Bont, R.; Rock, J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces

  19. Affiliation, joint venture or PSO? Case studies show why provider strategies differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Joint venture, affiliation or PSO? Here are three case studies of providers who chose different paths under Medicare risk, plus some key questions you'll want to ask of your own provider organization. Learn from these examples so you'll make the best contracting decisions.

  20. Material Rhetoric: Spreading Stones and Showing Bones in the Study of Prehistory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reybrouck, D.; de Bont, R.; Rock, J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces

  1. Show Me the Money! Why Higher Ed Should Help K-12 Do Economic Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    In education, economic impact studies have been largely the product of higher education institutions. Colleges and universities have recognized that they can cultivate public, political and financial support by effectively demonstrating their high return-on-investment value. For more than a decade, all types of higher education institutions have…

  2. Study of medication-free children with Tourette syndrome do not show imaging abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Signe Søndergaard; Debes, Nanette Mol; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imaging studies of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) across different cohorts have shown alterations in gray and white matter in areas associated with the cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) pathways; however, no consistent findings have subsequently established a clear indi...

  3. Ecological and toxicological responses in a multistressor scenario: Are monitoring programs showing the stressors or just showing stress? A case study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Doval, Julio C; Meirelles, Sergio Tadeu; Cardoso-Silva, Sheila; Moschini-Carlos, Viviane; Pompêo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) is located in the Brazilian State of São Paulo and reservoirs in this region are vital for water supply and energy production. Changes in economic, social, and demographic trends produced pollution of water bodies, decreasing water quality for human uses and affecting freshwater populations. The presence of emerging pollutants, classical priority substances, nutrient excess and the interaction with tropical-climate conditions require periodic reviews of water policies and monitoring programs in order to detect and manage these threats in a global change scenario. The objective of this work is to determine whether the monitoring program of the São Paulo's Environmental Agency, is sufficient to explain the toxicological and biological responses observed in organisms in reservoirs of the MRSP, and whether it can identify the possible agents causing these responses. For that, we used publicly available data on water quality compiled by this agency in their routine monitoring program. A general overview of these data and a chemometric approach to analyze the responses of biotic indexes and toxicological bioassays, as a function of the physical and chemical parameters monitored, were performed. Data compiled showed temporal and geographical information gaps on variables measured. Toxicological responses have been observed in the reservoirs of the MRSP, together with a high incidence of impairments of the zooplankton community. This demonstrates the presence of stressors that affect the viability of organisms and populations. The statistical approach showed that the data compiled by the environmental agency are insufficient to identify and explain the factors causing the observed ecotoxicological responses and impairments in the zooplankton community, and are therefore insufficient to identify clear cause-effect relationships. Stressors different from those analyzed could be responsible for the observed responses.

  4. Adsorption studies of chromium (VI) removal from water by lanthanum diethanolamine hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sandip; Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Giri, Anil Kumar; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2014-01-01

    In the present research work, lanthanum diethanolamine hybrid material is synthesized by co-precipitation method and used for the removal of Cr(VI) from synthetic dichromate solution and hand pump water sample. The sorption experiments were carried out in batch mode to optimize various influencing parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, competitive anions and temperature. The characterization of the material and mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption on the material was studied by using scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis. Adsorption kinetics studies reveal that the adsorption process followed first-order kinetics and intraparticle diffusion model with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. The adsorption data were best fitted to linearly transformed Langmuir isotherm with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.997. The maximum removal of Cr(VI) is found to be 99.31% at optimal condition: pH = 5.6 of the solution, adsorbent dose of 8 g L(-1) with initial concentration of 10mgL(-1) of Cr(VI) solution and an equilibrium time of 50 min. The maximum adsorption capacity of the material is 357.1 mg g(-1). Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated to study the effect of temperature on the removal process. The study shows that the adsorption process is feasible and endothermic in nature. The value of E (260.6 kJ mol(-1)) indicates the chemisorption nature of the adsorption process. The material is difficult to be regenerated. The above studies indicate that the hybrid material is capable of removing Cr(VI) from water.

  5. Studies on the Developmental Genetics of Tiller Number in Three-line Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Kang-jing; LIN Wen-xiong; WANG Xue-ren; CHEN Zhi-xiong; GUO Yu-chun; LIANG Yi-yuan; CHEN Fang-yu; LI Ya-juan

    2002-01-01

    Following NC Ⅱ design, the developmental genetic behavior of tiller number (TN) in three-line indica hybrid rice was studied using additive-dominance developmental genetic models and the corresponding statistical methods. The results showed that dominance effects were predominant for TN. The expression of those additive effects were affected by environment and genotype interaction, but the expression of dominance effects were not affected. Heterosis was the strongest in the middle developmental periods of TN. Additive effects and dominance effects were selectively expressed throughout in the entire tillering developmental stage.Analysis of genetic correlation between TN at different stages and the productive panicles indicated that a close correlation appeared earlier in the populations with higher heterosis than in those with less heterosis. Utilization of heterosis at the middle tillering stage might enhance the final biomass but reduce the percentage of productive panicles.

  6. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  7. A study of speech emotion recognition based on hybrid algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ju-xia; Zhang, Chao; Lv, Zhao; Rao, Yao-quan; Wu, Xiao-pei

    2011-10-01

    To effectively improve the recognition accuracy of the speech emotion recognition system, a hybrid algorithm which combines Continuous Hidden Markov Model (CHMM), All-Class-in-One Neural Network (ACON) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed. In SVM and ACON methods, some global statistics are used as emotional features, while in CHMM method, instantaneous features are employed. The recognition rate by the proposed method is 92.25%, with the rejection rate to be 0.78%. Furthermore, it obtains the relative increasing of 8.53%, 4.69% and 0.78% compared with ACON, CHMM and SVM methods respectively. The experiment result confirms the efficiency of distinguishing anger, happiness, neutral and sadness emotional states.

  8. Studying the Mechanism of Hybrid Nanoparticle Photoresists: Effect of Particle Size on Photopatterning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2015-07-28

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Hf-based hybrid photoresist materials with three different organic ligands were prepared by a sol-gel-based method, and their patterning mechanism was investigated in detail. All hybrid nanoparticle resists are patternable using UV exposure. Their particle sizes show a dramatic increase from the initial 3-4 nm to submicron size after exposure, with no apparent inorganic content or thermal property change detected. XPS results showed that the mass percentage of the carboxylic group in the structure of nanoparticles decreased with increasing exposure duration. The particle coarsening sensitivities of those hybrid nanoparticles are consistent with their EUV performance. The current work provides an understanding for the development mechanism and future guidance for the design and processing of high performance resist materials for large-scale microelectronics device fabrication.

  9. Study of statistical properties of hybrid statistic in coherent multidetector compact binary coalescences search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, K.; Pai, Archana

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we revisit the coherent gravitational wave search problem of compact binary coalescences with multidetector network consisting of advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of the optimal multidetector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio (MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this hybrid statistic is compared with that of the coherent MLR statistic for generic inclination angles. Owing to the single synthetic data stream, the hybrid statistic gives few false alarms compared to the multidetector MLR statistic and small fractional loss in the optimum SNR for a large range of binary inclinations. We demonstrate that, for a LIGO-Virgo network and binary inclination ɛ 11 0 ° , the hybrid statistic captures more than 98% of the network optimum matched filter SNR with a low false alarm rate. The Monte Carlo exercise with two distributions of incoming inclination angles—namely, U [cos ɛ ] and a more realistic distribution proposed by B. F. Schutz [Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 125023 (2011)]—are performed with the hybrid statistic and give approximately 5% and 7% higher detection probabilities, respectively, compared to the two stream multidetector MLR statistic for a fixed false alarm probability of 1 0-5.

  10. Retrospective study shows that doxapram therapy avoided the need for endotracheal intubation in most premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert; Halbmeijer, Nienke; Meesters, Naomi; van Rosmalen, Joost; Reiss, Irwin; van Dijk, Monique; Simons, Sinno

    2017-05-01

    Using doxapram to treat neonates with apnoea of prematurity might avoid the need for endotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation. We studied whether doxapram prevented the need for intubation and identified the predictors of the success. This was a retrospective study of preterm infants born from January 2006 to August 2014 who received oral or intravenous doxapram. Success was defined as no need for endotracheal intubation, due to apnoea, during doxapram therapy. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses identified predictors of success during the first 48 hours of doxapram therapy. Data on 203 patients with a median gestational age of 26.1 (interquartile range 25.1-27.4) weeks were analysed. During the first 48 hours of doxapram therapy, 157 (77%) patients did not need endotracheal intubation and 127 (63%) patients were successfully treated over the entire treatment course. The median postnatal age at the start of doxapram therapy was 20 days (interquartile range 12-30). Postnatal age and a lower fraction of inspired oxygen at the start of doxapram therapy were significant predictors of success (odds ratio 0.964, 95% confidence interval 0.938-0.991, p = 0.001). Oral and intravenous doxapram effectively treated most cases of apnoea in preterm infants, avoiding the need for intubation. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. People see what papers show! Psychiatry's stint with print media: A pilot study from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Shivanshu; Kalra, Gurvinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak

    2015-01-01

    Mass media including television, internet, and newspapers influences public views about various issues by means of how it covers an issue. Newspapers have a wider reach and may affect the impact that a news story has on the reader by factors such as placement of the story within the different pages. We did a pilot study to see how two English newspapers from Mumbai, India were covering psychiatry related news stories. The study was done over a period of 3 months. We found a total of 870 psychiatry related news stories in the two newspapers over 3 months with the majority of them being covered in the main body of the newspapers. Sex-related crime stories and/or sexual dysfunction stories received the highest coverage among all the news while treatment and/or recovery related stories received very little coverage. It is crucial that the print media takes more efforts in improving reporting of psychiatry-related stories and help in de-stigmatizing psychiatry as a discipline.

  12. Study of pulmonary functions of the tourist guides in two show caves in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjevic, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2009-04-01

    Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage, the Škocjan Caves were entered on UNESCO's list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. Caves have always been special places for people all over the world. There has been a lot of research done in the field of speleology and also in medicine in relation to speleotherapy. There is still one field left partial unexplored and its main issue covers the interaction between special ecosystems as caves and human activities and living. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The issue of epidemiologic research encompass several factors that are not necessarily related to the radon. Park Škocjan Caves established research monitoring projects such as caves microclimate parameters, quality of the water, every day's data from our meteorological station useful tool in public awareness related to pollution and climate change. Last year a special study was started in order to evaluate pulmonary functions of persons who work in the caves and those who work mostly in offices. Two groups of tourist guides from Škocjan Caves and Postojna Cave were included in

  13. A Feasibility Study Showing [(68)Ga]Citrate PET Detects Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Spencer C; Aggarwal, Rahul; Seo, Youngho; Aparici, Carina M; Chang, Emily; Gao, Kenneth T; Tao, Dora H; Small, Eric J; Evans, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    The management of advanced or recurrent prostate cancer is limited in part by the lack of effective imaging agents. Metabolic changes in prostate cancer have previously been exploited for imaging, culminating in the recent US FDA approval of [(11)C]choline for the detection of subclinical recurrent disease after definitive local therapy. Despite this milestone, production of [(11)C]choline requires an on-site cyclotron, limiting the scope of medical centers at which this scan can be offered. In this pilot study, we tested whether prostate cancer could be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using [(68)Ga]citrate, a radiotracer that targets iron metabolism but is produced without a cyclotron. Eight patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer were enrolled in this single-center feasibility study. All patients had evidence of metastatic disease by standard of care imaging [X-ray computed tomography (CT), bone scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] prior to PET with [(68)Ga]citrate. Patients were intravenously injected with increasing doses of [(68)Ga]citrate (136.9 to a maximum of 259 MBq). Uptake time was steadily increased from 1 h to approximately 3.5 h for the final 4 patients, and all patients were imaged with a PET/MRI. Qualitative and semi-quantitative (maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)) assessment of the metastatic lesions was performed and compared to the standard of care imaging. At 1- and 2-h imaging times post injection, there were no detectable lesions with [(68)Ga]citrate PET. At 3- to 4-h uptake time, there were a total of 71 [(68)Ga]citrate-positive lesions (67 osseous, 1 liver, and 3 lymph node). Of these, 65 lesions were visible on the standard of care imaging (CT and/or bone scan). One PET-avid osseous vertebral body metastasis was not apparent on either CT or bone scan. Twenty-five lesions were not PET-avid but seen on CT and bone scan (17 bone, 6 lymph node, 1 pleural, and 1 liver). The average of the maximum SUVs

  14. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  15. Feasibility Study on the Development of Index that Shows Social and Cultural Acceptance of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SeongKyung [Bangmok College of General Education at Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seungho; Yoon, Hana; Song, Jiyeon [Domo Brodeur, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this context, it is necessary to manage and develop an index that can measure the level of public acceptance by establishing the terms of social/cultural public acceptance of nuclear power in a practical manner and by identifying influential factors of public acceptance. Developing an index itself is not intended to increase the public acceptance of nuclear power. This study intends to contribute to determining energy policy acceptable to the public by estimating the level of potential social conflicts related to nuclear power policies with eligible evaluation criteria on social/cultural acceptance and by reducing relevant social costs. Key conclusions and proposal of this research are as follows. First, the influential factors of acceptance are reliability of nuclear safety, risk perception of nuclear power and beneficial perception of nuclear power. Among them, reliability of nuclear safety appears to have the most influence. In addition, benefit perception of nuclear power at the social level is significantly higher than that at the individual level. However, in relation to risk perception, a gap between experts and the public is found as nuclear industry premises that accident does not occur while the public premises that accident may occur.

  16. Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glória; Santos, Conceição

    2014-02-01

    Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO₂ assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO₂ availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  18. EUropean prospective cohort study on Enterobacteriaceae showing REsistance to CArbapenems (EURECA): a protocol of a European multicentre observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Belén; Sojo-Dorado, Jesús; Bravo-Ferrer, José; Cuperus, Nienke; de Kraker, Marlieke; Kostyanev, Tomislav; Raka, Lul; Daikos, George; Feifel, Jan; Folgori, Laura; Pascual, Alvaro; Goossens, Herman; O'Brien, Seamus; Bonten, Marc J M; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The rapid worldwide spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) constitutes a major challenge. The aim of the EUropean prospective cohort study on Enterobacteriaceae showing REsistance to CArbapenems (EURECA), which is part of the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking (IMI JU) funded COMBACTE-CARE project, is to investigate risk factors for and outcome determinants of CRE infections to inform randomised clinical trial designs and to provide a historical cohort that could eventually be used for future comparisons with new drugs targeting CRE. Methods A multicentre (50 sites), multinational (11 European countries), analytical observational project was designed, comprising 3 studies. The aims of study 1 (a prospective cohort study) include characterising the features, clinical management and outcomes of hospitalised patients with intra-abdominal infection, pneumonia, complicated urinary tract infections and bloodstream infections caused by CRE (202 patients in each group). The main outcomes will be 30-day all-cause mortality and clinical response. Study 2 (a nested case–control study) will identify the risk factors for target infections caused by CRE; 248 selected patients from study 1 will be matched with patients with carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (1:1) and with hospitalised patients (1:3) and will provide a historical cohort of patients with CRE infections. Study 3 (a matched cohort study) will follow patients in study 2 in order to assess mortality, length of stay and hospital costs associated with CRE. All patients will be followed for 30 days. Different, up-to-date statistical methods will be applied to come to unbiased estimates for all 3 studies. Ethics and dissemination Before-study sites will be initiated, approval will be sought from appropriate regulatory agencies and local Ethics Committees of Research or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) to conduct the study in accordance with regulatory requirements

  19. Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic behavior of conventional and hybrid braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Wei

    hundred and forty pin-ended struts with square hollow structural section shape were simulated under cyclic loading to examine the effect of width-to-thickness ratios and member slenderness ratios on the deformation capacity and energy dissipation characteristics of brace members. The concept of a hybrid system, consisting of a vertical elastic truss or strong-back, and a braced frame that responds inelastically, is proposed herein to mitigate the tendency of weak-story mechanisms to form in conventional steel braced frames. A simple design strategy about member sizing of the proposed Strong-Back System is provided in this study. To assess the ability of the new Strong-Back System to perform well under seismic loading, a series of inelastic analyses were performed considering three six-story hybrid braced frames having different bracing elements, and three six-story conventional brace frames having different brace configurations. Monotonic and cyclic quasi-static inelastic analyses and inelastic time history analyses were carried out. The braced frame system behavior, bracing member force-displacement hysteresis loops, and system residual drifts were the primary response quantities examined. These indicated that the new hybrid system was able to achieve its design goals. Experimental results show for the same loading history that the braced frame specimen using round hollow structural sections as brace members has the largest deformation capacity among the three types of bracing elements studied. Beams connected to gusset plates at the column formed plastic hinges adjacent to the gusset plate. The gusset plates tend to amplify the rotation demands at these locations and stress concentrations tended to result in early fractures of the plastic hinges that form. To remedy this problem, pinned connection details used in the last two specimens; these proved to prevent failures at these locations under both quasi-static and pseudo-dynamic tests. Failure modes observed near the

  20. Study on Drive System of Hybrid Tree Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Rong-feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tree harvester with a 60 kW diesel engine combined with a battery pile could be a “green” forest harvesting and transportation system. With the new design, the diesel engine maintains a constant engine speed, keeping fuel consumption low while charging the batteries that drive the forwarder. As an additional energy saving method, the electric motors work as generators to charge the battery pile when the vehicle moves downhill. The vehicle is equipped with six large wheels providing high clearance over uneven terrain while reducing ground pressure. Each wheel is driven via a hub gear by its own alternating current motor, and each of the three wheel pairs can be steered independently. The combination of the diesel engine and six electric motors provides plenty of power for heavy lifting and pulling. The main component parameters of the drive system are calculated and optimized with a set of dynamics and simulated with AVL Cruise software. The results provide practical insights for the fuel tree harvester and are helpful to reduce the structure and size of the tree harvester. Advantage Environment provides information about existing and future products designed to reduce environmental impacts.

  1. Study and Analysis of Congestion Management in Hybrid Electric Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayed Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The congestion management system is a systematic approach, collaboratively developed and implemented throughout a metropolitan region that provides for the safe and effective management and operation of new and existing transportation facilities through the use of demand reduction and operational management strat­e­gies. In this paper we try to present some points which should be investigated in congestion management problems. We calculate different kinds of congestion problems which may be occurred in our network. Here, the hybrid model is used to solve problems in the electricity market to solve the congestion problem in the network and Benders techniques is used together with an optimal power flow (OPF. In fact, by using of Benders algorithm the problem is divided into two major and minor problems. Therefore, the major problem related to the economy sector and no network is included and the minor problem is to solve the network and examine the accuracy of the network. Benders algorithm has been tested on a standard network IEEE 24 bus and Matlab software is used to implement the algorithm.

  2. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  3. An experimental study of nonlinear behaviour of capacitance in graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsawafi, Suaad; Wang, Xiao; Jin, Jie; Song, Mo

    2016-06-01

    Graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid films were fabricated as high performance electrode materials by a simple water solution casting method with different contents of single-wall CNT (SWCNT), multi wall CNT (MWCNT) and multi wall CNT with hydroxyl group (MWCNT-OH). The films with MWCNTs showed a layered, interconnected and well entangled structure at nano-scale. With increasing CNT contents, the capacitance of the G/MWCNT and GO/MWCNT films raised almost linearly and their resistance reduced. G/SWCNT and GO/SWCNT films did not form layered structures leading to a very low capacitance. Nonlinear behaviour of the capacitance with voltage has been observed in the G/MWCNT and GO/MWCNT hybrid films. The length and thickness of the hybrid film have significant influences on the capacitance. The capacitance and conductivity increase with increasing the thickness and decrease with increasing the length of the hybrid films. For the application of graphene/CNT hybrid films as electrodes, these characters could be taken into account.

  4. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  5. 75As-NQR study of the hybridization gap semiconductor CeOs4As12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, M.; Higa, N.; Niki, H.; Kawata, T.; Sekine, C.

    2016-02-01

    We performed an 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement on CeOs4As12. The 75As-NQR spectrum shape demonstrates that the Ce-site filling fraction of our high-pressure synthesized sample is close to unity. A presence of the c — f hybridization gap is confirmed from the temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1. An increase of 1/T1 below ∼3 K indicates a development of the spin fluctuations. The 1/T1 for CeOs4As12 shows similar behavior as that for CeOs4Sb12 with different magnitude of the c — f hybridization gap. An absence of phase transition in CeOs4As12 may be caused by the increase of the c — f hybridization, which increases the gap magnitude and reduces the residual density of state inside the gap.

  6. Comparative study of PP0275C hybrid photodetector and XP2020Q photomultiplier in scintillation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszynski, Marek [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Klamra, Wlodzimierz [Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Wolski, Dariusz [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Czarnacki, Wieslaw [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Kapusta, Maciej [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Balcerzyk, Marcin [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2006-05-15

    The properties of a hybrid photodetector (HPD), type PP0275C, produced by Delft Electronic Products B.V., for scintillation detection and spectrometry were studied and compared to a standard XP2020Q photomultiplier. The study was performed for several scintillators, such as NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl) and LSO(Ce) of different dimensions. The excellent capability of the HPD to resolve single photoelectron events was fully confirmed. However, the study of the HPD with the scintillators showed a dramatically reduced number of photoelectrons and a further deterioration of energy resolution, depending on the size (diameter or length) of the crystals. For a 10 mm diameter NaI(Tl) a number of 5000{+-}250 photoelectrons/MeV was measured, which corresponds to about 56% of that observed with the XP2020Q with comparable quantum efficiency. An energy resolution of 9.2% for 662 keV {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source as measured with the HPD light readout indicated on a serious degradation, larger than that arising from the statistics of photoelectrons. In conclusion, the study showed that this HPD is optimized for single photon detection but its application to scintillation detection is very limited.

  7. Synthesis, β-glucuronidase inhibition and molecular docking studies of hybrid bisindole-thiosemicarbazides analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Imran, Syahrul; Rahim, Fazal; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Huma; Ullah, Hayat; Salar, Uzma; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid bisindole-thiosemicarbazides analogs (1-18) were synthesized and screened for β-glucuronidase activity. All compounds showed varied degree of β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential when compared with standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=48.4±1.25μM). Compounds 4, 7, 9, 6, 5, 12, 17 and 18 showed exceptional β-glucuronidase inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 5.7μM. Compounds 1, 3, 8, 16, 13, 2 and 14 also showed better activities than standard with IC50 values ranging from 7.12 to 15.0μM. The remaining compounds 10, 11, and 15 showed good inhibitory potential with IC50 values 33.2±0.75, 21.4±0.30 and 28.12±0.25μM respectively. Molecular docking studies were carried out to confirm the binding interaction of the compounds.

  8. Preliminary study on the genes related to the fertility of indica/japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Studying the sterility of indica/japonica hybrid was a prerequisite for the utilization of heterosis in high yield rice breeding. In 1986, Ikehashi et al found that wide compatibility varieties, which possessed S5-n allele, couldovercome the sterility of indica/japonica hybrids, and thesterilitv was mainly caused by allelic interaction at S-5 lo-cus. Further studies indicated that the sterility could notbe completely overcome just by S5-n. There were must beother loci responsible for the sterility of indica/ japonicahybrids.

  9. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  10. Study of statistical properties of hybrid statistic in coherent multi-detector CBC Search

    CERN Document Server

    Haris, K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we revisit the problem of coherent multi-detector search of gravitational wave from compact binary coalescence with Neutron stars and Black Holes using advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of optimal multi-detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio(MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this hybrid statistic is compared with that of the coherent MLR statistic for generic inclination angles. Owing to the single synthetic data stream, the hybrid statistic gives low false alarms compared to the multi-detector MLR statistic and small fractional loss in the optimum SNR for a large range of binary inclinations. We have demonstrated that for a LIGO-Virgo network and binary inclination, \\epsilon 110 deg., the hybrid statistic captures more than 98% of network optimum matched filter SNR with low false alarm rate. The...

  11. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  12. Hybrid poplar and forest soil response to municipal and industrial by-products: a greenhouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Gilmore, Daniel W; Mozaffari, Morteza; Rosen, Carl J; Halbach, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been conducted in the Lake States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan) to evaluate the effects of municipal and industrial by-product applications on the early growth of short rotation woody crops such as hybrid poplar. Anticipated shortages of harvestable-age aspen in the next decade can be alleviated and rural development can be enhanced through the application of by-products to forest soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of inorganic fertilizer, boiler ash, biosolids, and the co-application of ash and biosolids application on tree growth and soil properties by measuring hybrid poplar clone NM-6 (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry) yield, nutrient uptake, and select post-harvest soil properties after 15 wk of greenhouse growth. Treatments included a control of no amendment; agricultural lime; inorganic N, P, and K; three types of boiler ash; biosolids application rates equivalent to 70, 140, 210, and 280 kg available N ha(-1); and boiler ash co-applied with biosolids. All of the by-products treatments showed biomass production that was equal to or greater than inorganic fertilizer and lime treatments. A trend of increased biomass with increasing rates of biosolids was observed. Soil P concentration increased with increasing rates of biosolids application. None of the by-products treatments resulted in plant tissue metal concentrations greater than metal concentrations of plant tissue amended with inorganic amendments. Biosolids, boiler ash, and the co-application of biosolids and boiler ash together on forest soils were as beneficial to plant growth as inorganic fertilizers.

  13. A Comparative Study of Pollutant Removal Stability in Hybrid Wetland Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanveer Ferdous Saeed; Guang zhi Sun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two alternative substrates (wood mulch and zeolite) on the performance of three laboratory-scale hybrid wetland systems that had identical system components and configurations.Each system consisted of a vertical flow (VF) wetland column,followed by a horizontal flow (HF) column and a vertical flow column.The substrates employed were wood mulch,gravel and zeolite,and Phragmites australis were planted in each column.The systems received synthetic wastewater,with pollutant loadings in the range of 8.5-38.0g/(m2· d) total nitrogen (TN) and 4.0-46.4 g/(m2· d) biological oxygen demand (BOD5).Wood mulch and zeolite substrates showed higher efficiencies in terms of removing nitrogenous compounds and biodegradable organics.The supply of organic carbon from the organic mulch substrates enhanced denitrification,while adsorption of influent ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4—N) in zeolite played a major role in the removal of nitrogenous species in the wetland columns.Overall,the average percentage removals of TN and BOD5 reached>66% and >96% respectively,indicating stable performances by the hybrid wetland systems under the experimental loading ranges.Mathematical models were developed,based on the combination of Monod kinetics and continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) flow patterns to describe the degradation of nitrogenous compounds.Predictions by the models closely matched the experimental data,indicating the validity and potential application of Monod kinetics in the modelling and design of treatment wetlands.

  14. Synthesis and antibacterial activity studies of 6-methoxyquinazoline-triazole hybrid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramireddy Veeramreddy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Click reaction between the electronically divergent triazole compounds 4-((l-(4-(tert-butylbenzyl-1H-l,2,3-triazol-4-ylmethoxy-5-methoxy-2-nitrobenzamides (8a-e with different aldehydes using Na 2S 2O 4 in DMSO was performed to obtain hybrid of quinazolinone-triazole derivatives (10a-o. All the synthesized compounds were fully characterized on the basis of their detailed spectral studies and screened for their antibacterial activities strains using paper disc method. The compounds (10 a-o were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against human pathogenic organism Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus (Table 1. The investigation of antibacterial screening data reveal that 10e, 10f, 10g, 10j and 10n were highly active against E. coli, where as 10b, 10d, 10j,10k and 10o showed least activity. Compounds 10b, 10e, 10f, 10g, 10i, 10k and 10n showed high activity against S. aureus, where as compounds 10d, 10j, 10o showed least activity. Compounds 10c, 10h, 10l and 10o were inactive against both organisms employed.

  15. Study on Polyimide/Silica Hybrid Films via Directly Intermingle Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHAO; Bao-Lin RAO

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, polyimide hybrid materials have received considerable attention due to the dramatic improvements over their pristine state in thermal stabilities, mechanical properties and other special features by introducing only small fraction inorganic additives[1]. Polyimide/silica hybrid materials were studied mostly by sol-gel route[2]. However the storage stability of the sol resin is a practical problem and has not researched on it so far. On the other hand, nano-sized silica has been produced on a large scale and industrialized. In this paper, polyimide/siliea hybrid films were prepared via directly intermingle method. The storage stability of the sol resin, the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting films were investigated.

  16. Electrical property studies on chemically processed polypyrolle/aluminum doped ZnO based hybrid heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, G.; Ilanchezhiyan, P.; Madhan Kumar, A.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Kang, T. W.

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid structure based on p-type polypyrolle (PPy) and n-type aluminum (Al) doped ZnO nanorods was successfully constructed. The effect of Al doping on material properties of wurtzite structured ZnO were studied using several analytical techniques. To establish the desired hybrid structure, pyrrole monomers were polymerized on hydrothermally grown Al doped ZnO nanorods by chemical polymerization. The current⿿voltage characteristics on the fabricated PPy/Al doped ZnO heterostructures were found to exhibit excellent rectifying characteristics under dark and illumination conditions. The obtained results augment the prescribed architecture to be highly suitable for high-sensitivity optoelectronic applications.

  17. Study of applying a hybrid standalone wind-photovoltaic generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Dahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of applying a hybrid system wind/photovoltaic to supply a community in southern Algeria. Diesel generators are always used to provide such remote regions with energy. Using renewable energy resources is a good alternative to overcome such pollutant generators. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software is used to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed configuration. Assessment of renewable resources consisting in wind and solar potentials, load profile determination and sensitivity of different parameters analysis were performed. The cost of energy (COE of 0.226 $/kWh is very competitive with those found in literature.

  18. A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERFACIAL DAMAGE ON STRESS CONCENTRATIONS IN INTRAPLY HYBRID COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Qingdun; Lin Xuehui

    2001-01-01

    In the axial tensile failure process of intraply hybrid composites, the breakage of some fibers may lead to interfacial damage, thus directly influencing the local stress concentrations near the sites of breakage. A modified shear-lag model, in which the interfacial damage is considered, is proposed. Based on the model, the influence of interfacial shear strength on the stress concentrations and the lengths of interfacial damage zone is first studied. The present results also provide an important theoretical basis for investigating the failure mechanism and hybrid effects for such kind of composites.

  19. Study on the Levitation and Restoring Force Characteristics of the Improved HTS-permanent Magnet Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, R.; Oguni, K.; Ohashi, S.

    We have developed the hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and high temperature bulk super conductor (HTS). In this system, the permanent magnet has ring type structure so that the permanent magnet and the HTS can be set to the stator. The pinning force of the HTS is used for the levitation and the guidance. Repulsive force of the permanent magnets was used in the conventional hybrid system. However the restoring force in the guidance direction of the conventional hybrid system decreases by the side slip force of the permanent magnets. In this research, attractive force of permanent magnets is used for increasing the load weight in the guidance direction. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on the static characteristics of the rotor is studied. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of the linkage flux (in the levitation and the guidance direction) in the HTS is undertaken. The stator side permanent magnet increases the linkage flux of the levitation direction. Therefore in the hybrid system the linkage flux of the levitation direction increases. The levitation and restoring force of the rotor is measured. The levitation force of the hybrid system becomes smaller than that of the non-hybrid one by attractive force. The rotor in the hybrid system is supported by the pinning force and attractive force. The restoring force of the hybrid system becomes larger than that of the non-hybrid one because of increasing the linkage flux of the levitation direction.

  20. In vitro and in vivo study of pluripotency in intraspecific hybrid cells obtained by fusion of murine embryonic stem cells with splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N M; Shilov, A G; Kaftanovskaya, E M; Maximovsky, L P; Zhelezova, A I; Golubitsa, A N; Bayborodin, S I; Fokina, M M; Serov, O L

    1998-06-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient (HPRT-) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, HM-1 cells (genotype XY), were fused with adult female DD/c mouse spleen cells. As a result, a set of HAT-resistant clones was isolated. Four hybrid clones most similar in morphology and growth characteristics to the HM-1 cells were studied in detail with respect to their pluripotency. Of these, three clones contained 41-43 chromosomes, and one clone was nearly tetraploid. All the clones had the XXY set of sex chromosomes and expressed the HPRT of the somatic partner only. The hybrid clones shared features with the HM-1 cells, indicating that they retained their pluripotent properties: (1) embryonic ECMA-7 antigen, not TROMA-1 antigen, was present in most cells; (2) the hybrid cells showed high activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase (AP); (3) all the hybrid clones were able to form complex embryoid bodies containing derivatives of all the embryonic germinal layers; (4) the hybrid cells contained synchronously replicating X chromosomes, indicating that they were in an active state; and (5) a set of chimeric animals was generated by injecting hybrid cells into BALB/c and C57BL/6J mouse blastocysts. Evidence for chimerism was provided by the spotted coat derived from 129/Ola mice and identification of 129/Ola glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in many organs. Thus the results obtained demonstrated that the hybrid cells retain their high pluripotency level despite the close contact of the "pluripotent" HM-1 genome with the "somatic" spleen cell genome during hybrid cell formation and the presence of the "somatic" X chromosome during many cell generations. The presence of HPRT of the somatic partner in many organs and tissues, including the testes in chimeric animals, shows that the "somatic" X chromosome segregates weakly, if at all, during development of the chimeras. There were no individuals with the 129/Ola genotype among the more than 50 offspring from chimeric mice. The

  1. Study of multipass regimes in lower hybrid current drive experiments on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.; Litaudon, X.; Peysson, Y.; Hoang, G.T.; Kazarian, F.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Shoucri, M.; Shkarofsky, I.P. [Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, PQ (Canada); Baranov, Y. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Kupfer, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This document presents a study of multipass regimes in Lower Hybrid Current Drive on Tore Supra. A statistical model of the plasma wave propagation based on the Fokker-Planck theory is proposed, together with experimental results performed on Tore Supra. (TEC). 9 refs., 4 figs.

  2. The Technical and Economic Study of Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System in Coastal Area of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvankar Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The size optimization and economic evaluation of the solar-wind hybrid renewable energy system (RES to meet the electricity demand of 276 kWh/day with 40 kW peak load have been determined in this study. The load data has been collected from the motels situated in the coastal areas of Patenga, Chittagong. RES in standalone as well as grid connected mode have been considered. The optimal system configurations have been determined based on systems net present cost (NPC and cost of per unit energy (COE. A standalone solar-wind-battery hybrid system is feasible and economically comparable to the present cost of diesel based power plant if 8% annual capacity shortage is allowed. Grid tied solar-wind hybrid system, where more than 70% electricity contribution is from RES, is economically comparable to present grid electricity price. Moreover, grid tied RES results in more than 60% reduction in greenhouse gases emission compared to the conventional grid. Sensitivity analysis has been performed in this study to determine the effect of capital cost variation or renewable resources variation on the system economy. Simulation result of sensitivity analysis has showed that 20% reduction of installation cost results in nearly 9%–12% reductions in cost of per unit energy.

  3. Density functional theory study of the conformation and optical properties of hybrid Au(n)-dithienylethene systems (n = 3, 19, 25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihey, Arnaud; Kloss, Benedikt; Perrier, Aurélie; Maurel, François

    2014-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of Aun-dithienylethene hybrid systems (n = 3, 19, 25), where the organic molecule is covalently linked to a nanometer-scaled gold nanoparticle (NP). We aim at gaining insights on the optical properties of such photochromic devices and proposing a size-limited gold aggregate model able to recover the optical properties of the experimental system. We thus present a DFT-based calculation scheme to model the ground-state (conformation, energetic parameters) and excited-state properties (UV-visible absorption spectra) of this type of hybrid systems. Within this framework, the structural parameters (adsorption site, orientation, and internal structure of the photochrome) are found to be slightly dependent on the size/shape of the gold aggregate. The influence of the gold fragment on the optical properties of the resulting hybrid system is then discussed with the help of TD-DFT combined with an analysis of the virtual orbitals involved in the photochromic transitions. We show that, for the open hybrid isomer, the number of gold atoms is the key parameter to recover the photoactive properties that are experimentally observed. On the contrary, for hybrid closed systems, the three-dimensional structure of the metallic aggregate is of high impact. We thus conclude that Au25 corresponds to the most appropriate fragment to model nanometer-sized NP-DTE hybrid device.

  4. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  5. Study of improving the quality of bread and wheat-aegilops hybrids with the biotechnological ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbarzada, Aygun; Hasanova, Sudaba

    2016-08-01

    The great need of the people to bread demands to increase high qualitative grain plants. At present time for solving these problem different methods of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology are widely used in the process of selection. To investigate biochemical peculiarities of wheat-aegilops hybrids and to define the correlative relation between these characteristics. To investigate the technological peculiarities of wheat- aegilops hybrids and to define the relation between their main biochemical and technological characteristics. The conclusion of this investigation showed the followings- the wheat-aegilops hybrids according to their morphological and biochemical characteristics have approached to wheats. The electrophoretic spectres of the wheat- aegilops hybrids which have stable for their morphological characteristics are homogeny and heterogenic. Hereditarily some group protein components have passed to their tribes from their parents. But spontaneous hybridisation results in taking part the components of other unknown wheats in these electrophoretic spectres. There is a relation between the electrophoretic spectres and the indications of the grain quality.

  6. Hybrid functional study rationalizes the simple cubic phase of calcium at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanyu; Cui, Wenwen; Ma, Yanming

    2012-11-14

    Simple cubic (SC) phase has been long experimentally determined as the high-pressure phase III of elemental calcium (Ca) since 1984. However, recent density functional calculations within semi-local approximation showed that this SC phase is structurally unstable by exhibiting severely imaginary phonons, and is energetically unstable with respect to a theoretical body-centered tetragonal I4(1)/amd structure over the pressure range of phase III. These calculations generated extensive debates on the validity of SC phase. Here we have re-examined the SC structure by performing more precise density functional calculations within hybrid functionals of Heyd-Scuseria-Erhzerhof and PBE0. Our calculations were able to rationalize fundamentally the phase stability of SC structure over all other known phases by evidence of its actual energetic stability above 33 GPa and its intrinsically dynamical stability without showing any imaginary phonons in the entire pressure range studied. We further established that the long-thought theoretical I4(1)/amd structure remains stable in a narrow pressure range before entering SC phase and is actually the structure of experimental Ca-III(') synthesized recently at low temperature 14 K as supported by the excellent agreement between our simulated x-ray diffraction patterns and the experimental data. Our results shed strong light on the crucial role played by the precise electron exchange energy in a proper description of the potential energy of Ca.

  7. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  8. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  9. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrs, Richard Wood [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by 31P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 Å of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an α-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  10. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrs, R.W.

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by [sup 31]P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 [Angstrom] of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an [alpha]-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  11. Patients' perceptions of physicians: a pilot study of the influence of prime-time fictional medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Mary Elizabeth; Heischmidt, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Much criticism has fallen onto prime-time crime shows for skewing the perception the public has on crime. Could the same criticism apply to prime-time medical dramas, which tend to be among the most watched television shows today, for skewing patients' expectations? In the past, physicians on prime-time fictional medical shows tended to be depicted in a positive manner. However, today's medical dramas often portray physicians in a less positive context. The results of this study showed that television exposure only negatively affect patients' perceptions of physicians in regards to physical attractiveness and character, but not to physician propriety, power, communication, sociability, extroversion, competence, and composure. In addition, this study showed that prime-time fictional shows affect patient-physician interactions.

  12. Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M. [Center for Engineering Research, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 767, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-12-15

    This study presents a PV-diesel hybrid power system with battery backup for a village being fed with diesel generated electricity to displace part of the diesel by solar. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the site along with PV modules mounted on fixed foundations, four generators of different rated powers, diesel prices of 0.2-1.2US$/l, different sizes of batteries and converters were used to find an optimal power system for the village. It was found that a PV array of 2000 kW and four generators of 1250, 750, 2250 and 250 kW; operating at a load factor of 70% required to run for 3317 h/yr, 4242 h/yr, 2820 h/yr and 3150 h/yr, respectively; to produce a mix of 17,640 MWh of electricity annually and 48.33 MWh per day. The cost of energy (COE) of diesel only and PV/diesel/battery power system with 21% solar penetration was found to be 0.190$/kWh and 0.219$/kWh respectively for a diesel price of 0.2$/l. The sensitivity analysis showed that at a diesel price of 0.6$/l the COE from hybrid system become almost the same as that of the diesel only system and above it, the hybrid system become more economical than the diesel only system. (author)

  13. Comparative Study of Hybrid Models Based on a Series of Optimization Algorithms and Their Application in Energy System Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Ma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Big data mining, analysis, and forecasting play vital roles in modern economic and industrial fields, especially in the energy system. Inaccurate forecasting may cause wastes of scarce energy or electricity shortages. However, forecasting in the energy system has proven to be a challenging task due to various unstable factors, such as high fluctuations, autocorrelation and stochastic volatility. To forecast time series data by using hybrid models is a feasible alternative of conventional single forecasting modelling approaches. This paper develops a group of hybrid models to solve the problems above by eliminating the noise in the original data sequence and optimizing the parameters in a back propagation neural network. One of contributions of this paper is to integrate the existing algorithms and models, which jointly show advances over the present state of the art. The results of comparative studies demonstrate that the hybrid models proposed not only satisfactorily approximate the actual value but also can be an effective tool in the planning and dispatching of smart grids.

  14. Metal ion coordination in `R’ and `T’ state hybrid hemoglobins as revealed by optical, EPR and sulphhydryl reactivity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramasamy; Swarnalatha Venkateshrao; J M Rifkind; P T Manoharan

    2005-03-01

    The sulphhydryl environment in various mixed-metal hybrid hemoglobins, viz. 2(Cu)-2(FeCO), 2(FeCO)-2(Cu), 2(Cu)-2(Ni), 2(Ni)-2(Cu), was studied by reacting them with the sulphhydryl reagent, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (4-PDS). The reactivity was compared with that of HbCO, NiHb and CuHb. It is found that there exists a correlation between conformational change and metal ion environment, not only at the extreme R and T states but also the intermediate conformations. EPR examinations of these hybrids show that both in 4R state-[Cu(II)-Fe(II)] and state-[Cu(II)-Ni(II)] hybrids at neutral pH and in the absence of IHP, CuPPIX, irrespective of the subunit in which it is present, has a mixed-metal ion environment: Species 1, a five-coordinated Cu2+ complex with strong proximal histidine bond and species 2, a four-coordinated complex without any covalent linkage with N F8-histidine.

  15. STUDY ON CORROSION RESISTANCE OF REBAR IN HYBRID GRINDING FLY ASH-LIME SILICATE CONCRETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of rebar in fly ash-lime sili cate concrete as well as its marco properties and pore distribution is investiga ted.The results show that the fly ash is activated, the compressive strength of the silicate concrete is strengthened and its pore structure is modified after f ly ash and lime being hybrid ground.Also the corrosion resistance of rebar in the silicate concrete is improved.

  16. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  17. A Study of Energy Conversion Efficiency Versus Plasma Density by Lower Hybrid Current Drive in HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁伯江; 匡光力; 刘岳修; 刘登成; 单家方; 刘甫坤; 沈慰慈; 石跃江; 吴振伟; 林建安; 俞家文; 徐汉东; 商连全; 张晓东; 刘小宁; 赵燕平; 李建刚

    2002-01-01

    Ramp-up experiments by means of lower hybrid wave on HT-7 superconducting tokamak have been performed and analyzed. A ramp-up rate of over 300 kA/s is obtained and a conversion efficiency of over 10% has been achieved during the ramp-up phase. The study of the dependence of conversion efficiency on plasma density shows that the conversion efficiency is affected by the driven current, which is mainly dominated by the competition of impurity concentration with wave accessibility condition. In addition, the effect of current profile may play an important role in determining the conversion efficiency.

  18. Comparative study of symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization between common wheat and Haynaldia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Aifen

    2001-01-01

    [1]Li, Z. Y., Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from protoplasts isolated from embryo-genic cell suspensions of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 1992, 98: 79-85.[2]Zhou, A. F., Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Asymmetric somatic hybridization between Triticum aestivum and Haynaldia vil-losa, Science in China, Ser. C, 1996, 39(6): 617-626.[3]Zhou, A. F., Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M. et al., Effect of 60Co-g radiation on calli of Haynaldia villosa, Chinese J. of Bio-technology, 1996, 12(Supplement): 127-130.[4]Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Wang, H., Somatic hybridization and regeneration capacity complementation between common wheat (T. aestivum) and Agropyron elongatum. J. Shandong University, 1995, 30(3): 325-330.[5]Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Plant regeneration from intergeneric somatic hybridization between Triticum aestivum L. and Leymus chinensis (Trin.)Tzvel., Plant Science, 1996, 120: 197-203.[6]Doyle, J. J., Doyle, J. L., Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue, Focus, 1990, 12: 13-15.[7]Zhou, A. F., Xu, C. H., Xiang, F. N. et al., Study on the identification of somatic hybrids by PCR with 5S rDNA spacer se-quence primers, Chinese J. of Biotechnology, 1999, 15(4): 529-532.[8]Ma, J. X., Zhou, R. H., Jia, J. Z. et al., Identification of wheat-Haynaldia villosa substitution lines conferring resistance to powdery mildew using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and RFLP markers, Acta Genetica Sinica, 1997, 24(5): 447-452.[9]Zhou, R. H., Jia, J. Z., Dong, Y. C. et al., Characterization of progenies of Triticum aestivum-Psathyrostachys juncea de-rivatives by using genomic in-situ hybridization, Science in China, Ser. C, 1997, 40(6): 657-664.[10]Parokonny, A. S., Kenton, A. Y., Gleba, Y. Y. et al., Genomic reorganization in Nicotiana asymmetric somatic hybrids analysed by in situ hybridization. Plant Journal, 1992, 2: 863-874.[11]Piastuch, W. C., Bates, G. W

  19. Experimental study into a hybrid PCCI/CI concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dijk, M.D. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load conven

  20. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  1. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis. (MOW)

  2. Study of Coumarin-Resveratrol Hybrids as Potent Antioxidant Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Matos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we synthesized a selected series of hydroxylated 3-phenylcoumarins 5–8, with the aim of evaluating in detail their antioxidant properties. From an in depth study of the antioxidant capacity data (ORAC-FL, ESR, CV and ROS inhibition it was concluded that these derivatives are very good antioxidants, with very interesting profiles in all the performed assays. The study of the effect of the number and position of the hydroxyl groups on the antioxidant activity was the principal aim of this study. In particular, 7-hydroxy-3-(3'-hydroxyphenylcoumarin (8 proved to be the most active and effective antioxidant of the selected series in four of the performed assays (ORAC-FL = 11.8, capacity of scavenging hydroxyl radicals = 54%, Trolox index = 2.33 and AI30 index = 0.18. However, the presence of two hydroxyl groups on this molecule did not increase greatly the activity profile. Theoretical evaluation of ADME properties of all the derivatives was also carried out. All the compounds can act as potential candidates for preventing or minimizing the free radical overproduction in oxidative-stress related diseases. These preliminary findings encourage us to perform a future structural optimization of this family of compounds.

  3. Study on the fluorescence and thermal stability of hybrid materials Eu(Phen)2Cl3/MCM-41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangzhun YANG; Lanfen ZHANG; Jun CHEN; Liwen REN; Yanting ZHU; Xiuying WANG; Xibin YU

    2009-01-01

    A series of luminescent hybrid materials Eu (Phen)2Cl3/MCM-41 that the different assembled mass of Eu(Phen)2Cl3 included into the channels of MCM , have been synthesized by combining ultrasound technology. The properties of the hybrid materials were characterized by XRD(X-ray Diffraction), N2-adsorption-desorption, FT-IR and luminescence spectrum. The results show that the rare-earth compounds had been loaded into the holes of mesoporous material MCM-41. The luminescence intensities of the hybrid materials were improved as the increase of the loading concentration of the rare-earth complexes. The hybrid material has the maximal luminescence intensity when it reached the saturated loading concentration (7.17%). To compare with the pure rare-earth complex, the thermal stability of the hybrid materials were enhanced by about 100°C.

  4. An Experimental Study of Laboratory Hybrid Power System with the Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minarik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents very small laboratory hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen power system. The system was primarily assembled to verify the operability of the control algorithms and practical deployment of available commercial hydrogen technologies that are directly usable for storage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in a small island system. This energetic system was installed and tested in Laboratory of fuel cells that is located in the university campus of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava. The energetic system consists of several basic components: a photovoltaic field, accumulators bank, water commercial electrolyzer and compact fuel cell system. The weather conditions recorded in two different weeks as model weather and solar conditions are used as case studies to test the energetic system and the results for two different cases are compared each other. The results show and illustrate selected behaviour curves of the power system and also average energy storage efficiency for accumulation subsystem based on hydrogen technologies or at the energetic system embedded components. On the basis of real measurement and its evaluation the ideal parameters of the photovoltaic field were calculated as well as the hydrogen technologies for supposed purpose and the power requirements.

  5. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Selection of Blastocysts for Repeated Implantation Failure Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Ermanno; Bono, Sara; Ruberti, Alessandra; Lobascio, Anna Maria; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Biricik, Anil; Spizzichino, Letizia; Greco, Alessia; Tesarik, Jan; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Fiorentino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and transfer of a single euploid blastocyst in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) can improve clinical results. Three patient groups are compared: 43 couples with RIF for whom embryos were selected by array CGH (group RIF-PGS), 33 couples with the same history for whom array CGH was not performed (group RIF NO PGS), and 45 good prognosis infertile couples with array CGH selected embryos (group NO RIF PGS). A single euploid blastocyst was transferred in groups RIF-PGS and NO RIF PGS. Array CGH was not performed in group RIF NO PGS in which 1-2 blastocysts were transferred. One monoembryonic sac with heartbeat was found in 28 patients of group RIF PGS and 31 patients of group NO RIF PGS showing similar clinical pregnancy and implantation rates (68.3% and 70.5%, resp.). In contrast, an embryonic sac with heartbeat was only detected in 7 (21.2%) patients of group RIF NO PGS. In conclusion, PGS by array CGH with single euploid blastocyst transfer appears to be a successful strategy for patients with multiple failed IVF attempts. PMID:24779011

  6. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin AGARWAL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

  7. #JeSuisCharlie: Towards a Multi-Method Study of Hybrid Media Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sumiala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests a new methodological model for the study of hybrid media events with global appeal. This model, developed in the project on the 2015 Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris, was created specifically for researching digital media—and in particular, Twitter. The article is structured as follows. Firstly, the methodological scope is discussed against the theoretical context, e.g. the theory of media events. In the theoretical discussion, special emphasis is given to i disruptive, upsetting, or disintegrative media events and hybrid media events and ii the conditions of today’s heterogeneous and globalised media communication landscape. Secondly, the article introduces a multi-method approach developed for the analysis of hybrid media events. In this model, computational social science—namely, automated content analysis (ACA and social network analytics (SNA—are combined with a qualitative approach—specifically, digital ethnography. The article outlines three key phases for research in which the interplay between quantitative and qualitative approaches is played out. In the first phase, preliminary digital ethnography is applied to provide the outline of the event. In the second phase, quantitative social network analytics are applied to construct the digital field for research. In this phase, it is necessary to map a what is circulating on the websites and b where this circulation takes place. The third and final phase applies a qualitative approach and digital ethnography to provide a more nuanced, in-depth interpretation of what (substance/content is circulating and how this material connects with the ‘where’ in the digital landscape, hence constituting links and connections in the hybrid media landscape. In conclusion, the article reflects on how this multi-method approach contributes to understanding the workings of today’s hybrid media events: how they create and maintain symbolic battles over certain imagined

  8. GISAXS in the study of supramolecular and hybrid liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungar, G; Liu, F; Zeng, X B [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Glettner, B; Prehm, M; Kieffer, R; Tschierske, C [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    The use of grazing incidence small and intermediate angle X-ray scattering in the study of structure and alignment of thermotropic liquid crystals is illustrated on selected examples. These include columnar LC phases of a star-shaped mesogen, several honeycomb phases of T-shaped and X-shaped bolaamphiphilic LCs, and gold nanoparticles coated with mesogenic ligands. Sharp Bragg reflections from systems with 2-d and 3-d periodicities are obtained through annealing. Due to nearly perfect surface alignment in most cases, indexing of complex diffraction patterns is facilitated. Honeycomb cells with deformed hexagonal cross-sections, as well as kagome lattice, are shown. The tilt of the reciprocal lattice is shown to help establish the correct structure in the case of the stretched hexagonal honeycombs and the rhombohedral arrays of ordered strings of gold nanoparticles.

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based natural synthetic hybrid copolymer films: A small-angle neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L. John R.; Knott, Robert; Sanguanchaipaiwong, Vorapat; Holden, Peter J.

    2006-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates have attracted attention as biodegradable alternatives to conventional thermoplastics and as biomaterials. Through modification of their biosynthesis using Pseudomonas oleovorans, we have manipulated the material properties of these biopolyesters and produced a natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer of polyhydroxyoctanoate- block-diethylene glycol (PHO- b-DEG). A mixture of PHO and PHO-DEG were solvent cast from analytical grade chloroform and analysed using small-angle neutron scattering. A scattering pattern, easily distinguished above the background, was displayed by the films with a diffraction ring at q∼0.12 Å -1. This narrow ring of intensity is suggestive of a highly ordered system. Analysis of the diffraction pattern supported this concept and showed a d-spacing of approximately 50 Å. In addition, conformation of the hybrid polymer chains can be manipulated to support their self-assembly into ordered microporous films.

  10. Porous polylactic acid-silica hybrids: preparation, characterization, and study of mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Christos; Trujillo, Sara; Matos, Joana; Madeira, Sara; Ródenas-Rochina, Joaquín; Kripotou, Sotiria; Kyritsis, Apostolos; Mano, João F; Gómez Ribelles, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    A novel approach to reinforce polymer porous membranes is presented. In the prepared hybrid materials, the inorganic phase of silica is synthesized in-situ and inside the pores of aminolyzed polylactic acid (PLA) membranes by sol-gel reactions using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as precursors. The hybrid materials present a porous structure with a silica layer covering the walls of the pores while GPTMS serves also as coupling agent between the organic and inorganic phase. The adjustment of silica precursors ratio allows the modulation of the thermomechanical properties. Culture of mesenchymal stem cells on these supports in osteogenic medium shows the expression of characteristic osteoblastic markers and the mineralization of the extracellular matrix.

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer films: A small-angle neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L. John R. [Bio/polymer Research Group and Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: J.Foster@unsw.edu.au; Knott, Robert [Bragg Institute, Institute for Nuclear Geophysiology, Australian Nucelar Science and Technology Organisation, Menai NSW2234 (Australia); Sanguanchaipaiwong, Vorapat [Bio/polymer Research Group and Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW2052 (Australia); Holden, Peter J. [Institute for Nuclear Geophysiology, Australian Nucelar Science and Technology Organisation, Menai NSW2234 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates have attracted attention as biodegradable alternatives to conventional thermoplastics and as biomaterials. Through modification of their biosynthesis using Pseudomonas oleovorans, we have manipulated the material properties of these biopolyesters and produced a natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer of polyhydroxyoctanoate-block-diethylene glycol (PHO-b-DEG). A mixture of PHO and PHO-DEG were solvent cast from analytical grade chloroform and analysed using small-angle neutron scattering. A scattering pattern, easily distinguished above the background, was displayed by the films with a diffraction ring at q{approx}0.12 A{sup -1}. This narrow ring of intensity is suggestive of a highly ordered system. Analysis of the diffraction pattern supported this concept and showed a d-spacing of approximately 50 A. In addition, conformation of the hybrid polymer chains can be manipulated to support their self-assembly into ordered microporous films.

  12. Behavioral and spermatogenic hybrid male breakdown in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M E; O'Hara, F P; Chawla, A; Werren, J H

    2010-03-01

    Several reproductive barriers exist within the Nasonia species complex, including allopatry, premating behavioral isolation, postzygotic inviability and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we show that hybrid males suffer two additional reproductive disadvantages, an inability to properly court females and decreased sperm production. Hybrid behavioral sterility, characterized by a reduced ability of hybrids to perform necessary courtship behaviors, occurs in hybrids between two species of Nasonia. Hybrid males produced in crosses between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti courted females at a reduced frequency (23-69%), compared with wild-type N. vitripennis and N. giraulti males (>93%). Reduced courtship frequency was not a simple function of inactivity among hybrids. A strong effect of cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) background was also found in N. vitripennis and N. giraulti crosses; F2 hybrids with giraulti cytoplasm showing reduced ability at most stages of courtship. Hybrids produced between a younger species pair, N. giraulti and N. longicornis, were behaviorally fertile. All males possessed motile sperm, but sperm production is greatly reduced in hybrids between the older species pair, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. This effect on hybrid males, lowered sperm counts rather than nonfunctional sperm, is different from most described cases of hybrid male sterility, and may represent an earlier stage of hybrid sperm breakdown. The results add to previous studies of F2 hybrid inviability and behavioral sterility, and indicate that Wolbachia-induced hybrid incompatibility has arisen early in species divergence, relative to behavioral sterility and spermatogenic infertility.

  13. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mace, Emily K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the HEVA approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  14. Electronic and magnetic properties of modified silicene/graphene hybrid: Ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Suman; Jana, Debnarayan, E-mail: cujanad@yahoo.com

    2016-11-01

    Among other two-dimensional (2D) novel materials, graphene and silicene both have drawn intense research interest among the researchers because they possess some unique intriguing properties which can change the scenario of the current electronic industry. In this work we have studied the electronic and the magnetic properties of a new kind of materials which is the hybrid of these two materials. Density functional theory (DFT) has been employed to calculate the relevant electronic and magnetic properties of this hybrid material. The pristine structure is modified by substitutional doping or by creating vacancy (Y-X, where one Y atom (Si or C) has been replaced by one X atom (B, N, Al, P or void)). The calculations have revealed that void systems are unstable while Si-B and Si-N are most stable ones. It has been noticed that some of these doped structures are magnetic in nature having induced mid-gap states in the system. In particular, Si-void structure is unstable yet it possess the highest magnetic moment of the order of 4 μ{sub B} (μ{sub B} being the Bohr magneton). The estimated band gaps of modified silicene/graphene hybrid from spin polarized partial density of states (PDOS) vary between 1.43–2.38 eV and 1.58–2.50 eV for spin-up and spin-down channel respectively. The implication of midgap states has been critically analysed in the light of magnetic nature. This study may be useful to build hybrid spintronic devices with controllable gap for spin up and spin down states. - Graphical abstract: We have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of silicene/graphene hybrid by employing density functional theory (DFT). - Highlights: • Electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional graphene/silicene hybrid have been explored. • There is no magnetism in the system for a single carbon atom vacancy. • A net magnetic moment of 4.0 Bohr magneton is observed for a single silicon atom vacancy. • Unpaired electrons introduce mid-gap states which

  15. Carrier-phonon interactions in hybrid halide perovskites probed with ultrafast anisotropy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Jasmine P. H.; Richter, Johannes M.; Price, Michael B.; Credgington, Dan; Deschler, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to their excellent semiconductor properties and solution processability. For this reason, much attention has recently been focused on understanding photoexcited charge-carrier generation and recombination in these materials. Conversely, very few studies have so far been devoted to understanding carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering mechanisms in these materials. This is surprising given that carrier scattering mechanisms fundamentally limit charge-carrier motilities and therefore the performance of photovoltaic devices. We apply linear polarization selective transient absorption measurements to polycrystalline CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid halide perovskite films as an effective way of studying the scattering processes in these materials. Comparison of the photo induced bleach signals obtained when the linear polarizations of the pump and probe are aligned either parallel or perpendicular to one another, reveal a significant difference in spectral intensity and shape within the first few hundred femtoseconds after photoexcitation.

  16. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems - Regional Studies. West Texas and Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases - not generic examples - based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  17. The Study of Microwave and Electric Hybrid Sintering Process of AZO Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the microwave sintering of ZnO by 3D modelling. A large-size Al-doped ZnO (AZO green ceramic compact was prepared by slurry casting. Through studying the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of the green compact, a relative density of up to 98.1% could be obtained by starting microwave heating at 1200°C and increasing the power 20 min later to 4 kW for an AZO ceramic target measuring 120 × 240 × 12 mm. The resistivity of AZO targets sintered with microwave assistance was investigated. The energy consumption of sintering could be greatly reduced by this heating method. Until now, few studies have been reported on the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of large-size AZO ceramic targets. This research can aid in developing sintering technology for large-size high-quality oxide ceramic targets.

  18. Implementation of hybrid parallel kanban-CONWIP system: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Prakash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common form of production control strategy in lean management is the pull system. One emerging form of pull system uses kanban and CONWIP systems to handle products with different demand patterns. Case studies have protractedly depicted the actual implementation of pull systems; however, the use of hybrid systems is rare. This paper examines the procedures involved in implementing a hybrid system in a low variety/low volume shop floor. This paper presents discussions on shop floor constraints in the proposed system and how the simplicity of a pull system is able to reduce work-in-process inventory by 23%. Guidelines for the replication of the system for similar production environments are also provided. The case study proves that pull systems can be successfully implemented in production environments that do not conform to the typical prerequisites of the kanban system.

  19. Single and multiple molecular beacon probes for DNA hybridization studies on a silica glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiaojing; Tan, Weihong

    1999-05-01

    Surface immobilizable molecular beacons have been developed for DNA hybridization studies on a silica glass plate. Molecular beacons are a new class of oligonucleotide probes that have a loop-and-stem structure with a fluorophore and a quencher attached to the two ends of the stem. They only emit intense fluorescence when hybridize to their target molecules. This provides an excellent selectivity for the detection of DNA molecules. We have designed biotinylated molecular beacons which can be immobilized onto a solid surface. The molecular beacon is synthesized using DABCYL as the quencher and an optical stable dye, tetramethylrhodamine, as the fluorophore. Mass spectrometry is used to confirm the synthesized molecular beacon. The molecular beacons have been immobilized onto a silica surface through biotin-avidin binding. The surface immobilized molecular beacons have been used for the detection of target DNA with subnanomolar analytical sensitivity. have also immobilized two different molecular beacons on a silica surface in spatially resolved microscopic regions. The hybridization study of these two different molecular beacon probes has shown excellent selectivity for their target sequences. The newly designed molecular beacons are intended for DNA molecular interaction studies at an interface and for the development of ultrasensitive DNA sensors for a variety of applications including disease diagnosis, disease mechanism studies, new drug development, and in the investigation of molecular interactions between DNA molecules and other interesting biomolecules.

  20. A comparative study of the effectiveness of "Star Show" vs. "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" lessons in a middle school Starlab setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platco, Nicholas L.., Jr.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of "Star Show" and the "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" (POP) instructional programs in a middle school Starlab setting. The Star Show is a planetarium program that relies heavily on an audiovisual/lecture format to impart information, while the POP method of instruction is an inquiry, activity-based approach to teaching astronomy. All Star Show and POP lessons were conducted in a Starlab planetarium. This study examined the effectiveness of the two methods on the attainment of astronomy knowledge, changes in student attitudes toward astronomy, retention of knowledge, and gender differences. A pilot study (N = 69) was conducted at a middle school near King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The main study (N = 295) was conducted at a middle school near Reading, Pennsylvania. All students were pretested and posttested in both studies. The testing instruments included a 60-question paper-and-pencil content test and a 22-item Likert-style science attitude test. The content test was judged to be valid and reliable by a panel of science educators. The attitude test is a field-tested attitude survey developed by Michael Zeilik. The topics included in the Star Show and POP lessons were seasons, moon phases, eclipses, stars, and constellations. The Star Show programs used in this study are professionally prepared planetarium programs from Jeff Bowen Productions. Several planetarium educators who have been involved with planetarium training workshops throughout the United States developed the POP lessons used in this study. The Star Show was clearly the more effective method for improving student knowledge in both the pilot and main studies. Both methods were equally effective for improving student attitudes toward astronomy. The POP method was the more effective method of instruction when retention of knowledge was examined four weeks after the treatments ended. Gender did not have any significant effect on this study

  1. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  2. Study of nitrogen and organics removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Tran-Hung; Chung, Yun-Chul; Ahn, Dae-Hee

    2003-03-01

    The removal of nitrogen and organics in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media were investigated in this work. The hybrid media was made by the use of polyurethane foam (PU) cubes and powdered activated carbon (PAC). The function of activated carbon of hybrid media was to offer a suitable active site, which was able to absorb organic substances and ammonia, as well as that of PU was to provide an appropriated surface onto which biomass could be attached and grown. A laboratory-scale moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for investigating the efficiency of hybrid media. The removal of nitrogen and organics for synthetic wastewater (COD; 490-1,627 mg/L, NH4(+)-N; 180-210 mg/L) were evaluated at different COD/N ratio and different anoxic phase conditions, respectively. The system was operated with the organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.1, 0.16, 0.24, and 0.28 kg COD/m3 day, respectively. Each mode based on OLR was divided as the periods of 45 days of operation time, except for third mode that was operated during 30 days. After acclimatization period, effluent total COD concentrations slightly decreased and the removal efficiency of organics increased to about 90% (COD; 70 mg/L) after 60 days and achieved 98% (COD; 30 mg/L) at the end of experiments. The organics reduction seemed to be less affected by shock loading since high organic loads did not affect the removal efficiency. The NIH4(+)-N concentrations in effluent showed almost lower than 1 mg/L and NO3(-)-N concentrations were high (150 mg/L) during a very low C/N ratio (C/N=2). Over 90% of T-N removal efficiency (T-N; 16 mg/L) was obtained during the last 20 days of the operation after controlling the COD/N ratio (C/N=7). The mixing condition and COD/N ratio at anoxic phase were determined as a main operating factors. In future, the optimal operating conditions of SBR system with hybrid media will be investigated from the view of maintaining a sufficient biomass to the hybrid media under

  3. Molecular interaction between glimepiride and Soluplus®-PEG 4000 hybrid based solid dispersions: Characterisation and anti-diabetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald-Opara, Joy Nneji; Attama, Anthony; Ofokansi, Kenneth; Umeyor, Chukwuebuka; Kenechukwu, Frankline

    2015-12-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel blend of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol 6000 grafted copolymer (Soluplus®) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 for solubility enhancement, physicochemical stability and anti-diabetic efficacy of the produced solid dispersions containing glimepiride, a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II sulphonylurea. Different batches of glimepiride solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation method using the individual polymers and blends of the polymers at different ratios. The Soluplus®-PEG 4000 (sol-PEG) hybrid polymer based glimepiride solid dispersions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, micromeritics and dissolution studies. In vivo anti-diabetic activity was determined by measuring the changes in blood glucose concentrations in albino rats. The solid dispersions showed good flow properties and excellent practical yield. Drug content and release from the different formulations increased when Soluplus® was used as the main matrix polymer. The kinetics of drug release from all the solid dispersions followed first order. Solid state characterization confirmed the formation of amorphous glimepiride solid dispersions in the Sol-PEG hybrid polymer and no strong drug-polymer interaction was observed. The blood glucose reduction in albino rats by the Sol-PEG-Glim SDs was significantly (p<0.05) higher and more sustained when compared with the plain drug sample and commercially available product. Optimized SD batches (SP1 and SP3) showed a reduction in blood glucose level from 100% to 9.81% and 8.97%, respectively, at Tmax of 3h. The Sol-PEG-Glim SD was found to be stable over a period of 6 months (at 40°C, 70% RH) with no significant changes in the drug content. Thus, the Sol-PEG polymeric hybrids represent a promising tool for enhanced delivery of glimepiride.

  4. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – integration with compressed air energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy ...

  5. Microinjection and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Studying mRNA Export in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Shi, Min; Cheng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Microinjection and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) assay is a useful method for mRNA export studies, which can overcome the problems of traditional transfection in cells. Here, we describe the method of microinjection and FISH assay applied in investigation of mRNA export. By this method we can estimate the mRNA export kinetics, examining mRNA export in cells with low transfection efficiencies, and observing nuclear export of aberrant RNAs.

  6. Study of organo-hybrid layered double hydroxides by medium and near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Manuel; López, M. Isabel; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, J. Rafael

    2011-03-01

    An Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) containing carbonate ion in its interlayer region was examined by medium infrared (MIR) and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). The MIR and NIR spectroscopy techniques was also used to study two organo-hybrid LDHs containing interlayer dodecylbenzenesulphonate (DBS) and dodecylsulphate (DS) ions, respectively. The NIR spectra for the latter solids were found to exhibit the overtone and combination bands for the hydroxyl groups in addition to those typical bands of the organic host functions.

  7. Hybridization and speciation in angiosperms: a role for pollinator shifts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The majority of convincingly documented cases of hybridization in angiosperms has involved genetic introgression between the parental species or formation of a hybrid species with increased ploidy; however, homoploid (diploid) hybridization may be just as common. Recent studies, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, show that pollinator shifts can play a role in both mechanisms of hybrid speciation. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/103 PMID:20409350

  8. Comparative Studies on the Molecular Genetic Diversities among Haliotis discus hannai,H.discus discus and Their Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Junfen(万俊芬); Bao Zhenmin; Zhang Quanqi; Wang Xiaolong

    2004-01-01

    The hybrid (H. discus hannai♀× H. discus discus♂) shows strong heterosis in both growth and survival rates during aquaculture. In order to better understand the genetic basis of heterosis, AFLP markers are adopted to compare the genetic diversities of the two parents and their hybrids. Six primer combinations reveal 552 loci, among which 88 loci show significant difference between the two parent populations (P<0.01). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates the genetic variance between them is significantly different (P<0.001). Thus there should be genetic basis of heterosis for their hybrids. In contrast to parents, more loci with lower frequency are amplified in hybrids than those in parents, whereas the loci with 0% and 100% frequency are less in hybrids than those in parents. Moreover, the genetic diversities of hybrids increase since the similarity indexes are lower and heterozygosities are higher in hybrids than those in parents. In addition, the genetic distances between reciprocal F1s and H. discus discus are both smaller than those between reciprocal F1s H. discus hannai.

  9. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Sakuma, H.; Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Some new indole-coumarin hybrids; Synthesis, anticancer and Bcl-2 docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pooja R; Sunil, Dhanya; Ajees, A Abdul; Pai, K S R; Das, Shubhankar

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid molecules have attracted attention for their improved biological activity, selectivity and lesser side effects profile, distinct from their individual components. In the quest for novel anticancer drug entities, three series of indole-coumarin hybrids - 3-(1-benzyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-ones, 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-1H-indole-3-carbaldehydes and 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acids were synthesized. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral techniques like IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. In silico docking studies of synthesized molecules with apoptosis related gene Bcl-2 that is recognized to play an important role in tumerogenesis were carried out. Dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of the compounds in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and normal cell lines were assessed using MTT assay and compared with that of the standard marketed drug, Vincristine. Compound 4c had a highly lipophilic bromine substituent capable of forming halogen bond and was identified as a potent molecule both in docking as well as cytotoxicity studies. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis of 4c exhibited apoptotic mode of cell death due to cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Structure activity relationship of these hybrid molecules was also studied to determine the effect of steric and electronic properties of the substituents on cell viability.

  11. A Study of Hybrid Composite Hydroxyapatite (HA-Geopolymers as a Material for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the physical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composites HA-geopolymers as a material for biomedical application. Hybrid composite HA–geopolymers were produced through alkaline activation method of metakaolin as a matrix and HA as the filler. HA was synthesized from eggshell particles by using a precipitation method. The addition of HA in metakaolin paste was varied from 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% relative the weight of metakaolin. FTIR was used to examine the absorption bands the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study the crystal structure of the starting and the resulting materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to investigate the surface morphology of the composites. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Capacitance measurement was conducted to investigate the bioactive properties of HA. The study results suggest that hybrid composite HA-geopolymers has a potential to be applied as a biomedical such as biosensor material.

  12. Metabolite variation in hybrid corn grain from a large-scale multisite study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjie Chen; R Shyama Prasad Rao; Yiming Zhang; Cathy Zhong; Jay J Thelen

    2016-01-01

    Metabolite composition is strongly affected by genotype, environment, and interactions between genotype and environment, although the extent of variation caused by these factors may depend upon the type of metabolite. To characterize the complexity of genotype, environment, and their interaction in hybrid seeds, 50 genetically diverse non-genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids were grown in six geographically diverse locations in North America. Polar metabolites from 553 harvested corn grain samples were isolated and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 45 metabolites detected in all samples were used to generate a data matrix for statistical analysis. There was moderate variation among biological replicates and across genotypes and test sites. The genotype effects were detected by univariate and Hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) when environmental effects were excluded. Overall, environment exerted larger effects than genotype, and polar metabolite accumulation showed a geographic effect. We conclude that it is possible to increase seed polar metabolite content in hybrid corn by selection of appropriate inbred lines and growing regions.

  13. Metabolite variation in hybrid corn grain from a large-scale multisite study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite composition is strongly affected by genotype, environment, and interactions between genotype and environment, although the extent of variation caused by these factors may depend upon the type of metabolite. To characterize the complexity of genotype, environment, and their interaction in hybrid seeds, 50 genetically diverse non-genetically modified (GM maize hybrids were grown in six geographically diverse locations in North America. Polar metabolites from 553 harvested corn grain samples were isolated and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 45 metabolites detected in all samples were used to generate a data matrix for statistical analysis. There was moderate variation among biological replicates and across genotypes and test sites. The genotype effects were detected by univariate and Hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA when environmental effects were excluded. Overall, environment exerted larger effects than genotype, and polar metabolite accumulation showed a geographic effect. We conclude that it is possible to increase seed polar metabolite content in hybrid corn by selection of appropriate inbred lines and growing regions.

  14. Hybrid-space density matrix renormalization group study of the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, G.; White, S. R.; Noack, R. M.

    2017-03-01

    The performance of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is strongly influenced by the choice of the local basis of the underlying physical lattice. We demonstrate that, for the two-dimensional Hubbard model, the hybrid-real-momentum-space formulation of the DMRG is computationally more efficient than the standard real-space formulation. In particular, we show that the computational cost for fixed bond dimension of the hybrid-space DMRG is approximately independent of the width of the lattice, in contrast to the real-space DMRG, for which it is proportional to the width squared. We apply the hybrid-space algorithm to calculate the ground state of the doped two-dimensional Hubbard model on cylinders of width four and six sites; at n =0.875 filling, the ground state exhibits a striped charge-density distribution with a wavelength of eight sites for both U /t =4.0 and 8.0 . We find that the strength of the charge ordering depends on U /t and on the boundary conditions. Furthermore, we investigate the magnetic ordering as well as the decay of the static spin, charge, and pair-field correlation functions.

  15. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive care hospitalization by ...

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HYBRIDS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND GENERATIONS OF DURUM WINTER WHEAT OF VARIOUS CROSS-BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samofalova N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates a necessity to apply the method of interspecific hybridization in durum winter wheat breeding, using the present soft winter varieties for improvement of frost and drought tolerance at the beginning of germination; resistance to snow mold, fusariosis and bacteriosis of ears and grain. The article presents the results of a comparative study of different types of crossbreeding at interspecific and intraspecific hybridization due to germination, emergence, productivity. It has been shown that intraspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’, interspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз’ and ‘Т. аestivum оз. х T. durum оз.’ possessed the highest germination and emergence with 71,8/75,3% for direct and 60,4/82,5% for backward, 42,8 and 35,5% and 55,4 and 64,1% respectively. In backward (triplecross cross-breeding of F1 interspecific hybrids with durum winter wheat the grain germination was down to 37,4 and 36,6%, but the emergence was up to 64,1 and 69,7% and reached the level of intraspecific hybrids. According to the elements of ear (head productivity (grain mass per head, number of seeds per head, interspecific double-cross hybrids of the first and the second generation significantly conceded to intraspecific hybrids, but they matched them in a number of spikelets and grain size. The triple-cross hybrids exceed the double interspecific hybrids in this respect, but they concede to double-cross and triple-cross intraspecific hybrids. We studied the principle of splitting of interspecific hybrids of the second generation ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз.’ and ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’ (direct and backward and the triple-cross hybrids obtained from cross-breeding of interspecific and intraspecific double-cross hybrids F1 with durum winter wheat

  17. Droplet spreading and permeating on the hybrid-wettability porous substrates: a lattice Boltzmann method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Wen-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spreading and permeation of droplets on porous substrates is a fundamental process in a variety of applications, such as coating, dyeing, and printing. The spreading and permeating usually occur synchronously but play different roles in the practical applications. The mechanisms of the competition between spreading and permeation is significant but still unclear. A lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the spreading and permeation of droplets on hybrid-wettability porous substrates, with different wettability on the surface and the inside pores. The competition between the spreading and the permeation processes is studied in this work from the effects of the substrate and the fluid properties, including the substrate wettability, the porous parameters, as well as the fluid surface tension and viscosity. The results show that increasing the surfacewettability and the porosity contact angle both inhibit the spreading and the permeation processes. When the inside porosity contact angle is larger than 90° (hydrophobic, the permeation process does not occur. The droplets suspend on substrates with Cassie state. The droplets are more easily to permeate into substrates with a small inside porosity contact angle (hydrophilic, as well as large pore sizes. Otherwise, the droplets are more easily to spread on substrate surfaces with small surface contact angle (hydrophilic and smaller pore sizes. The competition between droplet spreading and permeation is also related to the fluid properties. The permeation process is enhanced by increasing of surface tension, leading to a smaller droplet lifetime. The goals of this study are to provide methods to manipulate the spreading and permeation separately, which are of practical interest in many industrial applications.

  18. Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moignier, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.moignier@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France); Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mazeron, Jean-Jacques [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

  19. Study of Double Strangeness Nuclei by an Emulsion-Scintillating fiber Hybrid Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, K.

    1995-02-01

    In the emulsion-counter hybrid experiment of KEK-E176, we have analyzed one light double-Λ hypernucleus, at least three heavy double-Λ hypernuclei and two events emitting a sigle-Λ hypernuclei pair found in the sample of ≈80 events of Ξ- capture at rest. Based on this experiment, we have proposed an experiment to study double strangeness nuclei with ten times more events than the E176, ie. 10 3Ξ- stop events. This proposed experiment will clear the uncertainty given by the E176 with use of a new emulsion counter hybrid method, where a laser microscope works for 3D graphic processing in emulsion analysis, scintillating fiber blocks detect decay products of strange particles and a glass capillary tracker filled with liquid scintillator gives precise predictions of Ξ- particle's angle aand position.

  20. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE PRESSURE AND VACUUM CONTINUOUS CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON HYBRID PUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel pressure and vacuum continuous control system, which adopts a hybrid pump as pressure and vacuum source, is presented. The mathematical model of the system is developed. The theoretical simulation and analysis on the system are implemented in order to study the relationships among the characteristics, parameters and working points of the system. The experimental investigations on the system characteristics are presented with the adoption of a fuzzy-PID controller. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the pressure and vacuum continuous control system based on hybrid pump has good dynamic and static performance, strong robustness and satisfactory adaptability to various system parameters. According to the results, system can successfully gain high accuracy and fast response signal. Also, the mathematical model of system is also testified by the experimental results.

  1. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansey, Kevin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hortsman, Chris [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  2. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Nadjafova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetical and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011. However, rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists.It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008.

  3. Cytogenetic studies in Trifolium Spp. related to berseem : I. Intra- and interspecific hybrid seed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiyevsky, E; Katznelson, J

    1973-01-01

    Seed formation by large-scale hybridization within and between Trifolium species related to T. alexandrinum L., was studied. The twelve species studied were: a. T. alexandrinum L., b. T. berytheum Boiss., c. T.salmoneum Mout., d, T. apertum Bobr., e. T. Meironense Zoh. et Lern., f. T. echinatum M.B., g. T. latinum Seb., h. T.carmeli Boiss., i. T. scutatum Boiss., j. T. plebeium Boiss., k. T. vavilovi Eig. and 1. T. constantinopolitanum Ser. Hybridization was done either by emasculation and fertilization by hand, or in nature, by utilizing the existence of natural stands and to serve as pollen source the self-incompatibility of some of the species concerned. Results of the two methods were highly comparable although seedset was much higher when crossing was done manually.Crossability, as estimated by seedset, varied in specific cross combinations and ranged between 0 and 70%. Based on the pattern of crossability, five crossability groups were identified with > 20% seedset in interspecific-intra-group cross combinations, and usually less than 5% in inter-group cross combinations. Species a, b, c, d and e form the first crossability group; f, g and h form the second one; h, i, j belong to the third crossability group, while k and l appear as unispecific fourth and fifth crossability groups. The high level of seedset in interspecific hybridization is discussed.

  4. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  5. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laith, AA; Ambak, Mohd Azmi; Hassan, Marina; Sheriff, Shahreza Md.; Nadirah, Musa; Draman, Ahmad Shuhaimi; Wahab, Wahidah; Ibrahim, Wan Nurhafizah Wan; Aznan, Alia Syafiqah; Jabar, Amina; Najiah, Musa

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection. Results: The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity), reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity) and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule, hyperemic and

  6. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi;

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... television formats, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, Got Talent, X Factor and, more recently, Voice have sold to a large variety of countries. As an example, Idols alone has been adapted in over 40 territories, covering all...... programming. A consensus seems to have developed that television formats such as Voice and X Factor to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes and mentalities. In our research approach, we recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute...

  7. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal...... that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title...

  8. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title...

  9. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi

    television formats, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, Got Talent, X Factor and, more recently, Voice have sold to a large variety of countries. As an example, Idols alone has been adapted in over 40 territories, covering all......This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... programming. A consensus seems to have developed that television formats such as Voice and X Factor to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes and mentalities. In our research approach, we recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute...

  10. Porosity in hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.W.; Beaucage, G.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Multicomponent, or hybrid composites are emerging as precursors to porous materials. Sacrifice of an ephemeral phase can be used to generate porosity, the nature of which depends on precursor structure. Retention of an organic constituent, on the other hand, can add desirable toughness to an otherwise brittle ceramic. We use small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering to examine porosity in both simple and hybrid materials. We find that microphase separation controls porosity in almost all systems studied. Pore distributions are controlled by the detailed bonding within and between phases as well as the flexibility of polymeric constituents. Thus hybridization opens new regions of pore distributions not available in simple systems. We look at several sacrificial concepts and show that it is possible to generate multimodal pore size distributions due to the complicated phase structure in the precursor.

  11. Techno-economical study of hybrid power system for a remote village in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himri, Y. [Electricity and Gas National Enterprise (Sonelgaz), Bechar, 05 rue Mokadem Ahmed, Bechar (08000) (Algeria); Boudghene Stambouli, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Sciences and Technology of Oran (Algeria); Draoui, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bechar (Algeria); Himri, S. [Department of Fundamental Sciences, University of Bechar (Algeria)

    2008-07-15

    The share of renewable energy sources in Algeria primary energy supply is relatively low compared with European countries, though the trend of development is positive. One of the main strategic priorities of NEAL (New Energy Algeria), which is Algeria's renewable energy agency (government, Sonelgaz and Sonatrach), is striving to achieve a share of 10-12% renewable energy sources in primary energy supply by 2010.This article presents techno-economic assessment for off-grid hybrid generation systems of a site in south western Algeria. The HOMER model is used to evaluate the energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reduction for this study. In the present scenario, for wind speed less than 5.0 m/s the existing diesel power plant is the only feasible solution over the range of fuel prices used in the simulation. The wind diesel hybrid system becomes feasible at a wind speed of 5.48 m/s or more and a fuel price of 0.162$/L or more. If the carbon tax is taken into consideration and subsidy is abolished, then it is expected that the hybrid system will become feasible. The maximum annual capacity shortage did not have any effect on the cost of energy, which may be accounted for by larger sizes of wind machines and diesel generators. (author)

  12. Studies on Effective Elastic Properties of CNT/Nano-Clay Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Puneet; Srinivas, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to predict elastic propertiesof hybrid nanocomposite material prepared by adding nano-clayplatelets to conventional CNT-reinforced epoxy system. In comparison to polymers alone/single-fiber reinforced polymers, if an additional fiber is added to the composite structure, it was found a drastic improvement in resultant properties. In this regard, effective elastic moduli of a hybrid nano composite are determined by using finite element (FE) model with square representative volume element (RVE). Continuum mechanics based homogenization of the nano-filler reinforced composite is considered for evaluating the volumetric average of the stresses and the strains under different periodic boundary conditions.A three phase Halpin-Tsai approach is selected to obtain the analytical result based on micromechanical modeling. The effect of the volume fractions of CNTs and nano-clay platelets on the mechanical behavior is studied. Two different RVEs of nano-clay platelets were used to investigate the influence of nano-filler geometry on composite properties. The combination of high aspect ratio of CNTs and larger surface area of clay platelets contribute to the stiffening effect of the hybrid samples. Results of analysis are validated with Halpin-Tsai empirical formulae.

  13. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giorni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open.

  14. Comparative study of two different powertrains for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2016-07-01

    The powertrain plays an essential role in improving the tractive performance and the fuel consumption of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a comparative study of two different powertrains for fuel cell hybrid buses. The significant difference between the two powertrains lies in the types and arrangements of the electrical motor. One powertrain employs an induction motor to drive the vehicle, while the other powertrain adopts two permanent magnetic synchronous motors for near-wheel propulsion. Besides, the tiny difference between the proposed powertrain is the supply path of the fuel cell accessories, which can have an effect on the powertrain efficiency. The component parameters and energy management strategies for the two powertrain are determined. The fuel cell hybrid buses equipped with the two powertrains are developed, and some road tests are achieved, according to the chosen procedures or driving cycles. The paper focuses on the tractive performance and energy analysis of the powertrains based on the testing results. Finally, the paper summarizes the relative merits of the proposed powertrains.

  15. Study of utilizing differential gear train to achieve hybrid mechanism of mechanical press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The problems of hybrid input of mechanical press are studied in this paper, with differential gear train as transmission mechanism. It is proposed that “adjust-able-speed amplitude” or “differential-speed ratio” is the important parameters for the hybrid input mechanism. It not only defines the amplitude of the adjustable speed, but also determines the ratio of the power of the servomotor to the power of the conventional motor. The calculating equations of the ratio of transmission in all axes, the power of two motors, and the working load distribution are deduced. The two kinds of driving schemes are put forward that the servomotor and the conven-tional motor simultaneously drive and the servomotor and the conventional motor separately drive. The calculating results demonstrate that the latter scheme can use much lower power of the servomotor, so this scheme makes manufacture and use cost much lower. The latter scheme proposes a feasible way to apply the hybrid mechanism of mechanical press in practice engineering.

  16. Study of utilizing differential gear train to achieve hybrid mechanism of mechanical press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YuPeng; ZHAO ShengDun; ZOU Jun; ZHANG ZhiYuan

    2007-01-01

    The problems of hybrid input of mechanical press are studied in this paper, with differential gear train as transmission mechanism. It is proposed that "adjustable-speed amplitude" or "differential-speed ratio" is the important parameters for the hybrid input mechanism. It not only defines the amplitude of the adjustable speed, but also determines the ratio of the power of the servomotor to the power of the conventional motor. The calculating equations of the ratio of transmission in all axes, the power of two motors, and the working load distribution are deduced. The two kinds of driving schemes are put forward that the servomotor and the conventional motor simultaneously drive and the servomotor and the conventional motor separately drive. The calculating results demonstrate that the latter scheme can use much lower power of the servomotor, so this scheme makes manufacture and use cost much lower. The latter scheme proposes a feasible way to apply the hybrid mechanism of mechanical press in practice engineering.

  17. Prospects of Wind-Diesel Generator-Battery Hybrid Power System: A Feasibility Study in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the feasibility of a wind-diesel generator-battery hybrid system. The wind energy resource data are collected from the weather station at the Renewable Energy Development Center of Bouzareah in Algeria. The recorded values vary from 5.5 m/s to 7 m/s at 25 m. The hybrid system analysis has shown that for a household consuming 1,270 kWh/yr, the cost of energy is 1.205 USD/kWh and produces 2,493 kWh/yr in which 93% of electricity comes from wind energy. From this study, it is clear that the optimized hybrid system is more cost effective compared to the diesel generator system alone where the NPC and COE are equal, respectively, to 19,561 USD and 1.205 USD/kWh and 47,932 USD and 2.952 USD/kWh. The sensitivity analysis predicts that the grid extension distance varies from 1.25 to 1.85 km depending on wind speed and fuel price which indicate a positive result to implement a stand-alone hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension. In addition to the feasibility of this system, it can reduce the emission of the CO2, SO2, and NOx, respectively, from 4758 to 147, from 9.45 to 0.294, and from 105 to 3.23 kg/yr. Investments in autonomous renewable energy systems should be considered particularly in remote areas. They can be financed in the framework of the National Energy Action Plan of Algeria.

  18. A pilot study in non-human primates shows no adverse response to intravenous injection of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ling; Yong, Ken-Tye; Liu, Liwei; Roy, Indrajit; Hu, Rui; Zhu, Jing; Cai, Hongxing; Law, Wing-Cheung; Liu, Jianwei; Wang, Kai; Liu, Jing; Liu, Yaqian; Hu, Yazhuo; Zhang, Xihe; Swihart, Mark T.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2012-07-01

    Quantum dots have been used in biomedical research for imaging, diagnostics and sensing purposes. However, concerns over the cytotoxicity of their heavy metal constituents and conflicting results from in vitro and small animal toxicity studies have limited their translation towards clinical applications. Here, we show in a pilot study that rhesus macaques injected with phospholipid micelle-encapsulated CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots do not exhibit evidence of toxicity. Blood and biochemical markers remained within normal ranges following treatment, and histology of major organs after 90 days showed no abnormalities. Our results show that acute toxicity of these quantum dots in vivo can be minimal. However, chemical analysis revealed that most of the initial dose of cadmium remained in the liver, spleen and kidneys after 90 days. This means that the breakdown and clearance of quantum dots is quite slow, suggesting that longer-term studies will be required to determine the ultimate fate of these heavy metals and the impact of their persistence in primates.

  19. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L welds. Welding and laser treatment parameters were varied. General corrosion behaviour of the weld and laser treated surface was characterised using a gel visualization test. The local electrochemistry of the weld and laser...... treated surface was investigated using a novel micro electrochemical technique with a tip resolution of ~1 mm. Results show that hybrid laser welding of 316L has increased corrosion susceptibility probably as a result of grain boundary carbide formation. However a suitable post laser treatment could...

  20. Optical and Spectral Studies on β Alanine Metal Halide Hybrid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetlin, M. Daniel; Selvarajan, P.; Perumal, S.; Ramalingom, S.

    2011-10-01

    We have synthesized and grown β alanine metal halide hybrid crystals viz. β alanine cadmium chloride (BACC), an amino acid transition metal halide complex crystal and β alanine potassium chloride (BAPC), an amino acid alkali metal halide complex crystal by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were found to be transparent and have well defined morphology. The optical characteristics of the grown crystals were carried out with the help of UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The optical transmittances of the spectrums show that BAPC is more transparent than BACC. The Photoluminescence of the materials were determined by the Photoluminescent Spectroscopy

  1. Modeling on the size dependent properties of InP quantum dots: a hybrid functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunseog; Jang, Hyosook; Lee, Junho; Jang, Eunjoo

    2013-05-01

    Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory were performed to provide better understanding of the size dependent electronic properties of InP quantum dots (QDs). Using a hybrid functional approach, we suggest a reliable analytical equation to describe the change of energy band gap as a function of size. Synthesizing colloidal InP QDs with 2-4 nm diameter and measuring their optical properties was also carried out. It was found that the theoretical band gaps showed a linear dependence on the inverse size of QDs and gave energy band gaps almost identical to the experimental values.

  2. Study of issues in difficult-to-weld thick materials by hybrid laser arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, Mehdi

    There is a high interest for the high strength-to-weight ratio with good ductility for the welds of advanced alloys. The concern about the welding of thick materials (Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and 5xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys) has stimulated the development of manufacturing processes to overcome the associated issues. The need to weld the dissimilar materials (AHSS and aluminum alloys) is also required for some specific applications in different industries. Hence, the requirement in the development of a state-of-the-art welding procedure can be helpful to fulfill the constraints. Among the welding methods hybrid laser/arc welding (HLAW) has shown to be an effective method to join thick and difficult-to-weld materials. This process benefits from both advantages of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and laser welding processes. The interaction of the arc and laser can help to have enough penetration of weld in thick plates. However, as the welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys and steels is very difficult because of the formation of brittle intermetallics the present work proposed a procedure to effectively join the alloys. The reports showed that the explosively welded aluminum alloys to steels have the highest toughness, and that could be used as an "insert" (TRICLAD) for welding the thick plates of AHSS to aluminum alloys. Therefore, the HLAW of the TRICLAD-Flange side (Aluminum alloy (AA 5456)) to the Web side (Aluminum alloys (AA 6061 and AA 5456)) and the TRICLAD-Flange side (ASTM A516) to the Web side (AHSS) was studied in the present work. However, there are many issues related to HLAW of the dissimilar steels as well as dissimilar aluminum alloys that have to be resolved in order to obtain sound welds. To address the challenges, the most recent welding methods for joining aluminum alloys to steels were studied and the microstructural development, mechanical properties, and on-line monitoring of the welding processes were discussed as well

  3. Electronic structures of one-dimensional metal-molecule hybrid chains studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung-Hoon; Koo, Bon-Gil; Kim, Howon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Kahng, Se-Jong

    2012-05-28

    The electronic structures of self-assembled hybrid chains comprising Ag atoms and organic molecules were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) in parallel with density functional theory (DFT). Hybrid chains were prepared by catalytic breaking of Br-C bonds in 4,4″-dibromo-p-terphenyl molecules, followed by spontaneous formation of Ag-C bonds on Ag(111). An atomic model was proposed for the observed hybrid chain structures. Four electronic states were resolved using STS measurements, and strong energy dependence was observed in STM images. These results were explained using first-principles calculations based on DFT.

  4. Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anshuman; Nizammuddin, Sheikh; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Singh, Sakshi; Prakash, Satya; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Rai, Niraj; Carlus, S Justin; Sudhakar, Digumarthi V S; Tripathi, Vishnu P; Möls, Märt; Kim-Howard, Xana; Dewangan, Hemlata; Mishra, Abhishek; Reddy, Alla G; Roy, Biswajit; Pandey, Krishna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Das, Pradeep; Nath, Swapan K; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of skin pigmentation has been largely skewed towards populations of European ancestry, imparting less attention to South Asian populations, who behold huge pigmentation diversity. Here, we investigate skin pigmentation variation in a cohort of 1,167 individuals in the Middle Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm the association of rs1426654 with skin pigmentation among South Asians, consistent with previous studies, and also show association for rs2470102 single nucleotide polymorphism. Our haplotype analyses further help us delineate the haplotype distribution across social categories and skin color. Taken together, our findings suggest that the social structure defined by the caste system in India has a profound influence on the skin pigmentation patterns of the subcontinent. In particular, social category and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms explain about 32% and 6.4%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. Phylogeography of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms studied across 52 diverse populations of the Indian subcontinent shows wide presence of the derived alleles, although their frequencies vary across populations. Our results show that both polymorphisms (rs1426654 and rs2470102) play an important role in the skin pigmentation diversity of South Asians.

  5. The study of hybrid model identification,computation analysis and fault location for nonlinear dynamic circuits and systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hong; HE Yi-gang; ZENG Guan-da

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the hybrid model identification for a class of nonlinear circuits and systems via a combination of the block-pulse function transform with the Volterra series.After discussing the method to establish the hybrid model and introducing the hybrid model identification,a set of relative formulas are derived for calculating the hybrid model and computing the Volterra series solution of nonlinear dynamic circuits and systems.In order to significantly reduce the computation cost for fault location,the paper presents a new fault diagnosis method based on multiple preset models that can be realized online.An example of identification simulation and fault diagnosis are given.Results show that the method has high accuracy and efficiency for fault location of nonlinear dynamic circuits and systems.

  6. Study of thorium-uranium based molten salt blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing, E-mail: zhao_jing@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang Yongwei; Zhou Zhiwei [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A molten salt blanket has been designed for the fusion-fission hybrid reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of Thorium in the molten salt fuels has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molten salt was consisted of F-Li-Be and with the thickness of 40 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of {sup 6}Li was chosen to be the natural enrichment ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result shows that TBR is greater than 1, M is about 15-16. - Abstract: Not only solid fuels, but also liquid fuels can be used for the fusion-fission symbiotic reactor blanket. The operational record of the molten salt reactor with F-Li-Be was very successful, so the F-Li-Be blanket was chosen for research. The molten salt has several features which are suited for the fusion-fission applications. The fuel material uranium and thorium were dissolved in the F-Li-Be molten salt. A combined program, COUPLE, was used for neutronics analysis of the molten salt blanket. Several cases have been calculated and compared. Not only the influence of the different fuels have been studied, but also the thickness of the molten salt, and the concentration of the {sup 6}Li in the molten salt. Preliminary studies indicate that when thorium-uranium-plutonium fuels were added into a F-Li-Be molten salt blanket and with a component of 71% LiF-2% BeF{sub 2}-13.5% ThF{sub 4}-8.5% UF{sub 4}-5% PuF{sub 3}, and also with the molten salt thickness of 40 cm and natural concentration of {sup 6}Li, the appropriate blanket energy multiplication factor and TBR can be obtained. The result shows that thorium-uranium molten salt can be used in the blanket of a fusion-fission symbiotic reactor. The research on the molten salt blanket must be valuable for the design of fusion-fission symbiotic reactor.

  7. PCR-RFLP and AP-PCR of rbcL and ITS of rDNA Show That × Taxodiomeria peizhongii (Taxodium x Cryptomeria) Is not an Intergeneric Hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    ×Taxodiomeria peizhongiiZ. J. Ye, J. J. Zhang et S. H. Pan was regarded as a new intergeneric hybrid between Taxodium mucronatum Tenore (as the female donor) and Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibrenk ex Otto et Dietr (as the male donor). To confirm the authenticity of the intergeneric hybrid, we analyzed the rbcL gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 26S-18S ribosomal RNA gene of the three species using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), and obtained the following results: i) Taxodiomeria peizhongii had the same RFLP maps of the rbcL gene and the ITS as Taxodium mucronatum, but was different from C. fortunei; ii) a 311-bp PCR amplification product was obtained in C. fortunei by AP-PCR of ITS, but was not found in Taxodiomeria peizhongii. Our results have demonstrated that C. fortunei did not provide any genome for Taxodiomeria peizhongii, implying that T. peizhongii is not an intergeneric hybrid between the two species.

  8. SU-E-T-13: A Feasibility Study of the Use of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Improved Historical Dose Reconstruction in the Study of Late Radiation Effects for Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroccia, H; O' Reilly, S; Bolch, W [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, N; Li, Z; Slopsema, R [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced cancer effects are well-documented following radiotherapy. Further investigation is needed to more accurately determine a dose-response relationship for late radiation effects. Recent dosimetry studies tend to use representative patients (Taylor 2009) or anthropomorphic phantoms (Wirth 2008) for estimating organ mean doses. In this study, we compare hybrid computational phantoms to patient-specific voxel phantoms to test the accuracy of University of Florida Hybrid Phantom Library (UFHP Library) for historical dose reconstructions. Methods: A cohort of 10 patients with CT images was used to reproduce the data that was collected historically for Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (i.e. caliper measurements and photographs). Four types of phantoms were generated to show a range of refinement from reference hybrid-computational phantom to patient-specific phantoms. Each patient is matched to a reference phantom from the UFHP Library based on height and weight. The reference phantom is refined in the anterior/posterior direction to create a ‘caliper-scaled phantom’. A photograph is simulated using a surface rendering from segmented CT images. Further refinement in the lateral direction is performed using ratios from a simulated-photograph to create a ‘photograph and caliper-scaled phantom’; breast size and position is visually adjusted. Patient-specific hybrid phantoms, with matched organ volumes, are generated and show the capabilities of the UF Hybrid Phantom Library. Reference, caliper-scaled, photograph and caliper-scaled, and patient-specific hybrid phantoms are compared with patient-specific voxel phantoms to determine the accuracy of the study. Results: Progression from reference phantom to patient specific hybrid shows good agreement with the patient specific voxel phantoms. Each stage of refinement shows an overall trend of improvement in dose accuracy within the study, which suggests that computational phantoms can show

  9. A Hybrid Architecture Approach for Quantum Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R.S. Aghaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a general plan of hybrid architecture for quantum algorithms is proposed. Approach: Analysis of the quantum algorithms shows that these algorithms were hybrid with two parts. First, the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the hybrid algorithms was extracted. Then a general plan of hybrid structure was designed. Results: This plan was illustrated the hybrid architecture and the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the algorithms. This general plan was used to increase implementation performance of quantum algorithms. Conclusion/Recommendations: Moreover, simulation results of quantum algorithms on the hybrid architecture proved that quantum algorithms can be implemented on the general plan as well.

  10. Causal-comparative study analyzing student success in hybrid anatomy and physiology courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline Anita

    In the biological sciences, higher student success levels are achieved in traditionally formatted, face-to-face coursework than in hybrid courses. The methodologies used to combine hybrid and in-person elements to the course need to be applied to the biological sciences to emulate the success seen in the traditional courses since the number of hybrid course offerings at community colleges are rapidly increasing. Research has delineated that creating online collaborative communities and increasing student engagement all function to increase student successful outcomes. This causal-comparative study was conducted using student data from four sections of hybrid, introductory anatomy and physiology courses over the 2011 and 2012 calendar years. The study included two sources of data: unit exam scores and student surveys. Analysis of the unit exam scores determined that there were statistically significant differences in student success and achievement by the implementation of the following web-enhanced technologies: a) discussion boards, b) Breeze, and c) Wiki tools. In the scope of this study, student success and achievement was defined as a student earning a C (70%) or higher at the completion of the course. There were a total of 29 surveys conducted per each unit during the 2012 semesters that related to the web-enhanced technologies implemented into the course: Discussion boards, BreezeRTM, and Wiki tools. Demographic data was also compiled on all of the students enrolled in the classes during this study to demonstrate that there is no specified niche or trend seen in the students enrolling for this particular course. Unit 1 was used as a baseline to compare the students from the two years. It was determined that the students were not significantly different in aptitude levels at the beginning of the courses based on their Unit 1 exam scores. Inferential statistical analysis was done to examine student success and achievement using the following tools: t-test of

  11. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  12. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  13. Whole blood DNA aberrant methylation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma shows association with the course of the disease: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Dauksa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage in the progression of the disease, thus reducing the survival chances of the patients. Non-invasive early detection would greatly enhance therapy and survival rates. Toward this aim, we investigated in a pilot study the power of methylation changes in whole blood as predictive markers for the detection of pancreatic tumors. We investigated methylation levels at selected CpG sites in the CpG rich regions at the promoter regions of p16, RARbeta, TNFRSF10C, APC, ACIN1, DAPK1, 3OST2, BCL2 and CD44 in the blood of 30 pancreatic tumor patients and in the blood of 49 matching controls. In addition, we studied LINE-1 and Alu repeats using degenerate amplification approach as a surrogate marker for genome-wide methylation. The site-specific methylation measurements at selected CpG sites were done by the SIRPH method. Our results show that in the patient's blood, tumor suppressor genes were slightly but significantly higher methylated at several CpG sites, while repeats were slightly less methylated compared to control blood. This was found to be significantly associated with higher risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Additionally, high methylation levels at TNFRSCF10C were associated with positive perineural spread of tumor cells, while higher methylation levels of TNFRSF10C and ACIN1 were significantly associated with shorter survival. This pilot study shows that methylation changes in blood could provide a promising method for early detection of pancreatic tumors. However, larger studies must be carried out to explore the clinical usefulness of a whole blood methylation based test for non-invasive early detection of pancreatic tumors.

  14. Study on Strength of Hybrid Mortar Synthesis with Epoxy Resin, Fly Ash and Quarry Dust Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, P.; Muni Reddy, M. G., Dr.; Adiseshu, S., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Blend and characterization of Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether based thermosetting polymer mortar comprising an epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust are presented here for the strength study. The specimens have been prepared by means of an innovative process in Extreme conditions of commercial epoxy resin, Fly ash and Quarry dust based paste. In this way, thermosetting based hybrid mortars characterized by a different contents of normalized Fly ash and Quarry dust by a homogeneous distribution of the resin have been attained. Once hardened, these new composite materials show improved compressive strength and toughness in respect to both the Fly ash and Rock sand pastes since the Resin provides a more cohesive microstructure, with a reduced number of micro cracks. The micro structural characterization allows pointing out the presence of an Interfacial Transition Zone similar to that observed in cement based mortars. A correlation between micro-structural features and mechanical properties of the mortar has also been studied in Extreme conditions.

  15. A-centers in silicon studied with hybrid density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2013-07-29

    Density functional theory employing hybrid functional is used to gain fundamental insight into the interaction of vacancies with oxygen interstitials to form defects known as A-centers in silicon. We calculate the formation energy of the defect with respect to the Fermi energy for all possible charge states. It is found that the neutral and doubly negatively charged A-centers dominate. The findings are analyzed in terms of the density of states and discussed in view of previous experimental and theoretical studies.

  16. Plasma environment of magnetized asteroids: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of a magnetized asteroid with the solar wind is studied by using a three-dimensional hybrid simulation code (fluid electrons, kinetic ions. When the obstacle's intrinsic magnetic moment is sufficiently strong, the interaction region develops signs of magnetospheric structures. On the one hand, an area from which the solar wind is excluded forms downstream of the obstacle. On the other hand, the interaction region is surrounded by a boundary layer which indicates the presence of a bow shock. By analyzing the trajectories of individual ions, it is demonstrated that kinetic effects have global consequences for the structure of the interaction region.

  17. VV and VO2 defects in silicon studied with hybrid density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Christopoulos, Stavros Richard G

    2014-12-07

    The formation of VO (A-center), VV and VO2 defects in irradiated Czochralski-grown silicon (Si) is of technological importance. Recent theoretical studies have examined the formation and charge states of the A-center in detail. Here we use density functional theory employing hybrid functionals to analyze the formation of VV and VO2 defects. The formation energy as a function of the Fermi energy is calculated for all possible charge states. For the VV and VO2 defects double negatively charged and neutral states dominate, respectively.

  18. SAR study of tyrosine-chlorambucil hybrid regioisomers; synthesis and biological evaluation against breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descôteaux, Caroline; Brasseur, Kevin; Leblanc, Valérie; Parent, Sophie; Asselin, Eric; Bérubé, Gervais

    2012-08-01

    Amino acids were transformed and coupled to chlorambucil, a well-known chemotherapeutic agent, in an attempt to create new anticancer drugs with selectivity for breast cancer cells. Among the amino acids available, tyrosine was selected to act as an estrogenic ligand. It is hypothesized that tyrosine, which shows some structural similitude with estradiol, could possibly mimic the natural hormone and, subsequently, bind to the estrogen receptor. In this exploratory study, several tyrosine-drug conjugates have been designed. Thus, ortho-, meta- and para-tyrosine-chlorambucil analogs were synthesized in order to generate new anticancer drugs with structural diversity, more specifically in regards to the phenol group location. These new analogs were produced in good yield following efficient synthetic methodology. All the tyrosine-chlorambucil hybrids were more effective than the parent drug, chlorambucil. In vitro biological evaluation on estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative (ER(+) and ER(-)) breast cancer cell lines revealed an enhanced cytotoxic activity for compounds with the phenol function located at position meta. Molecular docking calculations were performed for the pure L-ortho, L-meta- and L-para-tyrosine phenolic regioisomers. The synthesis of all tyrosine-chlorambucil hybrid regioisomers and their biological activity are reported herein. Possible orientations within the targeted protein [estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)] are discussed in relation to the biological activity.

  19. A pilot study applying the plant Anchored Hybrid Enrichment method to New World sages (Salvia subgenus Calosphace; Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso-Martínez, Itzi; Salazar, Gerardo A; Martínez-Gordillo, Martha; Magallón, Susana; Sánchez-Reyes, Luna; Moriarty Lemmon, Emily; Lemmon, Alan R; Sazatornil, Federico; Granados Mendoza, Carolina

    2017-02-09

    We conducted a pilot study using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment to resolve relationships among a mostly Neotropical sage lineage that may have undergone a recent evolutionary radiation. Conventional markers (ITS, trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA) have not been able to resolve the relationships among species nor within portions of the backbone of the lineage. We sampled 12 representative species of subgenus Calosphace and included one species of Salvia's s.l. closest relative, Lepechinia, as outgroup. Hybrid enrichment and sequencing were successful, yielding 448 alignments of individual loci with an average length of 704bp. The performance of the phylogenomic data in phylogenetic reconstruction was superior to that of conventional markers, increasing both support and resolution. Because the captured loci vary in the amount of net phylogenetic informativeness at different phylogenetic depths, these data are promising in phylogenetic reconstruction of this group and likely other lineages within Lamiales. However, special attention should be placed on the amount of phylogenetic noise that the data could potentially contain. A prior exploration step using phylogenetic informativeness profiles to detect loci with sites with disproportionately high substitution rates (showing "phantom" spikes) and, if required, the ensuing filtering of the problematic data is recommended. In our dataset, filtering resulted in increased support and resolution for the shallow nodes in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees resulting from concatenated analyses of all the loci. Additionally, it is expected that an increase in sampling (loci and taxa) will aid in resolving weakly supported, short deep internal branches.

  20. Removal of Cadmium and Lead from Aqueous Solution by Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Hybrid Fibrous Sorbent: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAp/chitosan composites were prepared by a coprecipitation method, dropping a mixture of chitosan solution and phosphoric acid solution into a calcium hydroxide solution. Using the HAp/chitosan composites prepared, HAp/chitosan hybrid fibers with various HAp contents were prepared by a wet spinning method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that HAp particles were coated onto the surface of the fiber, and the surface roughness increased with increasing the HAp contents in the fiber. In order to evaluate the heavy metal removal characteristics of the HAp/chitosan hybrid fiber, adsorption tests were conducted and the results were compared with those of bare chitosan fibers. The results showed better performance in heavy metal ion removal for the HAp/chitosan hybrid fiber than the chitosan fiber. As the HAp content in the hybrid fiber increased, the removal efficiency of heavy metal ions also increased due to the increase of the specific surface area of the HAp/chitosan hybrid fiber. Adsorption kinetic and isotherm tests revealed that Pb2+ and Cd2+ adsorption to the hybrid fiber follows pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir-type adsorption, respectively.

  1. Structure and weights optimisation of a modified Elman network emotion classifier using hybrid computational intelligence algorithms: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhan, Mansour; Abbasnezhad Arabi, Mahdi; Gharavian, Davood

    2015-10-01

    Artificial neural networks are efficient models in pattern recognition applications, but their performance is dependent on employing suitable structure and connection weights. This study used a hybrid method for obtaining the optimal weight set and architecture of a recurrent neural emotion classifier based on gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and its binary version (BGSA), respectively. By considering the features of speech signal that were related to prosody, voice quality, and spectrum, a rich feature set was constructed. To select more efficient features, a fast feature selection method was employed. The performance of the proposed hybrid GSA-BGSA method was compared with similar hybrid methods based on particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm and its binary version, PSO and discrete firefly algorithm, and hybrid of error back-propagation and genetic algorithm that were used for optimisation. Experimental tests on Berlin emotional database demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method using a lighter network structure.

  2. Solubility studies of inorganic–organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists.

  3. Soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas also show some malignant features: A clinicopathological study of a 15-year database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zitong; Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Chen, Fei; Wen, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the clinicopathological features of six cases of soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma and explore the role of increased aggressive biological behavior in the recurrences and treatment of this type of ameloblastomas. Material and Methods In this study, we retrospectively reviewed recurrent ameloblastomas during a 15-year period; six cases were diagnosed as soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma. The clinical, radiographic, cytological and immunohistochemical records of these six cases were investigated and analyzed. Results All the six soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas occurred after radical bone resection, and were located in the adjacent soft tissues around the osteotomy regions. In Case 4, the patient developed pulmonary metastasis, extensive skull-base infiltration and cytological malignancy after multiple recurrences and malignant transformation was diagnosed. In the other five cases, although there were no cytological signs are sufficient to justify an ameloblastoma as malignant, some malignant features were observed. In Case 1, the tumor showed moderate atypical hyperplasia and the Ki-67 staining percentage was 40% positive, which are strongly suggestive of potential malignance. In Case 5, the patient developed a second soft tissue recurrence in the parapharyngeal region and later died of tumor-related complications. All the remaining three patients showed cytology atypia of varying degrees and high expression of PCNA or Ki-67, which confirmed active cell proliferation. Conclusions Increased aggressiveness is an important factor of soft tissue recurrence. An intraoperative rapid pathological examination and more radical treatment are suggested for these cases. Key words: Ameloblastoma, soft tissue recurrence, aggressive biological behaviour. PMID:25662548

  4. Ethical Disputes and Public Service Televison. Case Study: Otvoreno Political Talk Show, Broadcasted on 21st of January, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Škaljac Narančić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratings of the television programs as well as commercial effects become crucial measures of the media success and journalists’ efficiency neglecting minimal ethical standards. The profit maximisation logic and mere survival in times of the economic crisis also has the impact on preserving the sensitive ethical standards. In this respect, the television, as the most influential medium, especially public television, has the biggest responsibility. Violation of the ethical norms on public television means that it does not fulfil its key role – the role of public service. In important cases of the violation of ethical rules, the lack of clear responses of the regulators is the other side of the problem. The case study in this text shows us how easy it is to turn to the contempt of the professional journalistic standards and, consequently, ethical norms. This leads us to think how difficult is today to remain professional and ethical in times of the tangible commercialism and sensationalism.

  5. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  6. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  7. [Studies on the ploymorphic of sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Zhong; Liu, Shao Jun; Zhang, Xuan Jie; Feng, Hao; Liu, Yun

    2004-08-01

    AThe ultrastructures of the sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp were studied by using scanning and transmission electron microscope. The sperm of the F2 hybrids consisted of head, mid-piece and tail. There was no acrosome at the anterior end of the nuclears, whereas there was a vesicle. The results revealed that there existed obviously ploymorphic in the sperm of F2 hybrids. In the water-like semen from males of F2 hybrids, different sizes of the head of the sperm including haploid, diploid, tetraploid, and aneuploid sperm were observed. The head diameter of the smallest sperm was only 1.32 microm, but that of the biggest one was about 18.39 microm, and most of them varied from 1.85 to 2.15 microm. The haploid sperm was normal, while the a-neuploid, diploid, tetraploid and multiploid sperm were abnormal. Among the abnormal sperm, there was a super sperm with about 20 tails, whose head volume was much bigger than that of any other sperm. From the results of the transmission electron microscope, 3 sperm with two nucleus and 1 sperm with two tails were found. This study provided an useful evidence for the mechanism that the formation of tetraploid in F3 hybrids was due to the fertilization of the diploid eggs and diploid sperm produced by F2 hybrids.

  8. Solubility studies of inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Ober, Christopher; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists.The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists. Electronic supplementary

  9. A study on new market development using a hybrid of QFD and ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Rashedeh Makhzan Mousavi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on new product development (NPD using a hybrid of quality function deployment (QFD and analytical network process (ANP. The study is accomplished in one of the biggest auto producers in Iran named Saipa. The study examines whether or not NDP influences positively on critical success factors (CSF and knowledge management (KM. The study also examines whether KM influences on success of NPD. Using some statistical tests, the study confirms that NDP influences on CSF and KM and there is a positive and meaningful relationship between KM and success of NPD. In addition, the study has prioritized various factors for development of new product development and determined that “technology application consistent with customer’s needs” as well as “Having various meetings with different departments” are the most important factors for the success of new product development.

  10. STUDIES ON THE MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING IN VITRO MICROPROPAGATION OF TWO INTERGENERIC HYBRIDS FRAGARIA × POTENTILLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Nicoleta Şuțan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the major factors affecting in vitro micropropagation of intergeneric hybrids Fragaria × Potentilla, respectively ‘Pink Panda’ and ‘Serenata’, basic culture media Murashige-Skoog (MS, Lee-Fossard (LF and Knop, were supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, kinetine (Kin, indole-3-acetic acid (AIA, indole-3-butyric acid (AIB and gibberellic acid (GA3, in different combination and concentration. In ornamental strawberry ‘Serenata’, which showed a genetic potential of shoot regeneration significantly higher compared with ‘Pink Panda’, a high multiplication rate associated with a high vigor of shoots was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP + 0.1 mg/l AIB + 0.1 mg/l GA3. The same combination of growth regulators, added in MS medium in higher concentrations, namely 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.2 mg/l AIB + 0.1 mg/l GA3 led to the highest rate of multiplication in ‘Pink Panda’ intergeneric hybrid of Fragaria × Potentilla.

  11. Streptococcus thermophilus core genome: comparative genome hybridization study of 47 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Morten; Valina, Ondrej; Garrigues, Christel; Johansen, Eric; Pedersen, Martin Bastian

    2008-08-01

    A DNA microarray platform based on 2,200 genes from publicly available sequences was designed for Streptococcus thermophilus. We determined how single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 65- to 75-mer oligonucleotide probe sequences affect the hybridization signals. The microarrays were then used for comparative genome hybridization (CGH) of 47 dairy S. thermophilus strains. An analysis of the exopolysaccharide genes in each strain confirmed previous findings that this class of genes is indeed highly variable. A phylogenetic tree based on the CGH data showed similar distances for most strains, indicating frequent recombination or gene transfer within S. thermophilus. By comparing genome sizes estimated from the microarrays and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the amount of unknown DNA in each strain was estimated. A core genome comprised of 1,271 genes detected in all 47 strains was identified. Likewise, a set of noncore genes detected in only some strains was identified. The concept of an industrial core genome is proposed. This is comprised of the genes in the core genome plus genes that are necessary in an applied industrial context.

  12. In silico study of porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids as CDK2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba, Muhammad; Ihsan, Sunandar; Ramadhan, La Ode Ahmad Nur; Tjahjono, Daryono Hadi

    2017-04-01

    Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs) are known to play crucial roles in controlling cell cycle progression of eukaryotic cell and inhibition of their activity has long been considered as potential strategy in anti-cancer drug research. In the present work, a series of porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids bearing meso-substituents, i.e. either pyridine or pyrazole rings were designed and computationally evaluated for their Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 (CDK2) inhibitory activity using molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation. The molecular docking simulation revealed that all six porphyrin hybrids were able to bind to ATP-binding site of CDK2 and interacted with key residues constituted the active cavity of CDK2, while molecular dynamics simulation indicated that all porphyrins bound to CDK2 were stable for 6ns. The binding free energies predicted by MM-PBSA method showed that most compounds exhibited higher affinity than that of native ligand (4-anilinoquinazoline, DTQ) and the affinity of mono-H2PyP-AQ was about three times better than that of DTQ, indicating its potential to be advanced as a new CDK2 inhibitor.

  13. A comparison study of convective schemes in hybrid RANS-LES calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basara, Branislav; Pavlovic, Zoran

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays it is commonly accepted to report on convections schemes in the case of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) calculations. However, in the case of hybrid RANS-LES calculations, the same discussion seems not to be relevant assuming that calculations are anyway performed on the coarser computational meshes and that the amount of unresolved and modelled turbulence impairs the calculation accuracy more than the error of convection schemes used in calculations. Therefore, we want to tackle this issue by using the Partially Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) model as the representative hybrid RANS-LES method but the conclusions derived in this work are equally applicable to other models. We will present results by using the central differencing (CD), MINMOD and SMART schemes but also using CD scheme only locally in the area of low unresolved-to-total ratios of kinetic energy (fk) . The paper will also show the performance of a step blending function, which depends on the prescribed constant value of the ratio fk and the performance of a smooth function which directly uses the ratio fk as the blending value. The results will be presented for the flow around the square cylinder.

  14. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA-COIR HYBRID COMPOSITE USING EXPERIMENTAL AND FEM TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hariprasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymers has gained importance in recent years due to their eco-friendly nature. Thus, an investigation has been undertaken on banana-coir, which is a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight, but also relatively very cheap. Composite plates were prepared with resin 392 g, coir 54 g, and banana 69 g. The purpose of this work is to establish the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of banana-coir reinforced composite materials with a thermo set for treated and untreated fibers. The resin used was epoxy (EP306. The tensile and impact tests showed that treated banana-coir epoxy hybrid composites have higher tensile strength and impact strength than untreated composites. However, untreated fiber composites have greater flexural strength than the treated fiber composites. The finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS has been employed successfully to evaluate the properties. The stresses at the interface of the banana-coir and matrix, induced by the different loading conditions, were applied to predict the tensile, impact, and flexural properties by using the FEA models. The model output was compared with the experimental results and found to be close. This analysis is useful for realizing the advantages of hybrid fiber reinforced composites in structural applications and for identifying where the stresses are critical and damage the interface under varying loading conditions.

  15. Parametric study and performance analysis of hybrid rocket motors with double-tube configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanjia; Zhao, Bo; Lorente, Arnau Pons; Wang, Jue

    2017-03-01

    The practical implementation of hybrid rocket motors has historically been hampered by the slow regression rate of the solid fuel. In recent years, the research on advanced injector designs has achieved notable results in the enhancement of the regression rate and combustion efficiency of hybrid rockets. Following this path, this work studies a new configuration called double-tube characterized by injecting the gaseous oxidizer through a head end injector and an inner tube with injector holes distributed along the motor longitudinal axis. This design has demonstrated a significant potential for improving the performance of hybrid rockets by means of a better mixing of the species achieved through a customized injection of the oxidizer. Indeed, the CFD analysis of the double-tube configuration has revealed that this design may increase the regression rate over 50% with respect to the same motor with a conventional axial showerhead injector. However, in order to fully exploit the advantages of the double-tube concept, it is necessary to acquire a deeper understanding of the influence of the different design parameters in the overall performance. In this way, a parametric study is carried out taking into account the variation of the oxidizer mass flux rate, the ratio of oxidizer mass flow rate injected through the inner tube to the total oxidizer mass flow rate, and injection angle. The data for the analysis have been gathered from a large series of three-dimensional numerical simulations that considered the changes in the design parameters. The propellant combination adopted consists of gaseous oxygen as oxidizer and high-density polyethylene as solid fuel. Furthermore, the numerical model comprises Navier-Stokes equations, k-ε turbulence model, eddy-dissipation combustion model and solid-fuel pyrolysis, which is computed through user-defined functions. This numerical model was previously validated by analyzing the computational and experimental results obtained for

  16. The social well-being of nurses shows a thirst for a holistic support: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Mozaffari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social well-being is one of the important aspects of health. In fact, this is a reflection of experience in a social environment, indicating how social challenges are determined. In other words, social well-being is an explanation of people's perception and experience of being in a good situation, satisfaction with the structure, and social interaction. This qualitative study intended to explore nurses’ experience of social well-being. Methods: Qualitative content analysis was used to conduct the study. Through purposive sampling, a total of 18 nurses with various clinical experiences participated in semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using the five-step, qualitative content analysis introduced by Graneheim and Lundman. Results: The main theme extracted from the data analysis was “thirst for a holistic support” in nurses. It consisted of two subthemes including internal support (family's support, colleague's support, and organizational support and external support (society's support and media's support. Conclusions and discussion: Nurses’ experiences in shaping their social well-being show that nurses need support in order to rebuild their social well-being. It is supported in partnership with the media, the community, health-related organizations, and by nurses and family. This improves job satisfaction, hope, motivation, commitment, and confidence so as to ultimately facilitate improvement of social well-being of nurses.

  17. The social well-being of nurses shows a thirst for a holistic support: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Naser; Peyrovi, Hamid; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan

    2015-01-01

    Social well-being is one of the important aspects of health. In fact, this is a reflection of experience in a social environment, indicating how social challenges are determined. In other words, social well-being is an explanation of people's perception and experience of being in a good situation, satisfaction with the structure, and social interaction. This qualitative study intended to explore nurses' experience of social well-being. Qualitative content analysis was used to conduct the study. Through purposive sampling, a total of 18 nurses with various clinical experiences participated in semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using the five-step, qualitative content analysis introduced by Graneheim and Lundman. The main theme extracted from the data analysis was "thirst for a holistic support" in nurses. It consisted of two subthemes including internal support (family's support, colleague's support, and organizational support) and external support (society's support and media's support). Nurses' experiences in shaping their social well-being show that nurses need support in order to rebuild their social well-being. It is supported in partnership with the media, the community, health-related organizations, and by nurses and family. This improves job satisfaction, hope, motivation, commitment, and confidence so as to ultimately facilitate improvement of social well-being of nurses.

  18. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants.

  19. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F. Patrick; Suaya, Jose A.; Ray, G. Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L.; Mera, Robertino M.; Close, Nicole M.; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants. PMID:26669861

  20. Cefepime shows good efficacy and no antibiotic resistance in pneumonia caused by Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2016-03-23

    Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance. These pathogens constitute a further threat because they are also resistant to numerous beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as other antibiotic groups. This study retrospectively investigates antimicrobial resistance in hospitalized patients suffering from pneumonia triggered by Gram-negative Serratia marcescens or Proteus mirabilis. The demographic and clinical data analyzed in this study were obtained from the clinical databank of the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, for inpatients presenting with pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens or P. mirabilis from 2004 to 2014. An antibiogram was conducted for the antibiotics utilized as part of the management of patients with pneumonia triggered by these two pathogens. Pneumonia was caused by Gram-negative bacteria in 115 patients during the study period from January 1, 2004, to August 12, 2014. Of these, 43 (37.4 %) hospitalized patients [26 males (60.5 %, 95 % CI 45.9 %-75.1 %) and 17 females (39.5 %, 95 % CI 24.9 %-54.1 %)] with mean age of 66.2 ± 13.4 years had pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens, while 20 (17.4 %) patients [14 males (70 %, 95 % CI 49.9 %-90.1 %) and 6 females (30 %, 95 % CI 9.9 %-50.1 %)] with a mean age of 64.6 ± 12.8 years had pneumonia caused by P. mirabilis. S. marcescens showed an increased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (100 %), ampicillin-sulbactam (100 %), and cefuroxime (100 %). P. mirabilis had a high resistance to tetracycline (100 %) and ampicillin (55 %). S. marcescens (P resistance to cefepime in these patients with pneumonia. S. marcescens and P. mirabilis were resistant to several commonly used antimicrobial agents, but showed no resistance to cefepime.

  1. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykes Anna-Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1% met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Results Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4% women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5% women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26 of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08, OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50, respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96. Conclusions Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia.

  2. Clinical and Biomarker Changes in Premanifest Huntington Disease Show Trial Feasibility: A Decade of the PREDICT-HD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Hans J.; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Ross, Christopher A.; Williams, Janet K.; Nance, Martha A.; Erwin, Cheryl J.; Westervelt, Holly J.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Bockholt, H. Jeremy; Zhang, Ying; McCusker, Elizabeth A.; Chiu, Edmond M.; Panegyres, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that intervention and treatment of Huntington disease (HD) should occur at the earliest stage possible. Various early-intervention methods for this fatal neurodegenerative disease have been identified, but preventive clinical trials for HD are limited by a lack of knowledge of the natural history of the disease and a dearth of appropriate outcome measures. Objectives of the current study are to document the natural history of premanifest HD progression in the largest cohort ever studied and to develop a battery of imaging and clinical markers of premanifest HD progression that can be used as outcome measures in preventive clinical trials. Neurobiological predictors of Huntington’s disease is a 32-site, international, observational study of premanifest HD, with annual examination of 1013 participants with premanifest HD and 301 gene-expansion negative controls between 2001 and 2012. Findings document 39 variables representing imaging, motor, cognitive, functional, and psychiatric domains, showing different rates of decline between premanifest HD and controls. Required sample size and models of premanifest HD are presented to inform future design of clinical and preclinical research. Preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD with participants who have a medium or high probability of motor onset are calculated to be as resource-effective as those conducted in diagnosed HD and could interrupt disease 7–12 years earlier. Methods and measures for preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD more than a dozen years from motor onset are also feasible. These findings represent the most thorough documentation of a clinical battery for experimental therapeutics in stages of premanifest HD, the time period for which effective intervention may provide the most positive possible outcome for patients and their families affected by this devastating disease. PMID:24795630

  3. Clinical and biomarker changes in premanifest Huntington disease show trial feasibility: a decade of the PREDICT-HD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S Paulsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing consensus that intervention and treatment of Huntington disease (HD should occur at the earliest stage possible. Various early-intervention methods for this fatal neurodegenerative disease have been identified, but preventive clinical trials for HD are limited by a lack of knowledge of the natural history of the disease and a dearth of appropriate outcome measures. Objectives of the current study are to document the natural history of premanifest HD progression in the largest cohort ever studied and to develop a battery of imaging and clinical markers of premanifest HD progression that can be used as outcome measures in preventive clinical trials. PREDICT-HD is a 32-site, international, observational study of premanifest HD, with annual examination of 1013 participants with premanifest HD and 301 gene-expansion negative controls between 2001 and 2012. Findings document 39 variables representing imaging, motor, cognitive, functional, and psychiatric domains, showing different rates of decline between premanifest Huntington disease and controls. Required sample size and models of premanifest HD are presented to inform future design of clinical and preclinical research. Preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD with participants who have a medium or high probability of motor onset are calculated to be as resource-effective as those conducted in diagnosed HD and could interrupt disease seven to twelve years earlier. Methods and measures for preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD more than a dozen years from motor onset are also feasible. These findings represent the most thorough documentation of a clinical battery for experimental therapeutics in stages of premanifest HD, the time period for which effective intervention may provide the most positive possible outcome for patients and their families affected by this devastating disease.

  4. Studies on the Utilization Potentiality of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Hybrid in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of comparative studies was carried out on the genetic effects of 25 alien cytoplasms of wheat on the growth potential, heading stage , fertility, resistance against diseases, important agronomic traits and its heterosis of 125 nuclei-cytoplasmic hybrids of wheat. The results indicated that there were clearly effects of alien cytoplasms on some characteristics, but the nucleus still exerted main effect on other characteristics. The effect of interactions between nucleus and cytoplasm was comparative obvious in some combination. Consequently, when we utilize the effects of alien cytoplasms, we should pay full attention to the facts such as the characteristic to be improved, the effects of cytoplasm ,nucleus, the nucleus-cytoplasm interactions on that characteristics . From the preliminary studies, we believed that the cytoplasmic types of M°, S1, Sv, D2, D and B, and the nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrids of (Ae. sharonensis) -Bl74, (Ae. squarrosa)352-35, (Ae. cylindrica) -352-35, (Ae. cylindrica)-E EN-1, (Ae. cylindrica)- NPFP, and (Ae. speltoides)352-35 would have some utilization potentiality in cultivar improvement.

  5. Hybrid CIS-DFT method to study electric field effects on electronic excited states of ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mei-Zhong; Zhu Zheng-He; Chen Xiao-Jun; Xu Guo-Liang; Zhang Yong-Bin; Mao Hua-Ping; Shen Xiao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of the effects of external dipole electric field on the molecular structure of ethylene using a hybrid method which combines the single-excitation configuration interactions (CIS) with density functional theory (DFT), i.e. CIS-DFT(B3LYP). It is found that the effects of electric dipole field on the molecular geometry (D2h, D2d and C2v), dipole moment, transition dipole moment, polarizability and, particularly, excitation energy of ethylene are remarkable. The advantages of the hybrid CIS-DFT method are that it can determine the symmetry of molecule and the correct order of excitation as well as the Molecular Orbital (MO) electron configuration;thereby the electronic excitation states of ethylene are easily derived, and most of them are in agreement with those obtained in experiments or references. It may be the first time the effects of external electric field on ethylene molecule have been considered. Compared with other ab initio methods, the CIS-DFT method is relatively accurate and low cost in computation. We expect that it can be used to study other closed-shell molecules.

  6. A Monte Carlo study to check the hadronic interaction models by a new EAS hybrid experiment in Tibet

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ying; Jiang, L; Chen, D; Ding, L K; Shibata, M; Katayose, Y; Hotta, N; Ohnishi, M; Ouchi, T; Saito, T

    2013-01-01

    A new EAS hybrid experiment has been designed by constructing a YAC (Yangbajing Air shower Core) detector array inside the existing Tibet-III air shower array. The first step of YAC, called "YAC-I", consists of 16 plastic scintillator units (4 rows times 4 columns) each with an area of 40 cm * 50 cm which is used to check hadronic interaction models used in AS simulations. A Monte Carlo study shows that YAC-I can record high energy electromagnetic component in the core region of air showers induced by primary particles of several tens TeV energies where the primary composition is directly measured by space experiments. It may provide a direct check of the hadronic interaction models currently used in the air shower simulations in the corresponding energy region. In present paper, the method of the observation and the sensitivity of the characteristics of the observed events to the different interaction models are discussed.

  7. Study of Bridging of the Spectral Gap in the Lower Hybrid Wave Current Drive in the HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mao; DING Bojiang; XU Handong; ZHAO Lianmin; LIU Liang; LIN Shiyao; XU Ping; SUN Youwen; HU Huaichuan; YANG Yong; JIA Hua; WANG Xiaojie; WANG Dongxia; QIN Yongliang; FENG Jianqiang; LIU Fukun; SHAN Jiafang; ZHAO Yanping; HT-7 team

    2009-01-01

    An additional lower hybrid wave (LHW) with a higher refractive index(N//)was investigated in the HT-7 tokamak to bridge the spectral gap.It was found that the spectral gap between the wave and the electrons in the outer region was bridged by the additional wave with a higher N// spectrum.The results showed that the sawteeth oscillation was suppressed by launching the additional wave,and that the power deposition profile was moved outwards and the current profile was broadened due to the application of the additional wave.Our study indicates that the spectral gap may be bridged by an additional wave with a higher N// spectrum in the outer region.

  8. Comparison of hybrid fixation versus dual intramedullary nailing fixation for forearm fractures in older children: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongzeng; Shui, Xiaolong; Wang, Jianshun; Cai, Leyi; Wang, Gang; Hong, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical outcomes of hybrid fixation using elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) for the radius and plate screw fixation for the ulna (Hybrid group) with dual ESIN fixation (D-ESIN group) for both-bone forearm fractures in children between 10 and 16 years of age. Fifty patients with both-bone forearm fractures (28 patients in the Hybrid group and 22 patients in the D-ESIN group) were reviewed. Functional outcomes were evaluated according to the criteria of Price et al. Radiological results were assessed by fracture union at three and six months and bone union time. Postoperative complications were also recorded. The times of fluoroscopy intraoperatively and duration of immobilization postoperatively were significantly lower in the Hybrid group (P < 0.05). The union rate of the ulna at three months postoperatively in the hybrid group was significantly higher than that in the D-ESIN group (P < 0.05). The average time of bone union was significantly shorter in the hybrid group than that in the D-ESIN group (P < 0.05). There were no differences according to the satisfactory rate and degree, the major and minor complications between the groups. Hybrid fixation is superior in terms of the times of fluoroscopy intraoperatively, duration of immobilization postoperatively, delayed union rate of the ulna and the average time of bone union. Therefore, hybrid fixation is an alternative treatment for both-bone forearm fractures in children between 10 and 16 years of age. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hybrid practices as a means to implement quality improvement: A comparative qualitative study in a Dutch and Swedish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartz-Topp, Julia; Sanne, Johan M; Pöstges, Heide

    2016-11-15

    Managers and scholars commonly perceive resistance from professionals as hampering the implementation of quality improvement (QI) and refer to the incompatibility of clinical and managerial approaches to QI as a reason. Yet a growing body of research indicates that, in practice, these two approaches rather blend into hybrid practices that embody different types of QI-related knowledge and values. This opens up a new perspective on implementation challenges that moves attention away from resistance against managerial QI toward difficulties for clinicians to draw together different types of knowledge and values within their clinical work. So far, little is known about how managers can support clinicians to generate hybrid QI practices. The aim of this study was to deepen our understanding of how managers can support the generation of hybrid practices that help clinicians to integrate QI into their everyday work. We draw on comparative qualitative research including 21 semistructured interviews, documentary analysis, and participant observation that we conducted in one Dutch and one Swedish hospital over a period of 8 months in 2011/2012. Hospital managers designed hybrid forums, tools, and professional roles in order to facilitate the integration of different QI practices, knowledge, and values. This integration generated new hybrid practices and an infrastructure for QI that has potential to support clinicians in their efforts to align different demands. New opportunities to implement QI emerge when we change the implementation problem from clinical resistance to the need of support for clinicians to develop hybrid QI practices. Hospital managers then have to intentionally organize for the generation of hybrid practices by designing, for example, hybrid forums, tools, and professional roles that integrate different knowledge and values in a nonhierarchical way.

  10. Characteristics Study on SOFC/GT/ST Hybrid Power System%SOFC/GT/ST三重复合动力系统特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 段立强; 杨勇平

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the hybrid power system of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)/Gas Turbine (GT)/Steam Turbine (ST). Performance analysis model of SOFC/GT/ST hybrid system is developed based on Aspen Plus soft and the effects of main parameters on the performance of SOFC/GT/ST hybrid system are studied. The obtained results show that: SOFC/GT/ST hybrid system has the higher system efficiency at higher operating pressure and operating temperature of around 900℃; the higher fuel utilization ratio also help improve system efficiency. Above research achievements will provide valuable reference for further study on of SOFC/GT/ST hybrid power system with high efficiency.%本文研究SOFC/GT/ST三重复合动力系统.首先基于Aspen Plus建立了SOFC/GT/ST的性能分析模型,分析了各主要参数对SOFC/GT/ST复合动力系统性能的影响规律.研究结果表明:复合动力系统尽量在高的压力,温度在900℃左右的条件下,有较高系统效率;较高的燃料利用率(Ut)有利于提高系统效率.本文研究成果为开拓研究高效SOFC/GT/ST复合动力系统提供了有益的参考.

  11. Laboratory Study on the Potential EOR Use of HPAM/VES Hybrid in High-Temperature and High-Salinity Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingwei Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer flooding represents one of the most efficient processes to enhance oil recovery, and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM is a widely used oil-displacement agent, but its poor thermal stability, salt tolerance, and mechanical degradation impeded its use in high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoirs. In this work, a novel viscoelastic surfactant, erucyl dimethyl amidobetaine (EDAB, with improved thermal stability and salinity tolerance, was complexed with HPAM to overcome the deficiencies of HPAM. The HPAM/EDAB hybrid samples were studied in comparison with HPAM and EDAB in synthetic brine regarding their rheological behaviors and core flooding experiments under simulated high-temperature and high-salinity oil reservoir conditions (T: 85°C; total dissolved solids: 32,868 mg/L; [Ca2+] + [Mg2+]: 873 mg/L. It was found that the HPAM/EDAB hybrids exhibited much better heat- and salinity-tolerance and long-term thermal stability than HPAM. Core flooding tests showed that the oil recovery factors of HPAM/EDAB hybrids are between those of HPAM and EDAB. These results are attributed to the synergistic effect between HPAM and EDAB in the hybrid.

  12. Experimental and molecular dynamics studies showed that CBP KIX mutation affects the stability of CBP:c-Myb complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoux, Anne; Jindal, Darren; Tamas, Tamara C; Lim, Benjamin W H; Pollard, Drake; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    The coactivators CBP (CREBBP) and its paralog p300 (EP300), two conserved multi-domain proteins in eukaryotic organisms, regulate gene expression in part by binding DNA-binding transcription factors. It was previously reported that the CBP/p300 KIX domain mutant (Y650A, A654Q, and Y658A) altered both c-Myb-dependent gene activation and repression, and that mice with these three point mutations had reduced numbers of platelets, B cells, T cells, and red blood cells. Here, our transient transfection assays demonstrated that mouse embryonic fibroblast cells containing the same mutations in the KIX domain and without a wild-type allele of either CBP or p300, showed decreased c-Myb-mediated transcription. Dr. Wright's group solved a 3-D structure of the mouse CBP:c-Myb complex using NMR. To take advantage of the experimental structure and function data and improved theoretical calculation methods, we performed MD simulations of CBP KIX, CBP KIX with the mutations, and c-Myb, as well as binding energy analysis for both the wild-type and mutant complexes. The binding between CBP and c-Myb is mainly mediated by a shallow hydrophobic groove in the center where the side-chain of Leu302 of c-Myb plays an essential role and two salt bridges at the two ends. We found that the KIX mutations slightly decreased stability of the CBP:c-Myb complex as demonstrated by higher binding energy calculated using either MM/PBSA or MM/GBSA methods. More specifically, the KIX mutations affected the two salt bridges between CBP and c-Myb (CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306; CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294). Our studies also revealed differing dynamics of the hydrogen bonds between CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306 and between CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294 caused by the CBP KIX mutations. In the wild-type CBP:c-Myb complex, both of the hydrogen bonds stayed relatively stable. In contrast, in the mutant CBP:c-Myb complex, hydrogen bonds between R646 and E306 showed an increasing trend followed by a decreasing trend, and hydrogen

  13. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  14. Structural studies show energy transfer within stabilized phycobilisomes independent of the mode of rod-core assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liron; Prado, Mindy; Arteni, Ana A; Elmlund, Dominika A; Blankenship, Robert E; Adir, Noam

    2014-03-01

    The major light harvesting complex in cyanobacteria and red algae is the phycobilisome (PBS), comprised of hundreds of seemingly similar chromophores, which are protein bound and assembled in a fashion that enables highly efficient uni-directional energy transfer to reaction centers. The PBS is comprised of a core containing 2-5 cylinders surrounded by 6-8 rods, and a number of models have been proposed describing the PBS structure. One of the most critical steps in the functionality of the PBS is energy transfer from the rod substructures to the core substructure. In this study we compare the structural and functional characteristics of high-phosphate stabilized PBS (the standard fashion of stabilization of isolated complexes) with cross-linked PBS in low ionic strength buffer from two cyanobacterial species, Thermosynechococcus vulcanus and Acaryochloris marina. We show that chemical cross-linking preserves efficient energy transfer from the phycocyanin containing rods to the allophycocyanin containing cores with fluorescent emission from the terminal emitters. However, this energy transfer is shown to exist in PBS complexes of different structures as characterized by determination of a 2.4Å structure by X-ray crystallography, single crystal confocal microscopy, mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained and cryogenically preserved complexes. We conclude that the PBS has intrinsic structural properties that enable efficient energy transfer from rod substructures to the core substructures without requiring a single unique structure. We discuss the significance of our observations on the functionality of the PBS in vivo.

  15. Transit Network Design: a Hybrid Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony Approach and a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A bus network design problem in a suburban area of Hong Kong is studied. The objective is to minimize the weighted sum of the number of transfers and the total travel time of passengers by restructuring bus routes and determining new frequencies. A mixed integer optimization model is developed and was solved by a Hybrid Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (HEABC. A case study was conducted to investigate the effects of different design parameters, including the total number of bus routes available, the maximum route duration within the study area and the maximum allowable number of bus routes that originated from each terminal. The model and results are useful for improving bus service policies.

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies of a pyrazole-thiazolidin-2,4-di-one hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaque, Md.; Avecilla, Fernando; Haque, Ashanul; Perwez, Ahmad; Khan, Md. Shahzad; Rizvi, M. Moshahid Alam

    2017-08-01

    The present work describes synthesis, characterization and biological evaluations of a hybrid compound 10 composed of two intriguing scaffolds pyrazole and thiazolidin-2,4-di-one. The title compound was obtained via multi-step reaction and characterized by a number of techniques (viz. IR, UV-Visible, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS) including X-ray crystallography. The structural and photophysical data of compound 10 were well supported by theoretical calculations performed at density functional (DFT) level. In-vitro anticancer studies on different human cancer cell lines indicated moderate to low activity of the compounds. The molecular target of the compound was predicted through in-silico studies. Finding of the studies are presented herein.

  17. Preliminary Study on The Potential of Hybrid Rice Husk with Kapok Fiber and Hybrid Rice Husk with Coconut Fiber as Landfill Liner Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azwa Muhamad Bashar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of agricultural waste in Malaysia namely rice husk (RH, kapok fiber (KF and coconut fiber (CF has been increasing over the years. This cause disposal problem and air pollution problem from burning activity. In line with the Malaysian Government Policy on the application of green technology concept through the 5R's practice, this agricultural waste has a potential to be commercialized as material for landfill liner. A factor that governs the workability of landfill liner materials is the permeability should be less than 1x10-9 m/s. Therefore, a low permeability material needs to be installed to minimise the environmental impact on the leachate intrusion into groundwater. A series of standard tests to find environmental and geotechnical properties such as atterberg limit test (liquid limit, plastic limit, compaction test, permeability test (falling head method, leachate characteristics and heavy metal test were conducted at various ratio of hybrid materials (KC:RH and KC: CF in the ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 respectively. Experimental results confirmed that the hydraulic conductivity of the mixture of KC:RH:KF in the ratio of 1:1:1 is 7.29 x 10-11 m/s was less than 10-9 m/s, satisfying the requirement for landfill liner materials. Heavy metal testing showed that this hybrid material (RH:KF and RH:CF for ratio 1:2 were able to reduce at least 50 % of the leachate contaminants. The proposed hybrid materials (RH:KF and RH:CF is a green material for the landfill (as it can improve heavy metal adsorption, increase the workability of the landfill by improving the conductivity of the conventional liners, minimizing manpower on site (no need expertise for installation and reduction in cost (in terms of the use of waste materials.

  18. Study of Micro Grid Hybrid System of Photovoltaic and Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitasari Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundant potentials of new and renewable energy that can be used for electricity generation, especially in rural areas which have no access for grid electricity yet. The energy resources can be from solar, water, biomass or biofuel. Many villagers still use diesel generators to produce electricity in their villages. It is considered expensive because fuel price in rural areas increases 2-3 times than the normal price due to transportation cost. Hybrid system using renewable energy resources is one of the solutions to produce electricity in affordable cost for rural area. The idea is to combine diesel generators and photovoltaic toproduce electricity. Moreover, the diesel engine fuel can be replaced with biofuel. This study will analyze the hybrid system in a small scale which consists of 1kWp photovoltaic and 3 kW diesel engine. Electric load power will vary. The system is controlled by a single bidirectional inverter whichconverts power from DC to AC and vice versa

  19. Hybrid System for Ex Vivo Hemorheological and Hemodynamic Analysis: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Eunseop; Jun Kang, Yang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-06-19

    Precise measurement of biophysical properties is important to understand the relation between these properties and the outbreak of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, a systematic measurement for these biophysical parameters under in vivo conditions is nearly impossible because of complex vessel shape and limited practicality. In vitro measurements can provide more biophysical information, but in vitro exposure changes hemorheological properties. In this study, a hybrid system composed of an ultrasound system and microfluidic device is proposed for monitoring hemorheological and hemodynamic properties under more reasonable experimental conditions. Biophysical properties including RBC aggregation, viscosity, velocity, and pressure of blood flows are simultaneously measured under various conditions to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of this measurement system. The proposed technique is applied to a rat extracorporeal loop which connects the aorta and jugular vein directly. As a result, the proposed system is found to measure biophysical parameters reasonably without blood collection from the rat and provided more detailed information. This hybrid system, combining ultrasound imaging and microfluidic techniques to ex vivo animal models, would be useful for monitoring the variations of biophysical properties induced by chemical agents. It can be used to understand the relation between biophysical parameters and CVDs.

  20. SWNT-DNA and SWNT-polyC hybrids: AFM study and computer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtsev, M V; Lytvyn, O S; Stepanian, S G; Leontiev, V S; Adamowicz, L; Karachevtsev, V A

    2008-03-01

    Hybrids of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) with fragmented single or double-stranded DNA (fss- or fds-DNA) or polyC were studied by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM) and computer modeling. It was found that fragments of the polymer wrap in several layers around the nanotube, forming a strand-like spindle. In contrast to the fss-DNA, the fds-DNA also forms compact structures near the tube surface due to the formation of self-assembly structures consisting of a few DNA fragments. The hybrids of SWNT with wrapped single-, double- or triple strands of the biopolymer were simulated, and it was shown that such structures are stable. To explain the reason of multi-layer polymeric coating of the nanotube surface, the energy of the intermolecular interactions between different components of polyC was calculated at the MP2/6-31++G** level as well as the interaction energy in the SWNT-cytosine complex.

  1. Hybrid density functional study on lattice vibration, thermodynamic properties, and chemical bonding of plutonium monocarbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yang; Bin, Tang; Tao, Gao; BingYun, Ao

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid density functional theory is employed to systematically investigate the structural, magnetic, vibrational, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monocarbide (PuC and PuC0.75). For comparison, the results obtained by DFT, DFT + U are also given. For PuC and PuC0.75, Fock-0.25 hybrid functional gives the best lattice constants and predicts the correct ground states of antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure. The calculated phonon spectra suggest that PuC and PuC0.75 are dynamically stable. Values of the Helmholtz free energy ΔF, internal energy ΔE, entropy S, and constant-volume specific heat C v of PuC and PuC0.75 are given. The results are in good agreement with available experimental or theoretical data. As for the chemical bonding nature, the difference charge densities, the partial densities of states and the Bader charge analysis suggest that the Pu-C bonds of PuC and PuC0.75 have a mixture of covalent character and ionic character. The effect of carbon vacancy on the chemical bonding is also discussed in detail. We expect that our study can provide some useful reference for further experimental research on the phonon density of states, thermodynamic properties of the plutonium monocarbide. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21371160 and 21401173).

  2. Study on development of active-passive rehabilitation system for upper limbs: Hybrid-PLEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Jin, Y; Fukushima, K; Akai, H; Furusho, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. Active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices can realize a lot of varieties of haptics. But they basically require high-cost safety system. On the other hand, passive-type (brake-based) haptic devices have inherent safety. However, the passive robot system has strong limitation on varieties of haptics. There are not sufficient evidences to clarify how the passive/active haptics effect to the rehabilitation of motor skills. In this paper, we developed an active-passive-switchable rehabilitation system with ER clutch/brake device named 'Hybrid-PLEMO' in order to address these problems. In this paper, basic structures and haptic control methods of the Hybrid-PLEMO are described.

  3. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  4. Breeding lines with neutral genes to improve fertility of intersubspecific hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Since the sterility neutral allele S5n has been incorporated into indica or japonica varieties, many intersubspecific hybrids have been released commercially. These hybrids showed high heterosis, but some of them exhibited unstable seed setting rate under low temperature.When the hybrids flowered at low temperature, the fertility of female gamete was normal but the pollen showed sterile. To improve the stability of fertility, the effect of pollen sterility neutral gene was studied for intersubspecific hybrids.

  5. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Cohen

    Full Text Available In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness.We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC, and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data.Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method. Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001, followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001 and pots (-0.44, p<0.01. Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001, followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05 and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06.As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the

  6. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  7. Designing, synthesis of selective and high-affinity chalcone-benzothiazole hybrids as Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase inhibitors: In vitro validation and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Avula, Srinivasa Rao; Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, L Ravithej; Balaramnavar, Vishal M; Gupta, Jyoti; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja; Rathaur, Sushma; Saxena, Anil K; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2015-10-20

    In our continuing search for safe and efficacious antifilarials, a series of novel chalcone-benzothiazole hybrids have been synthesized and evaluated for their Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) enzyme inhibition activity. Their selectivity towards BmTMK was studied and compared to the human TMK (HsTMK) by an in silico method. Out of seventeen derivatives, compounds 34 and 42 showed higher interactions with the BmTMK active site. MolDock docking model revealed the interactions of these two derivatives and the results corroborated well with their in vitro antifilarial activities. Our studies suggest that these hybrids are selective towards the BmTMK enzyme and may serve as potential therapeutic agents against filariasis.

  8. Study of lower hybrid current drive efficiency and its correlation with photon temperatures in the HT-7 tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, J.; Wan, B. N.; Lin, S. Y.; Shi, Y. J.; Ding, B. J.; Gong, X.; HT-7 Team

    2009-07-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) efficiency is a very important parameter. The experimental current drive efficiency is defined as η = IrfneR/PLH, where Irf is the current driven by the lower hybrid waves (LHWs), ne is the central line-average density, R is the major radius of the plasma and PLH is the injected LH wave power absorbed by the plasma through Landau damping. A study of current drive efficiency of LHWs in the HT-7 tokamak has been carried out in the parameter ranges: ne = (1.2-2.5) × 1019 m-3, Ip = (80-200) kA, Bt = 1.8 T, PLH = (188-532) kW in the limiter configuration. Current drive efficiency is investigated through a simple correlation with photon temperature and normalized intensity of fast electron bremstrahlung emission, which is, in the first approximation, proportional to the averaged velocity and population of the fast electrons. The plasma current scanning experiment shows that CD efficiency increase is due to the increase in both the photon temperature and the population of the fast electrons generated by LHWs. The density scanning experiment shows that as the plasma density is increased, an increment in CD efficiency along with the increase in the population of fast electrons is observed. The slowing down through the collisions with bulk electrons is mainly responsible for the decreased photon temperature during the plasma density scan. These experiments strongly suggest the dominant role of the population of fast electrons generated by LHCD and the generation of the current carried by fast electrons.

  9. Stuttering Intervention in Three Service Delivery Models (Direct, Hybrid, and Telepractice: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. Valentine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed outcomes in stuttering intervention across three service delivery models: direct, hybrid, and telepractice for two 11-year old children who stutter. The goal of the study was to investigate whether short-term goals were maintained through the telepractice sessions. The Stuttering Severity Instrument, Fourth Edition (SSI-4 was administered to each child before and after each intervention period and weekly fluency samples (percentage of stuttered syllables in a monologue were obtained in each of the 10-week intervention periods. In addition, the Communication Attitudes Test-Revised was used to assess the children’s attitudes toward speaking. Following the telepractice period, parents and children completed a questionnaire concerning the therapy experience via telepractice. Both children continued to improve fluency as measured by the weekly fluency samples. SSI-4 severity ratings improved for one child and remained consistent for the other. These outcomes appear to demonstrate that telepractice is viable for improving and maintaining fluency.

  10. Using hybrid associative classifier with translation (HACT for studying imbalanced data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cleofas Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Class imbalance may reduce the classifier performance in several recognition pattern problems. Such negative effect is more notable with least represented class (minority class Patterns. A strategy for handling this problem consisted of treating the classes included in this problem separately (majority and minority classes to balance the data sets (DS. This paper has studied high sensitivity to class imbalance shown by an associative model of classification: hybrid associative classifier with translation (HACT; imbalanced DS impact on associative model performance was studied. The convenience of using sub-sampling methods for decreasing imbalanced negative effects on associative memories was analysed. This proposal’s feasibility was based on experimental results obtained from eleven real-world datasets.

  11. A Case Study of a Hybrid Parallel 3D Surface Rendering Graphics Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the design strategy used inbuilding a graphics computer, for drawing very complex 3Dgeometric surfaces. The goal is to build a PC based computer systemcapable of handling surfaces built from about 2 million triangles, andto be able to render a perspective view...... of these on a computer displayat interactive frame rates, i.e. processing around 50 milliontriangles per second. The paper presents a hardware/softwarearchitecture called HPGA (Hybrid Parallel Graphics Architecture) whichis likely to be able to carry out this task. The case study focuses ontechniques to increase...... the clock frequency as well as the parallelismof the system. This paper focuses on the back-end graphics pipeline,which is responsible for rasterizing triangles.%with a practically linear increase in performance. A pure software implementation of the proposed architecture iscurrently able to process 300...

  12. A study on flow distribution for integrated hybrid actuator by analysis of reed valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jang Mi; Kang, Seung Hwan; Ko, Han Seo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Nam Seo; Li, Yong Zhe [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many studies have been conducted recently on an integrated hybrid actuator due to the increasing need for unmanned aircraft and guided weapons. In this study, flow distribution was analyzed for a reed valve which was used for flow regulation to improve the performance of the actuator. By using a Fluid structural interaction (FSI) technique with Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) having a moving mesh, numerical analysis was performed according to the thickness, shape and driving frequency of the reed valve. From the calculated results, the maximum performance of the reed valve was found at the valve thickness of 0.15 mm and the driving frequency of 250 Hz for a no-load state. The optimum thickness and shape for the valve for each driving frequency were also realized.

  13. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment: design studies based on superconducting and hybrid toroidal field coils. Design overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    This document is a design overview that describes the scoping studies and preconceptual design effort performed in FY 1983 on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) class of device. These studies focussed on devices with all-superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and on devices with superconducting TF coils supplemented with copper TF coil inserts located in the bore of the TF coils in the shield region. Each class of device is designed to satisfy the mission of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn. Typical design parameters are: major radius = 3.75 m, minor radius = 1.0 m, field on axis = 4.5 T, plasma current = 7.0 MA. These designs relay on lower hybrid (LHRH) current rampup and heating to ignition using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). A pumped limiter has been assumed for impurity control. The present document is a design overview; a more detailed design description is contained in a companion document.

  14. Rice fertility affected by lower temperature in intersubspecific hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Intersubspecific hybrids of indica-japonica show strong heterosis on yield,and the partial sterility in F1 hybrids can be mitigated by using the wide-compatibility gene, S5n. In the past decade, such hybrids showed normal fertility and high level of heterosis on grain yield, but some of them showed unstable seed-setting rate at low temperature. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of low temperature on fertility of intersubspecific hybrids and to investigate the male gamete abortion at some markers.

  15. Structure and properties of metal-exchanged zeolites studied using gradient-corrected and hybrid functionals. III. Energetics and vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltl, Florian; Hafner, Jürgen

    2012-02-14

    The influence of the exchange-correlation functional (semilocal gradient corrected or hybrid functional) on density-functional studies of the adsorption of CO and NO in Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite has been investigated, extending the studies of the structural and electronic properties of these materials [F. Göltl and J. Hafner, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064501 (2012); 136, 064502 (2012)] and including for comparison carbonyls and nitrosyls of Cu and Co. Hybrid functionals predict much lower adsorption energies than conventional semilocal functionals, in better agreement with experiment as far as data are available for comparison. The calculated adsorption energies show a strong linear correlation with the stability of the cation sites. For Cu(I)-chabazite the calculated adsorption energies span almost the interval between the adsorption energies calculated for pure neutral and positively charged Cu-carbonyls and nitrosyls. For divalent Cu(II) and Co(II) the adsorption energies at cations in chabazite are much lower than the metal-molecule binding energies in the free carbonyls or nitrosyls, especially for the most stable cation location in a six-membered ring of the chabazite structure. For the stretching modes of adsorbed CO only hybrid functionals reproduce the blueshift of the frequency reported for all Cu(I)- and Co(II)-zeolites. For Cu(II)-chabazite both types of functionals predict a blueshift, the larger value calculated with hybrid functionals being in better agreement with observation. For NO adsorbed on Cu(I)-chabazite all functionals produce a redshift, the smaller value derived with hybrid functionals being in better agreement with experiment. For NO adsorbed in Cu(II)- and Co(II)-chabazite gradient-corrected functionals produce the best agreement with experiment for cations located in a six-membered ring. Semilocal functionals tend to underestimate the frequencies, while hybrid functionals tend to overestimate. The decisive factors determining the

  16. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles André

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies.

  17. Study of Antibacterial Efficacy of Hybrid Chitosan-Silver Nanoparticles for Prevention of Specific Biofilm and Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs deposited alternatively layer by layer (LBL on chitosan polymer in the form of a thin film over a quartz plate and stainless steel strip has been studied. An eight-bilayer chitosan/silver (Cs/Ag8 hybrid was prepared having a known concentration of silver. Techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES, and atomic force microscopy (AFM were carried out to understand and elucidate the physical nature of the film. Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli, were used as a test sample in saline solution for antibacterial studies. The growth inhibition at different intervals of contact time and, more importantly, the antibacterial properties of the hybrid film on repeated cycling in saline solution have been demonstrated. AFM studies are carried out for the first time on the microbe to know the morphological changes affected by the hybrid film. The hybrid films on aging (3 months are found to be as bioactive as before. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated good biocompatibility. The hybrid can be a promising bioactive material for the prevention of biofilms specific to E. coli and in purification of water for safe drinking.

  18. First Principles Study on the Electronic Structure and Interface Stability of Hybrid Silicene/Fluorosilicene Nanoribbons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Q G; Zhang, J F; Ao, Z M; Wu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The interface stability of hybrid silicene/fluorosilicene nanoribbons (SFNRs) has been investigated by using density functional theory calculations, where fluorosilicene is the fully fluorinated silicene...

  19. Meiotic study of Zea mays ssp. mays (2n = 40) x Tripsacum dactyloides (2 n = 72) hybrid and its progeny

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, María del Carmen; García, María Dina; Chorzempa, Silvia Elena

    2006-01-01

    Maize (2n = 40) x Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 72) F1 hybrid plants (2n = 56) were obtained by embryo rescue and induction of somatic embryogenesis/organogenesis. Hybrid plants showed Tripsacum-like phenotypes, tolerance to stresses such as NaCl salinity and low temperatures. The more frequent meiotic configurations were 28II (24%), 24II + 2IV (19%) and 26II + 1IV (12%), with an average per cell of 0.55I + 25.18II + 1.19IV. Significant differences between plants were not observed. Pollen ferti...

  20. Entertainment Bias: A Case Study of the Tonight Show and the California Gubernatorial Recall Election in 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Hite, Katherine Blake

    2005-01-01

    This thesis looks at entertainment bias, specifically bias on the Tonight Show with Jay Leno towards Arnold Schwarzenegger during the time leading up to the California recall election in 2003. Entertainment media possess a unique ability to communicate messages to an unguarded audience, which gives them the potential to have more of a political impact than traditional news media. The basic theory is that Jay Leno showed political bias in his monologues towards his friend and gubernatorial c...

  1. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  2. Hybrid aerogels and bioactive aerogels under uniaxial compression: an in situ SAXS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquivias, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure of hybrid organic/inorganic aerogels is composed by an inorganic phase covalently bonded to an organic chain forming a copolymer. Conventional hybrid aerogels were studied as well as bioactive hybrid aerogels, that is, aerogels with a calcium active phase added. In this work, the relationship between mechanical response and nanostructure was studied, using a specifically designed sample-holder for in situ uniaxial compression obtaining at the same time the small-angle X-ray pattern from synchrotron radiation (SAXS. Structural elements can be described as a particulated silica core surrounded by the organic chains. These chains are compressed on the direction parallel to the load, and a relationship between macroscopic uniaxial compression and particle and pore deformations can be established.

    La compleja estructura de los aerogeles híbridos orgánico/inorgánicos está compuesta por una fase inorgánica de sílice, unida mediante enlaces covalentes a una red de cadenas orgánicas. Se han estudiado composites híbridos convencionales y bioactivos, esto es, con una fase activa de calcio añadida. En este trabajo se ha investigado la relación entre la respuesta mecánica y la nanoestructura, con ayuda de un portamuestras específicamente diseñado para el estudio in situ de muestras bajo compresión uniaxial, a la vez que se obtiene el espectro de rayos-X a bajo-ángulo de radiación sincrotrón (SAXS. Los elementos estructurales se pueden describir como núcleos particulados de sílice rodeados de las cadenas orgánicas. Estas, se comprimen en la dirección paralela a la carga pudiéndose establecer una relación entre la compresión uniaxial macroscópica y la deformación de las partículas y poros que forman la estructura.

  3. Comparative Embryological Studies on Infertility of Interspecific Hybridizations Between Oryza sativa with Different Ploidy Levels and O.officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xue-lin; LU Yong-gen; LIU Xiang-dong; LI Jin-quan; ZHAO Xing-juan

    2009-01-01

    As maternal parents, diploid (L202-2x) and autotetraploid (L202-4x) of Oryza sativa cv. L202 were crossed with O. officinalis. Embryo development and fertilization in these two crosses were comparatively studied. There were no mature hybrid seeds obtained because all the hybridized spikelets died 30 days after pollination. The main reasons for no seed set were abnormal fertilization and development of the embryos and endosperms in the interspecific hybrids. There were double- fertilization, egg cell single-fertilization and non-fertilization in these crosses. Although 59.45% and 54.87% of hybrid embryos produced in the crosses of L202-2x/O. officinalis and L202-4x/O. officinalis, respectively, hybrid embryos ceased to develop or degenerated and plenty of free endosperm nuclei were in disaggregating state without developing cellular endosperms three days after pollination. Besides, some embryological differences in these two crosses were found, that is, the rate of double-fertilization and total rate of double- and single-fertilization in L202-2x/O. officinalis were higher than those in L202-4x/O. officinalis. The embryo and endosperm of hybrids developed more slowly, and embryos and free endosperm nuclei were more severely degenerated in L202-4x/O. officinalis than in L202-2x/O. officinalis. Five days after pollination, a few of embryos in L202-2x/O. officinalis developed into pear-shaped ones, however, embryos in L202-4x/O. officinalis were all degenerated. Therefore, it is more difficult to obtain interspecific hybrids by wide crosses between autotetraploid of O. sativa and O. officinalis.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy studies of fine-needle aspiration show wide variation in reporting of study population characteristics: implications for external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert L; Narra, Krishna K; Witt, Benjamin L; Factor, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Study comparisons rest on the assessment of applicability or external validity. Population characteristics are an important component of external validity and, although there has been a heightened awareness of deficiencies in reporting in diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) studies, the reporting of populations in DTA studies has not been investigated. To assess the quality of reporting of population descriptions in DTA studies for fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Literature survey of common population parameters and usage patterns in FNAC DTA studies. We randomly selected 20 FNAC DTA studies in 4 categories (salivary glands, lung, thyroid, and pancreas) and determined the frequency of parameter usage. Studies showed considerable variability in reporting patterns. On average, studies reported 2 to 4 parameters to describe study populations. Age, sex, and lesion size were most frequently reported. Sixteen percent of studies did not provide any population description. Population parameters were used to describe the sample population more frequently than to describe the selection process (P = .001). There were significant differences in the number of parameters specified by anatomic site (P = .001). Only 21% of studies provided a flow diagram. Thirty-three percent of studies mentioned the target population. Studies show considerable variability in the description of sample populations and the population selection process. Studies often fail to provide flow diagrams or to provide a clear statement of the research problem. There is considerable opportunity for studies to improve both descriptions of sample populations and the process used to select them.

  5. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study on the structural relaxation of phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy hybrids at different aging temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia-Wen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Ma, Chen-Chi M., E-mail: ccma@che.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tan, Chung-Sung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Li, Hsun-Tien [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The cured network conformations and structural relaxation behaviours of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) modified with phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy (PMSE) at different aging temperatures were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The DMA results revealed that the cured PMSE network can insert into the cured DGEBA network to form interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 produced using DGEBA, PMSE, and MHHPA at a ratio of 0.6:0.4:1 by equivalent weight were studied using PALS at 150 °C and 55 °C. The aging-induced free volume relaxation parameters of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 at 150 °C and 55 °C were investigated using the double additive exponential model and the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts exponential model. For double additive exponential model, only one relaxation time (ζ) of 584.5 h was found at 150 °C; By contrast, there were two separate relaxation times of 37.4 h (ζ{sub 1}) and 753.6 h (ζ{sub 2}) at 55 °C. The ζ{sub 1} of the IPNs hybrid can be attributed to the network relaxation of PMSE, and the ζ{sub 2} can be attributed to the network relaxation of DGEBA at 55 °C. The results suggested the double additive exponential model can effectively predict DGEBA–PMSE hybrid relaxation behaviours. - Highlights: • The cured network conformations of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using DMA. • The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using PALS. • The cured DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). • PALS studies provided a quantitative demonstration of relaxation behaviours. • Double additive exponential model effectively predicted the relaxation times of hybrids.

  6. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  7. Optimal Hybrid Renewable Airport Power System: Empirical Study on Incheon International Airport, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to global energy problems (e.g., the oil crisis, the Fukushima accident, the Paris Agreement, the South Korean government has executed a strict renewable energy plan to decrease the country’s dependence on fossil fuel. Public facilities, such as international airports, which use substantial amounts of electricity, are the most in need of government regulation. In this study, we attempt to determine the optimal hybrid electricity generation system for South Korea’s largest airport: Incheon International Airport. In the analysis, we use three scenarios: the current load, 120% of the current load, and 140% of the current load, according to the plan to expand Incheon International Airport. According to the COE (cost of electricity and the NPC (net present cost of the result, it is economically feasible to completely cover the potential increase in the electric load with PV power. Government policy implications and limitations are discussed.

  8. A hybrid density functional study on the electron and hole trap states in anatase titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takenori; Ohno, Takahisa

    2012-01-14

    We present a theoretical study on electron and hole trap states in the bulk and (001) surface of anatase titanium dioxide using screened hybrid density functional calculations. In both the bulk and surface, calculations suggest that the neutral and ionized oxygen vacancies are possible electron traps. The doubly ionized oxygen vacancy is the most stable in the bulk, and is a candidate for a shallow donor in colorless anatase crystals. The hole trap states are localized at oxygen anions in both the bulk and surface. The self-trapped electron centered at a titanium cation cannot be produced in the bulk, but can be formed at the surface. The electron trap level at the surface oxygen vacancy is consistent with observations by photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical absorptions and luminescence in UV-irradiated anatase nanoparticles are found to come from the surface self-trapped hole and the surface oxygen vacancy.

  9. Oxygen defects in amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: A hybrid functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhendong, E-mail: zhendong.guo@epfl.ch; Ambrosio, Francesco; Pasquarello, Alfredo [Chaire de Simulation à l' Echelle Atomique (CSEA), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-08-08

    The electronic properties of the oxygen vacancy and interstitial in amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are studied via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and hybrid functional calculations. Our results indicate that these defects do not occur in amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, due to structural rearrangements which assimilate the defect structure and cause a delocalization of the associated defect levels. The imbalance of oxygen leads to a nonstoichiometric compound in which the oxygen occurs in the form of O{sup 2–} ions. Intrinsic oxygen defects are found to be unable to trap excess electrons. For low Fermi energies, the formation of peroxy linkages is found to be favored leading to the capture of holes. The relative +2/0 defect levels occur at 2.5 eV from the valence band.

  10. Femtosecond spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer in MDMO-PPV:ZnO hybrid bulk heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchetto, E.; De Cola, L. [Institute of Physics, University of Muenster, Mendelstrasse 7, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Slooff, H. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Zhang, H. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129, 1018 WS Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    The photophysics of charge carriers (polaron) in MDMO-PPV:ZnO hybrid bulk heterojunction is studied at 80 K by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A short-lived positive polaron is observed in the blend phase in MDMO-PPV:ZnO blend films with a weight ratio of 1:1 and 1:2. Further increase of ZnO weight ratio results in a significant quenching of the polaron absorption. The results are discussed in the concept that both pristine polymer and MDMO-PPV:ZnO blend phases coexist in the blend films. It is concluded that a polaron is photogenerated within the excitation laser pulse (<100 fs) and electron transfer efficiency is highest in blend films 1:1 and 1:2. Lack of the interfacial area and faster back electron transfer process are discussed to be responsible for the quenching of the electron transfer efficiency in blend film 1:3.

  11. NIH-funded study shows increased prostate cancer risk from vitamin E supplements | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men who took 400 international units (I.U.) of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,000 men, there were 76 prostate cancers in men who took only vitamin E supplements, vs. |

  12. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix B: trade-off studies. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-06-11

    Trade-off studies of Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) design elements were performed to identify the most promising design concept in terms of achievable petroleum savings. The activities in these studies are described. The results are presented as preliminary NTHV body design, expected fuel consumption as a function of vehicle speed, engine requirements, battery requirements, and vehicle reliability and cost. (LCL)

  13. Plant hybrid zones affect biodiversity: Tools for a genetic-based understanding of community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitham, T.G.; Martinsen, G.D.; Keim, P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Floate, K.D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada); Dungey, H.S. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)]|[Queensland Forest Research Inst., Gympie, Queensland (Australia); Potts, B.M. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    1999-03-01

    Plant hybrid zones are dynamic centers of ecological and evolutionary processes for plants and their associated communities. Studies in the wild and in gardens with synthetic crosses showed that hybrid eucalypts supports the greatest species richness and abundances of insect and fungal taxa. In an updated review of 152 case studies of taxa associated with diverse hybridizing systems, there were 43 (28%) cases of hybrids being more susceptible than their parent species, 7 (5%) resistant, 35 (23%) additive, 35 (23%) dominant, and 32 (21%) showed no response to hybridization. Thus, most taxa respond to hybrids in ways that result in equal or greater abundance, and hybrids tend to accumulate the taxa of their parent species. These studies suggest that genetic-based plant traits affect the distribution of many species and that the variation in hybrids can be used as tools to examine the genetic components of community structure and biodiversity.

  14. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  15. Causal-Comparative Study Analyzing Student Success in Hybrid Anatomy and Physiology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline Anita

    2013-01-01

    In the biological sciences, higher student success levels are achieved in traditionally formatted, face-to-face coursework than in hybrid courses. The methodologies used to combine hybrid and in-person elements to the course need to be applied to the biological sciences to emulate the success seen in the traditional courses since the number of…

  16. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  17. Cross section measurements of the yield of spallation reactions related to the study of hybrid reactor systems; Measures de sections efficaces de production de produits de reactions en rapport avec l`etude de systemes de reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Stephan, C. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    1999-11-01

    Studies presently developed on the design of hybrid systems need the knowledge of spallation products and their production rate. To obtain this information we have performed cross-section measurements using the inverse kinematical method. (authors) 2 figs.

  18. Identification of two organic bands showing different chemical composition within the skeleton of Porites lutea: a confocal Raman microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M.; Nehrke, G.

    2012-07-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy mapping was used to investigate the organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines showed an elemental composition that differed from the incremental growth layers. The position and shape of the latter growth lines resemble either denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former spines) or former skeletal surfaces. We hypothesize that these lines are involved in the three-dimensional arrangement of skeletal elements and represent the outer skeletal surface before another growth cycle of elongation, infilling and thickening of skeletal components continues. We show that high spatial resolution mapping can significantly improve our understanding of skeletal growth patterns in coral skeletons.

  19. The TVT Glass Pavilion: Theoretical Study on a Highly Transparent Building Made with Long-Spanned TVT Portals Braced with Hybrid Glass-Steel Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Froli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary buildings, the architectural demand for a complete dematerialisation of load bearing structures can be satisfied only in limited cases with the exclusive structural use of glass. Otherwise, for challenging applications such as long spanned or high-rise structures, the use of hybrid glass-steel systems is mandatory. Glass, fragile but highly compressive resistant, is associated with steel, ductile and tensile resistant. The present research shows the feasibility study for a fully glazed pavilion made of six TVT (Travi Vitree Tensegrity portal frames longitudinally braced by pre-stressed hybrid glass panels. The frames are about 20 m in span and 8 m in height. Appropriate multiscalar FEM numerical analyses, calibrated on the collapse tests performed on previous TVT large-scale prototypes, stated that the structural performance would be able to withstand heavy static and dynamic loads and stated the observance of the Fail-Safe Design principles.

  20. Metal-insulator transition at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface revisited: A hybrid functional study

    KAUST Repository

    Cossu, Fabrizio

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the electronic properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface using density functional theory. In contrast to previous studies, which relied on (semi-)local functionals and the GGA+U method, we here use a recently developed hybrid functional to determine the electronic structure. This approach offers the distinct advantage of accessing both the metallic and insulating multilayers on a parameter-free equal footing. As compared to calculations based on semilocal GGA functionals, our hybrid functional calculations lead to a considerably increased band gap for the insulating systems. The details of the electronic structure show substantial deviations from those obtained by GGA calculations. This casts severe doubts on all previous results based on semilocal functionals. In particular, corrections using rigid band shifts (“scissors operator”) cannot lead to valid results.

  1. Commonly studied polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes show only minor effects on mortality and related risk factors in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, Serena; Krabbe, Karen S; Thinggaard, Mikael;

    2010-01-01

    , in nonagenarian men, the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory activity at IL18 and IL10 loci is protective against cognitive decline. In conclusion, in this large study with virtually complete follow-up, commonly studied polymorphisms in cytokine genes do not have a major impact on late-life survival...

  2. Intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma showing mixed classic and proximal-type features: report of 2 cases, with immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic INI-1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Kaygusuz, Gulsah; Bahrami, Armita; Raimondi, Susana C; Kilicarslan, Kasim; Yildiz, Yusuf; Folpe, Andrew L

    2011-06-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma, a rare sarcoma with epithelial differentiation, most often occurs in the distal extremities; however, it may occur in essentially any location. With the recent recognition that the loss of expression of the tumor-suppressor gene INI-1 may be associated with epithelioid sarcoma, it has become clear that epithelioid sarcoma may occur in previously unsuspected locations such as bone. Only 2 cases of intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma have been previously reported. We retrieved 2 intra-articular cases coded as epithelioid sarcoma from our archives. Both expressed cytokeratins (AE1/AE3 and OSCAR), CD34, vimentin, and epithelial membrane antigen, and showed complete loss of expression of INI-1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections by using a laboratory-developed dual-color probe containing INI1 (CTD-2511E13 and CTD-2034E7) (22q11.2) (OR) and PANX2 (RPCI3-402G11) (22q13.33) (GR) probes as control. Both cases occurred in a clearly intra-articular location in the knee. Case 1 was that of a 19-year-old man with a long-standing history of pain and limited joint function. This patient was disease free after amputation. Case 2 was that of a 60-year-old woman. Follow-up information available for this patient showed bilateral subpleural metastases. Morphologically, case 1 showed features of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, whereas case 2 showed mixed features of classic and proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry showed complete loss of INI-1 protein in both cases; fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses were negative for INI-1 gene deletion. Herein, we have reported 2 cases of intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma, showing morphologic and immunohistochemical features identical to those of epithelioid sarcoma in conventional locations, including loss of INI-1 expression. Intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma should be distinguished from malignant pigmented villonodular synovitis and

  3. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  4. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  5. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  6. Speciation and reduced hybrid female fertility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taichi A; Nachman, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In mammals, intrinsic postzygotic isolation has been well studied in males but has been less studied in females, despite the fact that female gametogenesis and pregnancy provide arenas for hybrid sterility or inviability that are absent in males. Here, we asked whether inviability or sterility is observed in female hybrids of Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. musculus, taxa which hybridize in nature and for which male sterility has been well characterized. We looked for parent-of-origin growth phenotypes by measuring adult body weights in F1 hybrids. We evaluated hybrid female fertility by crossing F1 females to a tester male and comparing multiple reproductive parameters between intrasubspecific controls and intersubspecific hybrids. Hybrid females showed no evidence of parent-of-origin overgrowth or undergrowth, providing no evidence for reduced viability. However, hybrid females had smaller litter sizes, reduced embryo survival, fewer ovulations, and fewer small follicles relative to controls. Significant variation in reproductive parameters was seen among different hybrid genotypes, suggesting that hybrid incompatibilities are polymorphic within subspecies. Differences in reproductive phenotypes in reciprocal genotypes were observed and are consistent with cyto-nuclear incompatibilities or incompatibilities involving genomic imprinting. These findings highlight the potential importance of reduced hybrid female fertility in the early stages of speciation.

  7. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  8. Patients with chronic pain after abdominal surgery show less preoperative endogenous pain inhibition and more postoperative hyperalgesia: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Schreyer, T.; Scheffer, G.J.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is common and undesirable after surgery. Progression from acute to chronic pain involves altered pain processing. The authors studied relationships between presence of chronic pain versus preoperative descending pain control (diffuse noxious inhibitory controls; DNICs) and postoperative

  9. Processing and study of the wear and friction behaviour of discrete graded Cu hybrid composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Ram Prabhu

    2015-06-01

    Discrete functionally graded composites are the novel composites which have high potential in the brake friction material applications. In this paper, we have prepared discrete functional graded Cu/10%SiC/20%graphite(Gr)/10%boron nitride (h-BN) hybrid composites by the layer stacking compaction and pressure sintering techniques.We have considered two types of composites based on h-BN particle sizes. The size ranges of h-BN used were 140–180 and 3–25 m. The friction and wear properties of the composites were evaluated in a laboratory scale brake inertial dynamometer at low (5, 10 m s−1) and high sliding speeds (30, 35 m s−1) and, high braking load (2000 N) conditions. In addition, we have performed microstructure characterization, density, hardness and flexural strength measurements.Wear surface morphology studies were also carried out using stereoscope and scanning electron microscope. Our experiments lead to the following important results: (1) the large size h-BN particle improves the densification of the hybridized composite layer and provides higher wear resistance and better braking performance at all sliding speeds, (2) the wear loss (by mass) and the stopping distance/time increase with sliding speeds due to the increase in the braking energy, (3) at low sliding speeds (5, 10 m s−1), abrasive wear is the main wear mechanism, whereas many different wear mechanisms (delamination, oxidation, abrasive) are cooccuring at higher sliding speeds (30, 35 m s−1), (4) the mechanical properties (flexural strength and surface hardness) of composites are not affected by the h-BN particle size, (5) the incorporation of copper layer in the discrete layer structure deflects and arrests the crack at the copper/composite layer interface, thus improving the fracture resistance in addition to improving the bulk thermal conductivity.

  10. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  11. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  12. Performance study of sugar-yeast-ethanol bio-hybrid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Mackie, David M.; Benyamin, Marcus; Ganguli, Rahul; Sumner, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Renewable alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons for energy generation are of general interest for a variety of political, economic, environmental, and practical reasons. In particular, energy from biomass has many advantages, including safety, sustainability, and the ability to be scavenged from native ecosystems or from waste streams. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can take advantage of microorganism metabolism to efficiently use sugar and other biomolecules as fuel, but are limited by low power densities. In contrast, direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) take advantage of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) to generate electricity from alcohols at much higher power densities. Here, we investigate a novel bio-hybrid fuel cell design prepared using commercial off-the-shelf DAFCs. In the bio-hybrid fuel cells, biomass such as sugar is fermented by yeast to ethanol, which can be used to fuel a DAFC. A separation membrane between the fermentation and the DAFC is used to purify the fermentate while avoiding any parasitic power losses. However, shifting the DAFCs from pure alcohol-water solutions to filtered fermented media introduces complications related to how the starting materials, fermentation byproducts, and DAFC waste products affect both the fermentation and the long-term DAFC performance. This study examines the impact of separation membrane pore size, fermentation/fuel cell byproducts, alcohol and salt concentrations, and load resistance on fuel cell performance. Under optimized conditions, the performance obtained is comparable to that of a similar DAFC run with a pure alcohol-water mixture. Additionally, the modified DAFC can provide useable amounts of power for weeks.

  13. The prospects for hybrid electric vehicles, 2005-2020 : results of a Delphi Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H. K.; Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-22

    The introduction of Toyota's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Prius, in Japan has generated considerable interest in HEV technology among US automotive experts. In a follow-up survey to Argonne National Laboratory's two-stage Delphi Study on electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) during 1994-1996, Argonne researchers gathered the latest opinions of automotive experts on the future ''top-selling'' HEV attributes and costs. The experts predicted that HEVs would have a spark-ignition gasoline engine as a power plant in 2005 and a fuel cell power plant by 2020. The projected 2020 fuel shares were about equal for gasoline and hydrogen, with methanol a distant third. In 2020, HEVs are predicted to have series-drive, moderate battery-alone range and cost significantly more than conventional vehicles (CVs). The HEV is projected to cost 66% more than a $20,000 CV initially and 33% more by 2020. Survey respondents view batteries as the component that contributes the most to the HEV cost increment. The mean projection for battery-alone range is 49 km in 2005, 70 km in 2010, and 92 km in 2020. Responding to a question relating to their personal vision of the most desirable HEV and its likely characteristics when introduced in the US market in the next decade, the experts predicted their ''vision'' HEV to have attributes very similar to those of the ''top-selling'' HEV. However, the ''vision'' HEV would cost significantly less. The experts projected attributes of three leading batteries for HEVs and projected acceleration times on battery power alone. The resulting battery packs are evaluated, and their initial and replacement costs are analyzed. These and several other opinions are summarized.

  14. Novel triazole hybrids of myrrhanone C, a natural polypodane triterpene: Synthesis, cytotoxic activity and cell based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Madasu; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Ramakrishna, Sistla; Mallavadhani, Uppuluri Venkata

    2016-05-23

    The 3-keto functionality in ring A of myrrhanone C, a natural bicyclic triterpene has been chemically modified and synthesized 27 novel triazole hybrids belonging to two different series in very good to excellent yields (66-83%). The synthesized compounds were thoroughly characterized by their spectroscopic data (IR, (1)H&(13)C NMR, HRMS). All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against a panel of five human cancer cell lines by employing MTT assay using doxorubicin as the standard. In general the synthesized compounds showed anticancer activity against almost all the cell lines screened. Interestingly, the oxime based triazoles (4a-4n) showed higher activity than the benzylidene triazoles (6a-6m). Most significantly compound 4a showed potent activity against all the tested cell lines, especially against lung cancer (A-549) with an IC 50 of 6.16 μm. In view of their significant activity against lung cancer cell lines, compounds 4a and 4l were subjected to detailed biological studies, which revealed that they arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase and induced cell death by apoptosis that was further confirmed by Hoechst staining, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and Annexin V-FITC assay. These compounds will serve as lead molecules in the development of potent anticancer drug candidates especially for lung cancer.

  15. Pilot Study to Show the Feasibility of High-Resolution Sagittal Ultrasound Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Richard W; Conway, William F; Ackerman, Susan J; Gonzales, Theresa S; Kheyfits, Valeriy; Cronan, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    To show the feasibility of acquiring high-resolution sagittal ultrasound (US) images of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We used commercially available US probes to assess the TMJ via a transoral soft tissue window to acquire sagittal images. Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical correlation were compared with the US findings by the consensus assessment of 2 of the senior investigators. The sample was composed of 10 TMJs (6 participants) with an age range of 34 to 71 years and a male-female ratio of 3:1. The condyle and subcondylar surface were visible in 10 of 10 joints (100%), the disc in 7 of 10 joints (70%), and the pterygoid muscles in 6 of 10 joints (60%). In the 5 joints with magnetic resonance correlation, disc position and configuration were confirmed in all cases. We show the first sagittal transoral sonograms of the TMJ disc and associated joint components. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A hybrid analytical network process and fuzzy goal programming for supplier selection: A case study of auto part maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Zande Hesami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present a hybrid model to select auto part suppliers. The proposed method of this paper uses factor analysis to find the most influencing factors on part maker selection and the results are validated using different statistical tests such as Cronbach's Alpha and Kaiser-Meyer.The hybrid model uses analytical network process to rank different part maker suppliers and fuzzy goal programming to choose the appropriate alternative among various choices. The implementation of the proposed model of this paper is used for a case study of real-world problem and the results are discussed.

  17. Candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility show enriched association within a large genome-wide association study for BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Zhao, Jing Hua; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Dudbridge, Frank; Loos, Ruth J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), hundreds of candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility had been identified through a variety of approaches. We examined whether those obesity candidate genes are enriched for associations with body mass index (BMI) compared with non-candidate genes by using data from a large-scale GWAS. A thorough literature search identified 547 candidate genes for obesity-susceptibility based on evidence from animal studies, Mendelian syndromes, linkage studies, genetic association studies and expression studies. Genomic regions were defined to include the genes ±10 kb of flanking sequence around candidate and non-candidate genes. We used summary statistics publicly available from the discovery stage of the genome-wide meta-analysis for BMI performed by the genetic investigation of anthropometric traits consortium in 123 564 individuals. Hypergeometric, rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment analysis tests were used to test for the enrichment of association in candidate compared with non-candidate genes. The hypergeometric test of enrichment was not significant at the 5% P-value quantile (P = 0.35), but was nominally significant at the 25% quantile (P = 0.015). The rank tail-strength and gene-set enrichment tests were nominally significant for the full set of genes and borderline significant for the subset without SNPs at P < 10−7. Taken together, the observed evidence for enrichment suggests that the candidate gene approach retains some value. However, the degree of enrichment is small despite the extensive number of candidate genes and the large sample size. Studies that focus on candidate genes have only slightly increased chances of detecting associations, and are likely to miss many true effects in non-candidate genes, at least for obesity-related traits. PMID:22791748

  18. A screened hybrid density functional study on energetic complexes: cobalt, nickel and copper carbohydrazide perchlorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huisheng; Zhang, Tonglai; Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Liqiong

    2010-07-15

    The molecular geometry, electronic structure, infrared spectra and thermochemical properties of cobalt and nickel tris(carbohydrazide) perchlorates (CoCP and NiCP) as well as copper bis(carbohydrazide) perchlorate (CuCP) were investigated using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) screened hybrid density functional. The results show that both perchlorate ions coordinate with the copper atom, and the interactions between copper and perchlorate are ionic, whereas all the metal-carbohydrazide interactions are covalent. Due to the delocalization from the sigma(N-H) bond orbital to the n*(M) antibond orbital, the amino stretching vibrations of these complexes show considerable red-shift compared with those of free carbohydrazide ligand. The calculated heats of reaction and formation indicate that the formations of these complexes are exothermic, and the order of their thermal stability is NiCP>CoCP>CuCP. These agree well with the experimental results. Finally, we find that there is a relationship between the energy gap and impact sensitivity.

  19. IN VITRO STUDY OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA CAUSATIVE AGENT OF AMOEBIASIS WITH LEMON JUICE AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION SHOWED ANTIAMOEBIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Bhanu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A species of parasite protozoa Entamoeba histolytica causing amoebiasis and amoebic dysentery characteristic include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded. This is a single celled parasitic animal, that infects predominantly humans and other primates. Amoebic infection was first described by Fedor Losch in 1875 in St. Petersburg. In 1890, Sir William Osler reported the first North American case of amoebiasis when he observed amoebae in stool in abscess fluid from physician who previously resided in Panama. So we used the Lemon juice (Citrus at different concentration against Entamoeba histolytica to treat the amoebiasis disease. Entamoeba histolytica shows the variety of growth due to the effect of Lemon juice (Citrus. Lemon juice is ingredient and it has antiamoebic properties against Entamoeba histolytica a causative agent of amoebiasis.

  20. Commonly studied polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes show only minor effects on mortality and related risk factors in nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Serena; Krabbe, Karen S; Thinggaard, Mikael; Pedersen, Bente K; Christensen, Kaare; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Christiansen, Lene

    2010-03-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation is consistently associated with functional status, cognitive functioning, multimorbidity, and survival in oldest olds. If inflammation is either a cause or a consequence of age-related pathology, genetic determinants of late-life survival can reside in cytokine genes polymorphisms, regulating inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to test associations between commonly studied polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)6, IL10, IL15, and IL18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha genes and late-life survival in a longitudinal cohort of nonagenarians: the Danish 1905 cohort. Additionally, associations were investigated between inflammatory markers and major predictors of mortality as cognitive and functional status. Modest sex-specific associations were found with survival, cognitive functioning, and handgrip strength. Evaluation of combined genotypes indicated that, in nonagenarian men, the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory activity at IL18 and IL10 loci is protective against cognitive decline. In conclusion, in this large study with virtually complete follow-up, commonly studied polymorphisms in cytokine genes do not have a major impact on late-life survival or associated risk phenotypes.

  1. Preliminary study showing safety/efficacy of nanoss bioactive versus vitoss as bone graft expanders for lumbar noninstrumented fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this preliminary study of patients undergoing multilevel lumbar lamienctomies with posterolateral noninstrumented fusions, results were nearly comparable utilizing Vitoss or NanOss as bone graft expanders. Although the number of NanOss patients was substantially lower, the comparable efficacy and absence of postoperative complications for noninstrumented fusions is promising.

  2. Social Phobia in an Italian region: do Italian studies show lower frequencies than community surveys conducted in other European countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime prevalence of Social Phobia (SP in European countries other than Italy has been estimated to range from 3.5% to 16.0%. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of SP in Sardinia (Italy in order to verify the evidence of a lower frequency of SP in Italy observed in previous studies (from 1.0% to 3.1%. Methods A randomised cross sample of 1040 subjects, living in Cagliari, in rural areas, and in a mining district in Sardinia were interviewed using a Simplified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDIS. Diagnoses were made according to the 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results Lifetime prevalence of SP was 2.2% (males: 1.5%, females: 2.8% whereas 6-month prevalence resulted in 1.5% (males: 0.9%, females: 2.1%. Mean age at onset was 16.2 ± 9.3 years. A statistically significant association was found with Depressive Episode, Dysthymia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Conclusions The study is consistent with findings reported in several previous studies of a lower prevalence of SP in Italy. Furthermore, the results confirm the fact that SP, due to its early onset, might constitute an ideal target for early treatment aimed at preventing both the accumulation of social disabilities and impairments caused by anxiety and avoidance behaviour, as well as the onset of more serious, associated complications in later stages of the illness.

  3. Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Ngwa; F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis); D.K. Houston (Denise); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn ); J. Luan; V. Mikkilä (Vera); F. Renström (Frida); E. Sonestedt (Emily); J.H. Zhao (Jing); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); L. Qi (Lu); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.C. De Oliveira Otto (Marcia); E.J. Dhurandhar (Emily); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); I. Johansson (Ingegerd); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); K. Lohman (Kurt); A. Manichaikul (Ani); N.M. McKeown (Nicola ); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); K. Stirrups (Kathy); J. Viikari (Jorma); Z. Ye (Zheng); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); I. Barroso (Inês); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); A. Hofman (Albert); Y. Liu (Yongmei); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K.E. North (Kari); M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Hallmans (Göran); M. Kähönen (Mika); C. Langenberg (Claudia); J.M. Ordovas (Jose); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.B. Hu (Frank); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); O. Raitakari (Olli); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Johnson (Anthony); V. Emilsson (Valur); J.A. Schrack (Jennifer); R.D. Semba; D.S. Siscovick (David); D.K. Arnett (Donna); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P.W. Franks (Paul); S.B. Kritchevsky (Stephen); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Orho-Melander (Marju); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake. D

  4. 大蒜可预防前列腺癌%New Study Shows Garlic May Lower Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessica Berman; 阿萌

    2003-01-01

    @@ A diet rich in garlic(大蒜), onions(洋葱), shallots(青葱), leeks(韭葱) and scallions(韭菜) may cut the risk of prostate (前列腺的) cancer. That is according to a new study by researchers at the U.S. National Cancer Institute.

  5. Hybridization and crystal-field effects in Kondo insulators studied by means of core-level spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strigari, Fabio

    2015-04-13

    and even for symmetries lower than tetragonal. In addition to that, HAXPES measurements on the CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 10} series are presented. A common technique for studying hybridization effects in rare earths, and their electronic structure in general, is photoelectron spectroscopy in the soft X-ray range (hv ≤ 1.5 keV). However, in this energy region surface effects are known to matter so that the picture about the hybridization interaction might be distorted with respect to the bulk. The use of hard X-rays (hν=5-10 keV) guarantees a sufficiently large probing depth for obtaining information about the actual bulk electronic structure. In a detailed quantitative analysis of HAXPES 3d core level spectra - using a combination of full multiplet calculations and a configuration interaction model (fm-CI model) - the hybridization strength can be quantified. The XAS results show that the CEF ground states of CeRu{sub 2}Al{sub 10} and CeOs{sub 2}Al are very similar, while it is clearly different for the non-ordering system CeFe{sub 2}Al{sub 10}. The CEF description nicely explains the magnetic anisotropy observed in susceptibility data and to a large extent the small ordered moments along the c axis. We provide a reliable quantitative description of the CEF ground state of the CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 10} compounds. Furthermore, the analysis of the HAXPES data in the fm-CI model allows to quantify the intermediate 4f valence and establishes that the exchange interaction increases within the series from Ru to Os to Fe. A substantial amount of Kondo screening is shown to be present even in the magnetically ordered Ru and Os compounds. The polarized XAS study on CeNiSn demonstrates that the monoclinic CEF is well described in a trigonal approximation, and the determined 4f ground-state wave function is consistent with results from inelastic neutron scattering for Cu-doped CeNiSn. Moreover, the systematic investigation of the CeRh{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x}In{sub 5} substitution series by means

  6. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  7. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.L.

    2010-02-15

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  8. Agronomic and chemical characteristics of hybrid corn to ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Borges de Assis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate agronomic and chemical characteristics of corn hybrids to ensiling. It were evaluated nine corn hybrids (MX 300, RB 9308, 2B655, XB 6012, GNZ 2500, PL6890, PRE 32D10, PRE 22T10 e AG 1051, with three replicates. The higher fresh matter yield were observed in the hybrids PL6890 and PRE 32D10, while the dry matter yield was observed in the hybrid PRE 32D10 (13.43 t ha-1. The hybrids PRE 32D10 and PRE 22T10 stood out to present higher percent of leaf in relation to whole plant, while the lower percent of stems was found in the hybrids MX 300, 2B655 and XB 6012, however the higher leaves: stems relation was found in XB 6012 (0.49. There was higher CP content in the hybrid PRE 32D10 (9.10% of DM, while the lower NDF (57.78% of DM and cellulose content (24.27% of DM were observed in the hybrid GNZ 2500. The hybrid PL6890 presented higher ADF and lignin contents, the others hybrids had values lower. The lower NDIN content was observed in the hybrid RB 9308, while the lower AIDN content occurred on the hybrid 2B655. The lower buffer capacity was observed in the hybrid 2B655 (0.29. There are some differences on chemical composition among the corn hybrids used in this study, however, it is recommended to use the hybrids MX 300, PL6890 and PRE 32D10 for showing higher dry matter yield, which may reflect in the amortization of silage production costs.

  9. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    OpenAIRE

    Dykes Anna-Karin; Dejin-Karlsson Elisabeth; Finnbogadóttir Hafrún

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based ...

  10. An investigation of genome-wide studies reported susceptibility loci for ulcerative colitis shows limited replication in north Indians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Juyal

    Full Text Available Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS of both Crohn's Disease (CD and Ulcerative Colitis (UC have unearthed over 40 risk conferring variants. Recently, a meta-analysis on UC revealed several loci, most of which were either previously associated with UC or CD susceptibility in populations of European origin. In this study, we attempted to replicate these findings in an ethnically distinct north Indian UC cohort. 648 UC cases and 850 controls were genotyped using Infinium Human 660W-quad. Out of 59 meta-analysis index SNPs, six were not in the SNP array used in the study. Of the remaining 53 SNPs, four were found monomorphic. Association (p<0.05 at 25 SNPs was observed, of which 15 were CD specific. Only five SNPs namely rs2395185 (HLA-DRA, rs3024505 (IL10, rs6426833 (RNF186, rs3763313 (BTNL2 and rs2066843 (NOD2 retained significance after Bonferroni correction. These results (i reveal limited replication of Caucasian based meta-analysis results; (ii reiterate overlapping molecular mechanism(s in UC and CD; (iii indicate differences in genetic architecture between populations; and (iv suggest that resources such as HapMap need to be extended to cover diverse ethnic populations. They also suggest a systematic GWAS in this terrain may be insightful for identifying population specific IBD risk conferring loci and thus enable cross-ethnicity fine mapping of disease loci.

  11. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  12. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  13. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  14. Fully Automated Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) Staining and Digital Analysis of HER2 in Breast Cancer : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Logt, Elise M. J.; Kuperus, Deborah A. J.; van Setten, Jan W.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Boers, James. E.; Schuuring, Ed; Kibbelaar, Robby E.

    2015-01-01

    HER2 assessment is routinely used to select patients with invasive breast cancer that might benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to validate a fully automated in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure that combines the automated Leica HER2 fluorescent ISH system for Bond with su

  15. FEASIBILITY STUDY AND OPTIMIZATION OF AN HYBRID SYSTEM (EOLIAN- PHOTOVOLTAIC - DIESEL WITH PROVISION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY COMPLETELY INDEPENDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Saheb-Koussa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available      In engineering, simulation is an effective and economical, commonly used to make preliminary or comparative studies, both during development (design and normal operation of systems. Currently, several simulation tools, using HOMER, are used in academia. Thus, in this work, we present the principle of feasibility study and optimization of a stand alone hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel. Furthermore, we determined the price per kWh of electricity supplied by the stand alone hybrid system, which amounts to $ 1417 / kWh. The site considered in this study represents the Adrar site located in the south west Algeria. Thus, we have inferred from this work as part of a configuration of the stand alone hybrid system obviously depends on available energy resources and constraints. On the other hand we have highlighted the role of the renewable energy uses in reducing emissions of greenhouse gas (CO2 rate = 16086 kg / year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the stand alone hybrid system studied.

  16. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carri Westgarth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC (ALSPAC, UK birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46% or never (range 27–37%. A small minority (7–8% reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%. We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7 during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership.

  17. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in the study of human skin melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Thierry; Coelho, Sergio G; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Hearing, Vincent J

    2007-03-01

    Although keratinocytes are the most numerous type of cell in the skin, melanocytes are also key players as they produce and distribute melanin that protects the skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In vitro experiments on melanocytic cell lines are useful to study melanogenesis and their progression towards melanoma. However, interactions of melanocytes with keratinocytes and with other types of cells in the skin, such as fibroblasts and Langerhans cells, are also crucial. We describe two techniques, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue in situ hybridization (TISH), that can be used to identify and study melanocytes in the skin and their responses to UV or other stimuli in situ. We describe a practical method to localize melanocytic antigens on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections and in frozen sections using indirect immunofluorescence with conjugated secondary antibodies. In addition, we detail the use of TISH and its combination with IHC to study mRNA levels of genes expressed in the skin at cellular resolution. This methodology, along with relevant tips and troubleshooting items, are important tools to identify and study melanocytes in the skin.

  18. Patients with chronic pain after abdominal surgery show less preoperative endogenous pain inhibition and more postoperative hyperalgesia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Oliver Hamilton; Schreyer, Tobias; Scheffer, Gert Jan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-06-01

    Chronic pain is common and undesirable after surgery. Progression from acute to chronic pain involves altered pain processing. The authors studied relationships between presence of chronic pain versus preoperative descending pain control (diffuse noxious inhibitory controls; DNICs) and postoperative persistence and spread of skin and deep tissue hyperalgesia (change in electric/pressure pain tolerance thresholds; ePTT/pPTT) up to 6 months postoperatively. In 20 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery under standardized anesthesia, we determined ePTT/pPTT (close to [abdomen] and distant from [leg] incision), eDNIC/pDNIC (change in ePTT/pPTT with cold pressor pain task; only preoperatively), and a 100 mm long pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 mm = no pain, 100 mm = worst pain imaginable), both at rest and on movement preoperatively, and 1 day and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Patients reporting chronic pain 6 months postoperatively had more abdominal and leg skin hyperalgesia over the postoperative period. More inhibitory preoperative eDNIC was associated with less late postoperative pain, without affecting skin hyperalgesia. More inhibitory pDNIC was linked to less postoperative leg deep tissue hyperalgesia, without affecting pain VAS. This pilot study for the first time links chronic pain after surgery, poorer preoperative inhibitory pain modulation (DNIC), and greater postoperative degree, persistence, and spread of hyperalgesia. If confirmed, these results support the potential clinical utility of perioperative pain processing testing.

  19. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  20. Comparative molecular modeling study of Arabidopsis NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and its hybrid protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuno Lee

    Full Text Available 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs play important roles in the protection of chloroplast proteins from oxidative damage. Arabidopsis NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase isotype C (AtNTRC was identified as efficient electron donor for chloroplastic 2-Cys Prx-A. There are three isotypes (A, B, and C of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR in Arabidopsis. AtNTRA contains only TrxR domain, but AtNTRC consists of N-terminal TrxR and C-terminal thioredoxin (Trx domains. AtNTRC has various oligomer structures, and Trx domain is important for chaperone activity. Our previous experimental study has reported that the hybrid protein (AtNTRA-(Trx-D, which was a fusion of AtNTRA and Trx domain from AtNTRC, has formed variety of structures and shown strong chaperone activity. But, electron transfer mechanism was not detected at all. To find out the reason of this problem with structural basis, we performed two different molecular dynamics (MD simulations on AtNTRC and AtNTRA-(Trx-D proteins with same cofactors such as NADPH and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD for 50 ns. Structural difference has found from superimposition of two structures that were taken relatively close to average structure. The main reason that AtNTRA-(Trx-D cannot transfer the electron from TrxR domain to Trx domain is due to the difference of key catalytic residues in active site. The long distance between TrxR C153 and disulfide bond of Trx C387-C390 has been observed in AtNTRA-(Trx-D because of following reasons: i unstable and unfavorable interaction of the linker region, ii shifted Trx domain, and iii different or weak interface interaction of Trx domains. This study is one of the good examples for understanding the relationship between structure formation and reaction activity in hybrid protein. In addition, this study would be helpful for further study on the mechanism of electron transfer reaction in NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase proteins.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY SHOWING EFFICACY OF PREEMPTIVE INTRAVENOUS PARACETAMOL IN REDUCING POSTOPERATIVE PAIN AND ANALGESIC REQUIREMENT IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A double blind, prospective, randomized study was conducted on 60 patients of ASA I and II undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy to evaluate the efficacy of pre - emptive IV paracetamol [PCM] in reducing postoperative pain and analgesic requirement. Patien ts were randomly assigned in two groups, group A and group B of which group A received pre - emptive IV PCM 10 minutes before skin incision. It was observed that time to first analgesic required was significantly longer in group A as compared to group B and group A had significantly lower total analgesic consumption and visual analogue scores (VAS as compared to group B. We concluded that pre - emptive use of IV PCM (Paracetamol in laparoscopic cholecystectomy significantly decreases postoperative pain and a nalgesic requirement.

  2. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kumagai

    Full Text Available Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose, luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose, placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg nor supratherapeutic (20 mg doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects.

  3. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Changwang; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by \\textit{local spreading}, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and \\textit{global spreading}, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. In a metapopulation, made up of many weakly connected subpopulations, we show that one can calculate an optimal tradeoff between local and global spreading which will maximise the extent of the epidemic. As an example we analyse the 2008 outbreak of the Internet worm Conficker, which uses hybrid spreading to propagate through the internet. Our results suggests that the worm would have been eve...

  4. Interfacially synthesized PAni–PMo12 hybrid material for supercapacitor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arumugam Manivel; Abdullah M Asiri; Khalid Ahmad Alamry; Teresa Lana-Villarreal; Sambandam Anandan

    2014-06-01

    The concept of interfacial polymerization is utilized for the synthesis of polyaniline–phosphomolybdate (PAni–PMo12) molecular hybrids and it is well characterized. The electrical conductivity of the synthesized hybrid materials increases with increase in PMo12 wt%. The synthesized hybrid materials are evaluated as the active electrode materials for supercapacitor application. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the hybrid-modified electrode shows broad parallelogram-shaped peak as an evidence for pseudo-capacitive behaviour. The galvanostatic charge–discharge studies enlighten that interfacially synthesized hybrid materials loaded with PMo12 show relatively enhanced specific capacitance values than PMo12 free samples.

  5. Clarithromycin and dexamethasone show similar anti-inflammatory effects on distinct phenotypic chronic rhinosinusitis: an explant model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jin; Cao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Heng; Cui, Yong-Hua; Liu, Zheng

    2015-06-06

    Phenotype of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be an important determining factor of the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatments. Although both glucocorticoids and macrolide antibiotics have been recommended for the treatment of CRS, whether they have different anti-inflammatory functions for distinct phenotypic CRS has not been completely understood. The aim of this study is to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of clarithromycin and dexamethasone on sinonasal mucosal explants from different phenotypic CRS ex vivo. Ethmoid mucosal tissues from CRSsNP patients (n = 15), and polyp tissues from eosinophilic (n = 13) and non-eosinophilic (n = 12) CRSwNP patients were cultured in an ex vivo explant model with or without dexamethasone or clarithromycin treatment for 24 h. After culture, the production and/or expression of anti-inflammatory molecules, epithelial-derived cytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, T helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines, chemokines, dendritic cell relevant markers, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and tissue remodeling factors were detected in tissue explants or culture supernatants by RT-PCR or ELISA, respectively. We found that both clarithromycin and dexamethasone up-regulated the production of anti-inflammatory mediators (Clara cell 10-kDa protein and interleukin (IL)-10), whereas down-regulated the production of Th2 response and eosinophilia promoting molecules (thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, IL-33, CD80, CD86, OX40 ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1, CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, CCL5, IL-5, IL-13, and eosinophilic cationic protein) and Th1 response and neutrophilia promoting molecules (CXCL8, CXCL5, CXCL10, CXCL9, interferon-γ, and IL-12), from sinonasal mucosa from distinct phenotypic CRS. In contrast, they had no effect on IL-17A production. The expression of PRRs (Toll-like receptors and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5) was induced, and the production of tissue remodeling factors (transforming growth factor-β1

  6. Mono- and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes showing efficient catechol oxidase activity: syntheses, characterization and spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Banerjee, Arpita; Mukherjee, Madhuparna; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Patra, Goutam Kumar; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2009-10-28

    Four side-off compartmental ligands L1-L4 [L1 = N,N'-ethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methyl-salicylaldimine), L2 = N,N'-1-methylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine), L3 = N,N'-1,1-dimethylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine) and L4= N,N'-cyclohexenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine)] having two binding sites, N2O2 and O4, have been chosen to synthesize mononuclear and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes with the aim to study their catecholase activity using 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) as substrate in the presence of molecular oxygen. In all cases only mononuclear manganese complexes (1-4) were obtained, with manganese coordination taking place at the N2O2 binding site only, irrespective of the amount of manganese salt used. All these complexes have been characterized by routine physico-chemical techniques. Complex MnL2Cl.4H2O (2) has further been structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. Four dinuclear manganese complexes, 5-8, were obtained after condensing the two pending formyl groups on each ligand (L1-L4) with aniline followed by reaction with MnCl2 to put the second Mn atom onto another N2O2 site. The catalytic activity of all complexes 1-8 has been investigated following the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) with molecular oxygen in two different solvents, methanol and acetonitrile. The study reveals that the catalytic activity is influenced by the solvent and to a significant extent by the backbone of the diamine and the behavior seems to be related mainly to steric rather than electronic factors. Experimental data suggest that a correlation, the lower the E(1/2) value the higher the catalytic activity, can be drawn between E(1/2) and Vmax of the complexes in a particular solvent. The EPR measurements suggest that the catalytic property of the complexes is related to the metal center(s) participation rather than to a radical mechanism.

  7. Delirium superimposed on dementia: a survey of delirium specialists shows a lack of consensus in clinical practice and research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Davis, Daniel H J; Neufeld, Karin J; Kamholz, Barbara A; Trabucchi, Marco; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Morandi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Despite advances in delirium knowledge and the publication of best practice guidelines, uncertainties exist regarding assessment of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (DSD). An international survey of delirium specialists was undertaken to evaluate current practice. Invitations to participate in an online survey were distributed by email among members of four international delirium associations with additional publication on their websites. The survey covered the assessment and diagnosis of DSD in clinical practice and research studies. Questions were structured around current practice and attitudes. The 205 responders were mostly confident that they could detect DSD with 60% rating their confidence at 7 or above on a likert scale of 0 (none) to 10 (excellent). Seventy-six percent felt that Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) was the most challenging dementia subtype in which to diagnose DSD. Several scales were used to assess for the presence of DSD including the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) (54%), DSM-5 criteria (25%) and CAM-ICU (15%). Responders stated that attention (71%), fluctuation in cognitive status (65%), and arousability (41%) were the most clinically useful features to assess when diagnosing DSD. Motor fluctuations were also deemed important but 61% had no specific test to monitor these. The largest survey of DSD practice to date demonstrates that despite good levels of confidence in recognizing DSD, there exists a lack of consensus concerning assessment and diagnosis globally. These findings suggest the need for the development of more research leading to precise diagnostic criteria and comprehensive guidelines regarding the assessment and diagnosis of DSD.

  8. NMR-based metabolomics and breath studies show lipid and protein catabolism during low dose chronic T(1)AM treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, J A; Reiland, H; Butz, D E; Tonelli, M; Porter, W P; Zucchi, R; Scanlan, T S; Chiellini, G; Assadi-Porter, F M

    2013-12-01

    3-Iodothyronamine (T1 AM), an analog of thyroid hormone, is a recently discovered fast-acting endogenous metabolite. Single high-dose treatments of T1 AM have produced rapid short-term effects, including a reduction of body temperature, bradycardia, and hyperglycemia in mice. The effect of daily low doses of T1 AM (10 mg/kg) for 8 days on weight loss and metabolism in spontaneously overweight mice was monitored. The experiments were repeated twice (n = 4). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plasma and real-time analysis of exhaled (13) CO2 in breath by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) were used to detect T1 AM-induced lipolysis. CRDS detected increased lipolysis in breath shortly after T1 AM administration that was associated with a significant weight loss but independent of food consumption. NMR spectroscopy revealed alterations in key metabolites in serum: valine, glycine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate, suggesting that the subchronic effects of T1 AM include both lipolysis and protein breakdown. After discontinuation of T1 AM treatment, mice regained only 1.8% of the lost weight in the following 2 weeks, indicating lasting effects of T1 AM on weight maintenance. CRDS in combination with NMR and (13) C-metabolic tracing constitute a powerful method of investigation in obesity studies for identifying in vivo biochemical pathway shifts and unanticipated debilitating side effects. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Energy system feasibility study of an Otto cycle/Stirling cycle hybrid automotive engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilising a Stirling cycle engine as an exhaust gas waste heat recovery device for an Otto cycle internal combustion engine (ICE) in the context of an automotive power plant. The hybrid arrangement would produce increased brake power output for a given fuel consumption rate when compared to an ICE alone. The study was dealt with from an energy system perspective with design practicalities such as power train integration, location of auxiliaries, manufacture costs and other general plant design considerations neglected. The study necessitated work in two distinct areas: experimental assessment of the performance characteristics of an existing automotive Otto cycle ICE and mathematical modelling of the Stirling cycle engine based on the output parameters of the ICE. It was subsequently found to be feasible in principle to generate approximately further 30% useful power in addition to that created by the ICE by using a Stirling cycle engine to capture waste heat expelled from the ICE exhaust gases over the complete range of engine operating speeds. (author)

  10. Immunosuppression using the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus: pilot study shows significant cognitive and affective improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, U E; Heger, J; Willbring, M; Domula, M; Matschke, K; Tugtekin, S M

    2009-12-01

    Immunosuppression using calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is accompanied by neuropsychiatric side effects, which counteract longevity and quality of life benefits in 10% to 28% of patients. Following the availability of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, it became possible to replace CNI without increasing the risk of acute graft rejection. mTOR, a member of the phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase family, is a downstream target of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Preclinical evidence has implicated the mTOR pathway in synaptic plasticity and fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation. In the present study we prospectively evaluated the psychiatric outcomes of CNI-free immunosuppression in adult maintenance heart transplant recipients (n = 9; age: 66.1 +/- 6.1) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Trail Making Tests A and B, Digit Span (DS), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Four weeks after switching to CNI-free immunosuppression using everolimus, BDI (Z = -1.14; P = .048), Trail Making tests A and B (Z = -2.52; P = .012), WMS-R (Z = 2.37; P = .018), and SCL-90-R (Z = -2.37; P = .018) were all significantly improved while DS (Z = -1.18; P = .236) and HAMD (Z = -0.595; P = .552) remained unchanged. This report describes favorable psychiatric outcome variables using everolimus in maintenance heart transplant recipients. CNI-free immunosuppression with everolimus might provide significant improvement in memory, concentration, and overall psychiatric symptoms among heart transplant recipients.

  11. A single qualitative study can show same findings as years of quantitative research: Obstructive sleep apnoea as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Tandeter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many years of quantitative research led to our present knowledge of the symptoms and associated features (S&AF of the obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome. Aims 1. To prove that a qualitative research approach may identify symptoms and associated features of OSA in less time/effort than that used in a quantitative approach; 2. To describe the experience of patients with OSA and the effects of the syndrome on their quality of life and that of their spouses and families (issues that quantitative methods fail to recognize. Methods We used a narrative inquiry methodology (qualitative research. The sample was selected using the “snowball sampling technique". The sample included 10 patients with moderate to severe OSA who had good adherence to CPAP and significant clinical improvement after treatment, and 3 of the patient’s spouses. Results The following issues were identified: A long pre-diagnosis phase of OSA (20 years in one of the patients; Characteristic S&AF of the syndrome as experienced by patients and their spouses; The need for increased awareness of both the public and the medical establishment in regards to this disorder; Premature ejaculation (not reported previously and nightmares (non-conclusive in the literature were identified and improved with CPAP therapy. Conclusion With the use of quantitative research methods it took decades to discover things that we found in one simple qualitative study. We therefore urge scientists to use more often these qualitative methods when looking for S&AF of diseases and syndromes.

  12. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  13. Quantitative study of the spin Hall magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althammer, M.; Meyer, S.; Nakayama, H.; Schreier, M.; Altmannshofer, S.; Weiler, M.; Huebl, H.; Gesprägs, S.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Meier, D.; Klewe, C.; Kuschel, T.; Schmalhorst, J.M.; Reiss, G.; Shen, L.; Gupta, A.; Chen, Y.T.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Saitoh, E.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally investigate and quantitatively analyze the spin Hall magnetoresistance effect in ferromagnetic insulator/platinum and ferromagnetic insulator/nonferromagnetic metal/platinum hybrid structures. For the ferromagnetic insulator, we use either yttrium iron garnet, nickel ferrite, or ma

  14. Hybrid reactor safety study. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    A preliminary generic safety evaluation of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor concept has been performed and a hybrid reactor safety program plan for guiding future safety work has been proposed. The emphasis of the work was limited to accident analysis where the main concern is for the health and safety of the public. Major radioactive sources in the hybrid were identified and their inventories compared to those of fission reactors. The means for accidental release of radioactivity to the public were identified, as were the barriers which preclude such accidental releases. Consequence analyses of hypothetical bounding accidents potentially defining the upper bound envelope of risk/consequence to the population and environment surrounding the hybrid site were performed.

  15. A six-year prospective randomized study of a nano-hybrid and a conventional hybrid resin composite in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 6 year prospective randomized equivalence trial was to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a new nano-hybrid resin composite (RC) in Class II restorations in an intraindividual comparison with its well-established conventional hybrid RC predecessor....

  16. A comparison study of different semi-active hybrid energy storage system topologies for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ziyou; Hofmann, Heath; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Zhang, Xiaowu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, four different semi-active hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs), which use both supercapacitors (SCs) and batteries, are compared based on an electric city bus running the China Bus Driving Cycle (CBDC). The SC sizes of the different HESS topologies are optimized by using the dynamic programming (DP) approach, based on a dynamic degradation model of the LiFePO4 battery. The operation costs of different HESSs, including the electricity and the battery degradation costs over a whole CBDC, are minimized in the optimization process. Based on the DP results, near-optimal control strategies of different HESSs for on-line uses are proposed. Finally, the four HESS topologies are comprehensively compared from different aspects, including operation cost, initial cost, and DC bus voltage variation. Simulation results show that all HESS topologies have their merits and drawbacks, and can be used in different applications with different requirements. In addition, about 50% of the operation cost of the energy storage system is reduced by the semi-active HESSs when compared to the battery-only topology. Thus the effectiveness of adopting the SC in the HESS is verified.

  17. A Study on HSV—1Corneal Potential Infection by in Situ Nucleic Acid hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoweiLi; LixinXie

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To evaluate the possibility of HSV-1 corneal latency by in situ nucleic acid hybridization in animal models.Methods:20 normal New Zealand White(NEW)rabbits were used,14of them were inoculated bilaterally with 3×10PFU/ml of McKrae strain HSV-1by in-trastromal injection,22/28eyes developed typical herpes simplex keratitis(HSK) diseases.At 60day postoperation(PI),4latent corneas were transplanted to one eye of 4noninfected NZW rabbits and removed2weeks PI,Corneas at all time intervals of infection and two weeks after PKPwere detected for presence of HSV-1antigen and nucleic acid sequences by using clonal IgGHSV-1antibody and biotinylated HSV-1DNAprobe individually.Results:The results showed that the HSV-1DNA sequences were retained with-in the corneal epithelium and anterior stromal keratocytes during acute diseases,while the corneas during latent infection and postoperation,the HSV-1DNAse-quences were retained only within the stromal layer with negative HSV-1antigne staining.Conclusions:These results strongly suggest that the cornea may be capable of harburing latent HSV-1.Eye Science 1995;11:117-119.

  18. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  19. Ab-initio study of germanium di-interstitial using a hybrid functional (HSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumbor, E.; Ouma, C. N. M.; Webb, G.; Meyer, W. E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present ab-initio calculation results of Ge di-interstitials (I2(Ge)) in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) using the Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional. The formation energy, transition levels and minimum energy configurations were obtained for I2(Ge) -2, -1, 0, +1 and +2 charge states. The calculated formation energies show that for all charge states of I2(Ge), the double tetrahedral (T) configuration formed the most stable defect with a binding energy of 1.24 eV in the neutral state. We found the (+2/+1) charge state transition level for the T lying below the conduction band minimum and (+2/+1) for the split[110]-tetrahedral configuration lying deep at 0.41 eV above the valence band maximum. The di-interstitials in Ge exhibited the properties of both shallow and deep donor levels at (+2/+1) within the band gap and depending on the configurations. I2(Ge) gave rise to negative-U, with effective-U values of -0.61 and -1.6 eV in different configurations. We have compared our results with calculations of di-interstitials in silicon and available experimental data.

  20. Studies of a hybrid avalanche photo-detector in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantelj, L.; Adachi, I.; Hataya, K.; Iori, S.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kataura, R.; Kawai, H.; Kindo, H.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Mrvar, M.; Nath, K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Stanovnik, A.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Tahirovič, E.; Yusa, Y.

    2017-02-01

    For the Belle II spectrometer a proximity focusing RICH counter with an aerogel radiator (ARICH) will be employed as a PID system in the forward endcap region of the spectrometer. The main challenge was the development of a reliable multichannel sensor for single photons that operates in the high magnetic field of the spectrometer (1.5 T) and withstands the radiation levels expected at the experiment. A 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) was developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. and the mass production of ∼480 HAPDs was completed recently. While our first tests of HAPD performance in the magnetic field (before mass production) showed no issues, we lately observed a presence of very large signal pulses (∼5000× single photon signal), generated internally within about 20% of HAPDs, while operating in the magnetic field. The rate of these pulses varies from sample to sample. These pulses impact the HAPD performance in two ways: they introduce periods of dead time and, in some cases, damage to the front-end electronics was observed. Here we present conditions under which such large pulses are generated, their properties and impact on HAPD performance, and discuss possible mechanism of their origin.

  1. Ab‐initio study of germanium di-interstitial using a hybrid functional (HSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igumbor, E., E-mail: elgumuk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Samuel Adegboyega University, Km 1 Ogwa/Ehor Rd, Ogwa, Edo State (Nigeria); Ouma, C.N.M.; Webb, G. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Meyer, W.E., E-mail: wmeyer@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present ab‐initio calculation results of Ge di-interstitials (I{sub 2(Ge)}) in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) using the Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional. The formation energy, transition levels and minimum energy configurations were obtained for I{sub 2(Ge)} −2, −1, 0, +1 and +2 charge states. The calculated formation energies show that for all charge states of I{sub 2(Ge)}, the double tetrahedral (T) configuration formed the most stable defect with a binding energy of 1.24 eV in the neutral state. We found the (+2/+1) charge state transition level for the T lying below the conduction band minimum and (+2/+1) for the split[110]-tetrahedral configuration lying deep at 0.41 eV above the valence band maximum. The di-interstitials in Ge exhibited the properties of both shallow and deep donor levels at (+2/+1) within the band gap and depending on the configurations. I{sub 2(Ge)} gave rise to negative-U, with effective-U values of −0.61 and −1.6 eV in different configurations. We have compared our results with calculations of di-interstitials in silicon and available experimental data.

  2. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been studied for the drive memristor chaotic oscillator system and the same response memristor chaotic oscillator system. For the different dimensions, the memristor chaotic oscillator system and the other chaotic system have realized general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs

  4. Contribution to the study of hybrid ventilation system effectiveness in office and educational buildings; Contribution a l'etude de l'efficacite des systemes de ventilation hybride dans les batiments du secteur tertiaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cron, F.

    2004-06-15

    This study is part of the International Energy Agency Annex 35, 'Hybrid Ventilation in New and Retro-fitted Office Buildings', also called the HybVent Project. It presents the numerical analyses of a number of hybrid ventilation systems and their potential for several buildings in relation to local climate characteristics. The first part of this work reviews the state-of-the-art of existing ventilation systems and details the principles, expectations and features of hybrid ventilation systems. This first section also examines some examples of hybrid systems extracted from the collection of Annex 35 case studies. A comprehensive bibliography of numerical tools available for this type of analysis is given in the second section. The numerical models for building simulation and the object-oriented environment used to develop our simulation tool are presented in this section as well. Two single-zone studies undertaken in this project are reported in the third section. The first study concerns an experimental cell simulation. Numerical results are compared to experimental data to validate the use of the simulation tool developed. The second single-zone study predicts the potential of a specific hybrid ventilation system in a typical classroom, given climatic conditions. Finally, the last section presents a more complete study - a multi-zone study of the Tonga school, an Annex 35 case study located in Sweden. Three rooms were modelled initially to compare numerical results to experimental data and then to analyse the performance of the existing hybrid ventilation system and two other systems. This final study was completed for three European cities with very different climates. The overall analysis of the potential of the hybrid ventilation systems considered and the perspective for future work are outlined in the conclusion. (author)

  5. Columbia River Estuary Hybrid Model Studies. Report 1. Verification of Hybrid Modeling of the Columbia River Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    King, J.M., and Carlson, P.R. 1966. " Seismic Reflection Studies of Buried Channels off the Columbia River," Ore Bin, Vol. 28, Aug. 12. Boone, C.G...Adjacent Ocean Waters, University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA. 64. Foster, R.F. 1972. The History of Hanford and Its Contribution of Radionuclides...Corvallis, OR. 81. Hanson, P.J., and Forster, W.O. 1969. "Measurement of Columbia River Flow Time from Hanford Reactors to Astoria, Oregon - Summer

  6. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of fl...

  7. Porosity Study of Hybrid Silica Mesostructure in Aluminium Oxide Membrane Columnar by Cyclic Voltammetry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Jalil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica mesostructure has been grown within with a porous aluminium oxide membrane columnar material (hybrid-AOM. This was prepared using a sol-gel technique with Pluronic P123 triblock copolymer as the structure-directing agent and tetraethyl orthosilicate as the inorganic source. The porosity of the hybrid-AOM after ethanol extraction was calculated from the cyclic voltammetry response of a neutral probe (FcMeOH, using Randles-Sevčik equation.

  8. The screening effects of the screened exchange hybrid functional in surface systems: A case study on the CO/Pt(111) problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Gillen, R.; Robertson, J.

    2016-06-01

    The screened exchange (sX) hybrid functional has been widely used in computational material science. Although it has widely been studied in bulk systems, less is known about its functional behavior in surface systems which are crucial to many technologies such as materials synthesis and nano-electronic devices. Assessing the screening dependent functional behaviors in the surface systems is therefore important for its application in such systems. In this work, we investigate the screening effects of the sX in CO adsorption on Pt(111) surface. The differences between the sX and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functionals, and the effects of screening parameters are studied. The screening has two effects: first, the HOMO-LUMO gap is screening dependent. This affects the site preference most significantly. In this work, atop adsorption of CO/Pt(111) is predicted by the hybrid functionals with screened exchange potential. The sX(1.44) gives the largest HOMO-LUMO gap for the isolated CO molecule. The adsorption energy difference between the atop and fcc site is also the largest by the sX(1.44) which is explained by the reduced metal d states to the CO 2π* state back-donation, with stronger effect for the fcc adsorption than for the atop adsorption; second, the adsorption energy is screening dependent. This can be seen by comparing the sX(2.38) and HSE06 which have different screening strengths. They show similar surface band structures for the CO adsorption but different adsorption energies, which is explained by the stronger CO 5σ state to the metal d states donation or the effectively screened Pauli repulsion. This work underlines the screening strength as a main difference between sX and HSE06, as well as an important hybrid functional parameter for surface calculation.

  9. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  10. Comparative study of symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization between common wheat and Haynaldia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Symmetric and asymmetric protoplast fusion between long term cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Triticum aestivum (cv. Jinan 177) and protoplasts of Haynaldia villosa prepared from one-year-old embryogeneric calli was performed by PEG method. In asymmetric fusion, donor calli were treated with gamma ray at a dose of 40, 60, 80 Gy (1.3 Gy/min) respectively and then used to isolate protoplasts. Results of morphological, cytological, biochemical (isozyme) and 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis revealed that we obtained somatic hybrid lines at high frequency from both symmetric and asymmetric fusion. Hybrid plants were recovered from symmetric and low dose g-fusion combinations. GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) analysis proved exactly the existence of both parental chromosomes and the common occurrence of several kinds of translocation between them in the hybrid clones regenerated from symmetric and asymmetric fusion. And the elimination of donor DNA in hybrid clones regenerated from asymmetric fusion combinations was found to increase with the increasing gamma doses. It is concluded that transference and recombination of nuclear DNA can be achieved effectively by symmetric and asymmetric fusion, hybrids with small fragment translocation which are valuable in plant breeding can be obtained directly by asymmetric fusion.

  11. A phenomenological study of hybrid stars in which the crossover transition from quark to hadron makes the EOS stiffer in contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Li, Cheng-Ming; Zhao, Ya-Peng; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xin-Lian; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we make a phenomenological study of the mass-radii relationship of hybrid stars from the point of view of the smooth crossover phase transition. We find a way to construct stiff hybrid equations of state (EOSs) with soft EOSs of both the quark matter and the hadronic matter. For the hadron phase, we adopt the EOS softened by introducing hyperons that are considered to exist in the core of a neutron star. For the quark phase, we introduce a quark EOS based on the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) that is calculated in our previous work, and it is also a soft EOS. In contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition, we find that the resulting EOS is stiff and the maximum mass of the hybrid stars is still about two times of solar mass. This result indicates the rich possibilities of the crossover model.

  12. Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - the case study of the hybrid system - microgrid in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, G.; Mohamed, E.S.; Kyriakarakos, G. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kassem, A.W.S. [Alexandria Univ., El Chatbi (Egypt). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid renewable energy systems is one of the most promising application of renewable energy technologies in remote areas, where the cost of grid extension is prohibitive and the price of fossil fuels increase drastically with the remoteness of the location. Applications of hybrid systems range from small power supplies for remote households providing electricity for lighting or water pumping and water supply to village electrification for remote communities. The strategic objective of the HYRESS project is to remove the knowledge barriers against the installation of Renewable Energy Systems and creation of micro grids. In order to fulfill this objective, three different modular hybrid systems with the generating technologies connected to the AC side were designet, installed and evaluated in three selected remote sites far away from the grid in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. This paper describes the hybrid system installed in Egypt as a case study and presents first operation results. (orig.)

  13. Effect of backbone chemistry on hybridization thermodynamics of oligonucleic acids: a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2016-02-28

    In this paper we study how varying oligonucleic acid backbone chemistry affects the hybridization/melting thermodynamics of oligonucleic acids. We first describe the coarse-grained (CG) model with tunable parameters that we developed to enable the study of both naturally occurring oligonucleic acids, such as DNA, and their chemically-modified analogues, such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and locked nucleic acids (LNAs). The DNA melting curves obtained using such a CG model and molecular dynamics simulations in an implicit solvent and with explicit ions match with the melting curves obtained using the empirical nearest-neighbor models. We use these CG simulations to then elucidate the effect of backbone flexibility, charge, and nucleobase spacing along the backbone on the melting curves, potential energy and conformational entropy change upon hybridization and base-pair hydrogen bond residence time. We find that increasing backbone flexibility decreases duplex thermal stability and melting temperature mainly due to increased conformational entropy loss upon hybridization. Removing charges from the backbone enhances duplex thermal stability due to the elimination of electrostatic repulsion and as a result a larger energetic gain upon hybridization. Lastly, increasing nucleobase spacing decreases duplex thermal stability due to decreasing stacking interactions that are important for duplex stability.

  14. Hybrid gait training with an overground robot for people with incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J del-Ama

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor training has proved to provide beneficial effect in terms of mobility in incomplete paraplegic patients. Neuroprosthetic technology can contribute to increase the efficacy of a training paradigm in the promotion of a locomotor pattern. Robotic exoskeletons can be used to manage the unavoidable loss of performance of artificially-driven muscles. Hybrid exoskeletons blend complementary robotic and neuro-prosthetic technologies. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effects of hybrid gait training in three case studies with persons with incomplete spinal cord injury in terms of locomotion performance during assisted gait, patient-robot adaptations, impact on ambulation and assessment of lower limb muscle strength and spasticity. Participants with incomplete Spinal Cord Injury (SCI received interventions with a hybrid bilateral exoskeleton for 4 days. Assessment of gait function revealed that patients improved the 6 minutes and 10 meters walking tests after the intervention, and further improvements were observed one week after the intervention. Muscle examination revealed improvements in knee and hip sagittal muscle balance scores and decreased score in ankle extensor balance. It is concluded that improvements in biomechanical function of the knee joint after the tested overground hybrid gait trainer are coherent with improvements in gait performance.

  15. Review and comparison study of hybrid diesel/solar/hydro/fuel cell energy schemes for a rural ICT Telecenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.O.; Yung, V.C.; Anyi, M.; Othman, A.K.; Ab. Hamid, K.B. [Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Tarawe, J. [e-Bario ICT Telecenter, Bario, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, the rural electrification study of an ICT Telecenter in particular reference to the Kelabit Highland of Sarawak is presented. The use of diesel generator and its associated environmental implications is first discussed. The cost-effectiveness of the present solar PV system and the solar/hydro schemes for rural electrification of the rural ICT are evaluated employing the HOMER simulation software, considering sustainability factors such as system efficiency, weather, fuel costs, operating and maintaining costs. Subsequently, simple novel Hybrid Energy Performance Equations and the associated Energy Performance Curves are derived and introduced, respectively, which provide a visualization model, simplifying hybrid system analysis. Results obtained in this study have shown that combined power schemes is more sustainable in terms of supplying electricity to the Telecenter compared to a stand-alone PV system due to prolong cloudy and dense haze periods. The hybrid systems can have efficiency range of {proportional_to}15%-75% compared to PV stand-alone of only {proportional_to}10%, indicating hybrid systems are more reliable and sustainable - in minimizing both energy losses and excess energy. (author)

  16. Photochromic hybrid organic-inorganic liquid-crystalline materials built from nonionic surfactants and polyoxometalates: elaboration and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Andreas S; Constantin, Doru; Davidson, Patrick; Impéror, Marianne; Pansu, Brigitte; Panine, Pierre; Nicole, Lionel; Sanchez, Clément

    2008-06-17

    This work reports the elaboration and structural study of new hybrid organic-inorganic materials constructed via the coupling of liquid-crystalline nonionic surfactants and polyoxometalates (POMs). X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy demonstrate that these hybrid materials, highly loaded with POMs (up to 18 wt %), are nanocomposites of liquid-crystalline lamellar structure (Lalpha), with viscoelastic properties close to those of gels. The interpretation of X-ray scattering data strongly suggests that the POMs are located close to the terminal -OH groups of the nonionic surfactants, within the aqueous sublayers. Moreover, these materials exhibit a reversible photochromism associated to the photoreduction of the polyanion. The photoinduced mixed-valence behavior has been characterized through ESR and UV-visible-near-IR spectroscopies that demonstrate the presence of W(V) metal cations and of the characteristic intervalence charge transfer band in the near-IR region, respectively. These hybrid nanocomposites exhibit optical properties that may be useful for applications involving UV-light-sensitive coatings or liquid-crystal-based photochromic switches. From a more fundamental point of view, these hybrid materials should be very helpful models for the study of both the static and dynamic properties of nano-objects confined within soft lamellar structures.

  17. A study of fluctuating asymmetry in hybrids of dwarf and normal lake whitefish ecotypes (Coregonus clupeaformis) from different glacial races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Bernatchez, L

    1999-12-01

    Fish ecotypes found in north temperate lakes are increasingly used as model organisms to explore patterns and processes of population divergence that may ultimately cause speciation. Processes involved in their reproductive isolation are, however, still poorly understood. Recent experimental studies on whitefish ecotypes from different glacial races revealed that embryonic mortality of hybrids was 2.4-4.7 times higher than for parental forms. In this study, we compared fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in morphological traits of these same hybrid and pure crosses to test the hypothesis that genetic stress observed in hybrids at embryonic stages is also manifested at later developmental stages. Twelve morphological traits were used to measure asymmetry. Variable degrees of asymmetry were observed depending on traits and crosses, however there was no significant difference in FA among crosses. These results thus provided no evidence in support of the working hypothesis and indicated that genetic stress may differ among life stages. It is more likely that high hybrid embryonic mortality acts together with ecological factors at later stages to increase further the extent of reproductive isolation between sympatric whitefish ecotypes.

  18. The role of phytochrome A and gibberellins in growth under long and short day conditions: Studies in hybrid aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, M.E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology

    2000-07-01

    This thesis addresses questions concerning the regulation of growth and, specifically, the cessation of growth in response to short days in deciduous tree species. The model tree used in the studies was hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.). We have exploited the possibility of transforming this species to modulate the level of expression of target genes using over-expression and antisense techniques. The target genes in the studies were the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) and gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA 20-oxidase), the latter being a highly regulated enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs). The photoreceptor phyA has been implicated in photoperiodic regulation of growth, while GAs may regulate the physiological response further downstream. The endogenous expression of these genes has been investigated in parallel with studies of various plants with ectopic and reduced levels of expression. The main focus has been on the early stages of induction of growth cessation and its physiological and molecular mechanisms. Studies of hybrid aspen plants with an increased or reduced expression of phyA, show this receptor to mediate the photoperiodic regulation of growth. Plants with ectopic expression could not stop growing despite drastically shortened photoperiods, while the antisense plants showed the reverse phenotype, with a higher sensitivity resulting in earlier cessation of growth. The role of GAs in growth inhibition was also addressed using plants with a reduction in GA levels. These plants showed early cessation of growth and dormancy, and thus an increased sensitivity toward daylength. Conversely, plants with increased rates of GA biosynthesis showed increased growth and stopped growing much later. Furthermore, increases in GA biosynthesis, resulting in high levels of GAs have a major impact on growth. Plants with high GA levels have increased elongation and diameter growth, due to higher rates of cell production in the

  19. Hybrid 3D pregnant woman and fetus modeling from medical imaging for dosimetry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibin, Lazar; Anquez, Jeremie; Angelini, Elsa; Bloch, Isabelle [Telecom ParisTech, CNRS UMR 5141 LTCI, Institut TELECOM, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Numerical simulations studying the interactions between radiations and biological tissues require the use of three-dimensional models of the human anatomy at various ages and in various positions. Several detailed and flexible models exist for adults and children and have been extensively used for dosimetry. On the other hand, progress of simulation studies focusing on pregnant women and the fetus have been limited by the fact that only a small number of models exist with rather coarse anatomical details and a poor representation of the anatomical variability of the fetus shape and its position over the entire gestation. In this paper, we propose a new computational framework to generate 3D hybrid models of pregnant women, composed of fetus shapes segmented from medical images and a generic maternal body envelope representing a synthetic woman scaled to the dimension of the uterus. The computational framework includes the following tasks: image segmentation, contour regularization, mesh-based surface reconstruction, and model integration. A series of models was created to represent pregnant women at different gestational stages and with the fetus in different positions, all including detailed tissues of the fetus and the utero-fetal unit, which play an important role in dosimetry. These models were anatomically validated by clinical obstetricians and radiologists who verified the accuracy and representativeness of the anatomical details, and the positioning of the fetus inside the maternal body. The computational framework enables the creation of detailed, realistic, and representative fetus models from medical images, directly exploitable for dosimetry simulations. (orig.)

  20. Core-Shell-Corona Silica Hybrid Nanoparticles Templated by Spherical Polyelectrolyte Brushes: A Study by Small Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoya; Li, Li; Wang, Weihua; Tian, Yuchuan; Wang, Yunwei; Wang, Junyou; von Klitzing, Regine; Guo, Xuhong

    2017-09-06

    Core-shell-corona silica/polymer hybrid nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were prepared in the template of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPB) which consist of a solid polystyrene (PS) core densely grafted with linear poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains. The microstructure of obtained hybrid nanoparticles was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and in combination with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The generation of silica shell within the brush is confirmed by the significant increase of the electron density in the shell, and the silica shell showed a unique inner-loose-outer-dense structure, whose thickness is pH sensitive but is insensitive to ionic strength as revealed by fitting SAXS data. After dissolving the PS core, hollow silica nanoparticles were obtained and determined by SAXS, which should be ideal carriers for pH-triggered drug delivery. SAXS is confirmed to be a powerful method to characterize the core-shell-corona silica/polymer hybrid and hollow silica nanoparticles.

  1. STUDY ON DAMPING PROPERTIES OF CF/KF HYBRID FIBERS COMPOSITES%CF/KF混杂纤维复合材料阻尼性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群; 李炜

    2012-01-01

    本文采用热动态力学分析测试技术测试材料的损耗因子来评价材料的阻尼性能,研究了CF/KF混杂纤维复合材料的混杂比、铺层顺序、混杂方式对材料阻尼性能和力学性能的影响.实验表明,铺层中外层纤维的种类和含量对材料的阻尼性能和力学性能影响很大,混杂界面数对材料的阻尼性能和力学性能也有一定的影响.%This paper tested loss factor by thermal dynamic mechanics analysis technique to evaluate damping properties of composites, studied the influences of the hybrid ratios, stacking sequences and hybrid modes on the damping and mechanical properties of carbon fiber/kevlar fiber reinforced composites. The results show that the category and content of outermost fibers have significant influences the damping and mechanical properties of composites. The number of hybrid interfaces also influences the damping and mechanical properties of composites.

  2. Experimental studies on drying of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa l. and Tinospora cordifolia in solar-biomass hybrid drier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, J.; Vijay, V.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Center for Rural Development and Technology

    2005-11-01

    An integral type natural convection solar drier has been fabricated and coupled with a biomass stove. Experiments have been conducted to test the performance of the drier by drying of Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa l. (turmeric) and Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) during the summer climate in Delhi. It was found that, during the load test for ginger, 18 kg of fresh product with an initial moisture content of 319.74(db)% was dried to a final moisture content of 11.8(db)% within 33 h. Similarly, moisture content of turmeric and guduchi were reduced from 358.96 to 8.8 and 257.45 to 9.67(db)% during 36 and 48 h of drying, respectively. The drying of these products has also been studied under 'solar-only' and open sun in the same climatic conditions and the results indicate that for all the products, drying is faster, and is within 33-48 h in hybrid drier, against 72-120 h in 'solar-only' operation of the same drier and 192-288 h in open sun. Efficiency of the drier during its two mode (solar and biomass separately) of operation has been estimated and quality evaluation of under-studied products showed that developed drier is suitable for the drying of these products. The developed drier is a simple system, which can be manufactured locally and can be used for drying of other agricultural products. (author)

  3. Hybrid echo and x-ray image guidance for cardiac catheterization procedures by using a robotic arm: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yingliang; Penney, Graeme P; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S [Division of Imaging Sciences, King' s College, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Bos, Dennis; Frissen, Peter [Philips Applied Technologies, High Tech. Campus 7, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rinaldi, C Aldo, E-mail: y.ma@kcl.ac.u [Department of Cardiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-07

    We present a feasibility study on hybrid echocardiography (echo) and x-ray image guidance for cardiac catheterization procedures. A self-tracked, remotely operated robotic arm with haptic feedback was developed that attached to a standard x-ray table. This was used to safely manipulate a three-dimensional (3D) trans-thoracic echo probe during simultaneous x-ray fluoroscopy and echo acquisitions. By a combination of calibration and tracking of the echo and x-ray systems, it was possible to register the 3D echo images with the 2D x-ray images. Visualization of the combined data was achieved by either overlaying triangulated surfaces extracted from segmented echo data onto the x-ray images or by overlaying volume rendered 3D echo data. Furthermore, in order to overcome the limited field of view of the echo probe, it was possible to create extended field of view (EFOV) 3D echo images by co-registering multiple tracked echo data to generate larger roadmaps for procedure guidance. The registration method was validated using a cross-wire phantom and showed a 2D target registration error of 3.5 mm. The clinical feasibility of the method was demonstrated during two clinical cases for patients undergoing cardiac pacing studies. The EFOV technique was demonstrated using two healthy volunteers. (note)

  4. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  6. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  7. A Study on Hybrid Absorbing Material with Multilayer Metallic Wire Grids%多层金属栅网混合结构吸波特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彦明; 唐守柱; 何丙发

    2013-01-01

    文中采用传输矩阵理论和二端口级联网络分析了多层金属栅网混合结构的吸波特性,通过将多层金属栅网与多层介质阻抗匹配,在介质厚度不变的情况下,明显提高了混合结构的吸收峰值;同时,通过调整每层金属栅网的半径、间距,可调整混合结构吸收峰值位置,给出了典型混合结构的仿真计算结果.结果表明,混合结构吸收峰值可提高6 dB以上,在保证吸收效果的前提下,调整了吸收峰值的位置,可根据要求用于设计不同频段的吸波材料.%Absorbing properties of hybrid material with multilayer metallic wire grids is studied in this paper, with the transfer matrix method and two ports transmission formula of microwave simulation technology. Utilizing the impedance matching between multilayer metallic wire grids and multilayer absorbing material , we can improve maximum absorbing of the hybrid absorbing material, under the thichness of the multilayer absorbing material is invariant. And we can adjust the location of maximum absorbing with adjusting the radious and space of multilayer metallic wire grids. Some typical optimization simulation results are given. The results show that the designed maximum absorbing of the hybrid absorbing material with multilayer metallic wire grids can improve over 6 dB,And adjusted the location of maximum absorbing under keeping the good absorbing properties of hybrid material. The techniques can design different frequency absorbing material with design requirements.

  8. Hybrid plan verification for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using the 2D ionization chamber array I'mRT MatriXX--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Barbara; Streck, Natalia; Klein, Elisabeth; Loeschel, Rainer; Haertl, Petra; Koelbl, Oliver

    2010-01-21

    The 2D ionization chamber array I'mRT MatriXX (IBA, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) has been developed for absolute 2D dosimetry and verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for perpendicular beam incidence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of I'mRT MatriXX for oblique beam incidence and hybrid plan verification of IMRT with original gantry angles. For the assessment of angular dependence, open fields with gantry angles in steps of 10 degrees were calculated on a CT scan of I'mRT MatriXX. For hybrid plan verification, 17 clinical IMRT plans and one rotational plan were used. Calculations were performed with pencil beam (PB), collapsed cone (CC) and Monte Carlo (MC) methods, which had been previously validated. Measurements were conducted on an Elekta SynergyS linear accelerator. To assess the potential and limitations of the system, gamma evaluation was performed with different dose tolerances and distances to agreement. Hybrid plan verification passed the gamma test with 4% dose tolerance and 3 mm distance to agreement in all cases, in 82-88% of the cases for tolerances of 3%/3 mm, and in 59-76% of the cases if 3%/2 mm were used. Separate evaluation of the low dose and high dose regions showed that I'mRT MatriXX can be used for hybrid plan verification of IMRT plans within 3% dose tolerance and 3 mm distance to agreement with a relaxed dose tolerance of 4% in the low dose region outside the multileaf collimator (MLC).

  9. A Numerical Study on Electrical Percolation of Polymer-Matrix Composites with Hybrid Fillers of Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical percolation of polymer-matrix composites (PMCs containing hybrid fillers of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and carbon black (CB is estimated by studying the connection possibility of the fillers using Monte Carlo simulation. The 3D simulation model of CB-CNT hybrid filler is established, in which CNTs are modeled by slender capped cylinders and CB groups are modeled by hypothetical spheres with interspaces because CB particles are always agglomerated. The observation on the effects of CB and CNT volume fractions and dimensions on the electrical percolation threshold of hybrid filled composites is then carried out. It is found that the composite electrical percolation threshold can be reduced by increasing CNT aspect ratio, as well as increasing the diameter ratio of CB groups to CNTs. And adding CB into CNT composites can decrease the CNT volume needed to convert the composite conductivity, especially when the CNT volume fraction is close to the threshold of PMCs with only CNT filler. Different from previous linear assumption, the nonlinear relation between CB and CNT volume fractions at composite percolation threshold is revealed, which is consistent with the synergistic effect observed in experiments. Based on the nonlinear relation, the estimating equation for the electrical percolation threshold of the PMCs containing CB-CNT hybrid fillers is established.

  10. In ovo delivery of Newcastle disease virus conjugated hybrid calcium phosphate nanoparticle and to study the cytokine profile induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal [Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India); Rathish, P.; Gopinath, V.P.; Janice, R. [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Dhinakar Raj, G., E-mail: dhinakarrajg@tanuvas.org.in [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, the hybrid calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These nanoparticles were synthesized by a combination of co-precipitation and polymerization process and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane before coupling to NDV. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken spleen cells incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that, these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The effects of hybrid CaP nanoparticles on cell cycle were assayed using a flow cytometer. The results demonstrated that the cell viability and proliferation capacity of spleen cells were not affected by hybrid CaP nanoparticles compared with their control cells. The hybrid CaP nanoparticles were characterized by scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM); Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). These methods revealed that NDV was successfully conjugated on nanoparticles. The ability of the hybrid CaP nanoparticles to induce different cytokine mRNAs in the spleen cells of 18-day old embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). NDV conjugated particles induced a high expression of Th1 cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α of and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10. Uncoupled NDV induced only Th1 cytokines, IFN-α, INF-γ and TNF-α. The hybrid particles alone did not induce any cytokines. This confirmed that nanoparticle coupling could induce differential cytokine profiles and hence can be used as an alternate strategy to direct favorable immune responses in animals or chickens using appropriate vaccination carrier. - Highlights: • NDV conjugated hybrid CaP NP induced differential cytokine profiles in embryonated chicken eggs.

  11. Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Studies of Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michael; Whitfield, Pamela; Jalarvo, Niina; Ehlers, Georg; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Herron, Norman; Johnson, Lynda; Guise, William; Milas, Ivan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Daemen, Luke; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal; Page, Katharine; Wang, Xiaoping; Ye, Feng

    Hybrid perovskites (ABX3) have attracted a great deal of attention recently as light absorbers for photovoltaics. In these materials the A site is occupied by organic cations, for example methyl ammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA) cations, the B site is occupied by metals, for example Pb or Sn, and the X anions are halogens (I, Br, or Cl). Typical of perovskites, these materials exhibit a series of structural phase transitions involving rotations or tilts of the BX6 octahedra, but with the added complexity that the inorganic framework is coupled to order-disorder transitions of the organic cations. We have used neutron scattering techniques to characterize the structures and dynamics of several of these compounds as a function of temperature. In addition, high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to investigate the structural phase transitions. These studies yield a detailed picture of the structures, dynamics, and structural phase transitions of these compounds, and provide a firm basis for understanding their excellent photovoltaic properties.

  12. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  13. Numerical and experimental studies of the hybrid rocket motor with multi-port fuel grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Li, Xintian; Zeng, Peng; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional numerical simulations and experimental studies of the hybrid rocket motor with multi-port fuel grain. The numerical model is established based on the Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence, chemical reactions, fuel pyrolysis, and solid-gas boundary interactions. The simulation is performed based on the 98% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant combination. The results indicate that the flow field and fuel regression rate distributions present apparent three-dimensional characteristics. The fuel regression rates decrease first and then gradually increase with the axial location increasing. At a certain cross section, the fuel regression rates are lower in the points on arcs with smaller radius of curvature when the fuel port is a derivable convex figure. Two experiments are carried out on a full scale motor with the simulation one. The working process of the motor is steady and no evident oscillatory combustion is observed. The fuel port profiles before and after tests indicate that the fuel regression rate distributions at the cross section match well with the numerical simulation results.

  14. Performance of Hybrid Photon Detectors and Studies of Two-Body Hadronic B Decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, L; Parkes, C

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the CERN LHC accelerator will begin physics data taking in late 2009. LHCb aims to discover New Physics processes via precision measurements using heavy flavoured hadrons, such as $B$ and $D$ hadrons. This thesis describes studies relevant to measurements of $B$ decays to hadronic final states at LHCb. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters of LHCb are crucial to the performance of such measurements. They use arrays of Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) as their photodetection system. Detailed results are presented from the characterisation programme of the entire sample of 557 HPDs that were produced. Their overall performance is found to be outstanding, with only 2.2\\% of HPDs judged to be unusable for the RICHes. The LHCb requirements and the contractual specifications are met and often exceeded in key areas. The measurement of the single photoelectron detection efficiency, $\\eta$, of the HPD anode is described in detail. The efficiency was measured as $\\eta=(87.9\\pm 1.4)\\%$. This va...

  15. A hybrid molecular dynamics study on the non-Newtonian rheological behaviors of shear thickening fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaihui; Wang, Yu; Xuan, Shouhu; Gong, Xinglong

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural evolution dependency on the apparent viscosity in shear-thickening fluids (STFs), a hybrid mesoscale model combined with stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD) and molecular dynamics (MD) is used. Muller-Plathe reverse perturbation method is adopted to analyze the viscosities of STFs in a two-dimensional model. The characteristic of microstructural evolution of the colloidal suspensions under different shear rate is studied. The effect of diameter of colloidal particles and the phase volume fraction on the shear thickening behavior is investigated. Under low shear rate, the two-atom structure is formed, because of the strong particle attractions in adjacent layers. At higher shear rate, the synergetic pair structure extends to layered structure along flow direction because of the increasing hydrodynamics action. As the shear rate rises continuously, the layered structure rotates and collides with other particles, then turned to be individual particles under extension or curve string structure under compression. Finally, at the highest shear rate, the strings curve more severely and get into two-dimensional cluster. The apparent viscosity of the system changes from shear-thinning behavior to the shear-thickening behavior. This work presents valuable information for further understanding the shear thickening mechanism.

  16. Properties of carbon impurities in ZnO: A hybrid functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Luo, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of the room temperature (RT) ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO and the trend that the higher the C concentration, the smaller the saturation magnetic moment (Ms), have remained controversial and puzzling for a long time. Using density-functional calculations with hybrid functional, we qualitatively understand these experimental phenomena. The substitutional CO defects dominate in Zn-rich conditions and n -type materials. They carry 1 or 2 μB/C , depending on the position of the Fermi level. In low C concentrations and at RT, the CO defects are kept isolated and prefer to couple ferromagnetically, thus the Ms is larger. As the C concentration increases, nonmagnetic C2 dimers form through binding of two CO defects or binding of one CO defect with one interstitial C, thus decreasing the Ms. Our results also suggest that the ferromagnetism from CO defects can be quenched by higher annealing temperatures. Furthermore, the p -type conductivity from carbon dopant is not supported in the present study.

  17. Study of Performance of Hybrid yarns (Hemp/ Polypropylene/ Glass Woven Reinforcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Manins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of reinforcements of 100 tex hemp yarns and hybrid yarns reinforcements with same hemp yarns and glass fibres’ (136 Tex in warp direction (25 % or 50 % interwoven with hemp yarns. The industrial loom CTБ-175 and craftsman’s loom, plain weaving technique for production of reinforcements with surface density in range of 91-246 g/m2 were used in the production. Tensile strength of hemp reinforcement on warp direction is 241.7N-279.8N and tensile modulus 218.48MPa-271.24MPa.The measurement of fabric thickness and physical-mechanical properties of reinforcements were carried out according to ISO 5084:1996 and LVS EN ISO 13934-1-2001 standards. One and two layer composites of woven reinforcements of hemp and polypropylene yarns were produced with Laboratory Press LP_S_50/SASTM. The surface density of one layer composite is 311.2 g/m2 and 608.4 g/m2 of two layers composite. The tensile strength of same composites is 303.1N and 599.5N, the tensile stress is 35.66 MPa and 40.65 MPa. The elastic modulus of one layer composites is 908.2 MPa and 1152.5MPa for two layers composite. The mechanical properties of composites were established according to ISO 527-5:2009 standard.

  18. Optically active substituted polyacetylene@carbon nanotube hybrids: Preparation, characterization and infrared emissivity property study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Xiaohai; Zhou, Yuming, E-mail: ymzhou@seu.edu.cn; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yongjuan; Zhang, Zewu; He, Man

    2014-08-15

    Optically active substituted polyacetylene@multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPA@MWCNTs) nanohybrids were fabricated by wrapping helical SPA copolymers onto the surface of modified nanotubes through ester bonding linkage. SPA copolymer based on chiral phenylalanine and serine was pre-polymerized by a rhodium zwitterion catalyst in THF, and evidently proved to possess strong optical activity and adopt a predominately one-handed helical conformation. Various characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the SPA had been covalently grafted onto the nanotubes without destroying their original graphite structure. The wrapped SPA was found to exhibit an enhancement in thermal stability and still maintained considerable optical activity after grafting. The infrared emissivity property of the nanohybrids at 8–14 μm was investigated in addition. The results indicated that the SPA@MWCNTs hybrid matrix could possess a much lower infrared emissivity value (ε=0.707) than raw MWCNTs, which might be due to synergistic effect of the unique helical conformation of optically active SPA and strengthened interfacial interaction between the organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids with low infrared emissivity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of optically active SPA copolymer derived from serine and phenylalanine. • Preparation and characterization of optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanoh