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Sample records for hybridization studies revealed

  1. Genomic markers reveal introgressive hybridization in the Indo-West Pacific mangroves: a case study.

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    Mei Sun

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of mangrove ecosystems is difficult to assess, at least partly due to lack of genetic verification of morphology-based documentation of species. Natural hybridization, on the one hand, plays an important role in evolution as a source of novel gene combinations and a mechanism of speciation. However, on the other hand, recurrent introgression allows gene flow between species and could reverse the process of genetic differentiation among populations required for speciation. To understand the dynamic evolutionary consequences of hybridization, this study examines genomic structure of hybrids and parental species at the population level. In the Indo-West Pacific, Bruguiera is one of the dominant mangrove genera and species ranges overlap extensively with one another. Morphological intermediates between sympatric Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Bruguiera sexangula have been reported as a variety of B. sexangula or a new hybrid species, B. × rhynchopetala. However, the direction of hybridization and extent of introgression are unclear. A large number of species-specific inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were found in B. gymnorrhiza and B. sexangula, and the additive ISSR profiling of B. × rhynchopetala ascertained its hybrid status and identified its parental origin. The varying degree of scatterness among hybrid individuals in Principal Coordinate Analysis and results from NewHybrids analysis indicate that B. × rhynchopetala comprises different generations of introgressants in addition to F(1s. High genetic relatedness between B. × rhynchopetala and B. gymnorrhiza based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences suggests preferential hybrid backcrosses to B. gymnorrhiza. We conclude that B. × rhynchopetala has not evolved into an incipient hybrid species, and its persistence can be explained by recurrent hybridization and introgression. Genomic data provide insights into the hybridization dynamics of mangrove plants. Such information

  2. Metal ion coordination in `R’ and `T’ state hybrid hemoglobins as revealed by optical, EPR and sulphhydryl reactivity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramasamy; Swarnalatha Venkateshrao; J M Rifkind; P T Manoharan

    2005-03-01

    The sulphhydryl environment in various mixed-metal hybrid hemoglobins, viz. 2(Cu)-2(FeCO), 2(FeCO)-2(Cu), 2(Cu)-2(Ni), 2(Ni)-2(Cu), was studied by reacting them with the sulphhydryl reagent, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (4-PDS). The reactivity was compared with that of HbCO, NiHb and CuHb. It is found that there exists a correlation between conformational change and metal ion environment, not only at the extreme R and T states but also the intermediate conformations. EPR examinations of these hybrids show that both in 4R state-[Cu(II)-Fe(II)] and state-[Cu(II)-Ni(II)] hybrids at neutral pH and in the absence of IHP, CuPPIX, irrespective of the subunit in which it is present, has a mixed-metal ion environment: Species 1, a five-coordinated Cu2+ complex with strong proximal histidine bond and species 2, a four-coordinated complex without any covalent linkage with N F8-histidine.

  3. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

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    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  4. Chromosomal imbalances revealed in primary rhabdomyosarcomas by comparative genomic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiao-xin; LIU Chun-xia; CHUN Cai-pu; QI Yan; CHANG Bin; LI Xin-xia; CHEN Yun-zhao; NONG Wei-xia; LI Hong-an; LI Feng

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous cytogenetic studies revealed aberrations varied among the throe subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma. We profiled chromosomal imbalances in the different subtypes and investigated the relationships between clinical parameters and genomic aberrations.Methods Comparative genomic hybridization was used to investigate genomic imbalances in 25 cases of primary rhabdomyosarcomas and two rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Specimens were reviewed to determine histological type, pathological grading and clinical staging.Results Changes involving one or more regions of the genome were seen in all rhabdomyosarcomal patients. For rhabdomyosarcoma, DNA sequence gains were most frequently (>30%) seen in chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p,2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q; losses from 3p, 11p and 6p. In aggressive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were seen on chromosomes 12q, 2p, 6p, 2q, 4q, 10q and 15q; losses from 3p, 6p, 1q and 5q. For embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were on 7p, 9q, 2p, 18q, 1p and 8q; losses only from 11p. Frequently gained chromosome arms of translocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 12q, 2, 6, 10q, 4q and 15q; losses from 3p,6p and 5q. The frequently gained chromosome arms of nontranslocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 2p,9q and 18q, while 11p and 14q were the frequently lost chromosome arms. Gains on chromosome 12q were significantly correlated with translocation type. Gains on chromosome 9q were significantly correlated with clinical staging. Conclusions Gains on chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p, 2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q and losses on chromosomes 3p, 11p and 6p may be related to rhabdomyosarcomal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, gains on chromosome 12q may be correlated with translocation and gains on chromosome 9q with the early stages of rhabdomyosarcoma.

  5. Insight into octoploid strawberry (Fragaria) subgenome composition revealed by GISH analysis of pentaploid hybrids.

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    Liu, Bo; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Davis, Thomas M

    2016-02-01

    As the product of interspecific hybridization between its two ancestral octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) species (Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana), the cultivated strawberry (F. ×ananassa) is among the most genomically complex of crop plants, harboring subgenomic components derived from as many as four different diploid ancestors. To physically visualize the octoploids' subgenome composition(s), we launched molecular cytogenetic studies using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), comparative GISH (cGISH), and rDNA-FISH techniques. First, GISH resolution in Fragaria was tested by using diploid and triploid hybrids with predetermined genome compositions. Then, observation of an octoploid genome was implemented by hybridizing chromosomes of pentaploid (2n = 5x = 35) hybrids from F. vesca × F. virginiana with genomic DNA probes derived from diploids (2n = 2x = 14) F. vesca and F. iinumae, which have been proposed by phylogenetic studies to be closely related to the octoploids yet highly divergent from each other. GISH and cGISH results indicated that octoploid-derived gametes (n = 4x = 28) carried seven chromosomes with hybridization affinities to F. vesca, while the remaining 21 chromosomes displayed varying affinities to F. iinumae, indicating differing degrees of subgenomic contribution to the octoploids by these two putatively ancestral diploids. Combined rDNA-FISH revealed severe 25S rDNA loss in both the F. vesca- and F. iinumae-like chromosome groups, while only the prior group retained its 5S loci.

  6. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

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    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2, respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1, seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2, two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  7. Genome-wide mapping in a house mouse hybrid zone reveals hybrid sterility loci and Dobzhansky-Muller interactions.

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    Turner, Leslie M; Harr, Bettina

    2014-12-09

    Mapping hybrid defects in contact zones between incipient species can identify genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation and reveal genetic mechanisms of speciation. The house mouse features a rare combination of sophisticated genetic tools and natural hybrid zones between subspecies. Male hybrids often show reduced fertility, a common reproductive barrier between incipient species. Laboratory crosses have identified sterility loci, but each encompasses hundreds of genes. We map genetic determinants of testis weight and testis gene expression using offspring of mice captured in a hybrid zone between M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. Many generations of admixture enables high-resolution mapping of loci contributing to these sterility-related phenotypes. We identify complex interactions among sterility loci, suggesting multiple, non-independent genetic incompatibilities contribute to barriers to gene flow in the hybrid zone.

  8. Molecular genetic analyses of mating pheromones reveal intervariety mating or hybridization in Cryptococcus neoformans.

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    Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Fan, Jinjiang; Stein, Birgit; Behr, Melissa J; Samsonoff, William A; Wickes, Brian L; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2002-09-01

    The sexual mating of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is important for pathogenesis studies because the fungal virulence is linked to the alpha mating type (MAT(alpha)). We characterized C. neoformans mating pheromones (MF(alpha) 1 and MFa1) from 122 strains to understand intervariety hybridization or mating and intervariety virulence. MF(alpha) 1 in three C. neoformans varieties showed (a) specific nucleotide polymorphisms, (b) different copy numbers and chromosomal localizations, and (c) unique deduced amino acids in two geographic populations of C. neoformans var. gattii. MF(alpha) 1 of different varieties cross-hybridized in Southern hybridizations. Their phylogenetic analyses showed purifying selection (neutral evolution). These observations suggested that MAT(alpha) strains from any of the three C. neoformans varieties could mate or hybridize in nature with MATa strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans. A few serotype A/D diploid strains provided evidence for mating or hybridization, while a majority of A/D strains tested positive for haploid MF(alpha) 1 identical to that of C. neoformans var. grubii. MF(alpha) 1 sequence and copy numbers in diploids were identical to those of C. neoformans var. grubii, while their MFa1 sequences were identical to those of C. neoformans var. neoformans; thus, these strains were hybrids. The mice survival curves and histological lesions revealed A/D diploids to be highly pathogenic, with pathogenicity levels similar to that of the C. neoformans var. grubii type strain and unlike the low pathogenicity levels of C. neoformans var. neoformans strains. In contrast to MF(alpha) 1 in three varieties, MFa1 amplicons and hybridization signals could be obtained only from two C. neoformans var. neoformans reference strains and eight A/D diploids. This suggested that a yet undiscovered MFa pheromone(s) in C. neoformans var. gattii and C. neoformans var. grubii is unrelated to, highly divergent from, or rarer than that in C

  9. Phylogenetic Relationship of Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. Revealed by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Lan DAI; Wen-Kui WANG; Mao-Xue LI; Ying-Xiu XU

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the different species in the genus Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. were estimated based on chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S-26S rDNA of Arabidopsis and genomic DNA of Dendranthema as probes. The results revealed that there was no positive correlation between the number of nuclear organization region (NOR) loci and the ploidy of Dendranthema.The exact cytogenetic information of NORs about 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) indicated that D.vestitum (Hemsl.) Ling et Shih was closer to the cultivars than other putative species, whereas D. zawadskii (Herb.) Tzvel. was the most distinct. The ambiguously distributed signals of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with genomic DNA of lower ploidy species as probes suggested that different genomes among Dendranthema were mixed. The result also indicated the limitation of GISH in studies on the phylogenetic relationships of the different species in this genus Dendranthema and on the origin of cultivated chrysanthemums. Based on these results and previous research, the origin of Chinese cultivated chrysanthemum is discussed.

  10. Dry sliding wear studies of aluminum matrix hybrid composites

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    V.V. Monikandan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, hybrid composites are fabricated with self-lubricating characteristics to make them as resource-efficient materials. AA6061-10 wt. % B4C–MoS2 hybrid composites reinforced with 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt. % concentration of MoS2 particles are produced using stir casting technique, and mechanical and tribological properties are evaluated. Microstructural characterization of the hybrid composites revealed the uniform distribution of reinforcement (B4C and MoS2 particles in the matrix material. Hardness and fracture toughness of the hybrid composites are decreased monotonously with an increase in the addition of MoS2 particles. Dry sliding tribological studies conducted using a pin-on-disk tribotester under atmospheric conditions revealed the formation of MoS2-lubricated tribolayer on the worn pin surface which significantly influenced the tribological properties. The addition of MoS2 particles decreased the friction coefficient and wear rate of the hybrid composites. Delamination and abrasion are observed to be the controlling wear mechanisms and material in the form of platelet-shaped debris, and flow-type chip debris is formed, and a long and shallow crater on the worn pin surface of the hybrid composite is also observed.

  11. Genome differentiation in Magonoliaceae as revealed from meiotic pairing in interspecific and intergeneric hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Zhou ZHANG; Ya-Ling WANG; Zi-Can HE; Erland EJDER

    2011-01-01

    The cross compatibility within and between Yulania Spach and Michelia L.(Magnoliaceae) is relatively good and various such hybrids,obtained by conventional artificial hybridization,are available.The aim of the present study was to determine the extent of genome differentiation between the species involved in these crosses through the observation of chromosome pairing during meiosis in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the hybrids.Chromosome pairing behavior was studied in five species (2n =38) and two interspecific hybrids of Michelia,eight species (2n =38,76 and 114) and 10 interspecific hybrids of Yulania,and three intergeneric hybrids between Michelia and Yulania.The results showed that chromosome pairing was normal with bivalent formation in diploid parental species and in interspecific hybrids.In addition to bivalents,multivalents were encountered in polyploid parental species and polyploid interspecific hybrids.In the intergeneric hybrids between a tetraploid Yulania and two diploid Michelia,19 chromosomes,most likely originating from Michelia,were unable to synapse from zygotene to metaphase I.Meiotic chromosome pairing indicated a high degree of homology between species within Michelia and Yulania and less homology between the genomes of these two genera.The differentiation of morphological characters and the distinctness of natural distribution also support the conclusion that these two genera are likely independent monophyletic groups.This suggests that the two genera were split at early evolution of Magnoliaceae and the overlapping characteristics in external morphology and internal structures of the two genera may be the result of parallel evolution or ancient common ancestry.

  12. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization and interspecies representational difference analysis reveal gross DNA differences between humans and great apes.

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    Toder, R; Xia, Y; Bausch, E

    1998-09-01

    Comparative chromosome G-/R-banding, comparative gene mapping and chromosome painting techniques have demonstrated that only few chromosomal rearrangements occurred during great ape and human evolution. Interspecies comparative genome hybridization (CGH), used here in this study, between human, gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee revealed species-specific regions in all three species. In contrast to the human, a far more complex distribution of species-specific blocks was detected with CGH in gorilla and pygmy chimpanzee. Most of these blocks coincide with already described heterochromatic regions on gorilla and chimpanzee chromosomes. Representational difference analysis (RDA) was used to subtract the complex genome of gorilla against human in order to enrich gorilla-specific DNA sequences. Gorilla-specific clones isolated with this technique revealed a 32-bp repeat unit. These clones were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the telomeric regions of gorilla chromosomes that had been shown by interspecies CGH to contain species-specific sequences.

  13. Genetic tests of ancient asexuality in Root Knot Nematodes reveal recent hybrid origins

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    Lunt David H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of "ancient asexuals", taxa that have persisted for long periods of evolutionary history without sexual recombination, is both controversial and important for our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction. A lack of sex has consequences not only for the ecology of the asexual organism but also for its genome. Several genetic signatures are predicted from long-term asexual (apomictic reproduction including (i large "allelic" sequence divergence (ii lack of phylogenetic clustering of "alleles" within morphological species and (iii decay and loss of genes specific to meiosis and sexual reproduction. These genetic signatures can be hard to assess since it is difficult to demonstrate the allelic nature of very divergent sequences, divergence levels may be complicated by processes such as inter-specific hybridization, and genes may have secondary roles unrelated to sexual reproduction. Apomictic species of Meloidogyne root knot nematodes have been suggested previously to be ancient asexuals. Their relatives reproduce by meiotic parthenogenesis or facultative sexuality, which in combination with the abundance of nematode genomic sequence data, makes them a powerful system in which to study the consequences of reproductive mode on genomic divergence. Results Here, sequences from nuclear protein-coding genes are used to demonstrate that the first two predictions of ancient asexuality are found within the apomictic root knot nematodes. Alleles are more divergent in the apomictic taxa than in those species exhibiting recombination and do not group phylogenetically according to recognized species. In contrast some nuclear alleles, and mtDNA, are almost identical across species. Sequencing of Major Sperm Protein, a gamete-specific gene, from both meiotic and ameiotic species reveals no increase in evolutionary rate nor change in substitution pattern in the apomictic taxa, indicating that the locus

  14. Genome comparison of Candida orthopsilosis clinical strains reveals the existence of hybrids between two distinct subspecies.

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    Pryszcz, Leszek P; Németh, Tibor; Gácser, Attila; Gabaldón, Toni

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis species complex comprises a group of emerging human pathogens of varying virulence. This complex was recently subdivided into three different species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis. Within the latter, at least two clearly distinct subspecies seem to be present among clinical isolates (Type 1 and Type 2). To gain insight into the genomic differences between these subspecies, we undertook the sequencing of a clinical isolate classified as Type 1 and compared it with the available sequence of a Type 2 clinical strain. Unexpectedly, the analysis of the newly sequenced strain revealed a highly heterozygous genome, which we show to be the consequence of a hybridization event between both identified subspecies. This implicitly suggests that C. orthopsilosis is able to mate, a so-far unanswered question. The resulting hybrid shows a chimeric genome that maintains a similar gene dosage from both parental lineages and displays ongoing loss of heterozygosity. Several of the differences found between the gene content in both strains relate to virulent-related families, with the hybrid strain presenting a higher copy number of genes coding for efflux pumps or secreted lipases. Remarkably, two clinical strains isolated from distant geographical locations (Texas and Singapore) are descendants of the same hybrid line, raising the intriguing possibility of a relationship between the hybridization event and the global spread of a virulent clone.

  15. Variability of ribosomal DNA sites in Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne, and their intergeneric hybrids, revealed by FISH and GISH.

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    Ksiazczyk, T; Taciak, M; Zwierzykowski, Z

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the variability of chromosomal location and number of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites in some diploid and autotetraploid Festuca pratensis and Lolium perenne cultivars, as well as on identification of rDNA-bearing chromosomes in their triploid and tetraploid F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrids. The rDNA loci were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 25S rDNA probes, and the origin of parental genomes was verified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with L. perenne genomic DNA as a probe, and F. pratensis genomic DNA as a block. FISH detected variation in the number and chromosomal location of both 5S and 45S rDNA sites. In F. pratensis mostly additional signals of 5S rDNA loci occurred, as compared with standard F. pratensis karyotypes. Losses of 45S rDNA loci were more frequent in L. perenne cultivars and intergeneric hybrids. Comparison of the F. pratensis and L. perenne genomes approved a higher number of rDNA sites as well as variation in chromosomal rDNA location in L. perenne. A greater instability of F. pratensis-genome-like and L. perenne-genome-like chromosomes in tetraploid hybrids was revealed, indicating gains and losses of rDNA loci, respectively. Our data indicate that the rDNA loci physically mapped on chromosomes 2 and 3 in F. pratensis and on chromosome 3 in L. perenne are useful markers for these chromosomes in intergeneric Festuca × Lolium hybrids.

  16. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals that hybridization between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica occurred in China.

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    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Peng, Mao; Hayashi, Kei; Shoriki, Takuya; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2017-02-01

    The well-known pathogens of fasciolosis, Fasciola hepatica (Fh) and Fasciola Gigantica (Fg), possess abundant mature sperms in their seminal vesicles, and thus, they reproduce bisexually. On the other hand, aspermic Fasciola flukes reported from Asian countries, which have no sperm in their seminal vesicles, probably reproduce parthenogenetically. The aim of this study was to reveal the origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes. The nuclear single copy markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta, were employed for analysis of Fasciola species from China. The hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes was strongly suggested by the presence of the Fh/Fg type, which includes DNA fragments of both F. hepatica and F. gigantica. China can be regarded as the cradle of the interspecific hybridization because F. hepatica and F. gigantica were detected in the northern and southern parts of China, respectively, and hybrids flukes were distributed between the habitats of the two species. The Chinese origin was supported by the fact that a larger number of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) haplotypes was detected in Chinese aspermic Fasciola populations than in aspermic populations from the neighbouring countries. Hereafter, 'aspermic' Fasciola flukes should be termed as 'hybrid' Fasciola flukes.

  17. Multiple ITS copies reveal extensive hybridization within Rheum (Polygonaceae, a genus that has undergone rapid radiation.

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    Dongshi Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During adaptive radiation events, characters can arise multiple times due to parallel evolution, but transfer of traits through hybridization provides an alternative explanation for the same character appearing in apparently non-sister lineages. The signature of hybridization can be detected in incongruence between phylogenies derived from different markers, or from the presence of two divergent versions of a nuclear marker such as ITS within one individual. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we cloned and sequenced ITS regions for 30 species of the genus Rheum, and compared them with a cpDNA phylogeny. Seven species contained two divergent copies of ITS that resolved in different clades from one another in each case, indicating hybridization events too recent for concerted evolution to have homogenised the ITS sequences. Hybridization was also indicated in at least two further species via incongruence in their position between ITS and cpDNA phylogenies. None of the ITS sequences present in these nine species matched those detected in any other species, which provides tentative evidence against recent introgression as an explanation. Rheum globulosum, previously indicated by cpDNA to represent an independent origin of decumbent habit, is indicated by ITS to be part of clade of decumbent species, which acquired cpDNA of another clade via hybridization. However decumbent and glasshouse morphology are confirmed to have arisen three and two times, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that hybridization among QTP species of Rheum has been extensive, and that a role of hybridization in diversification of Rheum requires investigation.

  18. Oral hybrid verrucous carcinoma: a clinical study.

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    Gokavarapu, Sandhya; Rao S, L M Chandrasekhara; Tantravahi, Uma Sankar; Gundimeda, Sandhya Devi; Rao, T Subramaneshwar; Murthy, Sudha

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid Verrucous Carcinoma is an uncommon tumour wherein Verrucous Carcinoma (VC) is coexisting with conventional Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) within same maternal field. The heterogeneous nature, infrequency of occurrence and the difficulties associated with diagnosis and management of this tumor is discussed through a retrospective study. Patients of primary hybrid VC treated from Jan 2010 to May 2013 at a tertiary institute were analyzed on multivariate cox regression model. During the above mentioned period; 37 patients of hybrid VC were reported; 18(48.6 %) were male and 19(51.3 %) were female. Age ranged between 33 years to 78 years. Median follow up period was 32 months. T stage status and Stage grouping was not statistically significant for mortality (p value: 0.338). In the multivariate cox-regression model, the presence of second primary oral cancer was significantly associated with mortality, adjusted HR; 23.10 (95 % CI: 1.73, 307.65) (p = 0.017). Tumour staging is often unreliable in predicting prognosis of hybrid VC, occurrence of second primary oral cancer and recurrence appears to be significant factors effecting prognosis.

  19. Comparative genomics among Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces kudriavzevii natural hybrid strains isolated from wine and beer reveals different origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interspecific hybrids between S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii have frequently been detected in wine and beer fermentations. Significant physiological differences among parental and hybrid strains under different stress conditions have been evidenced. In this study, we used comparative genome hybridization analysis to evaluate the genome composition of different S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii natural hybrids isolated from wine and beer fermentations to infer their evolutionary origins and to figure out the potential role of common S. kudriavzevii gene fraction present in these hybrids. Results Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and ploidy analyses carried out in this study confirmed the presence of individual and differential chromosomal composition patterns for most S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids from beer and wine. All hybrids share a common set of depleted S. cerevisiae genes, which also are depleted or absent in the wine strains studied so far, and the presence a common set of S. kudriavzevii genes, which may be associated with their capability to grow at low temperatures. Finally, a maximum parsimony analysis of chromosomal rearrangement events, occurred in the hybrid genomes, indicated the presence of two main groups of wine hybrids and different divergent lineages of brewing strains. Conclusion Our data suggest that wine and beer S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids have been originated by different rare-mating events involving a diploid wine S. cerevisiae and a haploid or diploid European S. kudriavzevii strains. Hybrids maintain several S. kudriavzevii genes involved in cold adaptation as well as those related to S. kudriavzevii mitochondrial functions. PMID:22906207

  20. [Oncogenic human papillomaviruses in extra-genital Bowen disease revealed by in situ hybridization].

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    Derancourt, C; Mougin, C; Chopard Lallier, M; Coumes-Marquet, S; Drobacheff, C; Laurent, R

    2001-01-01

    The association between mucosal oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) and bowenoid papulosis or genital Bowen's disease is well documented. In contrast this association with extra-genital Bowen's disease is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to detect oncogenic (16/18, 31/33/51) and non oncogenic (8/11) mucosal HPV using a in situ hybridization method in 28 skin biopsy specimens of extra-genital Bowen's disease. Twenty-eight cases of extra-genital Bowen's disease seen in the period 1990-96 in the Dermatology department were included: 19 women and 9 men (mean age: 72 years). Bowen's disease locations were: hands and feet (8 cases), limbs (11 cases), face (8 cases), trunk (1 case). Blinded histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and signs of HPV infection (koilocytosis). In situ hybridization was performed using three biotinylated probes detecting HPV types 6/11, 16/18, 31/33/51. Oncogenic HPV genoma was detected in 8 skin samples (28.6 p. 100). In all these cases, 16/18 probe was positive and in two cases, both 16/18 and 31/33/51 probes were positive; 4/8 Bowen's diseases of the extremities were positive for HPV. Koilocytes were found in 6/8 of skin samples with positive HPV detection. Mucosal oncogenic HPV are detected by in situ hybridization in 28.6 p. 100 of extra-genital Bowen's disease. In situ hybridization is an easier technique than Southern-Blot hybridization which is the gold standard. Five studies reported similar results and three studies reported different results that we discuss. A precise understanding of oncogenic HPV implication in the development of extra-genital Bowen's disease could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies (topical cidofovir or imiquimod).

  1. Patterns of hybrid loss of imprinting reveal tissue- and cluster-specific regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Wiley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crosses between natural populations of two species of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus (BW, and P. polionotus (PO, produce parent-of-origin effects on growth and development. BW females mated to PO males (bwxpo produce growth-retarded but otherwise healthy offspring. In contrast, PO females mated to BW males (POxBW produce overgrown and severely defective offspring. The hybrid phenotypes are pronounced in the placenta and include POxBW conceptuses which lack embryonic structures. Evidence to date links variation in control of genomic imprinting with the hybrid defects, particularly in the POxBW offspring. Establishment of genomic imprinting is typically mediated by gametic DNA methylation at sites known as gDMRs. However, imprinted gene clusters vary in their regulation by gDMR sequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we further assess imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation at different cluster types in order to discern patterns. These data reveal POxBW misexpression at the Kcnq1ot1 and Peg3 clusters, both of which lose ICR methylation in placental tissues. In contrast, some embryonic transcripts (Peg10, Kcnq1ot1 reactivated the silenced allele with little or no loss of DNA methylation. Hybrid brains also display different patterns of imprinting perturbations. Several cluster pairs thought to use analogous regulatory mechanisms are differentially affected in the hybrids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data reinforce the hypothesis that placental and somatic gene regulation differs significantly, as does that between imprinted gene clusters and between species. That such epigenetic regulatory variation exists in recently diverged species suggests a role in reproductive isolation, and that this variation is likely to be adaptive.

  2. Hybrid Arc Cell Studies: Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg J. S.

    2012-09-28

    I report on the status, at the end of FY12, of the studies of an arc cell for a hybrid synchrotron accelerating from 375 GeV/c to 750 GeV/c in momentum. Garren produced a complete lattice that gives a good outline of the structure of a hybrid synchrotron lattice. It is, however, lacking in some details: it does not maintain a constant time of flight, it lacks chromaticity correction, its cell structure is not ideal for removing aberrations from chromaticity correction, and it probably needs more space between magnets. I have begun studying cell structures for the arc cells to optimize the lattice performance and cost. I present some preliminary results for two magnets per half cell. I then discuss difficulties encountered, some preliminary attempts at resolving them, and the future plans for this work.

  3. Theoretical study on stability of hybrid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago S.; de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sèrgio

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental realization of the hybrid nanostructure of graphene and boron nitride (h-BN) sheet, and studies of gap modulation by strain, we use first principles calculations based on density functional theory to investigate the effects of strain in hybrid bilayers composed of two monolayers of graphene with a nanodomain of {{B}3}{{N}3}. The calculations were made with two different approximations for the functional exchange-correlation, GGA and VDW-DF. We investigate the modification in the electronic structure and structural properties of various configurations of the hybrid bilayers. Among the configurations, those with Bernal stacking are found to be more stable when compared to the others. Studies of the compressive strain influence were made only in the structure that has been shown to be the most stable. We have found that the two approximations used in the calculations exhibit the same results for the electronic properties of all structures. The opening of the energy gap due to strain was possible in the calculations by using the GGA approximation, but the same does not happen in the calculations using the VDW-DF approximation. Our analysis shows that the VDW-DF approximation is better suited for studies involving surfaces.

  4. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THREE HYBRID BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, E. C.; Lister, M. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kharb, P. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Marshall, H. L. [Center for Space Research, Room NE80-6031, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); O’Dea, C.; Baum, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    We present multiwavelength imaging observations of PKS 1045−188, 8C 1849+670, and PKS 2216−038, three radio-loud active galactic nuclei from the MOJAVE-Chandra Sample that straddle the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) boundary between low- and high-power jets. These hybrid sources provide an excellent opportunity to study jet emission mechanisms and the influence of the external environment. We used archival VLA observations, and new Hubble and Chandra observations to identify and study the spectral properties of five knots in PKS 1045−188, two knots in 8C 1849+670, and three knots in PKS 2216−038. For the seven X-ray visible knots, we constructed and fit the broadband spectra using synchrotron and inverse Compton/cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission models. In all cases, we found that the lack of detected optical emission ruled out the X-ray emission from the same electron population that produces radio emission. All three sources have high total extended radio power, similar to that of FR II sources. We find this is in good agreement with previously studied hybrid sources, where high-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via IC/CMB and the low-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via synchrotron emission. This supports the idea that it is total radio power rather than FR morphology that determines the X-ray emission mechanism. We found no significant asymmetries in the diffuse X-ray emission surrounding the host galaxies. Sources PKS 1045−188 and 8C 1849+670 show significant differences in their radio and X-ray termination points, which may result from the deceleration of highly relativistic bulk motion.

  5. Regression Rate Study in HTPB/GOX Hybrid Rocket Motors.

    OpenAIRE

    Philmon George; Krishnan, S; Lalitha Ramachandran; P. M. Varkey; Raveendran, M.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical and experimenIal studies on hybrid rocket motor combustion research are briefly reviewed and the need for a clear understanding of hybrid rocket fuel regression rate mechanism is brought out. A test facility established at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, for hybrid rocket motor research study is described.The results of an experimental study on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor are presented. Fuel grains with ammonium perchlor...

  6. Histogram analysis reveals a better delineation of tumor volume from background in {sup 18}F-FET PET compared to CBV maps in a hybrid PET–MR studie in gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filss, Christian P., E-mail: c.filss@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Stoffels, Gabriele [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Department of Neurology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Sabel, Michael [Department of Neurosurgery, University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Düsseldorf (Germany); Wittsack, Hans J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Düsseldorf (Germany); Coenen, Heinz H. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) – Section JARA-Brain (Germany); Shah, Nadim J. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) – Section JARA-Brain (Germany); Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen (Germany); Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) – Section JARA-Brain (Germany); and others

    2014-01-11

    Anatomical imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the method of first choice for diagnostic investigation of glial tumors. However, different MR sequences may over- or underestimate tumor size and thus it may not be possible to delineate tumor from adjacent brain. In order to compensate this confinement additonal MR sequences like perfusion weighted MRI (PWI) with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) or positron emission tomography (PET) with aminoacids are used to gain further information. Recent studies suggest that both of theses image modalities provide similar diagnostic information. For comparison tumor to brain ratios (TBR) with mean and maximum values are frequently used but results from different studies can often not be checked against each other. Furthermore, especially the maximum TBR in rCBV is at risk to be falsified by artifacts (e.g. blood vessels). These confinements are reduced by the use of histograms since all information of the VOIs are equally displayed. In this study we measured and compared the intersection of tumor and reference tissue histograms in {sup 18}F-FET PET and rCBV maps in glioma patients. Methods: Twenty-seven glioma patients with contrast enhancing lesion on T1-weighted MR images were investigated using static {sup 18}F-FET PET and rCBV in MRI using a PET–MR hybrid scanner. In all patients diagnosis was confirmed histologically (7 grade II gliomas, 6 grade III gliomas and 14 grade IV gliomas). We generated a set of tumor and reference tissue Volumes-of-Interest (VOIs) based on T1 weighted images in MRI with the tumor VOI defined by contrast enhancement and transferred these VOIs to the corresponding {sup 18}F-FET PET scans and rCBV maps. From these VOIs we generated tumor and reference tissue histograms with a unity of one for each curve integral and measured the proportion of the area under the tumor curve that falls into the reference curve for {sup 18}F-FET PET and rCBV maps for each patient. Results

  7. Extended carrier lifetimes and diffusion in hybrid perovskites revealed by Hall effect and photoconductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Yi, H. T.; Wu, X.; Haroldson, R.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Rodionov, Y. I.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Zakhidov, A.; Zhu, X.-Y.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-08-01

    Impressive performance of hybrid perovskite solar cells reported in recent years still awaits a comprehensive understanding of its microscopic origins. In this work, the intrinsic Hall mobility and photocarrier recombination coefficient are directly measured in these materials in steady-state transport studies. The results show that electron-hole recombination and carrier trapping rates in hybrid perovskites are very low. The bimolecular recombination coefficient (10-11 to 10-10 cm3 s-1) is found to be on par with that in the best direct-band inorganic semiconductors, even though the intrinsic Hall mobility in hybrid perovskites is considerably lower (up to 60 cm2 V-1 s-1). Measured here, steady-state carrier lifetimes (of up to 3 ms) and diffusion lengths (as long as 650 μm) are significantly longer than those in high-purity crystalline inorganic semiconductors. We suggest that these experimental findings are consistent with the polaronic nature of charge carriers, resulting from an interaction of charges with methylammonium dipoles.

  8. Hybrid functional study of α-uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Chinnappan, Ravi; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2016-05-01

    We have used the hybrid density functionals to study the structural and electronic properties of alpha-U. The fraction of exact Hartree Folk exchange used is varied from 0.0 to 0.6. The equilibrium volume is found to be underestimated and bulk modulus overestimated with HSE as compared to both calculated by PBE and the experimental values. Electronic bands below the Fermi level are found to shift to lower energy with respect to PBE electronic bands which itself gives the bands shifted to lower energies as compared to UPS experiments.

  9. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  10. Comparative genomics among Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces kudriavzevii natural hybrid strains isolated from wine and beer reveals different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peris David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybrids between S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii have frequently been detected in wine and beer fermentations. Significant physiological differences among parental and hybrid strains under different stress conditions have been evidenced. In this study, we used comparative genome hybridization analysis to evaluate the genome composition of different S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii natural hybrids isolated from wine and beer fermentations to infer their evolutionary origins and to figure out the potential role of common S. kudriavzevii gene fraction present in these hybrids. Results Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and ploidy analyses carried out in this study confirmed the presence of individual and differential chromosomal composition patterns for most S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids from beer and wine. All hybrids share a common set of depleted S. cerevisiae genes, which also are depleted or absent in the wine strains studied so far, and the presence a common set of S. kudriavzevii genes, which may be associated with their capability to grow at low temperatures. Finally, a maximum parsimony analysis of chromosomal rearrangement events, occurred in the hybrid genomes, indicated the presence of two main groups of wine hybrids and different divergent lineages of brewing strains. Conclusion Our data suggest that wine and beer S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids have been originated by different rare-mating events involving a diploid wine S. cerevisiae and a haploid or diploid European S. kudriavzevii strains. Hybrids maintain several S. kudriavzevii genes involved in cold adaptation as well as those related to S. kudriavzevii mitochondrial functions.

  11. Studies on synthetic LuxR solo hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePassos da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A sub-group of LuxR family of proteins that plays important roles in quorum sensing, a process of cell-cell communication, is widespread in proteobacteria. These proteins have a typical modular structure consisting of N-ter autoinducer binding and C-ter helix-turn-helix (HTH DNA binding domains. The autoinducer binding domain recognizes signaling molecules which are most often N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs but could also be other novel and yet unidentified molecules. In this study we carried out a series of specific domain swapping and promoter activation experiments as a first step to engineer synthetic signaling modules, taking advantage of the modularity and the versatile/diverse signal specificities of LuxR proteins. In our experiments the N-ter domains from different LuxR homologs were either interchanged or placed in tandem followed by a C-ter domain. The rational design of the hybrid proteins was supported by a structure-based homology modeling studies of three members of the LuxR family (i.e. LasR, RhlR and OryR being chosen for their unique ligand binding specificities and of selected chimeras. Our results reveal that these LuxR homologs were able to activate promoter elements that were not their usual targets; we also show that hybrid LuxR proteins retained the ability to recognize the signal specific for their N- ter autoinducer binding domain. However, the activity of hybrid LuxR proteins containing two AHL binding domains in tandem appears to depend on the organization and nature of the introduced domains. This study represents advances in the understanding of the modularity of LuxR proteins and provides additional possibilities to use hybrid proteins in both basic and applied synthetic biology based research.

  12. Studies on synthetic LuxR solo hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Daniel Passos; Patel, Hitendra K; González, Juan F; Devescovi, Giulia; Meng, Xianfa; Covaceuszach, Sonia; Lamba, Doriano; Subramoni, Sujatha; Venturi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A sub-group of LuxR family of proteins that plays important roles in quorum sensing, a process of cell-cell communication, is widespread in proteobacteria. These proteins have a typical modular structure consisting of N-ter autoinducer binding and C-ter helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding domains. The autoinducer binding domain recognizes signaling molecules which are most often N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) but could also be other novel and yet unidentified molecules. In this study we carried out a series of specific domain swapping and promoter activation experiments as a first step to engineer synthetic signaling modules, taking advantage of the modularity and the versatile/diverse signal specificities of LuxR proteins. In our experiments the N-ter domains from different LuxR homologs were either interchanged or placed in tandem followed by a C-ter domain. The rational design of the hybrid proteins was supported by a structure-based homology modeling studies of three members of the LuxR family (i.e., LasR, RhlR, and OryR being chosen for their unique ligand binding specificities) and of selected chimeras. Our results reveal that these LuxR homologs were able to activate promoter elements that were not their usual targets; we also show that hybrid LuxR proteins retained the ability to recognize the signal specific for their N- ter autoinducer binding domain. However, the activity of hybrid LuxR proteins containing two AHL binding domains in tandem appears to depend on the organization and nature of the introduced domains. This study represents advances in the understanding of the modularity of LuxR proteins and provides additional possibilities to use hybrid proteins in both basic and applied synthetic biology based research.

  13. The interrelation between plus-hybrid effect on grain yield and genetic distance of studied hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia is referred to as the Plus-Hybrid effect. A mixture of hybrids, in which one is a sterile female component and the other is a fertile pollinator, was sown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the increase of a hybrid genetic distance would result in the increased gain from Plus-hybrid effects on grain yield. Two ZP hybrids (ZP 1 and ZP 2, i.e. their sterile and fertile counterparts, as well as, five hybrid pollinators (ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4 and ZP 5 were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trail was set up according to the randomized split-plot design at Zemun Polje in 2009. SSR markers were used to determine the genetic distance between hybrids. Ten out of total 12 applied primers gave results. Coefficients of similarity were estimated according to Dice and Jaccard. The greatest (0.37, i.e. smallest genetic distance (0.08, according to Dice, was obtained between hybrids ZP 1 and ZP 5, i.e. ZP 1 and ZP 4, respectively. Values of genetic distance according to Jaccard were between 0.14 (ZP 1 and ZP 4 and 0.54 (ZP 1 i ZP 5 . By using the cluster analysis, four hybrids (ZP 1, ZP 4, ZP 3 and ZP 2 were grouped into one sub-cluster that was loosely linked to ZP 5. The Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield of the hybrid ZP 1 was negative. The greatest gain was detected in the ZP 2st ' ZP 1 combination, between two hybrids that were genetically very similar and belonged to the same sub-cluster, and then in ZP 2st x ZP 3 and ZP 2st x ZP 4 combinations, between hybrids that also belonged to the same sub-cluster. It can be concluded that the Plus-hybrid effect, after all, depends not on the hybrid genetic distance but on the hybrid genotype.

  14. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S Quilodrán

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  15. Regression Rate Study in HTPB/GOX Hybrid Rocket Motors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philmon George

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimenIal studies on hybrid rocket motor combustion research are briefly reviewed and the need for a clear understanding of hybrid rocket fuel regression rate mechanism is brought out. A test facility established at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, for hybrid rocket motor research study is described.The results of an experimental study on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor are presented. Fuel grains with ammonium perchlorate "additive" have shownenhanced oxidizermass flux dependence. Smallergrains have higher regression rates than those of the larger ones.

  16. A radiation hybrid map of chromosome ID reveals synteny conservation at a wheat speciation locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species cytoplasm specific (scs) genes affect nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions in interspecific hybrids. A radiation hybrid (RH) mapping population of 188 individuals was employed to refine the location of the scsae locus of Tritcum aestivum chromosome 1D. ‘Wheat Zapper’, a comparative genomic...

  17. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration Scaling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration is a subsonic transport aircraft concept with the potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions compared to conventional concepts. Initial studies focused on very large applications with capacities for up to 800 passengers. More recent studies have focused on the large, twin-aisle class with passenger capacities in the 300-450 range. Efficiently scaling this concept down to the single aisle or smaller size is challenging due to geometric constraints, potentially reducing the desirability of this concept for applications in the 100-200 passenger capacity range or less. In order to quantify this scaling challenge, five advanced conventional (tube-and-wing layout) concepts were developed, along with equivalent (payload/range/technology) HWB concepts, and their fuel burn performance compared. The comparison showed that the HWB concepts have fuel burn advantages over advanced tube-and-wing concepts in the larger payload/range classes (roughly 767-sized and larger). Although noise performance was not quantified in this study, the HWB concept has distinct noise advantages over the conventional tube-and-wing configuration due to the inherent noise shielding features of the HWB. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project will continue to investigate advanced configurations, such as the HWB, due to their potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions.

  18. A Multiwavelength Study of Three Hybrid Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Stanley, E C; Lister, M L; Marshall, H L; O'Dea, C; Baum, S

    2015-01-01

    We present multiwavelength imaging observations of PKS 1045-188, 8C 1849+670, and PKS 2216-038, three radio-loud active galactic nuclei from the MOJAVE-Chandra Sample that straddle the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) boundary between low- and high-power jets. These hybrid sources provide an excellent opportunity to study jet emission mechanisms and the influence of the external environment. We used archival VLA observations, and new Hubble and Chandra observations to identify and study the spectral properties of five knots in PKS 1045-188, two knots in 8C 1849+670, and three knots in PKS 2216-038. For the seven X-ray visible knots, we constructed and fit the broadband spectra using synchrotron and inverse Compton/cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission models. In all cases, we found that the lack of detected optical emission ruled out the X-ray emission from the same electron population that produces radio emission. All three sources have high total extended radio power, similar to that of FR II sources. We find th...

  19. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jezbera

    Full Text Available Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S-23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of

  20. Molecular data reveal complex hybridization and a cryptic species of neotropical wild cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Tatiane C; Schneider, Alexsandra; de Oliveira, Tadeu G; Lehugeur, Livia M; Silveira, Leandro; Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2013-12-16

    Hybridization among animal species has recently become more recognized as an important phenomenon, especially in the context of recent radiations. Here we show that complex hybridization has led to contrasting patterns of genomic composition among closely related species of the Neotropical cat genus Leopardus. We show strong evidence of ancient hybridization and introgression between the pampas cat (L. colocolo) and northeastern populations of tigrina (L. tigrinus), leading to remarkable cytonuclear discordance in the latter. In contrast, southern tigrina populations show recent and continuing hybridization with Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi), leading to extreme levels of interspecific admixture at their contact zone. Finally, we demonstrate that two seemingly continuous Brazilian tigrina populations show no evidence of ongoing gene flow between them, leading us to support their formal recognition as distinct species, namely L. tigrinus in the northeast and L. guttulus in the south.

  1. DOES PRODUCTIVITY MATTER IN THE ADOPTION OF HYBRID RICE? A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Saeed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyze comparative economics of hybrid rice and basmati in the core rice growing area of Punjab. Cross-data was collected through well-structured questionnaires from 80 farmers during May and June 2011.Study results reveal that higher yield and less time required for maturity in production were the main reasons for planting of hybrid rice. Hybrid rice occupied 3.6 acres whereas area under basmati was 5.9 acres of the total farm area. Farmers obtained above 60 percent increase in yield of hybrid rice. Results show that cost of production of basmati rice was estimated as Rs.37364 per acre and total revenue was Rs.44768 per acre. The benefit cost ratio of basmati rice was 1.20 and that of hybrid rice was 1.80, implying that hybrid rice has brought comparatively more economic benefits to the farmers as compared to basmati in the study area. Shortage of buyers, much costly poor quality hybrid seed, late payment and higher transportation costs are among major constraints in rice production and marketing.

  2. Suppression subtractive hybridization reveals differential gene expression in sunflower grown in high P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Priya; Sahi, Shivendra V

    2011-06-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a commercially important oilseed crop. Previous studies proved that this crop is a promising plant species for phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus (P) because of its superior P accumulating characteristics. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy was employed to isolate and characterize genes that are induced in response to high P in this crop. SSH library was prepared using cDNA generated from plants treated with high P as the 'tester'. Based on the results of dot blot analysis, 360 positive cDNA clones were selected from the SSH library for sequencing. A total of 89 non-redundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified as high P-responsive genes and they were classified into 6 functional groups. Several genes involved in metabolism showed markedly preferential expression in the library. For further confirmation, thirteen of the representative ESTs were selected from all categories for RT-PCR analysis and the results showed up-regulation of these genes in response to high P-treatment. The gene expression data derived from this study suggested that several of the up-regulated genes identified under high P-treatment might be involved in P-accumulation and tolerance in this plant.

  3. Study of hybrid orientation structure wafer*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Kaizhou; Zhang Jing; Xu Shiliu; Zhang Zhengfan; Yang Yonghui; Chen Jun; Liang Tao

    2011-01-01

    Two types of 5 μm thick hybrid orientation structure wafers, which were integrated by (110) or (100) orientation silicon wafers as the substrate, have been investigated for 15-40 V voltage ICs and MEMS sensor applications. They have been obtained mainly by SOI wafer bonding and a non-selective epitaxy technique, and have been presented in China for the first time. The thickness of BOX SiO2 buried in wafer is 220 nm. It has been found that the quality of hybrid orientation structure with (100) wafer substrate is better than that with (110) wafer substrate by “Sirtl defect etching of HOSW”.

  4. Revealing the role of organic cations in hybrid halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    OpenAIRE

    Sanvito, Stefano; Motta, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The hybrid halide perovskite CH$_{3}$NH$_{3}$PbI$_{3}$ has enabled solar cells to reach an efficiency of about 18\\%, demonstrating a pace for improvements with no precedents in the solar energy arena. Despite such explosive progress, the microscopic origin behind the success of such material is still debated, with the role played by the organic cations in the light-harvesting process remaining unclear. Here van-der-Waals-corrected density functional theory calculations reveal that the orienta...

  5. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mace, Emily K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL, and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. The core of the HEVA methodology, the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, serves as an indirect method for the measurement of total neutron emission from the cylinder. A method for measuring the intrinsic efficiency of this “non-traditional” neutron signature and the results from a benchmark experiment are presented. Also discussed are potential perturbing effects on the non-traditional signature, including short-lived activation of materials in the HEVA module. Modeling and empirical results are presented to demonstrate that such effects are expected to be negligible for the envisioned implementation scenario. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  6. HD Diesel Hybrid Truck Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    These are typically connected through a power take-off on the transmission or in the drivetrain . - Other trucks such as over-the-road tractors need...technologies for MD and HD trucks and buses that may be provided as options for customers. • Hydraulic Hybrid drivetrains - uses a pressurized

  7. Direct Gamete Sequencing Reveals No Evidence for Segregation Distortion in House Mouse Hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Corbett-Detig

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis of species formation is an important goal in evolutionary genetics, and Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities are thought to be a common source of postzygotic reproductive isolation between closely related lineages. However, the evolutionary forces that lead to the accumulation of such incompatibilities between diverging taxa are poorly understood. Segregation distorters are believed to be an important source of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities between hybridizing species of Drosophila as well as hybridizing crop plants, but it remains unclear if these selfish genetic elements contribute to reproductive isolation in other taxa. Here, we collected viable sperm from first-generation hybrid male progeny of Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus, two subspecies of rodent in the earliest stages of speciation. We then genotyped millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms in these gamete pools and tested for a skew in the frequency of parental alleles across the genome. We show that segregation distorters are not measurable contributors to observed infertility in these hybrid males, despite sufficient statistical power to detect even weak segregation distortion with our novel method. Thus, reduced hybrid male fertility in crosses between these nascent species is attributable to other evolutionary forces.

  8. Suppression subtractive hybridization reveals transcript profiling of Chlorella under heterotrophy to photoautotrophy transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microalgae have been extensively investigated and exploited because of their competitive nutritive bioproducts and biofuel production ability. Chlorella are green algae that can grow well heterotrophically and photoautotrophically. Previous studies proved that shifting from heterotrophy to photoautotrophy in light-induced environments causes photooxidative damage as well as distinct physiologic features that lead to dynamic changes in Chlorella intracellular components, which have great potential in algal health food and biofuel production. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the trophic transition remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization strategy was employed to screen and characterize genes that are differentially expressed in response to the light-induced shift from heterotrophy to photoautotrophy. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs were obtained from 770 and 803 randomly selected clones among the forward and reverse libraries, respectively. Sequence analysis identified 544 unique genes in the two libraries. The functional annotation of the assembled unigenes demonstrated that 164 (63.1% from the forward library and 62 (21.8% from the reverse showed significant similarities with the sequences in the NCBI non-redundant database. The time-course expression patterns of 38 selected differentially expressed genes further confirmed their responsiveness to a diverse trophic status. The majority of the genes enriched in the subtracted libraries were associated with energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and stress defense. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented here offer the first insights into the molecular foundation underlying the diverse microalgal trophic niche. In addition, the results can be used as a reference for unraveling candidate genes associated with the transition of Chlorella from heterotrophy to

  9. Rapid fixation of non-native alleles revealed by genome-wide SNP analysis of hybrid tiger salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer H Bradley

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid zones represent valuable opportunities to observe evolution in systems that are unusually dynamic and where the potential for the origin of novelty and rapid adaptation co-occur with the potential for dysfunction. Recently initiated hybrid zones are particularly exciting evolutionary experiments because ongoing natural selection on novel genetic combinations can be studied in ecological time. Moreover, when hybrid zones involve native and introduced species, complex genetic patterns present important challenges for conservation policy. To assess variation of admixture dynamics, we scored a large panel of markers in five wild hybrid populations formed when Barred Tiger Salamanders were introduced into the range of California Tiger Salamanders. Results At three of 64 markers, introduced alleles have largely displaced native alleles within the hybrid populations. Another marker (GNAT1 showed consistent heterozygote deficits in the wild, and this marker was associated with embryonic mortality in laboratory F2's. Other deviations from equilibrium expectations were idiosyncratic among breeding ponds, consistent with highly stochastic demographic effects. Conclusion While most markers retain native and introduced alleles in expected proportions, strong selection appears to be eliminating native alleles at a smaller set of loci. Such rapid fixation of alleles is detectable only in recently formed hybrid zones, though it might be representative of dynamics that frequently occur in nature. These results underscore the variable and mosaic nature of hybrid genomes and illustrate the potency of recombination and selection in promoting variable, and often unpredictable genetic outcomes. Introgression of a few, strongly selected introduced alleles should not necessarily affect the conservation status of California Tiger Salamanders, but suggests that genetically pure populations of this endangered species will be difficult to

  10. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Mortensen, N Asger

    2015-03-01

    Within our recently proposed generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) model, where nonlocal response is included by taking into account both convective and diffusive currents of the conduction electrons, we revisit the fundamental problem of an optically excited plasmonic dimer. We consider the transition from separated dimers via touching dimers to finally overlapping dimers. In particular, we focus on the touching case, showing a fundamental limit on the hybridization of the bonding plasmon modes due to nonlocality. Using transformation optics, we determine a simple analytical equation for the resonance energies.

  11. Genetic introgression and hybridization in Antillean freshwater turtles (Trachemys) revealed by coalescent analyses of mitochondrial and cloned nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, James F; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Dijk, Peter Paul van; Wilson, Byron S; Marte, Cristian; Schettino, Lourdes Rodriguez; Brian Simison, W

    2013-04-01

    Determining whether a conflict between gene trees and species trees represents incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) or hybridization involving native and/or invasive species has implications for reconstructing evolutionary relationships and guiding conservation decisions. Among vertebrates, turtles represent an exceptional case for exploring these issues because of the propensity for even distantly related lineages to hybridize. In this study we investigate a group of freshwater turtles (Trachemys) from a part of its range (the Greater Antilles) where it is purported to have undergone reticulation events from both natural and anthropogenic processes. We sequenced mtDNA for 83 samples, sequenced three nuDNA markers for 45 samples, and cloned 29 polymorphic sequences, to identify species boundaries, hybridization, and intergrade zones for Antillean Trachemys and nearby mainland populations. Initial coalescent analyses of phased nuclear alleles (using (*)BEAST) recovered a Bayesian species tree that strongly conflicted with the mtDNA phylogeny and traditional taxonomy, and appeared to be confounded by hybridization. Therefore, we undertook exploratory phylogenetic analyses of mismatched alleles from the "coestimated" gene trees (Heled and Drummond, 2010) in order to identify potential hybrid origins. The geography, morphology, and sampling context of most samples with potential introgressed alleles suggest hybridization over ILS. We identify contact zones between different species on Jamaica (T. decussata × T. terrapen), on Hispaniola (T. decorata × T. stejnegeri), and in Central America (T. emolli × T. venusta). We are unable to determine whether the distribution of T. decussata on Jamaica is natural or the result of prehistoric introduction by Native Americans. This uncertainty means that the conservation status of the Jamaican T. decussata populations and contact zone with T. terrapen are unresolved. Human-mediated dispersal events were more conclusively implicated

  12. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axsen, Jonn [Institute of Transportation Studies, Univ. of California at Davis, 2028 Academic Surge, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mountain, Dean C. [DeGroote School of Business, McMaster Univ., 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M4 (Canada); Jaccard, Mark [School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser Univ., 8888 Univ. Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    According to intuition and theories of diffusion, consumer preferences develop along with technological change. However, most economic models designed for policy simulation unrealistically assume static preferences. To improve the behavioral realism of an energy-economy policy model, this study investigates the ''neighbor effect'', where a new technology becomes more desirable as its adoption becomes more widespread in the market. We measure this effect as a change in aggregated willingness to pay under different levels of technology penetration. Focusing on hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), an online survey experiment collected stated preference (SP) data from 535 Canadian and 408 Californian vehicle owners under different hypothetical market conditions. Revealed preference (RP) data was collected from the same respondents by eliciting the year, make and model of recent vehicle purchases from regions with different degrees of HEV popularity: Canada with 0.17% new market share, and California with 3.0% new market share. We compare choice models estimated from RP data only with three joint SP-RP estimation techniques, each assigning a different weight to the influence of SP and RP data in coefficient estimates. Statistically, models allowing more RP influence outperform SP influenced models. However, results suggest that because the RP data in this study is afflicted by multicollinearity, techniques that allow more SP influence in the beta estimates while maintaining RP data for calibrating vehicle class constraints produce more realistic estimates of willingness to pay. Furthermore, SP influenced coefficient estimates also translate to more realistic behavioral parameters for CIMS, allowing more sensitivity to policy simulations. (author)

  13. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic effects causing the genetic basis of heterosis in two elite rice hybrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lanzhi Li; Xiaohong He; Hongyan Zhang; Zhiming Wang; Congwei Sun; Tongmin Mou; Xinqi Li; Yuanming Zhang; Zhongli Hu

    2015-06-01

    North Carolina design III (NCIII) is one of the most powerful and widely used mating designs for understanding the genetic basis of heterosis. However, the quantitative trait mapping (QTL) conducted in previous studies with this design was mainly based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), composite interval or multiple interval mapping methods. These methodologies could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. In this study, with a statistical method for mapping epistatic QTL associated with heterosis using the recombinant inbred line (RIL)-based NCIII design, we conducted QTL mapping for nine agronomic traits of two elite hybrids to characterize the mode of gene action contributing to heterosis on a whole genomewide scale. In total, 23 main-effect QTL (M-QTL) and 23 digenic interactions in IJ (indica × japonica) hybrids, 11 M-QTL and 82 digenic interactions in II (indica × indica) hybrid QTLs were identified in the present study. The variation explained by individual M-QTL or interactions ranged from 2.3 to 11.0%. The number of digenic interactions and the total variation explained by interactions of each trait were larger than those of M-QTL. The augmented genetic effect ratio of most M-QTL and digenic interactions in (L1–L2) data of two backcross populations (L1 and L2) showed complete dominance or overdominance, and in (L1 + L2) data showed an additive effect. Our results indicated that the dominance, overdominance and epistatic effect were important in conditioning the genetic basis of heterosis of the two elite hybrids. The relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits and the genetic basis of the two hybrids was different.

  14. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic effects causing the genetic basis of heterosis in two elite rice hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanzhi; He, Xiaohong; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Zhiming; Sun, Congwei; Mou, Tongmin; Li, Xinqi; Zhang, Yuanming; Hu, Zhongli

    2015-06-01

    North Carolina design III (NCIII) is one of the most powerful and widely used mating designs for understanding the genetic basis of heterosis. However, the quantitative trait mapping (QTL) conducted in previous studies with this design was mainly based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), composite interval or multiple interval mapping methods. These methodologies could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. In this study, with a statistical method for mapping epistatic QTL associated with heterosis using the recombinant inbred line (RIL)-based NCIII design, we conducted QTL mapping for nine agronomic traits of two elite hybrids to characterize the mode of gene action contributing to heterosis on a whole genomewide scale. In total, 23 main-effect QTL (M-QTL) and 23 digenic interactions in IJ (indica x japonica) hybrids, 11 M-QTL and 82 digenic interactions in II (indica x indica) hybrid QTLs were identified in the present study. The variation explained by individual M-QTL or interactions ranged from 2.3 to 11.0%. The number of digenic interactions and the total variation explained by interactions of each trait were larger than those of M-QTL. The augmented genetic effect ratio of most M-QTL and digenic interactions in (L1 - L2) data of two backcross populations (L1 and L2) showed complete dominance or overdominance, and in (L1 + L2) data showed an additive effect. Our results indicated that the dominance, overdominance and epistatic effect were important in conditioning the genetic basis of heterosis of the two elite hybrids. The relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits and the genetic basis of the two hybrids was different.

  15. Comparative genomic hybridizations reveal absence of large Streptomyces coelicolor genomic islands in Streptomyces lividans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman David H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans bear a considerable degree of synteny. While S. coelicolor is the model streptomycete for studying antibiotic synthesis and differentiation, S. lividans is almost exclusively considered as the preferred host, among actinomycetes, for cloning and expression of exogenous DNA. We used whole genome microarrays as a comparative genomics tool for identifying the subtle differences between these two chromosomes. Results We identified five large S. coelicolor genomic islands (larger than 25 kb and 18 smaller islets absent in S. lividans chromosome. Many of these regions show anomalous GC bias and codon usage patterns. Six of them are in close vicinity of tRNA genes while nine are flanked with near perfect repeat sequences indicating that these are probable recent evolutionary acquisitions into S. coelicolor. Embedded within these segments are at least four DNA methylases and two probable methyl-sensing restriction endonucleases. Comparison with S. coelicolor transcriptome and proteome data revealed that some of the missing genes are active during the course of growth and differentiation in S. coelicolor. In particular, a pair of methylmalonyl CoA mutase (mcm genes involved in polyketide precursor biosynthesis, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase implicated in timing of actinorhodin synthesis and bldB, a developmentally significant regulator whose mutation causes complete abrogation of antibiotic synthesis belong to this category. Conclusion Our findings provide tangible hints for elucidating the genetic basis of important phenotypic differences between these two streptomycetes. Importantly, absence of certain genes in S. lividans identified here could potentially explain the relative ease of DNA transformations and the conditional lack of actinorhodin synthesis in S. lividans.

  16. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  17. Genetic differences between two Leishmania major-like strains revealed by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ângela C A; Freitas, Michelle A R; Silva, Soraia de O; Nogueira, Paula M; Soares, Rodrigo P; Pesquero, João Bosco; Gomes, Maria A; Pesquero, Jorge L; Melo, Maria N

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania major, the causative agent of zoonotic leishmaniasis, is restricted to Old World countries. Molecular and biochemical techniques have been used to identify some L. major-like isolated in South America including Brazil. Here, two L. major-like strains, one virulent (BH49) and one non-virulent (BH121), were subjected to suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique in order to identify differentially expressed genes. SSH technique identified nine cDNA fragments exhibiting high homology to previously sequenced L. major genes. Five cDNAs (four specific for BH49 and one for BH121) were confirmed by RT-PCR. Among those differentially expressed subtracted genes, some were involved in physiological processes including metabolism, translation and destination of proteins, production of energy, virulence factors and unknown functions. Western-blot analysis confirmed a higher expression level of β-1,3-galactosyl residues in L. major-like lipophosphoglycan (LPG). This molecular analysis opens the possibility for identification of potential virulence factors not only in different strains, but also in others species of Leishmania.

  18. Hybridization capture reveals evolution and conservation across the entire Koala retrovirus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    Full Text Available The koala retrovirus (KoRV is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin.

  19. Studies on CO2-laser Hybrid-Welding of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    CO2-laser welding of copper is known to be difficult due to the high heat conductivity of the material and the high reflectivity of copper at the wavelength of the CO2-laser light. THis paper presents a study of laser welding of copper, applying laser hybrid welding. Welding was performed...... as a hybrid CO2-laser and GTAW welding process in 2 mm pure copper sheets. The purpose was to identify maximum welding speeds for the three independent welding processes, i.e. GTAW alone, laser alone and combined processes. After welding, representative welds were quality assesed according to inernational...... norms. The paper describes the results obtained, showing significant productivity improvements and good weld qualities applying laser hybrid welding....

  20. Studies on CO2-laser Hybrid-Welding of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    CO2-laser welding of copper is known to be difficult due to the high heat conductivity of the material and the high reflectivity of copper at the wavelength of the CO2-laser light. THis paper presents a study of laser welding of copper, applying laser hybrid welding. Welding was performed...... as a hybrid CO2-laser and GTAW welding process in 2 mm pure copper sheets. The purpose was to identify maximum welding speeds for the three independent welding processes, i.e. GTAW alone, laser alone and combined processes. After welding, representative welds were quality assesed according to inernational...... norms. The paper describes the results obtained, showing significant productivity improvements and good weld qualities applying laser hybrid welding....

  1. Synthesis of Ag-ZnO core-shell hybrid nanostructures: an optical approach to reveal the growth mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encina, Ezequiel R.; Perez, Manuel A.; Coronado, Eduardo A., E-mail: coronado@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, INFIQC (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    In this study, Ag-ZnO core-shell hybrid nanostructures (HNs) have been prepared by means of a very simple chemical methodology. In addition, their morphology and extinction properties have been characterized. It was found that the HNs consist in almost spherical Ag nanoparticle cores (mean diameter 56 nm) surrounded by a thin shell formed by small ZnO nanoparticles (mean size 6 nm). The changes in the extinction spectra during the formation of the hybrid nanostructures have been rationalized using electrodynamics simulations applying Mie theory for coated spheres along with the effective medium theory to describe the dielectric constant of the shell. By assuming a formation and growth mechanism of the shell, it was found that these simulations describe not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the changes in the extinction spectra.

  2. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Involvement of Embryo and Endosperm Proteins during Aging of Yliangyou 2 Hybrid Rice Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xue; Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian M.; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging. With an increasing duration of artificial aging, the germination percentage and germination rate of hybrid rice seeds decreased. By comparing the protein profiles from the seeds aged for 0, 10 and 25 days, a total of 91 and 100 protein spots were found to show a significant change of more than 2-fold (P cell defense and rescue (28%), and with storage protein (18%). In endosperms, most of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism (37%), in energy (27%), and in protein synthesis and destination (11%). The most marked change was the increased abundance of many glycolytic enzymes together with the two fermentation enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the embryos during aging. We hypothesize that the decreased viability of hybrid rice seeds during artificial aging is caused by the development of hypoxic conditions in the embryos followed by ethanol accumulation.

  3. Suppression subtractive hybridization reveals differentially expressed genes in supraspinous ligaments of patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Hu, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yue; Chu, Tong-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a severe chronic inflammatory disease that may ultimately result in the development of a 'bamboo‑like' spine. Although the pathological changes that occur in AS have been extensively investigated, the mechanism underlying spinal fusion during AS remains elusive. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in paraspinal tissues from patients with AS compared with those from healthy controls were therefore investigated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)‑based suppression subtractive hybridization was performed using total mRNA from the supraspinal ligaments of three patients with AS and three patients with spinal fractures as controls. From this, 27 genes were identified in all of the three independent forward libraries, which were defined as DEGs associated with AS. Reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR demonstrated that six DEGs were overexpressed in the tissues from patients with AS compared with those from individuals in the control group, including those encoding transforming growth factor β types I and III receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase‑3, core‑binding factor α1 and bone morphogenetic protein 2. Western blot analysis showed increased expression in all six of these proteins in the samples from patients with AS compared with those in the control groups. These findings suggested that changes in the expression of these genes and proteins are associated with the development of spinal fusion during the pathogenesis of AS. Furthermore, these genes may be novel markers of the risk of developing AS, in addition to being targets for the treatment of this disease.

  4. Solution NMR Structure of a Ligand/Hybrid-2-G-Quadruplex Complex Reveals Rearrangements that Affect Ligand Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirmer-Bartoschek, Julia; Bendel, Lars Erik; Jonker, Hendrik R A; Grün, J Tassilo; Papi, Francesco; Bazzicalupi, Carla; Messori, Luigi; Gratteri, Paola; Schwalbe, Harald

    2017-06-12

    Telomeric G-quadruplexes have recently emerged as drug targets in cancer research. Herein, we present the first NMR structure of a telomeric DNA G-quadruplex that adopts the biologically relevant hybrid-2 conformation in a ligand-bound state. We solved the complex with a metalorganic gold(III) ligand that stabilizes G-quadruplexes. Analysis of the free and bound structures reveals structural changes in the capping region of the G-quadruplex. The ligand is sandwiched between one terminal G-tetrad and a flanking nucleotide. This complex structure involves a major structural rearrangement compared to the free G-quadruplex structure as observed for other G-quadruplexes in different conformations, invalidating simple docking approaches to ligand-G-quadruplex structure determination. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Androgen receptor coregulator ARA267-α interacts with death receptor-6 revealed by the yeast two-hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    ARA267-αis a newly identified androgen receptor coactivator.In order to further elucidate its precise role in cells,using the ARA267- α fragment containing four PHD and one SET conserved domains as bait we revealed an ARA267-α-PHD-SET-interacting protein,death receptor-6(DR6),in the yeast two-hybrid screening.DR6 is the member of TNF receptor family and has a death domain in its intracellular cytoplasmic portion(DR6cp)to mediate the cell apoptosis.The interaction between ARA267-α-PHD-SET and DR6cp was confirmed in vitro and in vivo.Our finding implied that androgen signaling pathway might cross talk with apoptosis signaling pathway through the interaction between ARA267-α and DR6.

  6. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    include utility boom trucks and beverage haulers. Eaton Corp. manufactures a parallel hybrid-electric drivetrain that is used by many of the truck...Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). Most of the hybrid buses use series hybrid-electric drivetrains , and key manufacturers are BAE Systems, ISE...Competing Alternatives to Diesel-Electric Hybrid Powertrains ............................................ 153 6.1 Hydraulic Hybrid Drivetrains

  7. Gene Transfer & Hybridization Studies in Hyperthermophilic Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Karen E.

    2005-10-14

    A. ABSTRACT The importance of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of microbial species has become increasingly evident with each completed microbial genome sequence. Most significantly, the genome of Thermotoga maritima MSB8, a hyperthermophilic bacterium isolated by Karl Stetter and workers from Vulcano Italy in 1986, and sequenced at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville Maryland in 1999, revealed extensive LGT between % . this bacterium and members of the archaeal domain (in particular Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Pyracoccus frcriosus species). Based on whole genome comparisons, it was estimated that 24% of the genetic information in this organism was acquired by genetic exchange with archaeal species, Independent analyses including periodicity analysis of the T. maritimu genomic DNA sequence, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genes that appear archaeal-like, and codon and amino acid usage, have provided additional evidence for LGT between T. maritima and the archaea. More recently, DiRuggiero and workers have identified a very recent LGT event between two genera of hyperthermophilic archaea, where a nearly identical DNA fragment of 16 kb in length flanked by insertion sequence (IS) elements, exists. Undoubtedly, additional examples of LGT will be identified as more microbial genomes are completed. For the present moment however, the genome sequence of T. maritima and other hyperthermophiles including P. furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Pyrococcus abyssi, A. fulgidus, and Aquifex aeolicus, have significantly increased out awareness of evolution being a web of life rather than a tree of life, as suggested by single gene phylogenies. In this proposal, we will aim to determine the extent of LGT across the hyperthemophiles, employing iY maritima as the model organism. A variety of biochemical techniques and phylogenetic reconstructions will allow for a detailed and thorough characterization of the extent of LGT in this species. The

  8. Hybrid ventilation systems. Principles, design and calculation, case studies. Final report; Hybride Lueftungssysteme. Prinzipien, Planung und Berechnung, Beispiele. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, R.; Roloff, J. [and others

    2003-09-01

    This report contains the most important information achieved within the IEA-ECBCS project Annex 35 of the national and international level. The first chapters are a translation of the main parts of the international final report 'Principles of Hybrid Ventilation' (ed. Per Heiselberg). The international report including a CD-ROM is enclosed in this report. Based on a definition of hybrid ventilation it is motivated why to deal with hybrid ventilation. The explanations are underlined by precise data of the investigated case studies. The variety of solutions with hybrid ventilation is large, but there are three main principles, natural and mechanical ventilation, fan-assisted natural ventilation, stack- and wind-assisted mechanical ventilation. A hybrid ventilation systems is most suitable to implement if this idea is taken into account in the early design phases. Therefore decision tools are compiled to make it clear whether a hybrid ventilation concept could be successful under the given conditions or not. Moreover, important aspects of control strategies are summarized, which are crucial for an optimal operation of a hybrid ventilation system. If there is an option for installing a hybrid ventilation system it is necessary to carry out calculations and evaluations during the design phases. The available tools are presented and classified. Beside the substantial data of the case studies of the international project partners the national studies are presented in detail. These are the investigation of an existing hybrid ventilation system in the school building 'Bertolt-Brecht-Gymnasium', Dresden and the development of an innovative hybrid ventilation system at the Fraunhofer-Institute of Building Physics in Holzkirchen. (orig.)

  9. Automated design of probes for rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals the advantages of using dual probes for accurate identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Erik S; Yilmaz, L Safak; Corcoran, Andrew M; Ökten, Hatice E; Noguera, Daniel R

    2014-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a common technique for identifying cells in their natural environment and is often used to complement next-generation sequencing approaches as an integral part of the full-cycle rRNA approach. A major challenge in FISH is the design of oligonucleotide probes with high sensitivity and specificity to their target group. The rapidly expanding number of rRNA sequences has increased awareness of the number of potential nontargets for every FISH probe, making the design of new FISH probes challenging using traditional methods. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of published probes that revealed that many have insufficient coverage or specificity for their intended target group. Therefore, we developed an improved thermodynamic model of FISH that can be applied at any taxonomic level, used the model to systematically design probes for all recognized genera of bacteria and archaea, and identified potential cross-hybridizations for the selected probes. This analysis resulted in high-specificity probes for 35.6% of the genera when a single probe was used in the absence of competitor probes and for 60.9% when up to two competitor probes were used. Requiring the hybridization of two independent probes for positive identification further increased specificity. In this case, we could design highly specific probe sets for up to 68.5% of the genera without the use of competitor probes and 87.7% when up to two competitor probes were used. The probes designed in this study, as well as tools for designing new probes, are available online (http://DECIPHER.cee.wisc.edu).

  10. Hybrid Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Siu-Lun Ting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a decision-making process involving considerations of political, social, economic and engineering factors with relevant risk assessments relating to a potential hazard. In the last decade, a number of risk management tools are introduced and employed to manage and minimize the uncertainty and threats realization to the organizations. However, the focus of these methodologies are different; in which companies need to adopt various risk management principles to visualize a full picture of the organizational risk level. Regarding to this, this paper presents a new approach of risk management that integrates Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM and Business Recovery Planning (BCP for identifying and assessing risks as well as managing the consequences of realized residual risks. To illustrate the procedures of the proposed methodology, a logistic company ABC Limited is chosen to serve as a case study Through applying HHM and ERM to investigate and assess the risk, ABC Limited can be better evaluated the potential risks and then took the responsive actions (e.g. BCP to handle the risks and crisis in near future.

  11. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  12. Pollen Grain and Hybridization Studies in the Genus Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Lois OLATUNJI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the pollen viability of the commonly cultivated varieties of Capsicum species and assessed the potentials for gene exchange among the genotypes through hybridization studies. Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. annuum var. grossum and C. frutescens var. baccatum were the species and varieties used in this study. The present findings indicated that the percentage of pollen viability varied in the studied Capsicum genotypes. The highest pollen viability was obtained in C. annuum var. abbreviatum (96.3%, followed by C. annuum var. grossum (95%, and C. annuum var. acuminatum (91.1%. The lowest pollen viability was recorded in C. frutescens var. baccatum (86.2%. The pollen viability was high in most varieties indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. Several intraspecific and interspecific crosses were performed among the Capsicum genotypes and three putative hybrid fruits were produced. Percentage successes obtained in the crosses were low and comparable in both intra and inter-specific crosses. In the entire crosses pattern, pollination success of 10% was recorded for C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum. Knowing the nature and viability of pollen grains may help in predicting the success rate of hybridization and the successful crosses between C. frutescens var. baccatum and C. annuum var. acuminatum suggest that these two varieties are the closest genetically.

  13. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke BI; James P.BOGART; Jinzhong FU

    2009-01-01

    The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA). Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution [Current Zoology 55(2):145-149,2009].

  14. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong FU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA. Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution.

  15. Carrier-phonon interactions in hybrid halide perovskites probed with ultrafast anisotropy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Jasmine P. H.; Richter, Johannes M.; Price, Michael B.; Credgington, Dan; Deschler, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid halide perovskites are at the frontier of optoelectronic research due to their excellent semiconductor properties and solution processability. For this reason, much attention has recently been focused on understanding photoexcited charge-carrier generation and recombination in these materials. Conversely, very few studies have so far been devoted to understanding carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering mechanisms in these materials. This is surprising given that carrier scattering mechanisms fundamentally limit charge-carrier motilities and therefore the performance of photovoltaic devices. We apply linear polarization selective transient absorption measurements to polycrystalline CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid halide perovskite films as an effective way of studying the scattering processes in these materials. Comparison of the photo induced bleach signals obtained when the linear polarizations of the pump and probe are aligned either parallel or perpendicular to one another, reveal a significant difference in spectral intensity and shape within the first few hundred femtoseconds after photoexcitation.

  16. The Efficacy of Lumbar Hybrid Stabilization Using the DIAM™ to Delay Adjacent Segment Degeneration: An Intervention Comparison Study With a Minimum Two-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Yoon, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2013-04-29

    BACKGROUND:: Although posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has a successful fusion rate, the long-term outcome of PLIF is occasionally below expectations because of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the ability of hybrid stabilization using DIAM(Device for Interspinous Assisted Motion) to delay ASD. METHODS:: An intervention comparison study of 75 patients (hybrid, 25; PLIF, 50) was performed. The indications for hybrid stabilization were facet joint degeneration, Pfirrmann grade II-III, and stenosis at the rostral adjacent segment. The PLIF group consisted of patients matched for age, gender, and fusion. The hybrid stabilization procedure included traditional PLIF and DIAM installation at a superior adjacent segment. The outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed model analysis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate the odds ratio for the association of surgical methods. RESULTS:: The hybrid group (24%) revealed fewer ASDs than the PLIF group (48%). Among ASDs, spondylolisthesis occurred more frequently in the PLIF group than the hybrid group. Hybrid surgery was significantly associated with ASD; the odds ratio for hybrid surgery was 0.28 when compared to PLIF. Foraminal height of the PLIF group decreased more than the hybrid group (P=.01). Segmental mobility showed a greater increase in the PLIF group than the hybrid group (P=.04). However, the clinical outcomes did not show significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION:: Hybrid stabilization using DIAM and pedicle screws can be used for patients with facet degeneration at adjacent segments but should be further investigated.

  17. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  18. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalic, Yann; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Perrin, Cécile; Pearson, Gareth A; Serrao, Ester A

    2011-01-31

    Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence) and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity) distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization.

  19. Advances in the study of hybrid finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some new concepts and research progress in hybrid finite elements advanced in recent years are in troduced. On the basis of incompatible energy consistency analysis, the optimal condition of hybrid elements is derived and the formulation for fulfilling this condition is given. A post-processing penalty equilibrium optimization technique of hybrid element is presented to create high quality hybrid model. For incompressible problems, a method of deviatoric hybrid element is proposed and unification of computation between compressible and incompressible media is achieved.

  20. A study of hybrid prediction method for ship parametric rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀华; 马宁; 鲁江; 顾民

    2016-01-01

    The parametric rolling (PR) in the head or following waves has been considered as one of the main stability failure modes in the development of the 2nd generation Intact Stability criterion by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). According to previous studies, the estimation methods of the roll damping affect the prediction of the PR significantly, and most of them are based on experiment data or Ikeda’s empirical formula. The accuracy of the estimation method for the roll damping could be a key aspect for the validity of its prediction for the full scale ship. In this research, a hybrid prediction method is developed for the numerical prediction of the parametric rolling when experiment data are not available for the roll damping. Comparison study is also carried out between the hybrid method and a nonlinear dynamics method, where the roll damping is estimated by the simplified Ikeda’s method and the direct CFD prediction method in a direct non-linear simulation based on the 3-D CFD approach in the model scale. It is shown that the results of the hybrid method are in satisfactory agreements with the model experiment results, and the method can be used for analysis especially at the early design stage where experiment data are often not available.

  1. Hybrid Methods Reveal Multiple Flexibly Linked DNA Polymerases within the Bacteriophage T7 Replisome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jamie R; Zhang, Hao; Weis, Caroline; Cui, Weidong; Foster, Brittni M; Ho, Chris M W; Hammel, Michal; Tainer, John A; Gross, Michael L; Ellenberger, Tom

    2017-01-03

    The physical organization of DNA enzymes at a replication fork enables efficient copying of two antiparallel DNA strands, yet dynamic protein interactions within the replication complex complicate replisome structural studies. We employed a combination of crystallographic, native mass spectrometry and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments to capture alternative structures of a model replication system encoded by bacteriophage T7. Two molecules of DNA polymerase bind the ring-shaped primase-helicase in a conserved orientation and provide structural insight into how the acidic C-terminal tail of the primase-helicase contacts the DNA polymerase to facilitate loading of the polymerase onto DNA. A third DNA polymerase binds the ring in an offset manner that may enable polymerase exchange during replication. Alternative polymerase binding modes are also detected by small-angle X-ray scattering with DNA substrates present. Our collective results unveil complex motions within T7 replisome higher-order structures that are underpinned by multivalent protein-protein interactions with functional implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A screen for F1 hybrid male rescue reveals no major-effect hybrid lethality loci in the Drosophila melanogaster autosomal genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Satyaki, P; Ji, Shuqing; Clay, Derek M; Edelman, Nathaniel B; Kimchy, Alexandra; Li, Ling-Hei; Nuzzo, Erin A; Parekh, Neil; Park, Suna; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-10-27

    Hybrid sons between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die as 3rd instar larvae. Two genes, D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) on the X chromosome, and D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) on chromosome II, interact to cause this lethality. Loss-of-function mutations in either gene suppress lethality, but several pieces of evidence suggest that additional factors are required for hybrid lethality. Here we screen the D. melanogaster autosomal genome by using the Bloomington Stock Center Deficiency kit to search for additional regions that can rescue hybrid male lethality. Our screen is designed to identify putative hybrid incompatibility (HI) genes similar to Hmr and Lhr which, when removed, are dominant suppressors of lethality. After screening 89% of the autosomal genome, we found no regions that rescue males to the adult stage. We did, however, identify several regions that rescue up to 13% of males to the pharate adult stage. This weak rescue suggests the presence of multiple minor-effect HI loci, but we were unable to map these loci to high resolution, presumably because weak rescue can be masked by genetic background effects. We attempted to test one candidate, the dosage compensation gene male specific lethal-3 (msl-3), by using RNA interference with short hairpin microRNA constructs targeted specifically against D. simulans msl-3 but failed to achieve knockdown, in part due to off-target effects. We conclude that the D. melanogaster autosomal genome likely does not contain additional major-effect HI loci. We also show that Hmr is insufficient to fully account for the lethality associated with the D. melanogaster X chromosome, suggesting that additional X-linked genes contribute to hybrid lethality. Copyright © 2014 Cuykendall et al.

  3. Death by sex in an Australian icon: a continent-wide survey reveals extensive hybridization between dingoes and domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Danielle; Wilton, Alan N; Fleming, Peter J S; Berry, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    Hybridization between domesticated animals and their wild counterparts can disrupt adaptive gene combinations, reduce genetic diversity, extinguish wild populations and change ecosystem function. The dingo is a free-ranging dog that is an iconic apex predator and distributed throughout most of mainland Australia. Dingoes readily hybridize with domestic dogs, and in many Australian jurisdictions, distinct management strategies are dictated by hybrid status. Yet, the magnitude and spatial extent of domestic dog-dingo hybridization is poorly characterized. To address this, we performed a continent-wide analysis of hybridization throughout Australia based on 24 locus microsatellite DNA genotypes from 3637 free-ranging dogs. Although 46% of all free-ranging dogs were classified as pure dingoes, all regions exhibited some hybridization, and the magnitude varied substantially. The southeast of Australia was highly admixed, with 99% of animals being hybrids or feral domestic dogs, whereas only 13% of the animals from remote central Australia were hybrids. Almost all free-ranging dogs had some dingo ancestry, indicating that domestic dogs could have poor survivorship in nonurban Australian environments. Overall, wild pure dingoes remain the dominant predator over most of Australia, but the speed and extent to which hybridization has occurred in the approximately 220 years since the first introduction of domestic dogs indicate that the process may soon threaten the persistence of pure dingoes.

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  5. Study of the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm for Hybrid Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic Artificial Fish Swarm (AFS Algorithm is a new type of an heuristic swarm intelligence algorithm, but it is difficult to optimize to get high precision due to the randomness of the artificial fish behavior, which belongs to the intelligence algorithm. This paper presents an extended AFS algorithm, namely the Cooperative Artificial Fish Swarm (CAFS, which significantly improves the original AFS in solving complex optimization problems. K-medoids clustering algorithm is being used to classify data, but the approach is sensitive to the initial selection of the centers with low quality of the divided cluster. A novel hybrid clustering method based on the CAFS and K-medoids could be used for solving clustering problems. In this work, first, CAFS algorithm is used for optimizing six widely-used benchmark functions, coming up with comparative results produced by AFS and CAFS, then Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is studied. Second, the hybrid algorithm with K-medoids and CAFS algorithms is used for data clustering on several benchmark data sets. The performance of the hybrid algorithm based on K-medoids and CAFS is compared with AFS and CAFS algorithms on a clustering problem. The simulation results show that the proposed CAFS outperforms the other two algorithms in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  6. Hybrid functional studies of defects and hole polarons in oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are ubiquitous, appearing in windows, flat-panel displays, solar cells, solid-state lighting, and transistors that all exploit TCOs' combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Thanks to this large and growing list of applications, there has been a surge of interest in the science of these materials, focusing on the fundamental properties and doping opportunities in traditional TCOs as well as the exploration of promising new candidate materials. Hybrid density functional theory has proven instrumental in elucidating the physics of TCOs. One example is the study of dopants and defects that determine the conductivity. Accurate formation energies and charge-state transition levels can now be obtained thanks to the accurate electronic structure provided by a hybrid functional. This allows us to address the origins of unintentional conductivity: for SnO2, In2O3, and Ga2O3, we demonstrate that this is not due to native defects such as oxygen vacancies, but must be attributed to unintentional incorporation of impurities. We can also provide guidelines for achieving higher doping levels, suggesting several impurities as candidate donors with high solubility. Limitations on doping due to the formation or incorporation of compensating centers are addressed as well. Hybrid functional calculations also overcome the shortcomings associated with traditional local or semi-local functionals, which do not properly describe charge localization. Hybrid functionals accurately describe polaron formation, i.e., the self-trapping of holes when p - type doping of the oxide materials is attempted. Consequences of polaron formation for optical characterization of the material will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with Anderson Janotti and Chris G. Van de Walle, and was in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Physicochemical studies on starches isolated from plantain cultivars, plantain hybrids and cooking bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, G.; Akoni, S. (International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria)); Swennen, R. (Catholic Univ. of Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Tropical Husbandry)

    1992-04-01

    Starches from mature, unripe fruit pulp of plantain cultivars (Musa supp., AAB group) representing the wide variability in Africa, tetraploid and diploid plantain hybrids and starchy cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB group) were isolated and characterised. In general, studies revealed very compact irregularly shaped and sized granules, with low amylose content (9.11-17.16%), highly resistant to bacterial {alpha}-amylase attack; Brabender amylograms showed very restricted swelling type patterns with great stability and negligible retrogradation. Results indicate that differences in physico-chemical properties exist amongst the three Musa fruit group starches. Plantains represent a chemical/molecular homogeneous group, but heterogeneous for granule structure. Ploidy level affected hybrid properties. ABB cooking bananas starches exhibited highly pronounced restricted swelling and high gelatinisation and pasting temperatures, indicating a more ordered, very strongly bonded granule structure; chemical and physical properties varied considerably within the ABB genotype. (orig.).

  8. Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation

  9. Study of a class of hybrid-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, I. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica-Culhuacan-IPN, Av. San Ana 1000 Col. San Fco. Culhuacan, Mexico D.F. 04430 (Mexico) and Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: ilse@calmecac.esimecu.ipn.mx; Femat, R. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Leyva-Ramos, J. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a class of hybrid-time systems. In particular, we concern about switched systems constituted by two linear second order systems with a time varying (sinusoidal type) translation term. By means of numerical simulations, system behavior and its relation to system parameters are studied. It is shown that system eigenvalues play a crucial role in the time evolution of the system leading either to regular behavior, oscillatory patterns or intermittent erratic-periodic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain conditions, presumable fractal structures can be obtained.

  10. Spectrum of Cytogenomic Abnormalities Revealed by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization on Products of Conception Culture Failure and Normal Karyotype Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Wu, Shen-Yin; Amato, Katherine; DiAdamo, Autumn; Li, Peining

    2016-03-20

    Approximately 30% of pregnancies after implantation end up in spontaneous abortions, and 50% of them are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. However, the spectrum of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) in products of conception (POC) and the underlying gene-dosage-sensitive mechanisms causing spontaneous abortions remain largely unknown. In this study, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was performed as a salvage procedure for 128 POC culture failure (POC-CF) samples and as a supplemental procedure for 106 POC normal karyotype (POC-NK) samples. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 10% of POC-CF and pathogenic CNVs were detected in 3.9% of POC-CF and 5.7% of POC-NK samples. Compiled results from this study and relevant case series through a literature review demonstrated an abnormality detection rate (ADR) of 35% for chromosomal abnormalities in POC-CF samples, 3.7% for pathogenic CNVs in POC-CF samples, and 4.6% for pathogenic CNVs in POC-NK samples. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed on the genes from pathogenic CNVs found in POC samples. The denoted primary gene networks suggested that apoptosis and cell proliferation pathways are involved in miscarriage. In summary, a similar spectrum of cytogenomic abnormalities was observed in POC culture success and POC-CF samples. A threshold effect correlating the number of dosage-sensitive genes in a chromosome with the observed frequency of autosomal trisomy is proposed. A rationalized approach using firstly fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing with probes of chromosomes X/Y/18, 13/21, and 15/16/22 for common aneuploidies and polyploidies and secondly aCGH for other cytogenomic abnormalities is recommended for POC-CF samples.

  11. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendices B1-B4. [HYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    These four appendices to the report on the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) report contain information on: HYBRID computer program documentation; material substitution study for advanced hybrid vehicles; NTHV market potential; battery compartment weight distribution; and vehicle handling dynamics. (LCL)

  12. [Studies on the ploymorphic of sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Zhong; Liu, Shao Jun; Zhang, Xuan Jie; Feng, Hao; Liu, Yun

    2004-08-01

    AThe ultrastructures of the sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp were studied by using scanning and transmission electron microscope. The sperm of the F2 hybrids consisted of head, mid-piece and tail. There was no acrosome at the anterior end of the nuclears, whereas there was a vesicle. The results revealed that there existed obviously ploymorphic in the sperm of F2 hybrids. In the water-like semen from males of F2 hybrids, different sizes of the head of the sperm including haploid, diploid, tetraploid, and aneuploid sperm were observed. The head diameter of the smallest sperm was only 1.32 microm, but that of the biggest one was about 18.39 microm, and most of them varied from 1.85 to 2.15 microm. The haploid sperm was normal, while the a-neuploid, diploid, tetraploid and multiploid sperm were abnormal. Among the abnormal sperm, there was a super sperm with about 20 tails, whose head volume was much bigger than that of any other sperm. From the results of the transmission electron microscope, 3 sperm with two nucleus and 1 sperm with two tails were found. This study provided an useful evidence for the mechanism that the formation of tetraploid in F3 hybrids was due to the fertilization of the diploid eggs and diploid sperm produced by F2 hybrids.

  13. A Study of MPLS Hybrid Switch Based on ATM Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    MPLS is the most successful integrating model of IP over ATM. The paper discusses some problems and their possible solutions when MPLS is supported by ATM switch. How to design the hardware, software and network management systems of such a switch device that has only one switching platform and one NMS but two sets of control planes at the same time, ATM and MPLS, is studied in details. The application of such a hybrid switch is presented in the last part of the paper.

  14. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -GRID SYSTEMS A CASE STUDY WIND POWER AFRICA 2010 S Szewczuk CSIR May 2010 PRESENTATION OUTLINE • Rationale for Projects • Renewable Energy for Rural Electrification in E Cape • Integrated Energy/Economic Framework • Hybrid mini-grid energy systems... • Impact of research work RATIONALE FOR OFF-GRID PROJECTS • Poverty Reduction: • Sustainable economic and social benefits • Meeting of Millennium Development Goals • Appropriate technology choice: • 500 million African people without access to modern...

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  16. Evidence of Natural Hybridization and Introgression between Vasconcellea Species (Caricaceae) from Southern Ecuador Revealed by Chloroplast, Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DROOGENBROECK, B.; KYNDT, T.; ROMEIJN-PEETERS, E.; VAN THUYNE, W.; GOETGHEBEUR, P.; ROMERO-MOTOCHI, J. P.; GHEYSEN, G.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Vasconcellea × heilbornii is believed to be of natural hybrid origin between V. cundinamarcensis and V. stipulata, and is often difficult to discriminate from V. stipulata on morphological grounds. The aim of this paper is to examine individuals of these three taxa and of individuals from the closely related species V. parviflora and V. weberbaueri, which all inhabit a hybrid zone in southern Ecuador. • Methods Molecular data from mitochondrial, chloroplast and nuclear DNA from 61 individuals were analysed. • Key Results Molecular analysis confirmed occasional contemporary hybridization between V. stipulata, V. cundinamarcensis and V. × heilbornii and suggested the possible involvement of V. weberbaueri in the origin of V. × heilbornii. In addition, the molecular data indicated unidirectional introgression of the V. cundinamarcensis nuclear genome into that of V. stipulata. Several of the individuals examined with morphology similar to that of V. stipulata had genetic traces of hybridization with V. cundinamarcensis, which only seems to act as pollen donor in interspecific hybridization events. Molecular analyses also strongly suggested that most of the V. × heilbornii individuals are not F1 hybrids but instead are progeny of repeated backcrosses with V. stipulata. • Conclusions The results of the present study point to the need for re-evaluation of natural populations of V. stipulata and V. × heilbornii. In general, this analysis demonstrates the complex patterns of genetic and morphological diversity found in natural plant hybrid zones. PMID:16500954

  17. Combined array-comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-loss of heterozygosity analysis reveals complex genetic alterations in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenter Gemma G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma develops as a result of multiple genetic alterations. Different studies investigated genomic alterations in cervical cancer mainly by means of metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (mCGH and microsatellite marker analysis for the detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH. Currently, high throughput methods such as array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array and gene expression arrays are available to study genome-wide alterations. Integration of these 3 platforms allows detection of genomic alterations at high resolution and investigation of an association between copy number changes and expression. Results Genome-wide copy number and genotype analysis of 10 cervical cancer cell lines by array CGH and SNP array showed highly complex large-scale alterations. A comparison between array CGH and SNP array revealed that the overall concordance in detection of the same areas with copy number alterations (CNA was above 90%. The use of SNP arrays demonstrated that about 75% of LOH events would not have been found by methods which screen for copy number changes, such as array CGH, since these were LOH events without CNA. Regions frequently targeted by CNA, as determined by array CGH, such as amplification of 5p and 20q, and loss of 8p were confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. Genome-wide, we did not find a correlation between copy-number and gene expression. At chromosome arm 5p however, 22% of the genes were significantly upregulated in cell lines with amplifications as compared to cell lines without amplifications, as measured by gene expression arrays. For 3 genes, SKP2, ANKH and TRIO, expression differences were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Conclusion This study showed that copy number data retrieved from either array CGH or SNP array are comparable and that the integration of genome-wide LOH, copy number and gene

  18. Genetic incompatibility dampens hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability: yeast as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibo Xu

    Full Text Available Genetic incompatibility is believed to be the major cause of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Despite huge efforts seeking for speciation-related incompatibilities in the past several decades, a general understanding of how genetic incompatibility evolves in affecting hybrid fitness is not available, primarily due to the fact that the number of known incompatibilities is small. Instead of further mapping specific incompatible genes, in this paper we aimed to know the overall effects of incompatibility on fertility and viability, the two aspects of fitness, by examining 89 gametes produced by yeast S. cerevisiae-S. paradoxus F1 hybrids. Homozygous F2 hybrids formed by autodiploidization of F1 gametes were subject to tests for growth rate and sporulation efficiency. We observed much stronger defects in sporulation than in clonal growth for every single F2 hybrid strain, indicating that genetic incompatibility affects hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability in yeast. We related this finding in part to the fast-evolving nature of meiosis-related genes, and proposed that the generally low expression levels of these genes might be a cause of the observation.

  19. A study of image reconstruction algorithms for hybrid intensity interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Peter N.; Murray-Krezan, Jeremy; Picard, Richard H.

    2011-09-01

    Phase retrieval is explored for image reconstruction using outputs from both a simulated intensity interferometer (II) and a hybrid system that combines the II outputs with partially resolved imagery from a traditional imaging telescope. Partially resolved imagery provides an additional constraint for the iterative phase retrieval process, as well as an improved starting point. The benefits of this additional a priori information are explored and include lower residual phase error for SNR values above 0.01, increased sensitivity, and improved image quality. Results are also presented for image reconstruction from II measurements alone, via current state-of-the-art phase retrieval techniques. These results are based on the standard hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm, as well as a recent enhancement to HIO that optimizes step lengths in addition to step directions. The additional step length optimization yields a reduction in residual phase error, but only for SNR values greater than about 10. Image quality for all algorithms studied is quite good for SNR>=10, but it should be noted that the studied phase-recovery techniques yield useful information even for SNRs that are much lower.

  20. ISSR and isozyme characterization of androgenetic dihaploids reveals tetrasomic inheritance in tetraploid somatic hybrids between Solanum melongena and Solanum aethiopicum group Gilo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppino, Laura; Mennella, Giuseppe; Rizza, Fulvia; D'Alessandro, Antonietta; Sihachakr, Darasinh; Rotino, Giuseppe L

    2008-01-01

    Gene exchanges between Solanum melongena and its allied relative Solanum aethiopicum are a crucial prerequisite for introgression of useful traits from the allied species into the cultivated eggplant. In order to evaluate the extent of genetic recombination between the 2 species, biochemical and molecular markers were employed. A dihaploid population obtained through anther culture of the corresponding tetraploid somatic hybrids was genetically analyzed. The extent of disomic/tetrasomic inheritance and segregation ratios of 3 isozyme systems and intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were evaluated. The dihaploids, being derived from microspores, allowed for simple, complete, and accurate analyses. The segregation of 280 ISSR markers (110 aethiopicum-specific, 104 melongena-specific, and 66 monomorphic) were evaluated in 71 dihaploids. According to the genetic constitution (simplex/duplex/triplex), almost 64% of the fragments revealed the tetrasomic and/or disomic inheritance. With regard to the assigned species-specific fragments, 68% and 4% were unambiguously the result of tetrasomic and disomic inheritance, respectively. Twenty-four of the 66 monomorphic ISSRs were inherited according to random chromatid segregation. The phenotypes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), and shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH) were studied in 70 dihaploids and inferences were made about the allelic state of their 5 loci. The isozyme markers segregated in the dihaploids in a distorted manner, their segregations did not fit in with any of the expected segregation ratios. However, tetrasomic inheritance might be suggested for G-6-PDH 2 and SKDH 1 loci. Our results demonstrated that gene exchanges occurred readily in the somatic hybrids between S. melongena and S. aethiopicum gr. Gilo.

  1. Electronic and magnetic properties of modified silicene/graphene hybrid: Ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Suman; Jana, Debnarayan, E-mail: cujanad@yahoo.com

    2016-11-01

    Among other two-dimensional (2D) novel materials, graphene and silicene both have drawn intense research interest among the researchers because they possess some unique intriguing properties which can change the scenario of the current electronic industry. In this work we have studied the electronic and the magnetic properties of a new kind of materials which is the hybrid of these two materials. Density functional theory (DFT) has been employed to calculate the relevant electronic and magnetic properties of this hybrid material. The pristine structure is modified by substitutional doping or by creating vacancy (Y-X, where one Y atom (Si or C) has been replaced by one X atom (B, N, Al, P or void)). The calculations have revealed that void systems are unstable while Si-B and Si-N are most stable ones. It has been noticed that some of these doped structures are magnetic in nature having induced mid-gap states in the system. In particular, Si-void structure is unstable yet it possess the highest magnetic moment of the order of 4 μ{sub B} (μ{sub B} being the Bohr magneton). The estimated band gaps of modified silicene/graphene hybrid from spin polarized partial density of states (PDOS) vary between 1.43–2.38 eV and 1.58–2.50 eV for spin-up and spin-down channel respectively. The implication of midgap states has been critically analysed in the light of magnetic nature. This study may be useful to build hybrid spintronic devices with controllable gap for spin up and spin down states. - Graphical abstract: We have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of silicene/graphene hybrid by employing density functional theory (DFT). - Highlights: • Electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional graphene/silicene hybrid have been explored. • There is no magnetism in the system for a single carbon atom vacancy. • A net magnetic moment of 4.0 Bohr magneton is observed for a single silicon atom vacancy. • Unpaired electrons introduce mid-gap states which

  2. Revealing the synergetic effects in Ni nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrids by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and their application in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanqi; Zhong, Jun; Wang, Jian; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-05-01

    The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications.The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Magnified TEM images, high resolution TEM images and the particle size distributions of the samples, the STXM results of a thick tube at different positions, XPS results, stability test. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01168j

  3. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  4. Hybrid rocket fuel combustion and regression rate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Anderson, F. A.; Cohen, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop hybrid fuels (1) with higher regression rates and reduced dependence on fuel grain geometry and (2) that maximize potential specific impulse using low-cost materials. A hybrid slab window motor system was developed to screen candidate fuels - their combustion behavior and regression rate. Combustion behavior diagnostics consisted of video and high speed motion pictures coverage. The mean fuel regression rates were determined by before and after measurements of the fuel slabs. The fuel for this initial investigation consisted of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder with coal and aluminum fillers. At low oxidizer flux levels (and corresponding fuel regression rates) the filled-binder fuels burn in a layered fashion, forming an aluminum containing binder/coal surface melt that, in turn, forms into filigrees or flakes that are stripped off by the crossflow. This melt process appears to diminish with increasing oxidizer flux level. Heat transfer by radiation is a significant contributor, producing the desired increase in magnitude and reduction in flow dependency (power law exponent) of the fuel regression rate.

  5. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) and macroarray techniques reveal differential gene expression profiles in brain of sea bream infected with nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dios, S; Poisa-Beiro, L; Figueras, A; Novoa, B

    2007-03-01

    Despite of the impact that viruses have on aquatic organisms, relatively little is known on how fish fight against these infections. In this work, the brain gene expression pattern of sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to nodavirus infection was investigated. We used the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method to generate a subtracted cDNA library enriched with gene transcripts differentially expressed after 1 day post-infection. Some of the ESTs from the infected tissues fell in gene categories related to stress and immune responses. For the reverse library (ESTs expressed in controls compared with infected tissues) the most abundant transcripts were of ribosomal and mitochondrial nature. Several ESTs potentially induced by virus exposure were selected for in vivo expression studies. We observed a clear difference in expression between infected and control samples for two candidate genes, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 7 interacting protein, which seems to play an important role in apoptosis and the interferon induced protein with helicase C domain 1 (mda-5) that contributes to apoptosis and regulates the type I IFN production, a key molecule of the antiviral innate response in most organisms.

  6. Relationships between spatio-temporal environmental and genetic variation reveal an important influence of exogenous selection in a pupfish hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Evan W; Tobler, Michael; Minckley, W L; Ainsworth, Ryan J; Dowling, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    The importance of exogenous selection in a natural hybrid zone between the pupfishes Cyprinodon atrorus and Cyprinodon bifasciatus was tested via spatio-temporal analyses of environmental and genetic change over winter, spring and summer for three consecutive years. A critical influence of exogenous selection on hybrid zone regulation was demonstrated by a significant relationship between environmental (salinity and temperature) and genetic (three diagnostic nuDNA loci) variation over space and time (seasons) in the Rio Churince system, Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. At sites environmentally more similar to parental habitats, the genetic composition of hybrids was stable and similar to the resident parental species, whereas complex admixtures of parental and hybrid genotypic classes characterized intermediate environments, as did the greatest change in allelic and genotypic frequencies across seasons. Within hybrids across the entire Rio Churince system, seasonal changes in allelic and genotypic frequencies were consistent with results from previous reciprocal transplant experiments, which showed C. bifasciatus to suffer high mortality (75%) when exposed to the habitat of C. atrorus in winter (extreme temperature lows and variability) and summer (abrupt salinity change and extreme temperature highs and variability). Although unconfirmed, the distributional limits of C. atrorus and C. atrorus-like hybrids appear to be governed by similar constraints (predation or competition). The argument favouring evolutionary significance of hybridization in animals is bolstered by the results of this study, which links the importance of exogenous selection in a contemporary hybrid zone between C. atrorus and C. bifasciatus to previous demonstration of the long-term evolutionary significance of environmental variation and introgression on the phenotypic diversification Cuatro Ciénegas Cyprinodon. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles André

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies.

  8. DNA barcoding reveals a new record of Potamogeton distinctus (Potamogetonaceae and its natural hybrids, P. distinctus × P. nodosus and P. distinctus × P. wrightii (P. ×malainoides from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Indo-China floristic region is among the 34 richest floristic regions of the world, and its plant diversity is still under investigation. Here we report a new record of an aquatic plant, Potamogeton distinctus, from Myanmar, a part of the region, that is detected by means of DNA barcoding method. The molecular method further identified the other specimens as hybrids of Potamogeton: one is P. ×malainoides (P. distinctus × P. wrightii, and the other is P. distinctus × P. nodosus. The first of these was thus far genetically confirmed in China, but the parental combination of the hybrid in Myanmar was reciprocal to those reported from China. The second hybrid was also recorded from China, but the maternal lineage was revealed for the first time, in this case it was P. distinctus. The present study showed that 1 nrITS is useful to distinguish closely related Potamogeton species as well as hybrids among them and 2 atpB-rbcL has higher utility than other frequently used plastid DNA markers. We thus propose nrITS and atpB-rbcL as DNA barcoding markers for future Potamogeton studies.

  9. DFT studies of CNT-functionalized uracil-acetate hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Gulseren, Oguz

    2015-09-01

    Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the stabilities and properties of hybrid structures consisting of a molecular carbon nanotube (CNT) and uracil acetate (UA) counterparts. The investigated models have been relaxed to minimum energy structures and then various physical properties and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have been evaluated. The results indicated the effects of functionalized CNT on the properties of hybrids through comparing the results of hybrids and individual structures. The oxygen atoms of uracil counterparts have been seen as the detection points of properties for the CNT-UA hybrids.

  10. Array comparative genomic hybridization profiling analysis reveals deoxyribonucleic acid copy number variations associated with premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboura, Azzedine; Dupas, Claire; Tachdjian, Gérard; Portnoï, Marie-France; Bourcigaux, Nathalie; Dewailly, Didier; Frydman, René; Fauser, Bart; Ronci-Chaix, Nathalie; Donadille, Bruno; Bouchard, Philippe; Christin-Maitre, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined by amenorrhea of at least 4- to 6-month duration, occurring before 40 yr of age, with two FSH levels in the postmenopausal range. Its etiology remains unknown in more than 80% of cases. Standard karyotypes, having a resolution of 5-10 Mb, have identified critical chromosomal regions, mainly located on the long arm of the X chromosome. Array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis is able to detect submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements with a higher genomic resolution. We searched for copy number variations (CNVs), using a-CGH analysis with a resolution of approximately 0.7 Mb, in a cohort of patients with POF. We prospectively included 99 women. Our study included a conventional karyotype and DNA microarrays comprising 4500 bacterial artificial chromosome clones spread on the entire genome. Thirty-one CNVs have been observed, three on the X chromosome and 28 on autosomal chromosomes. Data have been compared to control populations obtained from the Database of Genomic Variants (http://projects.tcag.ca/variation). Eight statistically significantly different CNVs have been identified in chromosomal regions 1p21.1, 5p14.3, 5q13.2, 6p25.3, 14q32.33, 16p11.2, 17q12, and Xq28. We report the first study of CNV analysis in a large cohort of Caucasian POF patients. In the eight statistically significant CNVs we report, we found five genes involved in reproduction, thus representing potential candidate genes in POF. The current study along with emerging information regarding CNVs, as well as data on their potential association with human diseases, emphasizes the importance of assessing CNVs in cohorts of POF women.

  11. Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S.

    1995-04-26

    We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO{sub x} emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO{sub x} concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today`s gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

  12. Simultaneous in situ hybridization for DNA and RNA reveals the presence of HPV in the majority of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, L; Pilotti, S; Longoni, A; Donghi, R; Rilke, F

    1992-02-01

    Thirteen cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix containing HPV types 16 or 18 DNA sequences, as detected by Southern blot analysis, were investigated by in situ hybridization on routine paraffin sections, using 35S nick-translated DNA probes. Simultaneous in situ hybridization for DNA and RNA showed that in ten out of 13 cases (77%) the percentage of tumor cells containing HPV 16 or 18 varied from 75 to 100%. In one case, harboring both in situ and invasive carcinoma, the same type of HPV DNA was detected in both components. This finding suggests that neoplastic cells retained the viral genome during progression to invasiveness.

  13. Structural and optical study of spin-coated camphorsulfonic acid-doped polyaniline/titanium-di-oxide nanoparticles hybrid thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethalakshmi, D.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Balasundaraprabhu, R.

    2015-06-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) doped with Camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) has been prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization and blend with titanium-di-oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method to form CSA-doped PANI/TiO2 hybrid thin films. The properties of as-deposited and heat-treated (100 °C) hybrid thin films having different PANI:TiO2 weight ratios (1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2) have been compared. FTIR study indicated that chemical bonding between CSA-doped PANI and TiO2 has been formed. XRD studies reveal that the as-deposited hybrid thin films are of amorphous nature and heat-treatment of such films initiates crystallization. SEM study shows that as-deposited hybrid films are rough; increase in TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment increased the roughness due to coalescing and agglomeration. UV-visible absorbance of hybrid films shows its characteristic peak in the visible region along with a peak in UV range and its intensity increased with TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment due to agglomeration of TiO2 particles. Photoluminescence spectra revealed that emission occurs in visible region (495 nm) for as-deposited hybrid thin film and this emission increased with TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment of hybrid films.

  14. Transcriptional profiles of hybrid Eucalyptus genotypes with contrasting lignin content reveal that monolignol biosynthesis-related genes regulate wood composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka eShinya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected three-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis genotypes (AM063 and AM380 that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0% and 48.2%, -cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA and sucrose synthase (SUSY were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase (XTH than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis- related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL. Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents

  15. Hybrid gait training with an overground robot for people with incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J del-Ama

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor training has proved to provide beneficial effect in terms of mobility in incomplete paraplegic patients. Neuroprosthetic technology can contribute to increase the efficacy of a training paradigm in the promotion of a locomotor pattern. Robotic exoskeletons can be used to manage the unavoidable loss of performance of artificially-driven muscles. Hybrid exoskeletons blend complementary robotic and neuro-prosthetic technologies. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effects of hybrid gait training in three case studies with persons with incomplete spinal cord injury in terms of locomotion performance during assisted gait, patient-robot adaptations, impact on ambulation and assessment of lower limb muscle strength and spasticity. Participants with incomplete Spinal Cord Injury (SCI received interventions with a hybrid bilateral exoskeleton for 4 days. Assessment of gait function revealed that patients improved the 6 minutes and 10 meters walking tests after the intervention, and further improvements were observed one week after the intervention. Muscle examination revealed improvements in knee and hip sagittal muscle balance scores and decreased score in ankle extensor balance. It is concluded that improvements in biomechanical function of the knee joint after the tested overground hybrid gait trainer are coherent with improvements in gait performance.

  16. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  17. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espreafico Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP, confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP, when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617, and the other (Met library by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in

  18. Study on Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Hybrid GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Bahiyah Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the mechanical and physical behaviour of hybrid glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP. Hybrid GFRP was fabricated by three different types of glass fibre, namely, 3D, woven, and chopped, which were selected and combined with mixture of polyester resin and hardener. The hybrid GFRP was investigated by varying three parameters which were the composite volume fractions, hybrid GFRP arrangement, and single type fibre. The hybrid GFRP was fabricated by using open mould hand lay-up technique. Mechanical testing was conducted by tensile test for strength and stiffness whereas physical testing was performed using water absorption and hardness. These tests were carried out to determine the effect of mechanical and physical behaviour over the hybrid GFRP. The highest volume fraction of 0.5 gives the highest strength and stiffness of 73 MPa and 821 MPa, respectively. Varying hybrid fibre arrangement which is the arrangement of chopped-woven-3D-woven-chopped showed the best value in strength of 66.2 MPa. The stiffness is best at arrangement of woven-chopped-woven-chopped-woven at 690 MPa. This arrangement also showed the lowest water absorption of 4.5%. Comparing the single fibre type, woven had overtaken the others in terms of both mechanical and physical properties.

  19. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study on the structural relaxation of phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy hybrids at different aging temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia-Wen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Ma, Chen-Chi M., E-mail: ccma@che.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tan, Chung-Sung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Li, Hsun-Tien [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The cured network conformations and structural relaxation behaviours of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) modified with phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy (PMSE) at different aging temperatures were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The DMA results revealed that the cured PMSE network can insert into the cured DGEBA network to form interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 produced using DGEBA, PMSE, and MHHPA at a ratio of 0.6:0.4:1 by equivalent weight were studied using PALS at 150 °C and 55 °C. The aging-induced free volume relaxation parameters of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 at 150 °C and 55 °C were investigated using the double additive exponential model and the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts exponential model. For double additive exponential model, only one relaxation time (ζ) of 584.5 h was found at 150 °C; By contrast, there were two separate relaxation times of 37.4 h (ζ{sub 1}) and 753.6 h (ζ{sub 2}) at 55 °C. The ζ{sub 1} of the IPNs hybrid can be attributed to the network relaxation of PMSE, and the ζ{sub 2} can be attributed to the network relaxation of DGEBA at 55 °C. The results suggested the double additive exponential model can effectively predict DGEBA–PMSE hybrid relaxation behaviours. - Highlights: • The cured network conformations of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using DMA. • The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using PALS. • The cured DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). • PALS studies provided a quantitative demonstration of relaxation behaviours. • Double additive exponential model effectively predicted the relaxation times of hybrids.

  20. Motivational study for an hybrid demonstrator; Dossier de motivation pour un demonstrateur hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boidron, M.; Fiorini, G.L.; Thomas, J.B. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Flocard, H. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS/IN2P3), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-15

    This document recalls first the role of hybrid accelerator driven systems (ADS) in the domain of transmutation of long-lived fission products and minor actinides. It presents the specific contribution of these systems in the management of radioactive wastes and their technical feasibility and safety aspects. Then, follows a motivational analysis for the construction of a demonstration facility with its specifications and R and D needs: feasibility, schedule, links with other ADS-related programs, cost, international cooperation, recommendations. (J.S.)

  1. Chromogenic in situ hybridization: a multicenter study comparing silver in situ hybridization with FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J M S; Campbell, Fiona M; Ibrahim, Merdol; Wencyk, Peter; Ellis, Ian; Kay, Elaine; Connolly, Yvonne; O'Grady, Anthony; Di Palma, Silvana; Starczynski, Jane; Morgan, John M; Jasani, Bharat; Miller, Keith

    2009-10-01

    Our purposes were to perform a robust assessment of a new HER2 chromogenic in situ hybridization test and report on concordance of silver in situ hybridization (SISH) data with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data and on intraobserver and interlaboratory scoring consistency. HER2 results were scored from 45 breast cancers in 7 laboratories using the Ventana (Tucson, AZ) INFORM HER-2 SISH assay and in 1 central laboratory using a standard FISH assay. Overall, 94.8% of cases were successfully analyzed by SISH across the 6 participating laboratories that reported data. Concordance for diagnosis of HER2 amplification by SISH compared with FISH was high (96.0% overall). Intraobserver variability (8.0%) and intersite variability (12.66%) of absolute HER2/chromosome 17 ratios appear to be tightly controlled across all 6 participating laboratories. The Ventana INFORM HER-2 SISH assay is robust and reproducible, shows good concordance with a standard FISH assay, and complies with requirements in national guidelines for performance of diagnostic tests.

  2. Demonstrative Study of Chinese Hybrid Rice in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thailand is the kingdom of quality rice in the world, and China is the “pilgrimage” place of hybrid rice. There is a very attractive joint in the yield pre dominance of Chinese hybrid rice and the good quality of Thai rice, which maybe start a new agro - eco nomic increasing phase. This kind of cooperation initiate between China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center (CNHRRDC) and Charoen Pokphand Seeds Co., Ltd. (C. P. Group) in Thailand 2001. The main results of the program are reported as follows.

  3. Hybrid simulation: an active power filter case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Garcés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid simulation concept consisting of a combination of computer simulation and laboratory tests. This approach is a cost effective alternative to physically testing the whole system and allows better understanding of complex coupled systems.This paper describes implementing an active power filter (APF hybrid prototype where the source system and load are implemented as a real-time simulation and the system of static power converter acting as an active power filter is implemented in physical hardware. It also confirmed the hybrid simulation results by implementing the simulation in MATLAB-Simulink regarding the same system implemented during the active power filter analysis and design stage.

  4. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  5. Next-generation sequencing analysis of lager brewing yeast strains reveals the evolutionary history of interspecies hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Miki; Kajitani, Rei; Ryusui, Rie; Morimoto, Hiroya; Kodama, Yukiko; Itoh, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    The lager beer yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus is considered an allopolyploid hybrid species between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus. Many S. pastorianus strains have been isolated and classified into two groups according to geographical origin, but this classification remains controversial. Hybridization analyses and partial PCR-based sequence data have indicated a separate origin of these two groups, whereas a recent intertranslocation analysis suggested a single origin. To clarify the evolutionary history of this species, we analysed 10 S. pastorianus strains and the S. eubayanus type strain as a likely parent by Illumina next-generation sequencing. In addition to assembling the genomes of five of the strains, we obtained information on interchromosomal translocation, ploidy, and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). Collectively, these results indicated that the two groups of strains share S. cerevisiae haploid chromosomes. We therefore conclude that both groups of S. pastorianus strains share at least one interspecific hybridization event and originated from a common parental species and that differences in ploidy and SNVs between the groups can be explained by chromosomal deletion or loss of heterozygosity.

  6. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  7. Empirical Estimation of Hybrid Model: A Controlled Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Un Nisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scrum and Extreme Programming (XP are frequently used models among all agile models whereas Rational Unified Process (RUP is one of the widely used conventional plan driven software development models. The agile and plan driven approaches both have their own strengths and weaknesses. Although RUP model has certain drawbacks, such as tendency to be over budgeted, slow in adaptation to rapidly changing requirements and reputation of being impractical for small and fast paced projects. XP model has certain drawbacks such as weak documentation and poor performance for medium and large development projects. XP has a concrete set of engineering practices that emphasizes on team work where managers, customers and developers are all equal partners in collaborative teams. Scrum is more concerned with the project management. It has seven practices namely Scrum Master, Scrum teams, Product Backlog, Sprint, Sprint Planning Meeting, Daily Scrum Meeting and Sprint Review. Keeping above mentioned context in view, this paper intends to propose a hybrid model naming SPRUP model by combining strengths of Scrum, XP and RUP by eliminating their weaknesses to produce high quality software. The proposed SPRUP model is validated through a controlled case study.

  8. A spectroscopic study of the hybrid pulsator Gamma Pegasi

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, C P; Briquet, M; Jayakumar, K; Bisht, S; Sanwal, B B

    2011-01-01

    The recent detection of both pressure and high-order gravity modes in the classical B-type pulsator Gamma Pegasi offers promising prospects for probing its internal structure through seismic studies. To aid further modelling of this star, we present the results of a detailed NLTE abundance analysis based on a large number of time-resolved, high-quality spectra. A chemical composition typical of nearby B-type stars is found. The hybrid nature of this star is consistent with its location in the overlapping region of the instability strips for beta Cephei and slowly pulsating B stars computed using OP opacity tables, although OPAL calculations may also be compatible with the observations once the uncertainties in the stellar parameters and the current limitations of the stability calculations are taken into account. The two known frequencies f1 = 6.58974 and f2 = 0.68241 c/d are detected in the spectroscopic time series. A mode identification is attempted for the low-frequency signal, which can be associated to ...

  9. Causal-comparative study analyzing student success in hybrid anatomy and physiology courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline Anita

    independent means of the variables, mean, standard deviation, and magnitude of effect. The findings of this study indicate that the web-enhanced technology Wiki tools provided the largest increase in student success and achievement in the hybrid, introductory anatomy and physiology course. Descriptive analysis of the surveys revealed that more than a third of each class felt that the implemented web-enhanced technology functioned to increase collaboration amongst the students and helped to emulate a traditional, face-to-face formatted course. The study included four recommendations for practice and nine recommendations for further research. A couple of recommendations for practice included using a single web-enhanced technology for the duration of the semester and having instructors and students complete tutorial sessions for the chosen technology being implemented. Examples of recommendations for research include replicating this study at other institutions and comparing face-to-face, traditional classes to hybrid courses within the same STEM discipline.

  10. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  11. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Unlike in autogenous laser welding, hybrid laser welding of stainless steel could introduce grain boundary carbides due to low cooling rates. Formation of grain boundary carbides leads to reduced corrosion properties. Studies have initially been carried out on hybrid laser welding and subsequent ...... regain the corrosion resistance by desensitization....

  12. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  13. Targeted molecular dynamics reveals overall common conformational changes upon hybrid domain swing-out in beta3 integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provasi, Davide; Murcia, Marta; Coller, Barry S; Filizola, Marta

    2009-11-01

    The beta3 integrin family members alphaIIbeta3 and alphaVbeta3 signal bidirectionally through long-range allosteric changes, including a transition from a bent unliganded-closed low-affinity state to an extended liganded-open high-affinity state. To obtain an atomic-level description of this transition in an explicit solvent, we carried out targeted molecular dynamics simulations of the headpieces of alphaIIbeta3 and alphaVbeta3 integrins. Although minor differences were observed between these receptors, our results suggest a common transition pathway in which the hybrid domain swing-out is accompanied by conformational changes within the beta3 betaA (I-like) domain that propagate through the alpha7 helix C-terminus, and are followed by the alpha7 helix downward motion and the opening of the beta6-alpha7 loop. Breaking of contact interactions between the beta6-alpha7 loop and the alpha1 helix N-terminus results in helix straightening, internal rearrangements of the specificity determining loop (SDL), movement of the beta1-alpha1 loop toward the metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), and final changes at the interfaces between the beta3 betaA (I-like) domain and either the hybrid or the alpha beta-propeller domains. Taken together, our results suggest novel testable hypotheses of intradomain and interdomain interactions responsible for beta3 integrin activation.

  14. CSEM-Steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

    1985-06-01

    Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 KOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  15. A study of fluctuating asymmetry in hybrids of dwarf and normal lake whitefish ecotypes (Coregonus clupeaformis) from different glacial races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Bernatchez, L

    1999-12-01

    Fish ecotypes found in north temperate lakes are increasingly used as model organisms to explore patterns and processes of population divergence that may ultimately cause speciation. Processes involved in their reproductive isolation are, however, still poorly understood. Recent experimental studies on whitefish ecotypes from different glacial races revealed that embryonic mortality of hybrids was 2.4-4.7 times higher than for parental forms. In this study, we compared fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in morphological traits of these same hybrid and pure crosses to test the hypothesis that genetic stress observed in hybrids at embryonic stages is also manifested at later developmental stages. Twelve morphological traits were used to measure asymmetry. Variable degrees of asymmetry were observed depending on traits and crosses, however there was no significant difference in FA among crosses. These results thus provided no evidence in support of the working hypothesis and indicated that genetic stress may differ among life stages. It is more likely that high hybrid embryonic mortality acts together with ecological factors at later stages to increase further the extent of reproductive isolation between sympatric whitefish ecotypes.

  16. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis reveals chromosomal copy number aberrations associated with clinical outcome in canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Aricò

    Full Text Available Canine Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (cDLBCL is an aggressive cancer with variable clinical response. Despite recent attempts by gene expression profiling to identify the dog as a potential animal model for human DLBCL, this tumor remains biologically heterogeneous with no prognostic biomarkers to predict prognosis. The aim of this work was to identify copy number aberrations (CNAs by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH in 12 dogs with newly diagnosed DLBCL. In a subset of these dogs, the genetic profiles at the end of therapy and at relapse were also assessed. In primary DLBCLs, 90 different genomic imbalances were counted, consisting of 46 gains and 44 losses. Two gains in chr13 were significantly correlated with clinical stage. In addition, specific regions of gains and losses were significantly associated to duration of remission. In primary DLBCLs, individual variability was found, however 14 recurrent CNAs (>30% were identified. Losses involving IGK, IGL and IGH were always found, and gains along the length of chr13 and chr31 were often observed (>41%. In these segments, MYC, LDHB, HSF1, KIT and PDGFRα are annotated. At the end of therapy, dogs in remission showed four new CNAs, whereas three new CNAs were observed in dogs at relapse compared with the previous profiles. One ex novo CNA, involving TCR, was present in dogs in remission after therapy, possibly induced by the autologous vaccine. Overall, aCGH identified small CNAs associated with outcome, which, along with future expression studies, may reveal target genes relevant to cDLBCL.

  17. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2011-03-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted.

  18. Plasma environment of Titan: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Titan possesses a dense atmosphere, consisting mainly of molecular nitrogen. Titan's orbit is located within the Saturnian magnetosphere most of the time, where the corotating plasma flow is super-Alfvénic, yet subsonic and submagnetosonic. Since Titan does not possess a significant intrinsic magnetic field, the incident plasma interacts directly with the atmosphere and ionosphere. Due to the characteristic length scales of the interaction region being comparable to the ion gyroradii in the vicinity of Titan, magnetohydrodynamic models can only offer a rough description of Titan's interaction with the corotating magnetospheric plasma flow. For this reason, Titan's plasma environment has been studied by using a 3-D hybrid simulation code, treating the electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas a completely kinetic approach is used to cover ion dynamics. The calculations are performed on a curvilinear simulation grid which is adapted to the spherical geometry of the obstacle. In the model, Titan's dayside ionosphere is mainly generated by solar UV radiation; hence, the local ion production rate depends on the solar zenith angle. Because the Titan interaction features the possibility of having the densest ionosphere located on a face not aligned with the ram flow of the magnetospheric plasma, a variety of different scenarios can be studied. The simulations show the formation of a strong magnetic draping pattern and an extended pick-up region, being highly asymmetric with respect to the direction of the convective electric field. In general, the mechanism giving rise to these structures exhibits similarities to the interaction of the ionospheres of Mars and Venus with the supersonic solar wind. The simulation results are in agreement with data from recent Cassini flybys.

  19. Parametric study and performance analysis of hybrid rocket motors with double-tube configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanjia; Zhao, Bo; Lorente, Arnau Pons; Wang, Jue

    2017-03-01

    The practical implementation of hybrid rocket motors has historically been hampered by the slow regression rate of the solid fuel. In recent years, the research on advanced injector designs has achieved notable results in the enhancement of the regression rate and combustion efficiency of hybrid rockets. Following this path, this work studies a new configuration called double-tube characterized by injecting the gaseous oxidizer through a head end injector and an inner tube with injector holes distributed along the motor longitudinal axis. This design has demonstrated a significant potential for improving the performance of hybrid rockets by means of a better mixing of the species achieved through a customized injection of the oxidizer. Indeed, the CFD analysis of the double-tube configuration has revealed that this design may increase the regression rate over 50% with respect to the same motor with a conventional axial showerhead injector. However, in order to fully exploit the advantages of the double-tube concept, it is necessary to acquire a deeper understanding of the influence of the different design parameters in the overall performance. In this way, a parametric study is carried out taking into account the variation of the oxidizer mass flux rate, the ratio of oxidizer mass flow rate injected through the inner tube to the total oxidizer mass flow rate, and injection angle. The data for the analysis have been gathered from a large series of three-dimensional numerical simulations that considered the changes in the design parameters. The propellant combination adopted consists of gaseous oxygen as oxidizer and high-density polyethylene as solid fuel. Furthermore, the numerical model comprises Navier-Stokes equations, k-ε turbulence model, eddy-dissipation combustion model and solid-fuel pyrolysis, which is computed through user-defined functions. This numerical model was previously validated by analyzing the computational and experimental results obtained for

  20. Study of optimal control problems for hybrid dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Rui; Wang Lei; Wang Yuzhen

    2006-01-01

    From the viewpoint of continuous systems, optimal control problem is proposed for a class of controlled Hybrid dynamical systems. Then a mathematical method- HDS minimum principle is put forward, which can solve the above problem. The HDS minimum principle is proved by means of Ekeland's variational principle.

  1. Mechanical and tribological studies on nano particles reinforced hybrid aluminum based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muley Aniruddha V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are new class of materials due to their better mechanical properties which can be achieved through proper selection and combination of materials. The work reported in this paper is based on fabrication of hybrid composites by using nano particles as reinforcements. The hybrid composites were fabricated by reinforcing them with nano sized SiC and Al2O3 particles in order to study mechanical and tribological properties of these enhanced materials. A stir casting method was used to obtain hybrid composites. LM 6 aluminum alloy was used as a matrix material. The results shown increase in hardness as well as in ultimate tensile strength of the composites with small wt.% of nano-sized hybrid reinforcements. The composites produced also exhibit better tribological properties.

  2. A Numerical Study on Electrical Percolation of Polymer-Matrix Composites with Hybrid Fillers of Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical percolation of polymer-matrix composites (PMCs containing hybrid fillers of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and carbon black (CB is estimated by studying the connection possibility of the fillers using Monte Carlo simulation. The 3D simulation model of CB-CNT hybrid filler is established, in which CNTs are modeled by slender capped cylinders and CB groups are modeled by hypothetical spheres with interspaces because CB particles are always agglomerated. The observation on the effects of CB and CNT volume fractions and dimensions on the electrical percolation threshold of hybrid filled composites is then carried out. It is found that the composite electrical percolation threshold can be reduced by increasing CNT aspect ratio, as well as increasing the diameter ratio of CB groups to CNTs. And adding CB into CNT composites can decrease the CNT volume needed to convert the composite conductivity, especially when the CNT volume fraction is close to the threshold of PMCs with only CNT filler. Different from previous linear assumption, the nonlinear relation between CB and CNT volume fractions at composite percolation threshold is revealed, which is consistent with the synergistic effect observed in experiments. Based on the nonlinear relation, the estimating equation for the electrical percolation threshold of the PMCs containing CB-CNT hybrid fillers is established.

  3. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seile Yohannes

    Full Text Available The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01, the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144, and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66 are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub

  4. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Seile; Bekele, Endashaw

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01), the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144), and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66) are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided populations and

  5. Comparative study of symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization between common wheat and Haynaldia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Symmetric and asymmetric protoplast fusion between long term cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Triticum aestivum (cv. Jinan 177) and protoplasts of Haynaldia villosa prepared from one-year-old embryogeneric calli was performed by PEG method. In asymmetric fusion, donor calli were treated with gamma ray at a dose of 40, 60, 80 Gy (1.3 Gy/min) respectively and then used to isolate protoplasts. Results of morphological, cytological, biochemical (isozyme) and 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis revealed that we obtained somatic hybrid lines at high frequency from both symmetric and asymmetric fusion. Hybrid plants were recovered from symmetric and low dose g-fusion combinations. GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) analysis proved exactly the existence of both parental chromosomes and the common occurrence of several kinds of translocation between them in the hybrid clones regenerated from symmetric and asymmetric fusion. And the elimination of donor DNA in hybrid clones regenerated from asymmetric fusion combinations was found to increase with the increasing gamma doses. It is concluded that transference and recombination of nuclear DNA can be achieved effectively by symmetric and asymmetric fusion, hybrids with small fragment translocation which are valuable in plant breeding can be obtained directly by asymmetric fusion.

  6. Adsorption studies of chromium (VI) removal from water by lanthanum diethanolamine hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sandip; Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Giri, Anil Kumar; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2014-01-01

    In the present research work, lanthanum diethanolamine hybrid material is synthesized by co-precipitation method and used for the removal of Cr(VI) from synthetic dichromate solution and hand pump water sample. The sorption experiments were carried out in batch mode to optimize various influencing parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, competitive anions and temperature. The characterization of the material and mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption on the material was studied by using scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis. Adsorption kinetics studies reveal that the adsorption process followed first-order kinetics and intraparticle diffusion model with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. The adsorption data were best fitted to linearly transformed Langmuir isotherm with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.997. The maximum removal of Cr(VI) is found to be 99.31% at optimal condition: pH = 5.6 of the solution, adsorbent dose of 8 g L(-1) with initial concentration of 10mgL(-1) of Cr(VI) solution and an equilibrium time of 50 min. The maximum adsorption capacity of the material is 357.1 mg g(-1). Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated to study the effect of temperature on the removal process. The study shows that the adsorption process is feasible and endothermic in nature. The value of E (260.6 kJ mol(-1)) indicates the chemisorption nature of the adsorption process. The material is difficult to be regenerated. The above studies indicate that the hybrid material is capable of removing Cr(VI) from water.

  7. Iron–carbon hybrid capacitor: A proof-of-concept study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V R Chari; S R Aravamuthan; A K Shukla

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, cost-intensive Ni electrode is replaced by high surface-area activated carbon (AC) cathode and the possibility of the Fe anode, used in Ni–Fe battery, to function as Fe–C hybrid capacitor has been examined. The electrochemical properties of Fe–C hybrid capacitor assembly are studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles. Over 100 galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles for Fe–C hybrid capacitor are carried out and a maximum capacitance of 24 F g-1 is observed.

  8. Rape and the prevalence of hybrids in broadly sympatric species: a case study using albatrosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievert Rohwer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conspecific rape often increases male reproductive success. However, the haste and aggression of forced copulations suggests that males may sometimes rape heterospecific females, thus making rape a likely, but undocumented, source of hybrids between broadly sympatric species. We present evidence that heterospecific rape may be the source of hybrids between Black-footed and Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes, and P. immutabilis, respectively. Extensive field studies have shown that paired (but not unpaired males of both of these albatross species use rape as a supplemental reproductive strategy. Between species differences in size, timing of laying, and aggressiveness suggest that Black-footed Albatrosses should be more successful than Laysan Albatrosses in heteropspecific rape attempts, and male Black-footed Albatrosses have been observed attempting to force copulations on female Laysan Albatrosses. Nuclear markers showed that the six hybrids we studied were F1s and mitochondrial markers showed that male Black-footed Albatrosses sired all six hybrids. Long-term gene exchange between these species has been from Black-footed Albatrosses into Laysan Albatrosses, suggesting that the siring asymmetry found in our hybrids has long persisted. If hybrids are sired in heterospecific rapes, they presumably would be raised and sexually imprinted on Laysan Albatrosses, and two unmated hybrids in a previous study courted only Laysan Albatrosses.

  9. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, B; Cherif, N; Garcia-Rosado, E; Infante, C; Cano, I; Castro, D; Hammami, S; Borrego, J J; Alonso, M C

    2010-10-01

    To detect the possible coexistence of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotypes in a single fish, a methodology based on the combination of PCR amplification and blot hybridization has been developed and applied in this study. The degenerate primers designed for the PCR procedure target the T4 region within the capsid gene, resulting in the amplification of both genotypes. The subsequent hybridization of these amplification products with two different specific digoxigenin-labelled probes resulted in the identification of both genotypes separately. The application of the RT-PCR protocol to analyse blood samples from asymptomatic wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) specimens has shown a 46.87% of viral nervous necrosis virus carriers. The combination of RT-PCR and blot hybridization increases the detection rate up to 90.62%, and, in addition, it has shown the coexistence of both genotypes in 18 out of the 32 specimens analysed (56.25%). This study reports the coexistence of betanodaviruses belonging to two different genotypes (SJNNV and RGNNV) in wild fish specimens. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Fabrication and interfacial electronic structure studies on polypyrrole/TiO2 nano hybrid systems for photovoltaic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ganesan Mohan; Kawakita, Jin; Jayavel, Ramasamy

    2011-05-01

    The progress in studying the interfacial electronic structures of the developing new class of hybrid organic/inorganic material systems have envisaged a new dimension into the field of photovoltaics, which could be of great help in understanding the nature of charge transfer in them. In this regard, electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers have been carried out at room temperature on the surface of TiO2 working electrodes (assisted by UV radiations) and their interfacial electronic structure has been studied as a function of the applied photo anodic potentials. The formation of polypyrrole deposits has been ensured using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Surface analysis of the hybrid matrix revealed the tendency of polymer molecules to cover up the spherical surface of TiO2 nanoparticles that could help in improving the light absorption rate. Signals (bands) corresponding to pyrrole molecules observed in the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have been correlated with the polaronic states formed and identified to shift as a function of the applied photo anodic potentials, revealing the decrease in work function of the hybrid system to take place (confirmed using cyclic voltammetry measurements). The decreasing trend in the work function elucidates the adjustment in electronic structure of the system (hybrid materials possessing smaller work functions are generally preferred for photovoltaic studies). The aforementioned behavioural aspects have been reasoned with the increase in overpotential values for polarization, from the decrease in up-take rate of the anionic dopant, which increases the current density values, thereby modifying the conductivity of the systems.

  11. Study on Applying Hybrid Machine Learning into Family Apparel Expenditure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Lei

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Machine Learning (HMD is a kind of advanced algorithm in the field of intelligent information process.It combines the induced learning based-on decision-making tree with the blocking neural network.And it provides a useful intelligent knowledge-based data mining technique.Its core algorithm is ID3 and Field Theory based ART (FTART).The paper introduces the principals of hybrid machine learning firstly, and then applies it into analyzing family apparel expenditures and their influencing factors systematically.Finally, compared with those from the traditional statistic methods, the results from HML is more friendly and easily to be understood.Besides, the forecasting by HML is more correct than by the traditional ways.

  12. Hybrid Computational Simulation and Study of Terahertz Pulsed Photoconductive Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, R.; Barani, N.; Safian, R.; Nezhad, A. Zeidaabadi

    2016-08-01

    A photoconductive antenna (PCA) has been numerically investigated in the terahertz (THz) frequency band based on a hybrid simulation method. This hybrid method utilizes an optoelectronic solver, Silvaco TCAD, and a full-wave electromagnetic solver, CST. The optoelectronic solver is used to find the accurate THz photocurrent by considering realistic material parameters. Performance of photoconductive antennas and temporal behavior of the excited photocurrent for various active region geometries such as bare-gap electrode, interdigitated electrodes, and tip-to-tip rectangular electrodes are investigated. Moreover, investigations have been done on the center of the laser illumination on the substrate, substrate carrier lifetime, and diffusion photocurrent associated with the carriers temperature, to achieve efficient and accurate photocurrent. Finally, using the full-wave electromagnetic solver and the calculated photocurrent obtained from the optoelectronic solver, electromagnetic radiation of the antenna and its associated detected THz signal are calculated and compared with a measurement reference for verification.

  13. Hybrid Computational Simulation and Study of Terahertz Pulsed Photoconductive Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, R.; Barani, N.; Safian, R.; Nezhad, A. Zeidaabadi

    2016-11-01

    A photoconductive antenna (PCA) has been numerically investigated in the terahertz (THz) frequency band based on a hybrid simulation method. This hybrid method utilizes an optoelectronic solver, Silvaco TCAD, and a full-wave electromagnetic solver, CST. The optoelectronic solver is used to find the accurate THz photocurrent by considering realistic material parameters. Performance of photoconductive antennas and temporal behavior of the excited photocurrent for various active region geometries such as bare-gap electrode, interdigitated electrodes, and tip-to-tip rectangular electrodes are investigated. Moreover, investigations have been done on the center of the laser illumination on the substrate, substrate carrier lifetime, and diffusion photocurrent associated with the carriers temperature, to achieve efficient and accurate photocurrent. Finally, using the full-wave electromagnetic solver and the calculated photocurrent obtained from the optoelectronic solver, electromagnetic radiation of the antenna and its associated detected THz signal are calculated and compared with a measurement reference for verification.

  14. Computational and experimental study of air hybrid engine concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cho-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University The air hybrid engine absorbs the vehicle kinetic energy during braking, stores it in an air tank in the form of compressed air, and reuses it to start the engine and to propel a vehicle during cruising and acceleration. Capturing, storing and reusing this braking energy to achieve stop-start operation and to give additional power can therefore improve fuel economy, particularly in cities and ...

  15. STUDY ON STRESS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INTRAPLY HYBRID COMPOSITE SHEET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆敦; 黄小清; 林雪慧

    2001-01-01

    A reasonably, simply and accurately modified shear-lag model was proposed.Based on the model, the stress redistributions due to the failure of some fibers in an intraply hybrid composite under tension were analyzed. The results show that the present calculating stress concentration factors very coincide with Fukuda and Chou' s results, thus verifying the reasonableness and correctness of the present model and methods.

  16. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  17. A study on the control of a hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) system can combine the benefits of both Line Commutated Converter (LCC) and Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technologies in the form of reduced losses and flexibility to connect to weak and passive grids. In this paper, an analysis of control strategies used...... in a hybrid MTDC system is presented. A case study of a four terminal hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive AC network was considered for simulation study. A control scheme based on voltage margin was developed to cope with the condition of main DC voltage controlling station tripping. Two various control...... scenarios for controlling the VSCs connected to the passive network were presented and compared. The system performance was studied through EMTP-RV simulations under different disturbances. The results show the ability of selected converter control modes and proposed control schemes to operate the hybrid...

  18. Feasibility study of a hybrid plants (photovoltaic–LPG generator system for rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adouane Mabrouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic/LPG (liquid petroleum gas generator hybrid power system for low-cost electricity production which can satisfy the energy load requirements of a typical remote and isolated rural area. In this context, the optimal dimensions to improve the technical and economical performances of the hybrid system are determined according to the load energy requirements. The proposed system's installation and operating costs are simulated using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER, the solar radiation and the system components costs as inputs; and then compared with those of other supply options such as diesel generation.

  19. Bisphosphonate inhibitors reveal a large elasticity of plastidic isoprenoid synthesis pathway in isoprene-emitting hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Talts, Eero; Kännaste, Astrid; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a feedback inhibition of the chloroplastic 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid synthesis by end products dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) was postulated, but the extent to which DMADP and IDP can build up is not known. We used bisphosphonate inhibitors, alendronate and zoledronate, that inhibit the consumption of DMADP and IDP by prenyltransferases to gain insight into the extent of end product accumulation and possible feedback inhibition in isoprene-emitting hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). A kinetic method based on dark release of isoprene emission at the expense of substrate pools accumulated in light was used to estimate the in vivo pool sizes of DMADP and upstream metabolites. Feeding with fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of DXP reductoisomerase, alone or in combination with bisphosphonates was used to inhibit carbon input into DXP/MEP pathway or both input and output. We observed a major increase in pathway intermediates, 3- to 4-fold, upstream of DMADP in bisphosphonate-inhibited leaves, but the DMADP pool was enhanced much less, 1.3- to 1.5-fold. In combined fosmidomycin/bisphosphonate treatment, pathway intermediates accumulated, reflecting cytosolic flux of intermediates that can be important under strong metabolic pull in physiological conditions. The data suggested that metabolites accumulated upstream of DMADP consist of phosphorylated intermediates and IDP. Slow conversion of the huge pools of intermediates to DMADP was limited by reductive energy supply. These data indicate that the DXP/MEP pathway is extremely elastic, and the presence of a significant pool of phosphorylated intermediates provides an important valve for fine tuning the pathway flux.

  20. Seasonal cycle of volume transport through Kerama Gap revealed by a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhitao; Metzger, E. Joseph; Thoppil, Prasad; Hurlburt, Harley E.; Zamudio, Luis; Smedstad, Ole Martin; Na, Hanna; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variability of volume transport from the North Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) through Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island - a part of Ryukyu Islands Arc) is investigated using a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) reanalysis with the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation from 1993 to 2012. The HYCOM mean transport is 2.1 Sv (positive into the ECS, 1 Sv = 106 m3/s) from June 2009 to June 2011, in good agreement with the observed 2.0 Sv transport during the same period. This is similar to the 20-year mean Kerama Gap transport of 1.95 ± 4.0 Sv. The 20-year monthly mean volume transport (transport seasonal cycle) is maximum in October (3.0 Sv) and minimum in November (0.5 Sv). The annual variation component (345-400 days), mesoscale eddy component (70-345 days), and Kuroshio meander component (< 70 days) are separated to determine their contributions to the transport seasonal cycle. The annual variation component has a close relation with the local wind field and increases (decreases) transport into the ECS through Kerama Gap in summer (winter). Most of the variations in the transport seasonal cycle come from the mesoscale eddy component. The impinging mesoscale eddies increase the transport into the ECS during January, February, May, and October, and decrease it in March, April, November, and December, but have little effect in summer (June-September). The Kuroshio meander components cause smaller transport variations in summer than in winter.

  1. Interspecific hybrids of dwarf hamsters and Phasianidae birds as animal models for studying the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-10-13

    Hybrid incompatibility is important in speciation as it prevents gene flow between closely related populations. Reduced fitness from hybrid incompatibility may also reinforce prezygotic reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. However, the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility in higher vertebrates remains poorly understood. Mammals and birds, both amniotes, have similar developmental processes, but marked differences in development such as the XY/ZW sex determination systems and the presence or absence of genomic imprinting. Here, we review the sterile phenotype of hybrids between the Phodopus dwarf hamsters P. campbelli and P. sungorus, and the inviable phenotype of hybrids between two birds of the family Phasianidae, chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We propose hypotheses for developmental defects that are associated with these hybrid incompatibilities. In addition, we discuss the genetic and developmental basis for these defects in conjunction with recent findings from mouse and avian models of genetics, reproductive biology and genomics. We suggest that these hybrids are ideal animal models for studying the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility in amniotes.

  2. The illusion of specific capture: surface and solution studies of suboptimal oligonucleotide hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization based assays and capture systems depend on the specificity of hybridization between a probe and its intended target. A common guideline in the construction of DNA microarrays, for instance, is that avoiding complementary stretches of more than 15 nucleic acids in a 50 or 60-mer probe will eliminate sequence specific cross-hybridization reactions. Here we present a study of the behavior of partially matched oligonucleotide pairs with complementary stretches starting well below this threshold complementarity length – in silico, in solution, and at the microarray surface. The modeled behavior of pairs of oligonucleotide probes and their targets suggests that even a complementary stretch of sequence 12 nt in length would give rise to specific cross-hybridization. We designed a set of binding partners to a 50-mer oligonucleotide containing complementary stretches from 6 nt to 21 nt in length. Results Solution melting experiments demonstrate that stable partial duplexes can form when only 12 bp of complementary sequence are present; surface hybridization experiments confirm that a signal close in magnitude to full-strength signal can be obtained from hybridization of a 12 bp duplex within a 50mer oligonucleotide. Conclusions Microarray and other molecular capture strategies that rely on a 15 nt lower complementarity bound for eliminating specific cross-hybridization may not be sufficiently conservative. PMID:23445545

  3. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  4. Dominant microbial composition and its vertical distribution in saline meromictic Lake Kaiike (Japan) as revealed by quantitative oligonucleotide probe membrane hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2004-08-01

    Vertical distributions of dominant bacterial populations in saline meromictic Lake Kaiike were investigated throughout the water column and sediment by quantitative oligonucleotide probe membrane hybridization. Three oligonucleotide probes specific for the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA of three groups of Chlorobiaceae were newly designed. In addition, three general domain (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya)-specific probes, two delta-Proteobacteria-specific probes, a Chlorobiaceae-specific probe, and a Chloroflexi-specific probe were used after optimization of their washing conditions. The abundance of the sum of SSU rRNAs hybridizing with probes specific for three groups of Chlorobiaceae relative to total SSU rRNA peaked in the chemocline, accounting for up to 68%. The abundance of the delta-proteobacterial SSU rRNA relative to total SSU rRNA rapidly increased just below the chemocline up to 29% in anoxic water and peaked at the 2- to 3-cm sediment depth at ca. 34%. The abundance of SSU rRNAs hybridizing with the probe specific for the phylum Chloroflexi relative to total SSU rRNA was highest (31 to 54%) in the top of the sediment but then steeply declined with depth and became stable at 11 to 19%, indicating the robust coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and Chloroflexi in the top of the sediment. Any SSU rRNA of Chloroflexi in the water column was under the detection limit. The summation of the signals of group-specific probes used in this study accounted for up to 89% of total SSU rRNA, suggesting that the DGGE-oligonucleotide probe hybridization approach, in contrast to conventional culture-dependent approaches, was very effective in covering dominant populations.

  5. In ovo delivery of Newcastle disease virus conjugated hybrid calcium phosphate nanoparticle and to study the cytokine profile induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal [Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India); Rathish, P.; Gopinath, V.P.; Janice, R. [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Dhinakar Raj, G., E-mail: dhinakarrajg@tanuvas.org.in [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, the hybrid calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These nanoparticles were synthesized by a combination of co-precipitation and polymerization process and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane before coupling to NDV. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken spleen cells incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that, these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The effects of hybrid CaP nanoparticles on cell cycle were assayed using a flow cytometer. The results demonstrated that the cell viability and proliferation capacity of spleen cells were not affected by hybrid CaP nanoparticles compared with their control cells. The hybrid CaP nanoparticles were characterized by scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM); Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). These methods revealed that NDV was successfully conjugated on nanoparticles. The ability of the hybrid CaP nanoparticles to induce different cytokine mRNAs in the spleen cells of 18-day old embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). NDV conjugated particles induced a high expression of Th1 cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α of and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10. Uncoupled NDV induced only Th1 cytokines, IFN-α, INF-γ and TNF-α. The hybrid particles alone did not induce any cytokines. This confirmed that nanoparticle coupling could induce differential cytokine profiles and hence can be used as an alternate strategy to direct favorable immune responses in animals or chickens using appropriate vaccination carrier. - Highlights: • NDV conjugated hybrid CaP NP induced differential cytokine profiles in embryonated chicken eggs.

  6. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  7. An hybrid and non-modern approach to urban studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Grau i Solés

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the so-called Forat de la Vergonya urban controversy and the urban transformation process of a neighborhood in Barcelona: el Casc Antic. Drawing on inputs from Actor-Network Theory (ANT, the city is explored as a multiple urban assemblage. Besides, we analyze the dichotomous nature of the modern notion of politics. Especially, the role of object-subject dichotomy is explored. Through the analysis of citizen participation opportunities we propose a new hybrid notion of citizen participation and urban policy.

  8. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and "through-the-ground" parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains.

  9. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and ''through-the-ground'' parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains. (author)

  10. Study of Rapid-Regression Liquefying Hybrid Rocket Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilliac, Greg; DeZilwa, Shane; Karabeyoglu, M. Arif; Cantwell, Brian J.; Castellucci, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A report describes experiments directed toward the development of paraffin-based hybrid rocket fuels that burn at regression rates greater than those of conventional hybrid rocket fuels like hydroxyl-terminated butadiene. The basic approach followed in this development is to use materials such that a hydrodynamically unstable liquid layer forms on the melting surface of a burning fuel body. Entrainment of droplets from the liquid/gas interface can substantially increase the rate of fuel mass transfer, leading to surface regression faster than can be achieved using conventional fuels. The higher regression rate eliminates the need for the complex multi-port grain structures of conventional solid rocket fuels, making it possible to obtain acceptable performance from single-port structures. The high-regression-rate fuels contain no toxic or otherwise hazardous components and can be shipped commercially as non-hazardous commodities. Among the experiments performed on these fuels were scale-up tests using gaseous oxygen. The data from these tests were found to agree with data from small-scale, low-pressure and low-mass-flux laboratory tests and to confirm the expectation that these fuels would burn at high regression rates, chamber pressures, and mass fluxes representative of full-scale rocket motors.

  11. Study of the Productivity and Surface Quality of Hybrid EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Sandeepkumar Haribhau; Sharma, Sunil Bansilal

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, advanced engineering materials and the need for precise prototypes and low-volume production have made the electric discharge machining (EDM), an important manufacturing process to meet such demands. It is capable of machining geometrically complex and hard material components, that are precise and difficult-to-machine such as heat treated tool steels, composites, super alloys, ceramics, carbides etc. Conversely the low MRR limits its productivity. Abrasive water jet machine (AJM) tools are quick to setup and offer quick turn-around on the machine and could make parts out of virtually any material. They do not heat the material hence no heat affected zone and can make any intricate shape easily. The main advantages are flexibility, low heat production and ability to machine hard and brittle materials. Main disadvantages comprise the process produces a tapered cut and health hazards due to dry abrasives. To overcome the limitations and exploit the best of each of above processes; an attempt has been made to hybridize the processes of AJM and EDM. The appropriate abrasives routed with compressed air through the hollow electrode to construct the hybrid process i.e., abrasive jet electric discharge machining (AJEDM), the high speed abrasives could impinge on the machined surface to remove the recast layer caused by EDM process. The main process parameters were varied to explore their effects and experimental results show that AJEDM enhances the machining efficiency with better surface finish hence can fit the requirements of modern manufacturing applications.

  12. A Comparative Study of Several Hybrid Particle Swarm Algorithms for Function Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zhong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the researchers have made a lot of hybrid particle swarm algorithm in order to solve the shortcomings that the Particle Swarm Algorithms is easy to converge to local extremum, these algorithms declare that there has been better than the standard particle swarm. This study selects three kinds of representative hybrid particle swarm optimizations (differential evolution particle swarm optimization, GA particle swarm optimization, quantum particle swarm optimization and the standard particle swarm optimization to test with three objective functions. We compare evolutionary algorithm performance by a fixed number of iterations of the convergence speed and accuracy and the number of iterations under the fixed convergence precision; analyzing these types of hybrid particle swarm optimization results and practical performance. Test results show hybrid particle algorithm performance has improved significantly.

  13. A Comparative Study of Several Hybrid Particle Swarm Algorithms for Function Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the researchers have made a lot of hybrid particle swarm algorithm in order to solve the shortcomings that the Particle Swarm Algorithms is easy to converge to local extremum, these algorithms declare that there has been better than the standard particle swarm. This study selects three kinds of representative hybrid particle swarm optimizations (differential evolution particle swarm optimization, GA particle swarm optimization, quantum particle swarm optimization and the standard particle swarm optimization to test with three objective functions. We compare evolutionary algorithm performance by a fixed number of iterations of the convergence speed and accuracy and the number of iterations under the fixed convergence precision, analyzing these types of hybrid particle swarm optimization results and practical performance. Test results show hybrid particle algorithm performance has improved significantly.

  14. Structure improvement and electrochemical studies of bipolar nickel metal hydride batteries for hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chao; SHI Peng-fei

    2006-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride battery in bipolar design offers some advantages for its application as a power storage system for electric and hybrid vehicles. This paper deals with the structure design and electrochemical studies of bipolar Ni/MH batteries for hybrid vehicles. An improvement is applied in bipolar battery design,and such bipolar Ni/MH batteries with 5 sub-cells have been assembled and investigated. Testing results show that bipolar batteries with improved structure have better compression tolerance and cycle performance than conventional ones. In addition, the improved bipolar batteries display excellent large current discharge ability and high power density. As simulating working conditions for hybrid vehicles, the batteries show good stability during pulse cycles, which verifies the possibility of being used as a power storage device on hybrid vehicles.

  15. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  16. Study of Magnesium Diboride Clusters Using Hybrid Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using hybrid density functional theory and a relatively large basis set, the lowest energy equilibrium structure, vibrational spectrum, and natural orbital analysis were obtained for magnesium diboride clusters [(MgB2x for x=1,2, and 3]. For comparison, boron clusters [Bx for x=2,4, and 6] were also considered. The MgB2 and (MgB22 showed equilibrium structures with the boron atoms in arrangements similar to what was obtained for pure boron atoms, whereas, for (MgB23 a different arrangement of boron was obtained. From the population analysis, large electron density in the boron atoms forming the clusters was observed.

  17. A study of speech emotion recognition based on hybrid algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ju-xia; Zhang, Chao; Lv, Zhao; Rao, Yao-quan; Wu, Xiao-pei

    2011-10-01

    To effectively improve the recognition accuracy of the speech emotion recognition system, a hybrid algorithm which combines Continuous Hidden Markov Model (CHMM), All-Class-in-One Neural Network (ACON) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed. In SVM and ACON methods, some global statistics are used as emotional features, while in CHMM method, instantaneous features are employed. The recognition rate by the proposed method is 92.25%, with the rejection rate to be 0.78%. Furthermore, it obtains the relative increasing of 8.53%, 4.69% and 0.78% compared with ACON, CHMM and SVM methods respectively. The experiment result confirms the efficiency of distinguishing anger, happiness, neutral and sadness emotional states.

  18. Studying the mechanism of hybrid nanoparticle EUV photoresists

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ben

    2015-03-23

    This work focuses on the investigation of dual tone patterning mechanism with hybrid inorganic/organic photoresists. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) modified with acrylic acid was prepared and the influence of electrolyte solutions as well as pH on its particle size change was investigated. The average particle size and zeta potential of the nanoparticles in different electrolyte solutions were measured. The results show that addition of different concentrations of electrolytes changed the hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles in water. Increased concentration of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) caused the zeta potential of nanoparticles to change from positive to negative and its hydrodynamic diameter to increase from 40 nm to 165 nm. In addition, increasing concentration of triflic acid led to the decrease of particle size and zeta potential. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  19. Molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin gene (EHEC-hlyA)-harboring isolates from cattle reveals a diverse origin and hybrid diarrheagenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari Badouei, Mahdi; Morabito, Stefano; Najafifar, Arash; Mazandarani, Emad

    2016-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli strains harboring the gene encoding enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin (EHEC-HlyA) in cattle and the association of this gene with various diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes. First, the bovine E. coli isolates were screened for EHEC-hlyA gene by PCR, and then they were characterized for the phylogenetic groups and the presence of the major virulence genes of different DEC pathotypes. In total, 25 virulence gene profiles were observed in 54 EHEC-hlyA+ isolates that reflect a considerable heterogeneity. The EHEC-hlyA+ strains were mostly associated with EHEC (72%), while only 7.4% were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We also showed the presence of estA gene of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 6 isolates (11.1%). Interestingly, two of the estA+ strains showed hybrid pathotypes with one carrying eae/estA (EPEC/ETEC), and the other one stx2/astA/estA (EHEC/ETEC). None of the isolates were related to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). The EHEC-plasmid encoded genes occurred in seven different combinations with EHEC-hlyA/saa/subA/espP being the most prevalent (46.3%). All stx-/eae+ strains carried O island 57 (OI-57) molecular marker(s) that may indicate these to be the progenitors of EHEC or strains losing stx. The most prevalent phylogroup was B1 (61.1%), but the most heterogeneous strains including the hybrid strains belonged to A phylogroup. Overall, our results indicate that cattle EHEC-hlyA encoding E. coli isolates consist of diverse diarrheagenic strains with the possible existence of hybrid pathotypes. Future studies are required to clarify the evolutionary aspects and clinical significance of these strains in humans and domestic animals.

  20. Hybrid perovskite solar cells: In situ investigation of solution-processed PbI2 reveals metastable precursors and a pathway to producing porous thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barrit, Dounya

    2017-04-17

    The successful and widely used two-step process of producing the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3, consists of converting a solution deposited PbI2 film by reacting it with CH3NH3I. Here, we investigate the solidification of PbI2 films from a DMF solution by performing in situ grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements. The measurements reveal an elaborate sol–gel process involving three PbI2⋅DMF solvate complexes—including disordered and ordered ones—prior to PbI2 formation. The ordered solvates appear to be metastable as they transform into the PbI2 phase in air within minutes without annealing. Morphological analysis of air-dried and annealed films reveals that the air-dried PbI2 is substantially more porous when the coating process produces one of the intermediate solvates, making this more suitable for subsequent conversion into the perovskite phase. The observation of metastable solvates on the pathway to PbI2 formation open up new opportunities for influencing the two-step conversion of metal halides into efficient light harvesting or emitting perovskite semiconductors.

  1. Performance study of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid optical fiber amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, O.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical study of a (macro-bending EDFA)/Raman hybrid optical amplifier. The bending radius is 4 mm with EDFA length 10 m with forward pump power in the range (100-500 mW) and Raman amplifier length (12-55 km) with backward pump power variations (80-200 mW) is considered in our model. Due to bending loss in EDFA, the gain of hybrid amplifier is increased to ~7 dB more than the normal EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier and the noise figure is decreased by ~2 dB rather than without macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier. The signal to noise ratio (OSNR) calculations shows a better performance of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier than without macro-bending one. A flat gain is obtained in the signal wavelength region (1560-1600 nm), which is the L-band. The calculated results for macro-bending case are compared with experimental results of normal case by Lee et al., in the L-band showing an increase in the gain, reduction in the noise figure and more gain flatness at the input signal -20 dBm for macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier.

  2. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  3. Study of statistical properties of hybrid statistic in coherent multidetector compact binary coalescences search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, K.; Pai, Archana

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we revisit the coherent gravitational wave search problem of compact binary coalescences with multidetector network consisting of advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of the optimal multidetector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio (MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this hybrid statistic is compared with that of the coherent MLR statistic for generic inclination angles. Owing to the single synthetic data stream, the hybrid statistic gives few false alarms compared to the multidetector MLR statistic and small fractional loss in the optimum SNR for a large range of binary inclinations. We demonstrate that, for a LIGO-Virgo network and binary inclination ɛ 11 0 ° , the hybrid statistic captures more than 98% of the network optimum matched filter SNR with a low false alarm rate. The Monte Carlo exercise with two distributions of incoming inclination angles—namely, U [cos ɛ ] and a more realistic distribution proposed by B. F. Schutz [Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 125023 (2011)]—are performed with the hybrid statistic and give approximately 5% and 7% higher detection probabilities, respectively, compared to the two stream multidetector MLR statistic for a fixed false alarm probability of 1 0-5.

  4. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  5. THERMALLY CLEAVABLE HYBRID MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gaina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermally cleavable hybrid materials were prepared by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of poly(vinyl furfural to N phenylmaleimido-N’-(triethoxysilylpropylurea followed by the sol-gel condensation reaction of trietoxysilyl groups with water and acetic acid. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis, dielectric and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The size of the inorganic silica particles in the hybrid material varied dependent on the silica content. The DSC study of the prepared materials revealed that the cleavage process of the formed cycloadducts takes place at temperatures varying between 143-165°C and is an endothermic process.

  6. Introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring gull complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on extensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring gull (Larus argentatus complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. We also found that two species, herring gull and glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes. It was evident that mtDNA sequence data alone were far from sufficient to obtain a more accurate and detailed insight into the demographic processes that underlie speciation of this complex, and that extensive autosomal genetic analysis was warranted. Results For this reason, the present study focuses on the reconstruction of the phylogeographic history of a limited number of gull species by means of a combined approach of mtDNA sequence data and 230 autosomal amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP loci. At the species level, the mtDNA and AFLP genetic data were largely congruent. Not only for argentatus and hyperboreus, but also among a third species, great black-backed gull (L. marinus we observed two distinct groups of mtDNA sequence haplotypes. Based on the AFLP data we were also able to detect distinct genetic subgroups among the various argentatus, hyperboreus, and marinus populations, supporting our initial hypothesis that complex demographic scenario's underlie speciation in the herring gull complex. Conclusions We present evidence that for each of these three biphyletic gull species, extensive mtDNA introgression could have taken place among the various geographically distinct subpopulations, or even among current species. Moreover, based on a large number of autosomal AFLP loci, we found evidence for distinct and complex demographic scenario's for each of the three species we studied. A more refined insight into the exact phylogeographic history within the herring gull complex is still impossible, and requires

  7. Study on Drive System of Hybrid Tree Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Rong-feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tree harvester with a 60 kW diesel engine combined with a battery pile could be a “green” forest harvesting and transportation system. With the new design, the diesel engine maintains a constant engine speed, keeping fuel consumption low while charging the batteries that drive the forwarder. As an additional energy saving method, the electric motors work as generators to charge the battery pile when the vehicle moves downhill. The vehicle is equipped with six large wheels providing high clearance over uneven terrain while reducing ground pressure. Each wheel is driven via a hub gear by its own alternating current motor, and each of the three wheel pairs can be steered independently. The combination of the diesel engine and six electric motors provides plenty of power for heavy lifting and pulling. The main component parameters of the drive system are calculated and optimized with a set of dynamics and simulated with AVL Cruise software. The results provide practical insights for the fuel tree harvester and are helpful to reduce the structure and size of the tree harvester. Advantage Environment provides information about existing and future products designed to reduce environmental impacts.

  8. Study and Analysis of Congestion Management in Hybrid Electric Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayed Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The congestion management system is a systematic approach, collaboratively developed and implemented throughout a metropolitan region that provides for the safe and effective management and operation of new and existing transportation facilities through the use of demand reduction and operational management strat­e­gies. In this paper we try to present some points which should be investigated in congestion management problems. We calculate different kinds of congestion problems which may be occurred in our network. Here, the hybrid model is used to solve problems in the electricity market to solve the congestion problem in the network and Benders techniques is used together with an optimal power flow (OPF. In fact, by using of Benders algorithm the problem is divided into two major and minor problems. Therefore, the major problem related to the economy sector and no network is included and the minor problem is to solve the network and examine the accuracy of the network. Benders algorithm has been tested on a standard network IEEE 24 bus and Matlab software is used to implement the algorithm.

  9. Systematic defect donor levels in III-V and II-VI semiconductors revealed by hybrid functional density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petretto, Guido; Bruneval, Fabien

    2015-12-01

    The identification of defect levels from photoluminescence spectroscopy is a useful but challenging task. Density-functional theory (DFT) is a highly valuable tool to this aim. However, the semilocal approximations of DFT that are affected by a band gap underestimation are not reliable to evaluate defect properties, such as charge transition levels. It is now established that hybrid functional approximations to DFT improve the defect description in semiconductors. Here we demonstrate that the use of hybrid functionals systematically stabilizes donor defect states in the lower part of the band gap for many defects, impurities or vacancies, in III-V and in II-VI semiconductors, even though these defects are usually considered as acceptors. These donor defect states are a very general feature and, to the best of our knowledge, have been overlooked in previous studies. The states we identify here may challenge the older assignments to photoluminescent peaks. Though appealing to screen quickly through the possible stable charge states of a defect, semilocal approximations should not be trusted for that purpose.

  10. Synthesis and antibacterial activity studies of 6-methoxyquinazoline-triazole hybrid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramireddy Veeramreddy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Click reaction between the electronically divergent triazole compounds 4-((l-(4-(tert-butylbenzyl-1H-l,2,3-triazol-4-ylmethoxy-5-methoxy-2-nitrobenzamides (8a-e with different aldehydes using Na 2S 2O 4 in DMSO was performed to obtain hybrid of quinazolinone-triazole derivatives (10a-o. All the synthesized compounds were fully characterized on the basis of their detailed spectral studies and screened for their antibacterial activities strains using paper disc method. The compounds (10 a-o were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against human pathogenic organism Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus (Table 1. The investigation of antibacterial screening data reveal that 10e, 10f, 10g, 10j and 10n were highly active against E. coli, where as 10b, 10d, 10j,10k and 10o showed least activity. Compounds 10b, 10e, 10f, 10g, 10i, 10k and 10n showed high activity against S. aureus, where as compounds 10d, 10j, 10o showed least activity. Compounds 10c, 10h, 10l and 10o were inactive against both organisms employed.

  11. Study on diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in seeds of hybrid maize and their parental lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zuo, Shan; Xu, Liwen; Zou, Yuanyuan; Song, Wei

    2012-12-01

    The seeds of plants are carriers of a variety of beneficial bacteria and pathogens. Using the non-culture methods of building 16S rDNA libraries, we investigated the endophytic bacterial communities of seeds of four hybrid maize offspring and their respective parents. The results of this study show that the hybrid offspring Yuyu 23, Zhengdan958, Jingdan 28 and Jingyu 11 had 3, 33, 38 and 2 OTUs of bacteria, respectively. The parents Ye 478, Chang 7-2, Zheng 58, Jing 24 and Jing 89 had 12, 36, 6, 12 and 2 OTUs, respectively. In the hybrid Yuyu 23, the dominant bacterium Pantoea (73.38 %) was detected in its female parent Ye 478, and the second dominant bacterium of Sphingomonas (26.62 %) was detected in both its female (Ye 478) and male (Chang 7-2) parent. In the hybrid Zhengdan 958, the first dominant bacterium Stenotrophomonas (41.67 %) was detected in both the female (Zheng 58) and male (Chang 7-2) parent. The second dominant bacterium Acinetobacter (9.26 %) was also the second dominant bacterium of its male parent. In the hybrid Jingdan 28, the second dominant bacterium Pseudomonas (12.78 %) was also the second dominant bacterium of its female parent, and its third dominant bacterium Sphingomonas (9.90 %) was the second dominant bacterium of its male parent and detected in its female parent. In the hybrid Jingyu 11, the first dominant bacterium Leclercia (73.85 %) was the third dominant bacterium of its male parent, and the second dominant bacterium Enterobacter (26.15 %) was detected in its male parent. As far as we know, this was the first research reported in China on the diversity of the endophytic bacterial communities of the seeds of various maize hybrids with different genotypes.

  12. Microsatellites for the mangrove tree Avicennia germinans (Acanthaceae): Tools for hybridization and mating system studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Gustavo M; Zucchi, Maria I; Sampaio, Iracilda; Souza, Anete P

    2010-09-01

    We developed a new set of microsatellite markers for the black mangrove Avicennia germinans, to provide new informative tools for further studies of the mating system, interspecific hybridization, and population genetics. • We used the microsatellite-enriched library approach to isolate and characterize 25 new primer pairs. Sixteen of them are polymorphic, showing a variable degree of variation in A. germinans, while nine were monomorphic in the samples examined. Eight exhibited private alleles in A. schaueriana. • These results indicate that these new microsatellite markers will be useful molecular tools for further studies of A. germinans and A. schaueriana population genetics, mating systems, and hybridization.

  13. Preliminary study on the genes related to the fertility of indica/japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Studying the sterility of indica/japonica hybrid was a prerequisite for the utilization of heterosis in high yield rice breeding. In 1986, Ikehashi et al found that wide compatibility varieties, which possessed S5-n allele, couldovercome the sterility of indica/japonica hybrids, and thesterilitv was mainly caused by allelic interaction at S-5 lo-cus. Further studies indicated that the sterility could notbe completely overcome just by S5-n. There were must beother loci responsible for the sterility of indica/ japonicahybrids.

  14. Population structure and comparative genome hybridization of European flor yeast reveal a unique group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with few gene duplications in their genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Erny, Claude; Charpentier, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Wine biological aging is a wine making process used to produce specific beverages in several countries in Europe, including Spain, Italy, France, and Hungary. This process involves the formation of a velum at the surface of the wine. Here, we present the first large scale comparison of all European flor strains involved in this process. We inferred the population structure of these European flor strains from their microsatellite genotype diversity and analyzed their ploidy. We show that almost all of these flor strains belong to the same cluster and are diploid, except for a few Spanish strains. Comparison of the array hybridization profile of six flor strains originating from these four countries, with that of three wine strains did not reveal any large segmental amplification. Nonetheless, some genes, including YKL221W/MCH2 and YKL222C, were amplified in the genome of four out of six flor strains. Finally, we correlated ICR1 ncRNA and FLO11 polymorphisms with flor yeast population structure, and associate the presence of wild type ICR1 and a long Flo11p with thin velum formation in a cluster of Jura strains. These results provide new insight into the diversity of flor yeast and show that combinations of different adaptive changes can lead to an increase of hydrophobicity and affect velum formation.

  15. Population structure and comparative genome hybridization of European flor yeast reveal a unique group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with few gene duplications in their genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Legras

    Full Text Available Wine biological aging is a wine making process used to produce specific beverages in several countries in Europe, including Spain, Italy, France, and Hungary. This process involves the formation of a velum at the surface of the wine. Here, we present the first large scale comparison of all European flor strains involved in this process. We inferred the population structure of these European flor strains from their microsatellite genotype diversity and analyzed their ploidy. We show that almost all of these flor strains belong to the same cluster and are diploid, except for a few Spanish strains. Comparison of the array hybridization profile of six flor strains originating from these four countries, with that of three wine strains did not reveal any large segmental amplification. Nonetheless, some genes, including YKL221W/MCH2 and YKL222C, were amplified in the genome of four out of six flor strains. Finally, we correlated ICR1 ncRNA and FLO11 polymorphisms with flor yeast population structure, and associate the presence of wild type ICR1 and a long Flo11p with thin velum formation in a cluster of Jura strains. These results provide new insight into the diversity of flor yeast and show that combinations of different adaptive changes can lead to an increase of hydrophobicity and affect velum formation.

  16. A yeast two-hybrid screen reveals a strong interaction between the Legionella chaperonin Hsp60 and the host cell small heat shock protein Hsp10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2015-06-01

    L. pneumophila is an intracellular bacterium that replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole called Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV), where it plentifully liberates its HtpB chaperonin. From LCV, HtpB reaches the host cell cytoplasm, where it interacts with SAMDC, a cytoplasmic protein required for synthesis of host polyamines that are important for intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Additionally, cytoplasmic expression of HtpB in S. cerevisiae induces pseudohyphal growth, and in mammalian cells recruits mitochondria to LCV, and modifies actin microfilaments organization. This led us to hypothesize here that HtpB recruits a protein(s) from eukaryotic cells that is involved in the emergence of the aforementioned phenotypes. To identify this protein, a commercially available HeLa cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid system. Approximately 5×10(6) yeast clones carrying HeLa cDNA library plasmid were screened. Twenty-one positive clones were identified. DNA sequence analysis revealed that all of these positive clones encoded the mammalian small heat shock protein Hsp10. Based on the fact that chaperonions are required to interact with co-chaperonins to function properly in protein folding, we believe that HtpB recruits the host cell Hsp10 to appropriately interact with SAMDC and to induce the multifunction phenotypes deemed important in L. pneumophila pathogenesis.

  17. Systematic two-hybrid and comparative proteomic analyses reveal novel yeast pre-mRNA splicing factors connected to Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    Full Text Available Prp19 is the founding member of the NineTeen Complex, or NTC, which is a spliceosomal subcomplex essential for spliceosome activation. To define Prp19 connectivity and dynamic protein interactions within the spliceosome, we systematically queried the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome for Prp19 WD40 domain interaction partners by two-hybrid analysis. We report that in addition to S. cerevisiae Cwc2, the splicing factor Prp17 binds directly to the Prp19 WD40 domain in a 1:1 ratio. Prp17 binds simultaneously with Cwc2 indicating that it is part of the core NTC complex. We also find that the previously uncharacterized protein Urn1 (Dre4 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe directly interacts with Prp19, and that Dre4 is conditionally required for pre-mRNA splicing in S. pombe. S. pombe Dre4 and S. cerevisiae Urn1 co-purify U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs and multiple splicing factors, and dre4Δ and urn1Δ strains display numerous negative genetic interactions with known splicing mutants. The S. pombe Prp19-containing Dre4 complex co-purifies three previously uncharacterized proteins that participate in pre-mRNA splicing, likely before spliceosome activation. Our multi-faceted approach has revealed new low abundance splicing factors connected to NTC function, provides evidence for distinct Prp19 containing complexes, and underscores the role of the Prp19 WD40 domain as a splicing scaffold.

  18. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  19. Study of statistical properties of hybrid statistic in coherent multi-detector CBC Search

    CERN Document Server

    Haris, K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we revisit the problem of coherent multi-detector search of gravitational wave from compact binary coalescence with Neutron stars and Black Holes using advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of optimal multi-detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio(MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this hybrid statistic is compared with that of the coherent MLR statistic for generic inclination angles. Owing to the single synthetic data stream, the hybrid statistic gives low false alarms compared to the multi-detector MLR statistic and small fractional loss in the optimum SNR for a large range of binary inclinations. We have demonstrated that for a LIGO-Virgo network and binary inclination, \\epsilon 110 deg., the hybrid statistic captures more than 98% of network optimum matched filter SNR with low false alarm rate. The...

  20. Role of chronic toxicology studies in revealing new toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galijatovic-Idrizbegovic, Alema; Miller, Judith E; Cornell, Wendy D; Butler, James A; Wollenberg, Gordon K; Sistare, Frank D; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2016-12-01

    Chronic (>3 months) preclinical toxicology studies are conducted to support the safe conduct of clinical trials exceeding 3 months in duration. We have conducted a review of 32 chronic toxicology studies in non-rodents (22 studies in dogs and 10 in non-human primates) and 27 chronic toxicology studies in rats dosed with Merck compounds to determine the frequency at which additional target organ toxicities are observed in chronic toxicology studies as compared to subchronic studies of 3 months in duration. Our review shows that majority of the findings are observed in the subchronic studies since additional target organs were not observed in 24 chronic non rodent studies and in 21 chronic rodent studies. However, 6 studies in non rodents and 6 studies in rodents yielded new findings that were not seen in studies of 3-month or shorter duration. For 3 compounds the new safety findings did contribute to termination of clinical development plans. Although the incidence of compound termination associated with chronic toxicology study observations is low (∼10%), the observations made in these studies can be important for evaluating human safety risk.

  1. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Unlike in autogenous laser welding, hybrid laser welding of stainless steel could introduce grain boundary carbides due to low cooling rates. Formation of grain boundary carbides leads to reduced corrosion properties. Studies have initially been carried out on hybrid laser welding and subsequent...... laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L welds. Welding and laser treatment parameters were varied. General corrosion behaviour of the weld and laser treated surface was characterised using a gel visualization test. The local electrochemistry of the weld and laser...... treated surface was investigated using a novel micro electrochemical technique with a tip resolution of ~1 mm. Results show that hybrid laser welding of 316L has increased corrosion susceptibility probably as a result of grain boundary carbide formation. However a suitable post laser treatment could...

  2. Study on Polyimide/Silica Hybrid Films via Directly Intermingle Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHAO; Bao-Lin RAO

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, polyimide hybrid materials have received considerable attention due to the dramatic improvements over their pristine state in thermal stabilities, mechanical properties and other special features by introducing only small fraction inorganic additives[1]. Polyimide/silica hybrid materials were studied mostly by sol-gel route[2]. However the storage stability of the sol resin is a practical problem and has not researched on it so far. On the other hand, nano-sized silica has been produced on a large scale and industrialized. In this paper, polyimide/siliea hybrid films were prepared via directly intermingle method. The storage stability of the sol resin, the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting films were investigated.

  3. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Unlike in autogenous laser welding, hybrid laser welding of stainless steel could introduce grain boundary carbides due to low cooling rates. Formation of grain boundary carbides leads to reduced corrosion properties. Studies have initially been carried out on hybrid laser welding and subsequent...... laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L welds. Welding and laser treatment parameters were varied. General corrosion behaviour of the weld and laser treated surface was characterised using a gel visualization test. The local electrochemistry of the weld and laser...... treated surface was investigated using a novel micro electrochemical technique with a tip resolution of ~1 mm. Results show that hybrid laser welding of 316L has increased corrosion susceptibility probably as a result of grain boundary carbide formation. However a suitable post laser treatment could...

  4. Electrical property studies on chemically processed polypyrolle/aluminum doped ZnO based hybrid heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, G.; Ilanchezhiyan, P.; Madhan Kumar, A.; Yuldashev, Sh. U.; Kang, T. W.

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid structure based on p-type polypyrolle (PPy) and n-type aluminum (Al) doped ZnO nanorods was successfully constructed. The effect of Al doping on material properties of wurtzite structured ZnO were studied using several analytical techniques. To establish the desired hybrid structure, pyrrole monomers were polymerized on hydrothermally grown Al doped ZnO nanorods by chemical polymerization. The current⿿voltage characteristics on the fabricated PPy/Al doped ZnO heterostructures were found to exhibit excellent rectifying characteristics under dark and illumination conditions. The obtained results augment the prescribed architecture to be highly suitable for high-sensitivity optoelectronic applications.

  5. Study of applying a hybrid standalone wind-photovoltaic generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Dahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of applying a hybrid system wind/photovoltaic to supply a community in southern Algeria. Diesel generators are always used to provide such remote regions with energy. Using renewable energy resources is a good alternative to overcome such pollutant generators. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software is used to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed configuration. Assessment of renewable resources consisting in wind and solar potentials, load profile determination and sensitivity of different parameters analysis were performed. The cost of energy (COE of 0.226 $/kWh is very competitive with those found in literature.

  6. Performance Study on ST/JT Hybrid Cryocoolers Working at Liquid Helium Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongli, Liu; Xuan, Tao; Xiao, Sun; Zhihua, Gan

    The ST/JT hybridcryocooler consists of a Stirling-typecryocooler and a J-T loop. The common process of steady-state operation is given. Pressure-Enthalpy map analysis and thermodynamic calculation showhow the precooling temperature, high pressure and recuperator effectiveness affect thecooling powerat liquid helium temperature. Applying the current performance level of the Stirling cooler,the overall COP of the hybrid cryocooleris roughly optimized. This performance study shows that the hybrid cryocooler can develop its performance potential with improved J-T compressors with larger pressure ratio and aprecooler working at lower temperature.

  7. A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERFACIAL DAMAGE ON STRESS CONCENTRATIONS IN INTRAPLY HYBRID COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Qingdun; Lin Xuehui

    2001-01-01

    In the axial tensile failure process of intraply hybrid composites, the breakage of some fibers may lead to interfacial damage, thus directly influencing the local stress concentrations near the sites of breakage. A modified shear-lag model, in which the interfacial damage is considered, is proposed. Based on the model, the influence of interfacial shear strength on the stress concentrations and the lengths of interfacial damage zone is first studied. The present results also provide an important theoretical basis for investigating the failure mechanism and hybrid effects for such kind of composites.

  8. Hybrid Combined Cycles with Biomass and Waste Fired Bottoming Cycle - a Literature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Miroslav P.

    2002-02-01

    Biomass is one of the main natural resources in Sweden. The present low-CO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the Swedish electricity production system (hydro and nuclear) can be retained only by expansion of biofuel applications for energy purposes. Domestic Swedish biomass resources are vast and renewable, but not infinite. They must be utilized as efficiently as possible, in order to make sure that they meet the conditions for sustainability in the future. Application of efficient power generation cycles at low costs is essential for meeting this challenge. This applies also to municipal solid waste incineration with energy extraction, which should be preferred to its dumping in landfills. Hybrid dual-fuel combined cycle units are a simple and affordable way to increase the electric efficiency of biofuel energy utilization, without big investments, uncertainties or loss of reliability arising from complicated technologies. Configurations of such power cycles are very flexible and reliable. Their potential for high electric efficiency in condensing mode, high total efficiency in combined heat and power mode and unrivalled load flexibility is explored in this project. The present report is a literature study that concentrates on certain biomass utilization technologies, in particular the design and performance of hybrid combined cycle power units of various configurations, with gas turbines and internal combustion engines as topping cycles. An overview of published literature and general development trends on the relevant topic is presented. The study is extended to encompass a short overview of biomass utilization as an energy source (focusing on Sweden), history of combined cycles development with reference especially to combined cycles with supplementary firing and coal-fired hybrid combined cycles, repowering of old steam units into hybrid ones and combined cycles for internal combustion engines. The hybrid combined cycle concept for municipal solid waste

  9. Variations of 18S rDNA Loci Among Six Populations of Paeonia obovata Maxim. (Paeoniaceae) Revealed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Luo; Chao Wang; Daming Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The localization of 18S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) had been performed for some species of Paeonia. However, the pattern of 18S rDNA loci among populations is indistinct. In the present study, we localized 18S rDNA loci on meiotic or mitotic chromosomes of six populations of Paeonia obovata Maxim. (Paeoniaceae). Different numbers of rDNA loci were found with different diploid (2n=10) populations, namely eight (Lushi and Mt. Jiuhua populations), 10 (Mt. Taibai population), and seven (Mt. Guandi population), whereas tetraploid (2n=20) populations were all found with 16 loci. All rDNA loci were mapped near telomeres of mitotic chromosomes and there was no chromosome with two loci. The present results show that molecular cytological polymorphism exists among P. obovata diploid populations, indicating that structural variations occurred frequently during the evolutionary history of this species, accompanied with differentiation among populations.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhang, Peipei; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2015-03-17

    Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants. Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds. Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might

  11. Hybrids of Iron-Filled Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Anticancer Agents as Potential Magnetic Drug Delivery Systems: In Vitro Studies against Human Melanoma, Colon Carcinoma, and Colon Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Boncel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell type, morphology, and functioning are key variables in the construction of efficient “drug-vehicle” hybrids in magnetic drug delivery. Iron-encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotubes (Fe@MWCNTs appear as promising candidates for theranostics due to in situ chemical catalytic vapor deposition (c-CVD synthesis, straightforward organic functionalization, and nanoneedle (1D behavior. Here, model hybrids were synthesized by exploring C-sp2 chemistry ((1+2-cycloaddition of nitrenes and amidation of the outer MWCNT walls combined with anticancer agents, that is, 5-fluorouracil (5FU, purpurin (Purp, and 1,8-naphthalimide DNA intercalators (NIDIs, via linkers. Analyses of the Fe@MWCNT vehicles by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy revealed their morphology while Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of encapsulated ferromagnetic iron-based nanodomains. Cytotoxicity of the hybrids was studied using a 24 h MTS assay combined with the apoptosis and life cycle assays against human melanoma (Me45, colon carcinoma (HCT116+, and colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2. The cells had different sensitivity to the vehicles themselves as well as to the hybrids. MWCNT-based covalent hybrids of 5FU and Purp emerged as the most promising systems against Me45 and HCT116+ cell lines with the highest in vitro cytotoxicity and proapoptotic activity. Furthermore, nanotubes bearing 4-nitro- and 4-(N-morpholinyl-1,8-naphthalimide DNA intercalators appear as a promising candidate for the treatment of Caco-2.

  12. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis.

  13. Study on the Levitation and Restoring Force Characteristics of the Improved HTS-permanent Magnet Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, R.; Oguni, K.; Ohashi, S.

    We have developed the hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and high temperature bulk super conductor (HTS). In this system, the permanent magnet has ring type structure so that the permanent magnet and the HTS can be set to the stator. The pinning force of the HTS is used for the levitation and the guidance. Repulsive force of the permanent magnets was used in the conventional hybrid system. However the restoring force in the guidance direction of the conventional hybrid system decreases by the side slip force of the permanent magnets. In this research, attractive force of permanent magnets is used for increasing the load weight in the guidance direction. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on the static characteristics of the rotor is studied. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of the linkage flux (in the levitation and the guidance direction) in the HTS is undertaken. The stator side permanent magnet increases the linkage flux of the levitation direction. Therefore in the hybrid system the linkage flux of the levitation direction increases. The levitation and restoring force of the rotor is measured. The levitation force of the hybrid system becomes smaller than that of the non-hybrid one by attractive force. The rotor in the hybrid system is supported by the pinning force and attractive force. The restoring force of the hybrid system becomes larger than that of the non-hybrid one because of increasing the linkage flux of the levitation direction.

  14. Study Reveals Brain Biology behind Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A new neuroscience twist on a classic psychology study offers some clues to what makes one student able to buckle down for hours of homework before a test while his classmates party. The study published in the September 2011 edition of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Science," suggests environmental cues may "hijack" the brain's mechanisms…

  15. Implementing Japanese Lesson Study in Foreign Countries: Misconceptions Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on data gathered during visits to Uganda and Malawi, conducted by the International Math-teacher Professionalization Using Lesson Study (IMPULS) project and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The author's observations and experiences highlighted misconceptions about lesson study. The paper concludes that some…

  16. Study Reveals Brain Biology behind Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A new neuroscience twist on a classic psychology study offers some clues to what makes one student able to buckle down for hours of homework before a test while his classmates party. The study published in the September 2011 edition of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Science," suggests environmental cues may "hijack" the brain's mechanisms…

  17. Study of multipass regimes in lower hybrid current drive experiments on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.; Litaudon, X.; Peysson, Y.; Hoang, G.T.; Kazarian, F.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Shoucri, M.; Shkarofsky, I.P. [Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, PQ (Canada); Baranov, Y. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Kupfer, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This document presents a study of multipass regimes in Lower Hybrid Current Drive on Tore Supra. A statistical model of the plasma wave propagation based on the Fokker-Planck theory is proposed, together with experimental results performed on Tore Supra. (TEC). 9 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals an association of chromosome 8q22 but not 8p21 imbalance with high grade invasive breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Logan C; McDonald, Margaret; Wells, J Elisabeth; Harris, Gavin C; Robinson, Bridget A; Morris, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported molecular karyotype analysis of invasive breast tumour core needle biopsies by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (Walker et al, Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 2008 May;47(5):405-17). That study identified frequently recurring gains and losses involving chromosome bands 8q22 and 8p21, respectively. Moreover, these data highlighted an association between 8q22 gain and typically aggressive grade 3 tumors. Here we validate and extend our previous investigations through FISH analysis of tumor touch imprints prepared from excised breast tumor specimens. Compared to post-surgical tumor excisions, core needle biopsies are known to be histologically less precise when predicting tumor grade. Therefore investigating these chromosomal aberrations in tumor samples that offer more reliable pathological assessment is likely to give a better overall indication of association. A series of 60 breast tumors were screened for genomic copy number changes at 8q22 and 8p21 by dual-color FISH. Results confirm previous findings that 8p loss (39%) and 8q gain (74%) occur frequently in invasive breast cancer. Both absolute quantification of 8q22 gain across the sample cohort, and a separate relative assessment by 8q22:8p21 copy number ratio, showed that the incidence of 8q22 gain significantly increased with grade (p = 0.004, absolute and p = 0.02, relative). In contrast, no association was found between 8p21 loss and tumor grade. These findings support the notion that 8q22 is a region of interest for invasive breast cancer pathogenesis, potentially harboring one or more genes that, when amplified, precipitate the molecular events that define high tumor grade.

  19. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals an association of chromosome 8q22 but not 8p21 imbalance with high grade invasive breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan C Walker

    Full Text Available We previously reported molecular karyotype analysis of invasive breast tumour core needle biopsies by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH (Walker et al, Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 2008 May;47(5:405-17. That study identified frequently recurring gains and losses involving chromosome bands 8q22 and 8p21, respectively. Moreover, these data highlighted an association between 8q22 gain and typically aggressive grade 3 tumors. Here we validate and extend our previous investigations through FISH analysis of tumor touch imprints prepared from excised breast tumor specimens. Compared to post-surgical tumor excisions, core needle biopsies are known to be histologically less precise when predicting tumor grade. Therefore investigating these chromosomal aberrations in tumor samples that offer more reliable pathological assessment is likely to give a better overall indication of association. A series of 60 breast tumors were screened for genomic copy number changes at 8q22 and 8p21 by dual-color FISH. Results confirm previous findings that 8p loss (39% and 8q gain (74% occur frequently in invasive breast cancer. Both absolute quantification of 8q22 gain across the sample cohort, and a separate relative assessment by 8q22:8p21 copy number ratio, showed that the incidence of 8q22 gain significantly increased with grade (p = 0.004, absolute and p = 0.02, relative. In contrast, no association was found between 8p21 loss and tumor grade. These findings support the notion that 8q22 is a region of interest for invasive breast cancer pathogenesis, potentially harboring one or more genes that, when amplified, precipitate the molecular events that define high tumor grade.

  20. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  1. Recent advances in maize nuclear proteomic studies reveal histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is highly dynamic and complex, containing different types of macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and a wide range of proteins. Novel proteomic applications have led to a better overall determination of nucleus protein content. Although nuclear plant proteomics is only at the initial phase, several studies have been reported and are summarized in this review using different plants species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover. These include the description of the total nuclear or phospho-proteome (i.e., Arabidopsis, cowpea, onion), or the analysis of the differential nuclear proteome under different growth environments (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover). However, only few reports exist on the analysis of the maize nuclear proteome or its changes under various conditions. This review will present recent data on the study of the nuclear maize proteome, including the analysis of changes in posttranslational modifications in histone proteins.

  2. Microsatellite analyses of artificial and spontaneous dogrose hybrids reveal the hybridogenic origin of Rosa micrantha by the contribution of unreduced gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Christiane M; Wissemann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Dogroses are characterized by a unique meiosis system, the so-called canina meiosis, which facilitates sexual reproduction at odd-number ploidy. The mostly pentaploid somatic level of dogroses is restored by a merger of haploid sperm cells and tetraploid egg cells. We analyzed experimental hybrids between different dogrose species using microsatellites to determine pollen-transmitted alleles. This information was used to reconstruct the putative hybridogenic origin of Rosa micrantha and R. dumalis and to estimate the frequency of spontaneous hybridization in a natural population. We found no evidence for the hybrid origin of R. dumalis, but our data suggest that R. micrantha presumably arose by hybridization between R. rubiginosa and R. canina or R. corymbifera. We observed only hexaploid individuals of R. micrantha, thus the establishment of this hybridogenic species was favored when unreduced gametes contributed to their origin. We demonstrate that spontaneous hybrids originated infrequently from the parental species in a natural population, but hybridization was often associated with the formation of unreduced gametes. We postulate that unreduced gametes play a major role in the evolutionary success of dogrose hybrids because they provide highly homologous chromosomes crucial for bivalent formation during canina meiosis and thus ensuring this unique form of sexual reproduction.

  3. Hybrid density functional study of the structural, bonding, and electronic properties of bismuth vanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Kyoung E.; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2012-10-01

    The structure and property prediction of metal oxides can significantly be improved by incorporating exact Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange into density functional theory (DFT), which is the so-called hybrid DFT. We explored the impact of HF exchange inclusion on the predicted structural, bonding, and electronic properties of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4), with particular attention to the difference between its monoclinic and tetragonal scheelite phases. The applied exchange-correlation (xc) functionals include the gradient corrected Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and the PBE-HF hybrid functionals with HF exchange amounts of 10%, 25%, and 50%. We find that the PBE-HF25% yields a monoclinic structure in very close agreement with the experimentally determined structure, while the PBE-HF50% tends to overestimate the monoclinic distortion and the PBE/PBE-HF10% can hardly identify a distinct monoclinic configuration at ambient conditions. Electronic structure analysis reveals that the increasing monoclinic distortion with the amount of HF exchange is related to the enhancement of hybridization between Bi 6s-O 2p antibonding states and unoccupied Bi 6p states. The bonding mechanisms and band structures of the monoclinic and tetragonal phases of BiVO4 were also investigated, and we discuss how the predictions are sensitive to the xc functional choice.

  4. Yeast studies reveal moonlighting functions of the ancient actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Chernova, Tatiana A.; Gogoi, Neeku M.; Pillai, Indu V.; Chernoff, Yury O.; Munn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Classic functions of the actin cytoskeleton include control of cell size and shape and the internal organisation of cells. These functions are manifest in cellular processes of fundamental importance throughout biology such as the generation of cell polarity, cell migration, cell adhesion and cell division. However, studies in the unicellular model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) are giving insights into other functions in which the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. These include endocytosis, control of protein translation and determination of protein 3-dimensional shape (especially conversion of normal cellular proteins into prions). Here we present a concise overview of these new "moonlighting" roles for the actin cytoskeleton and how some of these roles might lie at the heart of important molecular switches. This is an exciting time for researchers interested in the actin cytoskeleton. We show here how studies of actin are leading us into many new and exciting realms at the interface of genetics, biochemistry and cell biology. While many of the pioneering studies have been conducted using yeast, the conservation of the actin cytoskeleton and its component proteins throughout eukaryotes suggests that these new roles for the actin cytoskeleton may not be restricted to yeast cells but rather may reflect new roles for the actin cytoskeleton of all eukaryotes. PMID:25138357

  5. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  6. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  7. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Modeling Studies of New Oxadiazole-Stilbene Hybrids against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weilin; He, Daohang; Song, Shaoyun

    2016-08-01

    Natural stilbenes (especially resveratrol) play important roles in plant protection by acting as both constitutive and inducible defenses. However, their exogenous applications on crops as fungicidal agents are challenged by their oxidative degradation and limited availability. In this study, a new class of resveratrol-inspired oxadiazole-stilbene hybrids was synthesized via Wittig-Horner reaction. Bioassay results indicated that some of the compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity against Botrytis cinerea in vitro. Among these stilbene hybrids, compounds 11 showed promising inhibitory activity with the EC50 value of 144.6 μg/mL, which was superior to that of resveratrol (315.6 μg/mL). Remarkably, the considerably abnormal mycelial morphology was observed in the presence of compound 11. The inhibitory profile was further proposed by homology modeling and molecular docking studies, which showed the possible interaction of resveratrol and oxadiazole-stilbene hybrids with the cytochrome P450-dependent sterol 14α-demethylase from B. cinerea (BcCYP51) for the first time. Taken together, these results would provide new insights into the fungicidal mechanism of stilbenes, as well as an important clue for biology-oriented synthesis of stilbene hybrids with improved bioactivity against plant pathogenic fungi in crop protection.

  8. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  9. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Dazhi; Dai, Liangying; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Srimani, Pradip K; Duan, Yongping; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  10. Recent advances in maize nuclear proteomic studies reveal histone modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eCasati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is highly dynamic and complex, containing different types of macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and a wide range of proteins. Novel proteomic applications have led to a better overall determination of nucleus protein content. Although nuclear plant proteomics is only at the initial phase, several studies have been reported and are summarized in this review using different plants species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover. These include the description of the total nuclear or phospho-proteome (i.e. Arabidopsis, cowpea, onion, or the analysis of the differential nuclear proteome under different growth environments (i.e. Arabidopsis, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress and barrel clover. However, only few reports exist on the analysis of the maize nuclear proteome or its changes under various conditions. This review will present recent data on the study of the nuclear maize proteome, including the analysis of changes in posttranslational modifications in histone proteins.

  11. Toxin diversity revealed by a transcriptomic study of Ornithoctonus huwena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiya Zhang

    Full Text Available Spider venom comprises a mixture of compounds with diverse biological activities, which are used to capture prey and defend against predators. The peptide components bind a broad range of cellular targets with high affinity and selectivity, and appear to have remarkable structural diversity. Although spider venoms have been intensively investigated over the past few decades, venomic strategies to date have generally focused on high-abundance peptides. In addition, the lack of complete spider genomes or representative cDNA libraries has presented significant limitations for researchers interested in molecular diversity and understanding the genetic mechanisms of toxin evolution. In the present study, second-generation sequencing technologies, combined with proteomic analysis, were applied to determine the diverse peptide toxins in venom of the Chinese bird spider Ornithoctonus huwena. In total, 626 toxin precursor sequences were retrieved from transcriptomic data. All toxin precursors clustered into 16 gene superfamilies, which included six novel superfamilies and six novel cysteine patterns. A surprisingly high number of hypermutations and fragment insertions/deletions were detected, which accounted for the majority of toxin gene sequences with low-level expression. These mutations contribute to the formation of diverse cysteine patterns and highly variable isoforms. Furthermore, intraspecific venom variability, in combination with variable transcripts and peptide processing, contributes to the hypervariability of toxins in venoms, and associated rapid and adaptive evolution of toxins for prey capture and defense.

  12. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  13. Removal of Cadmium and Lead from Aqueous Solution by Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Hybrid Fibrous Sorbent: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAp/chitosan composites were prepared by a coprecipitation method, dropping a mixture of chitosan solution and phosphoric acid solution into a calcium hydroxide solution. Using the HAp/chitosan composites prepared, HAp/chitosan hybrid fibers with various HAp contents were prepared by a wet spinning method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that HAp particles were coated onto the surface of the fiber, and the surface roughness increased with increasing the HAp contents in the fiber. In order to evaluate the heavy metal removal characteristics of the HAp/chitosan hybrid fiber, adsorption tests were conducted and the results were compared with those of bare chitosan fibers. The results showed better performance in heavy metal ion removal for the HAp/chitosan hybrid fiber than the chitosan fiber. As the HAp content in the hybrid fiber increased, the removal efficiency of heavy metal ions also increased due to the increase of the specific surface area of the HAp/chitosan hybrid fiber. Adsorption kinetic and isotherm tests revealed that Pb2+ and Cd2+ adsorption to the hybrid fiber follows pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir-type adsorption, respectively.

  14. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  15. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  16. Comparative Studies on the Molecular Genetic Diversities among Haliotis discus hannai,H.discus discus and Their Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Junfen(万俊芬); Bao Zhenmin; Zhang Quanqi; Wang Xiaolong

    2004-01-01

    The hybrid (H. discus hannai♀× H. discus discus♂) shows strong heterosis in both growth and survival rates during aquaculture. In order to better understand the genetic basis of heterosis, AFLP markers are adopted to compare the genetic diversities of the two parents and their hybrids. Six primer combinations reveal 552 loci, among which 88 loci show significant difference between the two parent populations (P<0.01). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicates the genetic variance between them is significantly different (P<0.001). Thus there should be genetic basis of heterosis for their hybrids. In contrast to parents, more loci with lower frequency are amplified in hybrids than those in parents, whereas the loci with 0% and 100% frequency are less in hybrids than those in parents. Moreover, the genetic diversities of hybrids increase since the similarity indexes are lower and heterozygosities are higher in hybrids than those in parents. In addition, the genetic distances between reciprocal F1s and H. discus discus are both smaller than those between reciprocal F1s H. discus hannai.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhang, Peipei; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observa...

  18. Comparative study of symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybridization between common wheat and Haynaldia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Aifen

    2001-01-01

    [1]Li, Z. Y., Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from protoplasts isolated from embryo-genic cell suspensions of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 1992, 98: 79-85.[2]Zhou, A. F., Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Asymmetric somatic hybridization between Triticum aestivum and Haynaldia vil-losa, Science in China, Ser. C, 1996, 39(6): 617-626.[3]Zhou, A. F., Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M. et al., Effect of 60Co-g radiation on calli of Haynaldia villosa, Chinese J. of Bio-technology, 1996, 12(Supplement): 127-130.[4]Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Wang, H., Somatic hybridization and regeneration capacity complementation between common wheat (T. aestivum) and Agropyron elongatum. J. Shandong University, 1995, 30(3): 325-330.[5]Xia, G. M., Chen, H. M., Plant regeneration from intergeneric somatic hybridization between Triticum aestivum L. and Leymus chinensis (Trin.)Tzvel., Plant Science, 1996, 120: 197-203.[6]Doyle, J. J., Doyle, J. L., Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue, Focus, 1990, 12: 13-15.[7]Zhou, A. F., Xu, C. H., Xiang, F. N. et al., Study on the identification of somatic hybrids by PCR with 5S rDNA spacer se-quence primers, Chinese J. of Biotechnology, 1999, 15(4): 529-532.[8]Ma, J. X., Zhou, R. H., Jia, J. Z. et al., Identification of wheat-Haynaldia villosa substitution lines conferring resistance to powdery mildew using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and RFLP markers, Acta Genetica Sinica, 1997, 24(5): 447-452.[9]Zhou, R. H., Jia, J. Z., Dong, Y. C. et al., Characterization of progenies of Triticum aestivum-Psathyrostachys juncea de-rivatives by using genomic in-situ hybridization, Science in China, Ser. C, 1997, 40(6): 657-664.[10]Parokonny, A. S., Kenton, A. Y., Gleba, Y. Y. et al., Genomic reorganization in Nicotiana asymmetric somatic hybrids analysed by in situ hybridization. Plant Journal, 1992, 2: 863-874.[11]Piastuch, W. C., Bates, G. W

  19. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  20. Experimental study into a hybrid PCCI/CI concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dijk, M.D. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load conven

  1. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  2. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis. (MOW)

  3. Study of Coumarin-Resveratrol Hybrids as Potent Antioxidant Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Matos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we synthesized a selected series of hydroxylated 3-phenylcoumarins 5–8, with the aim of evaluating in detail their antioxidant properties. From an in depth study of the antioxidant capacity data (ORAC-FL, ESR, CV and ROS inhibition it was concluded that these derivatives are very good antioxidants, with very interesting profiles in all the performed assays. The study of the effect of the number and position of the hydroxyl groups on the antioxidant activity was the principal aim of this study. In particular, 7-hydroxy-3-(3'-hydroxyphenylcoumarin (8 proved to be the most active and effective antioxidant of the selected series in four of the performed assays (ORAC-FL = 11.8, capacity of scavenging hydroxyl radicals = 54%, Trolox index = 2.33 and AI30 index = 0.18. However, the presence of two hydroxyl groups on this molecule did not increase greatly the activity profile. Theoretical evaluation of ADME properties of all the derivatives was also carried out. All the compounds can act as potential candidates for preventing or minimizing the free radical overproduction in oxidative-stress related diseases. These preliminary findings encourage us to perform a future structural optimization of this family of compounds.

  4. SAR study of tyrosine-chlorambucil hybrid regioisomers; synthesis and biological evaluation against breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descôteaux, Caroline; Brasseur, Kevin; Leblanc, Valérie; Parent, Sophie; Asselin, Eric; Bérubé, Gervais

    2012-08-01

    Amino acids were transformed and coupled to chlorambucil, a well-known chemotherapeutic agent, in an attempt to create new anticancer drugs with selectivity for breast cancer cells. Among the amino acids available, tyrosine was selected to act as an estrogenic ligand. It is hypothesized that tyrosine, which shows some structural similitude with estradiol, could possibly mimic the natural hormone and, subsequently, bind to the estrogen receptor. In this exploratory study, several tyrosine-drug conjugates have been designed. Thus, ortho-, meta- and para-tyrosine-chlorambucil analogs were synthesized in order to generate new anticancer drugs with structural diversity, more specifically in regards to the phenol group location. These new analogs were produced in good yield following efficient synthetic methodology. All the tyrosine-chlorambucil hybrids were more effective than the parent drug, chlorambucil. In vitro biological evaluation on estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative (ER(+) and ER(-)) breast cancer cell lines revealed an enhanced cytotoxic activity for compounds with the phenol function located at position meta. Molecular docking calculations were performed for the pure L-ortho, L-meta- and L-para-tyrosine phenolic regioisomers. The synthesis of all tyrosine-chlorambucil hybrid regioisomers and their biological activity are reported herein. Possible orientations within the targeted protein [estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)] are discussed in relation to the biological activity.

  5. Dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids useful as vaginal microbicides also show reverse transcriptase inhibition: design, synthesis, docking and pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Veenu; Jangir, Santosh; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gupta, Sonal; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Lal, Nand; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Chandasana, Hardik; Krishna, Shagun; Rawat, Kavita; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Bhatta, Rabi S; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Tripathi, Rajkamal; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-02-15

    Prophylactic prevention is considered as the most promising strategy to tackle STI/HIV. Twenty-five dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids (14-38) were synthesized as woman controlled topical vaginal microbicides to counter Trichomonas vaginalis and sperm along with RT inhibition potential. The four promising compounds (18, 26, 28 and 33) were tested for safety through cytotoxic assay against human cervical cell line (HeLa) and compatibility with vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Docking study of most promising vaginal microbicide (33) revealed that it docked in a position and orientation similar to known reverse transcriptase inhibitor Nevirapine. The preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetics of compound 33 was performed in NZ-rabbits to evaluate systemic toxicity in comparison to Nonoxynol-9.

  6. #JeSuisCharlie: Towards a Multi-Method Study of Hybrid Media Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sumiala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests a new methodological model for the study of hybrid media events with global appeal. This model, developed in the project on the 2015 Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris, was created specifically for researching digital media—and in particular, Twitter. The article is structured as follows. Firstly, the methodological scope is discussed against the theoretical context, e.g. the theory of media events. In the theoretical discussion, special emphasis is given to i disruptive, upsetting, or disintegrative media events and hybrid media events and ii the conditions of today’s heterogeneous and globalised media communication landscape. Secondly, the article introduces a multi-method approach developed for the analysis of hybrid media events. In this model, computational social science—namely, automated content analysis (ACA and social network analytics (SNA—are combined with a qualitative approach—specifically, digital ethnography. The article outlines three key phases for research in which the interplay between quantitative and qualitative approaches is played out. In the first phase, preliminary digital ethnography is applied to provide the outline of the event. In the second phase, quantitative social network analytics are applied to construct the digital field for research. In this phase, it is necessary to map a what is circulating on the websites and b where this circulation takes place. The third and final phase applies a qualitative approach and digital ethnography to provide a more nuanced, in-depth interpretation of what (substance/content is circulating and how this material connects with the ‘where’ in the digital landscape, hence constituting links and connections in the hybrid media landscape. In conclusion, the article reflects on how this multi-method approach contributes to understanding the workings of today’s hybrid media events: how they create and maintain symbolic battles over certain imagined

  7. GISAXS in the study of supramolecular and hybrid liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungar, G; Liu, F; Zeng, X B [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Glettner, B; Prehm, M; Kieffer, R; Tschierske, C [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    The use of grazing incidence small and intermediate angle X-ray scattering in the study of structure and alignment of thermotropic liquid crystals is illustrated on selected examples. These include columnar LC phases of a star-shaped mesogen, several honeycomb phases of T-shaped and X-shaped bolaamphiphilic LCs, and gold nanoparticles coated with mesogenic ligands. Sharp Bragg reflections from systems with 2-d and 3-d periodicities are obtained through annealing. Due to nearly perfect surface alignment in most cases, indexing of complex diffraction patterns is facilitated. Honeycomb cells with deformed hexagonal cross-sections, as well as kagome lattice, are shown. The tilt of the reciprocal lattice is shown to help establish the correct structure in the case of the stretched hexagonal honeycombs and the rhombohedral arrays of ordered strings of gold nanoparticles.

  8. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mace, Emily K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the HEVA approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  9. Transcriptome profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) reveal rapid changes in undamaged, systemic sink leaves after simulated feeding by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Ryan N; Ralph, Steven G; Mansfield, Shawn D; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    • Poplar has been established as a model tree system for genomic research of the response to biotic stresses. This study describes a series of induced transcriptome changes and the associated physiological characterization of local and systemic responses in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) after simulated herbivory. • Responses were measured in local source (LSo), systemic source (SSo), and systemic sink (SSi) leaves following application of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) oral secretions to mechanically wounded leaves. • Transcriptome analyses identified spatially and temporally dynamic, distinct patterns of local and systemic gene expression in LSo, SSo and SSi leaves. Galactinol synthase was strongly and rapidly upregulated in SSi leaves. Genome analyses and full-length cDNA cloning established an inventory of poplar galactinol synthases. Induced changes of galactinol and raffinose oligosaccharides were detected by anion-exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography. • The LSo leaves showed a rapid and strong transcriptome response compared with a weaker and slower response in adjacent SSo leaves. Surprisingly, the transcriptome response in distant, juvenile SSi leaves was faster and stronger than that observed in SSo leaves. Systemic transcriptome changes of SSi leaves have signatures of rapid change of metabolism and signaling, followed by later induction of defense genes.

  10. Species-specific SSR alleles for studies of hybrid cattails (Typha latifolia x T. angustifolia; Typhaceae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Allison A; Travis, Steven E; Wildová, Radka; Fér, Tomás; Sweeney, Patricia M; Marburger, Joy E; Windels, Steven; Kubátová, Barbora; Goldberg, Deborah E; Mutegi, Evans

    2010-12-01

    Studies of hybridizing species are facilitated by the availability of species-specific molecular markers for identifying early- and later-generation hybrids. Cattails are a dominant feature of wetland communities, and a better understanding of the prevalence of hybrids is needed to assess the ecological and evolutionary effects of hybridization. Hybridization between Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia produce long-lived clones, known as Typha ×glauca, which are considered to be invasive. Although morphological variation in cattails makes it difficult to recognize early- and later-generation hybrids, several dominant, species-specific RAPD markers are available. Our goal was to find codominant, species-specific markers with greater polymorphism than RAPDs, to identify later-generation hybrids more efficiently. • We screened nine SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci that were described from populations in Ukraine, and we surveyed 31 cattail populations from the upper Midwest and eastern USA. • Seven SSR loci distinguished the parent taxa and were consistent with known species-specific RAPD markers, allowing easier detection of backcrossing. We used linear discriminant analysis to show that F(1) hybrid phenotypes were intermediate between the parent taxa, while those of backcrossed plants overlapped with the hybrids and their parents. Log(leaf length/leaf width), spike gap length, spike length, and stem diameter explained much of the variation among groups. • We provide the first documentation of backcrossed plants in hybridizing cattail populations in Michigan. The diagnostic SSR loci we identified should be extremely useful for examining the evolutionary and ecology interactions of hybridizing cattails in North America.

  11. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems - Regional Studies. West Texas and Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases - not generic examples - based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  12. The Study of Microwave and Electric Hybrid Sintering Process of AZO Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the microwave sintering of ZnO by 3D modelling. A large-size Al-doped ZnO (AZO green ceramic compact was prepared by slurry casting. Through studying the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of the green compact, a relative density of up to 98.1% could be obtained by starting microwave heating at 1200°C and increasing the power 20 min later to 4 kW for an AZO ceramic target measuring 120 × 240 × 12 mm. The resistivity of AZO targets sintered with microwave assistance was investigated. The energy consumption of sintering could be greatly reduced by this heating method. Until now, few studies have been reported on the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of large-size AZO ceramic targets. This research can aid in developing sintering technology for large-size high-quality oxide ceramic targets.

  13. Implementation of hybrid parallel kanban-CONWIP system: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Prakash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common form of production control strategy in lean management is the pull system. One emerging form of pull system uses kanban and CONWIP systems to handle products with different demand patterns. Case studies have protractedly depicted the actual implementation of pull systems; however, the use of hybrid systems is rare. This paper examines the procedures involved in implementing a hybrid system in a low variety/low volume shop floor. This paper presents discussions on shop floor constraints in the proposed system and how the simplicity of a pull system is able to reduce work-in-process inventory by 23%. Guidelines for the replication of the system for similar production environments are also provided. The case study proves that pull systems can be successfully implemented in production environments that do not conform to the typical prerequisites of the kanban system.

  14. Single and multiple molecular beacon probes for DNA hybridization studies on a silica glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiaojing; Tan, Weihong

    1999-05-01

    Surface immobilizable molecular beacons have been developed for DNA hybridization studies on a silica glass plate. Molecular beacons are a new class of oligonucleotide probes that have a loop-and-stem structure with a fluorophore and a quencher attached to the two ends of the stem. They only emit intense fluorescence when hybridize to their target molecules. This provides an excellent selectivity for the detection of DNA molecules. We have designed biotinylated molecular beacons which can be immobilized onto a solid surface. The molecular beacon is synthesized using DABCYL as the quencher and an optical stable dye, tetramethylrhodamine, as the fluorophore. Mass spectrometry is used to confirm the synthesized molecular beacon. The molecular beacons have been immobilized onto a silica surface through biotin-avidin binding. The surface immobilized molecular beacons have been used for the detection of target DNA with subnanomolar analytical sensitivity. have also immobilized two different molecular beacons on a silica surface in spatially resolved microscopic regions. The hybridization study of these two different molecular beacon probes has shown excellent selectivity for their target sequences. The newly designed molecular beacons are intended for DNA molecular interaction studies at an interface and for the development of ultrasensitive DNA sensors for a variety of applications including disease diagnosis, disease mechanism studies, new drug development, and in the investigation of molecular interactions between DNA molecules and other interesting biomolecules.

  15. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – integration with compressed air energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy ...

  16. Microinjection and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Studying mRNA Export in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Shi, Min; Cheng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Microinjection and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) assay is a useful method for mRNA export studies, which can overcome the problems of traditional transfection in cells. Here, we describe the method of microinjection and FISH assay applied in investigation of mRNA export. By this method we can estimate the mRNA export kinetics, examining mRNA export in cells with low transfection efficiencies, and observing nuclear export of aberrant RNAs.

  17. Study of organo-hybrid layered double hydroxides by medium and near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Manuel; López, M. Isabel; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, J. Rafael

    2011-03-01

    An Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) containing carbonate ion in its interlayer region was examined by medium infrared (MIR) and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). The MIR and NIR spectroscopy techniques was also used to study two organo-hybrid LDHs containing interlayer dodecylbenzenesulphonate (DBS) and dodecylsulphate (DS) ions, respectively. The NIR spectra for the latter solids were found to exhibit the overtone and combination bands for the hydroxyl groups in addition to those typical bands of the organic host functions.

  18. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Sakuma, H.; Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research.

  20. Some new indole-coumarin hybrids; Synthesis, anticancer and Bcl-2 docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pooja R; Sunil, Dhanya; Ajees, A Abdul; Pai, K S R; Das, Shubhankar

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid molecules have attracted attention for their improved biological activity, selectivity and lesser side effects profile, distinct from their individual components. In the quest for novel anticancer drug entities, three series of indole-coumarin hybrids - 3-(1-benzyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-ones, 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-1H-indole-3-carbaldehydes and 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acids were synthesized. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral techniques like IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. In silico docking studies of synthesized molecules with apoptosis related gene Bcl-2 that is recognized to play an important role in tumerogenesis were carried out. Dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of the compounds in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and normal cell lines were assessed using MTT assay and compared with that of the standard marketed drug, Vincristine. Compound 4c had a highly lipophilic bromine substituent capable of forming halogen bond and was identified as a potent molecule both in docking as well as cytotoxicity studies. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis of 4c exhibited apoptotic mode of cell death due to cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Structure activity relationship of these hybrid molecules was also studied to determine the effect of steric and electronic properties of the substituents on cell viability.

  1. A Study of Hybrid Composite Hydroxyapatite (HA-Geopolymers as a Material for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the physical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composites HA-geopolymers as a material for biomedical application. Hybrid composite HA–geopolymers were produced through alkaline activation method of metakaolin as a matrix and HA as the filler. HA was synthesized from eggshell particles by using a precipitation method. The addition of HA in metakaolin paste was varied from 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% relative the weight of metakaolin. FTIR was used to examine the absorption bands the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study the crystal structure of the starting and the resulting materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to investigate the surface morphology of the composites. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Capacitance measurement was conducted to investigate the bioactive properties of HA. The study results suggest that hybrid composite HA-geopolymers has a potential to be applied as a biomedical such as biosensor material.

  2. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  3. A New Method to Study the Sol-gel Transition Process of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bin; GAO Jian-gang; CHEN Da-zhu; LIU Jian-ping; HE Ping-sheng; ZHANG Qi-jin

    2005-01-01

    The sol-gel transition process of PMMA/SiO2 hybrid materials was first studied by means of the dynamic torsional vibration method. The different stages of the transition can be described by the change of torque. The temperature-dependent measurement of the gel time(tg) gives the possibility to determine the apparent activation energy(Ea) of this transition according to Flory′s gelation theory. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic fluctuation theory was used to predict the transition behavior. The isothermal transition experiments on hybrid sols with different TEOS(tetraethyl orthosilicate) contents were carried out. The results show that the Ea of a hybrid sol is higher than that of a non- hybrid sol of a TEOS-water-ethanol system. The increasing of TEOS content in a hybrid sol has no obvious effect on the Ea value, but it can enhance the sol-gel reaction rate.

  4. Designing, synthesis of selective and high-affinity chalcone-benzothiazole hybrids as Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase inhibitors: In vitro validation and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Avula, Srinivasa Rao; Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, L Ravithej; Balaramnavar, Vishal M; Gupta, Jyoti; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja; Rathaur, Sushma; Saxena, Anil K; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2015-10-20

    In our continuing search for safe and efficacious antifilarials, a series of novel chalcone-benzothiazole hybrids have been synthesized and evaluated for their Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) enzyme inhibition activity. Their selectivity towards BmTMK was studied and compared to the human TMK (HsTMK) by an in silico method. Out of seventeen derivatives, compounds 34 and 42 showed higher interactions with the BmTMK active site. MolDock docking model revealed the interactions of these two derivatives and the results corroborated well with their in vitro antifilarial activities. Our studies suggest that these hybrids are selective towards the BmTMK enzyme and may serve as potential therapeutic agents against filariasis.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HYBRIDS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND GENERATIONS OF DURUM WINTER WHEAT OF VARIOUS CROSS-BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samofalova N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates a necessity to apply the method of interspecific hybridization in durum winter wheat breeding, using the present soft winter varieties for improvement of frost and drought tolerance at the beginning of germination; resistance to snow mold, fusariosis and bacteriosis of ears and grain. The article presents the results of a comparative study of different types of crossbreeding at interspecific and intraspecific hybridization due to germination, emergence, productivity. It has been shown that intraspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’, interspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз’ and ‘Т. аestivum оз. х T. durum оз.’ possessed the highest germination and emergence with 71,8/75,3% for direct and 60,4/82,5% for backward, 42,8 and 35,5% and 55,4 and 64,1% respectively. In backward (triplecross cross-breeding of F1 interspecific hybrids with durum winter wheat the grain germination was down to 37,4 and 36,6%, but the emergence was up to 64,1 and 69,7% and reached the level of intraspecific hybrids. According to the elements of ear (head productivity (grain mass per head, number of seeds per head, interspecific double-cross hybrids of the first and the second generation significantly conceded to intraspecific hybrids, but they matched them in a number of spikelets and grain size. The triple-cross hybrids exceed the double interspecific hybrids in this respect, but they concede to double-cross and triple-cross intraspecific hybrids. We studied the principle of splitting of interspecific hybrids of the second generation ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз.’ and ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’ (direct and backward and the triple-cross hybrids obtained from cross-breeding of interspecific and intraspecific double-cross hybrids F1 with durum winter wheat

  6. Study of Double Strangeness Nuclei by an Emulsion-Scintillating fiber Hybrid Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, K.

    1995-02-01

    In the emulsion-counter hybrid experiment of KEK-E176, we have analyzed one light double-Λ hypernucleus, at least three heavy double-Λ hypernuclei and two events emitting a sigle-Λ hypernuclei pair found in the sample of ≈80 events of Ξ- capture at rest. Based on this experiment, we have proposed an experiment to study double strangeness nuclei with ten times more events than the E176, ie. 10 3Ξ- stop events. This proposed experiment will clear the uncertainty given by the E176 with use of a new emulsion counter hybrid method, where a laser microscope works for 3D graphic processing in emulsion analysis, scintillating fiber blocks detect decay products of strange particles and a glass capillary tracker filled with liquid scintillator gives precise predictions of Ξ- particle's angle aand position.

  7. Allergenic study and epitope analysis of Indo-American hybrid Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Jamakhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies have high negative impact on nutritional balance of human body. Allergic response is seen high to vegetables such as tomatoes, capsicum and spinach, next to fish, eggs and nuts. Allergen molecules and epitope regions of Indo- American hybrid variety tomatoes is not well studied. The present work shows the presence of putative allergen molecules in two Indio-American hybrid tomatoes, which are identified in 7 patient sera by SDS - Immunoblotting method and further identification of epitopes, putative peptides and cross reactivity of these putative allergens by Immunoinformatics tools. Linear B-cell epitopes predicted by 3 combined immunoinformatics tools viz. DNASTAR protean, ABC pred and IEDB Bipred. Cross reactivity of these allergens determined by sequence alignment method against the allergen online database and Allermatch databases, which shows significant cross reactivity to Capsicum annum, Hevea brasiliensi, archis hypogaea, pollen, actinidia chinesis and prunus avium.

  8. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE PRESSURE AND VACUUM CONTINUOUS CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON HYBRID PUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel pressure and vacuum continuous control system, which adopts a hybrid pump as pressure and vacuum source, is presented. The mathematical model of the system is developed. The theoretical simulation and analysis on the system are implemented in order to study the relationships among the characteristics, parameters and working points of the system. The experimental investigations on the system characteristics are presented with the adoption of a fuzzy-PID controller. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the pressure and vacuum continuous control system based on hybrid pump has good dynamic and static performance, strong robustness and satisfactory adaptability to various system parameters. According to the results, system can successfully gain high accuracy and fast response signal. Also, the mathematical model of system is also testified by the experimental results.

  9. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansey, Kevin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hortsman, Chris [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  10. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Nadjafova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetical and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011. However, rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists.It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008.

  11. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  12. Cytogenetic studies in Trifolium Spp. related to berseem : I. Intra- and interspecific hybrid seed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiyevsky, E; Katznelson, J

    1973-01-01

    Seed formation by large-scale hybridization within and between Trifolium species related to T. alexandrinum L., was studied. The twelve species studied were: a. T. alexandrinum L., b. T. berytheum Boiss., c. T.salmoneum Mout., d, T. apertum Bobr., e. T. Meironense Zoh. et Lern., f. T. echinatum M.B., g. T. latinum Seb., h. T.carmeli Boiss., i. T. scutatum Boiss., j. T. plebeium Boiss., k. T. vavilovi Eig. and 1. T. constantinopolitanum Ser. Hybridization was done either by emasculation and fertilization by hand, or in nature, by utilizing the existence of natural stands and to serve as pollen source the self-incompatibility of some of the species concerned. Results of the two methods were highly comparable although seedset was much higher when crossing was done manually.Crossability, as estimated by seedset, varied in specific cross combinations and ranged between 0 and 70%. Based on the pattern of crossability, five crossability groups were identified with > 20% seedset in interspecific-intra-group cross combinations, and usually less than 5% in inter-group cross combinations. Species a, b, c, d and e form the first crossability group; f, g and h form the second one; h, i, j belong to the third crossability group, while k and l appear as unispecific fourth and fifth crossability groups. The high level of seedset in interspecific hybridization is discussed.

  13. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  14. In silico study of porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids as CDK2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba, Muhammad; Ihsan, Sunandar; Ramadhan, La Ode Ahmad Nur; Tjahjono, Daryono Hadi

    2017-04-01

    Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs) are known to play crucial roles in controlling cell cycle progression of eukaryotic cell and inhibition of their activity has long been considered as potential strategy in anti-cancer drug research. In the present work, a series of porphyrin-anthraquinone hybrids bearing meso-substituents, i.e. either pyridine or pyrazole rings were designed and computationally evaluated for their Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 (CDK2) inhibitory activity using molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation. The molecular docking simulation revealed that all six porphyrin hybrids were able to bind to ATP-binding site of CDK2 and interacted with key residues constituted the active cavity of CDK2, while molecular dynamics simulation indicated that all porphyrins bound to CDK2 were stable for 6ns. The binding free energies predicted by MM-PBSA method showed that most compounds exhibited higher affinity than that of native ligand (4-anilinoquinazoline, DTQ) and the affinity of mono-H2PyP-AQ was about three times better than that of DTQ, indicating its potential to be advanced as a new CDK2 inhibitor.

  15. Recent introgressive hybridization revealed by exclusive mtDNA transfer from Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) to Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Baringo, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Nyingi, Dorothy W.; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear DNA and mtDNA polymorphisms were surveyed in various species of East African Oreochromis. In Lake Baringo, where only Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis is present, alien mtDNA haplotypes were observed, apparently the result of introgressive hybridization with Oreochromis leucostictus. This introgression is not accompanied by any substantial or recorded transfer of nuclear genes into O. n. baringoensis.

  16. Grid parity analysis of stand-alone hybrid microgrids: A comparative study of Germany, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawad M.

    Grid parity for alternative energy resources occurs when the cost of electricity generated from the source is lower than or equal to the purchasing price of power from the electricity grid. This thesis aims to quantitatively analyze the evolution of hybrid stand-alone microgrids in the US, Germany, Pakistan and South Africa to determine grid parity for a solar PV/Diesel/Battery hybrid system. The Energy System Model (ESM) and NREL's Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software are used to simulate the microgrid operation and determine a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figure for each location. This cost per kWh is then compared with two distinct estimates of future retail electricity prices at each location to determine grid parity points. Analysis results reveal that future estimates of LCOE for such hybrid stand-alone microgrids range within the 35-55 cents/kWh over the 25 year study period. Grid parity occurs earlier in locations with higher power prices or unreliable grids. For Pakistan grid parity is already here, while Germany hits parity between the years 2023-2029. Results for South Africa suggest a parity time range of the years 2040-2045. In the US, places with low grid prices do not hit parity during the study period. Sensitivity analysis results reveal the significant impact of financing and the cost of capital on these grid parity points, particularly in developing markets of Pakistan and South Africa. Overall, the study helps conclude that variations in energy markets may determine the fate of emerging energy technologies like microgrids. However, policy interventions have a significant impact on the final outcome, such as the grid parity in this case. Measures such as eliminating uncertainty in policies and improving financing can help these grids overcome barriers in developing economies, where they may find a greater use much earlier in time.

  17. Techno-economical study of hybrid power system for a remote village in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himri, Y. [Electricity and Gas National Enterprise (Sonelgaz), Bechar, 05 rue Mokadem Ahmed, Bechar (08000) (Algeria); Boudghene Stambouli, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Sciences and Technology of Oran (Algeria); Draoui, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bechar (Algeria); Himri, S. [Department of Fundamental Sciences, University of Bechar (Algeria)

    2008-07-15

    The share of renewable energy sources in Algeria primary energy supply is relatively low compared with European countries, though the trend of development is positive. One of the main strategic priorities of NEAL (New Energy Algeria), which is Algeria's renewable energy agency (government, Sonelgaz and Sonatrach), is striving to achieve a share of 10-12% renewable energy sources in primary energy supply by 2010.This article presents techno-economic assessment for off-grid hybrid generation systems of a site in south western Algeria. The HOMER model is used to evaluate the energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reduction for this study. In the present scenario, for wind speed less than 5.0 m/s the existing diesel power plant is the only feasible solution over the range of fuel prices used in the simulation. The wind diesel hybrid system becomes feasible at a wind speed of 5.48 m/s or more and a fuel price of 0.162$/L or more. If the carbon tax is taken into consideration and subsidy is abolished, then it is expected that the hybrid system will become feasible. The maximum annual capacity shortage did not have any effect on the cost of energy, which may be accounted for by larger sizes of wind machines and diesel generators. (author)

  18. Experimental Study of the Swirling Oxidizer Flow in HTPB/N2O Hybrid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of swirling oxidizer flow on the performance of a HTPB/N2O Hybrid rocket motor were studied. A hybrid propulsion laboratory has been developed, to characterize internal ballistics characteristics of swirl flow hybrid motors and to define the operating parameters, like fuel regression rate, specific impulse, and characteristics velocity and combustion efficiency. Primitive variables, like pressure, thrust, temperature, and the oxidizer mass flow rate, were logged. A modular motor with 70 mm outer diameter and variable chamber length is designed for experimental analysis. The injector module has four tangential injectors and one axial injector. Liquid nitrous oxide (N2O as an oxidizer is injected at the head of combustion chamber into the motor. The feed system uses pressurized air as the pressurant. Two sets of tests have been performed. Some tests with axial and tangential oxidizer injection and a test with axial oxidizer injection were done. The test results show that the fuel grain regression rate has been improved by applying tangential oxidizer injection at the head of the motor. Besides, it was seen that combustion efficiency of motors with the swirl flow was about 10 percent more than motors with axial flow.

  19. Studies on Effective Elastic Properties of CNT/Nano-Clay Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Puneet; Srinivas, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to predict elastic propertiesof hybrid nanocomposite material prepared by adding nano-clayplatelets to conventional CNT-reinforced epoxy system. In comparison to polymers alone/single-fiber reinforced polymers, if an additional fiber is added to the composite structure, it was found a drastic improvement in resultant properties. In this regard, effective elastic moduli of a hybrid nano composite are determined by using finite element (FE) model with square representative volume element (RVE). Continuum mechanics based homogenization of the nano-filler reinforced composite is considered for evaluating the volumetric average of the stresses and the strains under different periodic boundary conditions.A three phase Halpin-Tsai approach is selected to obtain the analytical result based on micromechanical modeling. The effect of the volume fractions of CNTs and nano-clay platelets on the mechanical behavior is studied. Two different RVEs of nano-clay platelets were used to investigate the influence of nano-filler geometry on composite properties. The combination of high aspect ratio of CNTs and larger surface area of clay platelets contribute to the stiffening effect of the hybrid samples. Results of analysis are validated with Halpin-Tsai empirical formulae.

  20. A Screened Hybrid DFT Study of Actinide Oxides, Nitrides, and Carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xiaodong; Martin, Richard L.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.

    2013-06-27

    A systematic study of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of actinide oxides, nitrides, and carbides (AnX1–2 with X = C, N, O) is performed using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional. Our computed results show that the screened hybrid HSE functional gives a good description of the electronic and structural properties of actinide dioxides (strongly correlated insulators) when compared with available experimental data. However, there are still some problems reproducing the electronic properties of actinide nitrides and carbides (strongly correlated metals). In addition, in order to compare with the results by HSE, the structures, electronic, and magnetic properties of these actinide compounds are also investigated in the PBE and PBE+U approximation. Interestingly, the density of states of UN obtained with PBE compares well with the experimental photoemission spectra, in contrast to the hybrid approximation. This is presumably related to the need of additional screening in the Hartree–Fock exchange term of the metallic phases.

  1. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  2. Open Field Study of Some Zea mays Hybrids, Lipid Compounds and Fumonisins Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giorni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid molecules are increasingly recognized as signals exchanged by organisms interacting in pathogenic and/or symbiotic ways. Some classes of lipids actively determine the fate of the interactions. Host cuticle/cell wall/membrane components such as sphingolipids and oxylipins may contribute to determining the fate of host–pathogen interactions. In the present field study, we considered the relationship between specific sphingolipids and oxylipins of different hybrids of Zea mays and fumonisin by F. verticillioides, sampling ears at different growth stages from early dough to fully ripe. The amount of total and free fumonisin differed significantly between hybrids and increased significantly with maize ripening. Oxylipins and phytoceramides changed significantly within the hybrids and decreased with kernel maturation, starting from physiological maturity. Although the correlation between fumonisin accumulation and plant lipid profile is certain, the data collected so far cannot define a cause-effect relationship but open up new perspectives. Therefore, the question—“Does fumonisin alter plant lipidome or does plant lipidome modulate fumonisin accumulation?”—is still open.

  3. Comparative study of two different powertrains for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2016-07-01

    The powertrain plays an essential role in improving the tractive performance and the fuel consumption of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a comparative study of two different powertrains for fuel cell hybrid buses. The significant difference between the two powertrains lies in the types and arrangements of the electrical motor. One powertrain employs an induction motor to drive the vehicle, while the other powertrain adopts two permanent magnetic synchronous motors for near-wheel propulsion. Besides, the tiny difference between the proposed powertrain is the supply path of the fuel cell accessories, which can have an effect on the powertrain efficiency. The component parameters and energy management strategies for the two powertrain are determined. The fuel cell hybrid buses equipped with the two powertrains are developed, and some road tests are achieved, according to the chosen procedures or driving cycles. The paper focuses on the tractive performance and energy analysis of the powertrains based on the testing results. Finally, the paper summarizes the relative merits of the proposed powertrains.

  4. Study of utilizing differential gear train to achieve hybrid mechanism of mechanical press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The problems of hybrid input of mechanical press are studied in this paper, with differential gear train as transmission mechanism. It is proposed that “adjust-able-speed amplitude” or “differential-speed ratio” is the important parameters for the hybrid input mechanism. It not only defines the amplitude of the adjustable speed, but also determines the ratio of the power of the servomotor to the power of the conventional motor. The calculating equations of the ratio of transmission in all axes, the power of two motors, and the working load distribution are deduced. The two kinds of driving schemes are put forward that the servomotor and the conven-tional motor simultaneously drive and the servomotor and the conventional motor separately drive. The calculating results demonstrate that the latter scheme can use much lower power of the servomotor, so this scheme makes manufacture and use cost much lower. The latter scheme proposes a feasible way to apply the hybrid mechanism of mechanical press in practice engineering.

  5. Study of utilizing differential gear train to achieve hybrid mechanism of mechanical press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YuPeng; ZHAO ShengDun; ZOU Jun; ZHANG ZhiYuan

    2007-01-01

    The problems of hybrid input of mechanical press are studied in this paper, with differential gear train as transmission mechanism. It is proposed that "adjustable-speed amplitude" or "differential-speed ratio" is the important parameters for the hybrid input mechanism. It not only defines the amplitude of the adjustable speed, but also determines the ratio of the power of the servomotor to the power of the conventional motor. The calculating equations of the ratio of transmission in all axes, the power of two motors, and the working load distribution are deduced. The two kinds of driving schemes are put forward that the servomotor and the conventional motor simultaneously drive and the servomotor and the conventional motor separately drive. The calculating results demonstrate that the latter scheme can use much lower power of the servomotor, so this scheme makes manufacture and use cost much lower. The latter scheme proposes a feasible way to apply the hybrid mechanism of mechanical press in practice engineering.

  6. Prospects of Wind-Diesel Generator-Battery Hybrid Power System: A Feasibility Study in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the feasibility of a wind-diesel generator-battery hybrid system. The wind energy resource data are collected from the weather station at the Renewable Energy Development Center of Bouzareah in Algeria. The recorded values vary from 5.5 m/s to 7 m/s at 25 m. The hybrid system analysis has shown that for a household consuming 1,270 kWh/yr, the cost of energy is 1.205 USD/kWh and produces 2,493 kWh/yr in which 93% of electricity comes from wind energy. From this study, it is clear that the optimized hybrid system is more cost effective compared to the diesel generator system alone where the NPC and COE are equal, respectively, to 19,561 USD and 1.205 USD/kWh and 47,932 USD and 2.952 USD/kWh. The sensitivity analysis predicts that the grid extension distance varies from 1.25 to 1.85 km depending on wind speed and fuel price which indicate a positive result to implement a stand-alone hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension. In addition to the feasibility of this system, it can reduce the emission of the CO2, SO2, and NOx, respectively, from 4758 to 147, from 9.45 to 0.294, and from 105 to 3.23 kg/yr. Investments in autonomous renewable energy systems should be considered particularly in remote areas. They can be financed in the framework of the National Energy Action Plan of Algeria.

  7. Structural and Functional Studies of the Rap1 C-Terminus Reveal Novel Separation-of-Function Mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feeser, Elizabeth A.; Wolberger, Cynthia (JHU-MED)

    2010-02-19

    The yeast Rap1 protein plays an important role in transcriptional silencing and in telomere length homeostasis. Rap1 mediates silencing at the HM loci and at telomeres by recruiting the Sir3 and Sir4 proteins to chromatin via a Rap1 C-terminal domain, which also recruits the telomere length regulators, Rif1 and Rif2. We report the 1.85 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the Rap1 C-terminus, which adopts an all-helical fold with no structural homologues. The structure was used to engineer surface mutations in Rap1, and the effects of these mutations on silencing and telomere length regulation were assayed in vivo. Our surprising finding was that there is no overlap between mutations affecting mating-type and telomeric silencing, suggesting that Rap1 plays distinct roles in silencing at the silent mating-type loci and telomeres. We also found novel Rap1 phenotypes and new separation-of-function mutants, which provide new tools for studying Rap1 function. Yeast two-hybrid studies were used to determine how specific mutations affect recruitment of Sir3, Rif1, and Rif2. A comparison of the yeast two-hybrid and functional data reveals patterns of protein interactions that correlate with each Rap1 phenotype. We find that Sir3 interactions are important for telomeric silencing, but not mating type silencing, and that Rif1 and Rif2 interactions are important in different subsets of telomeric length mutants. Our results show that the role of Rap1 in silencing differs between the HM loci and the telomeres and offer insight into the interplay between HM silencing, telomeric silencing, and telomere length regulation. These findings suggest a model in which competition and multiple recruitment events modulate silencing and telomere length regulation.

  8. Electronic structures of one-dimensional metal-molecule hybrid chains studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung-Hoon; Koo, Bon-Gil; Kim, Howon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Kahng, Se-Jong

    2012-05-28

    The electronic structures of self-assembled hybrid chains comprising Ag atoms and organic molecules were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) in parallel with density functional theory (DFT). Hybrid chains were prepared by catalytic breaking of Br-C bonds in 4,4″-dibromo-p-terphenyl molecules, followed by spontaneous formation of Ag-C bonds on Ag(111). An atomic model was proposed for the observed hybrid chain structures. Four electronic states were resolved using STS measurements, and strong energy dependence was observed in STM images. These results were explained using first-principles calculations based on DFT.

  9. Studies on the Recross Heterosis Effect of Male-sterile Single-hybrids in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Liang-yue; HU YAN-min; LI Yong-liang; HUANG Su-xiang; JI Hong-qiang; HUANG Xi-lin

    2002-01-01

    Re-cross was conducted between five ES cytoplasm male-sterile hybrids and four high-oil hybrids, and five normal hybrids, respectively. The oil content, yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size were estimated. Results were as follows: The average kernel oil content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was 1.6 % higher than that of the female parent. The xenia effect value of oil genes was 0.30. The yield and 1000-kernel weight of male-sterile hybrids were 10.1% and 5.8 % higher than that of corresponding fertile hybrids respectively, which showed significant cytoplasm effect. The yield of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was similar to that of the female parent, but its 1000-kernel weight was 7.3% lower than that of the female parent. Compared with the high-oil male parent, grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid were higher. Seed-filling rate, the days of seed-filling and IAA content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid showed average heterosis tending the female parent, which may be perhaps one of the reasons resulting in the average heterosis tending to the female parent on kernel oil content,yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size.

  10. Charge transfer in Li/CFx-silver vanadium oxide hybrid cathode batteries revealed by solid state 7Li and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Paul J.; Yew, Rowena; Nieves, Ian; Chen, Kaimin; Jain, Gaurav; Schmidt, Craig L.; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2014-05-01

    Solid state 7Li and 19F magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) experiments are conducted on several cathodes containing CFx-Silver vanadium oxide (CFx-Ag2V4O11) hybrid cathodes discharged to 50% depth of discharge (DoD) and stored at their open-circuit voltage for a period of one and three months. Three carbonaceous sources for the CFx phase are investigated: petroleum coke-based, fibrous, and mixed fibrous. For each hybrid cathode, a measurable increase in the relative amount of lithium fluoride is observed after a three month resting period in both the 7Li and 19F NMR spectra. These changes are attributed to lithium ion migration from the silver vanadium oxide to the CFx phase during the resting period, and help clarify the mechanism behind high power handling capability of this cathode.

  11. Dominant Microbial Composition and Its Vertical Distribution in Saline Meromictic Lake Kaiike (Japan) as Revealed by Quantitative Oligonucleotide Probe Membrane Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    Vertical distributions of dominant bacterial populations in saline meromictic Lake Kaiike were investigated throughout the water column and sediment by quantitative oligonucleotide probe membrane hybridization. Three oligonucleotide probes specific for the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA of three groups of Chlorobiaceae were newly designed. In addition, three general domain (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya)-specific probes, two δ-Proteobacteria-specific probes, a Chlorobiaceae-specific probe, and a C...

  12. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  13. Genetic Relationships Among Five Basic Genomes St, E, A, B and D in Triticeae Revealed by Genomic Southern and in situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The St and E are two important basic genomes in the perennial tribe Triticeae (Poaceae). They exist in many perennial species and are very closely related to the A, B and D genomes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Genomic Southern hybridization and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used to analyze the genomic relationships between the two genomes (St and E) and the three basic genomes (A, B and D) of T. aestivum. The semi-quantitative analysis of the Southern hybridization suggested that both St and E genomes are most closely related to the D genome, then the A genome, and relatively distant to the B genome. GISH analysis using St and E genomic DNA as probes further confirmed the conclusion.St and E are the two basic genomes of Thinopyrum ponticum (StStEeEbEx) and Th. intermedium (StEeEb), two perennial species successfully used in wheat improvement. Therefore, this paper provides a possible answer as to why most of the spontaneous wheat- Thinopyrum translocations and substitutions usually happen in the D genome, some in the A genome and rarely in the B genome. This would develop further use of alien species for wheat improvement, especially those containing St or E in their genome components.

  14. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  15. [Comparative molecular cytogenetic characterization of partial wheat-wheatgrass hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupin, P Yu; Divashuk, M G; Belov, V I; Glukhova, L I; Aleksandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2011-04-01

    The chromosomal composition of the Zernokormovaya 169, Istra 1, Ostankinskaya, and Otrastayushchaya 38 cultivars of octoploid partial wheat-wheatgrass hybrids was studied using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Differentiation of wheatgrass chromosomes by the distribution of the GISH signal along the chromosome was revealed. The wheatgrass chromosomes of the hybrid cultivars studied in the work differed in the type of differentiation, centromeric index, and absolute size. The cytogenetic distinctions of these chromosomes revealed by us can be used in making crosses and in studying the transmission through gametes of additional wheatgrass chromosomes.

  16. A gene encoding a protein with a proline-rich domain (MtPPRD1), revealed by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH), is specifically expressed in the Medicago truncatula embryo axis during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Sophie; Viau, Laure; Lelièvre, Eric; Limami, Anis M

    2005-03-01

    A gene MtPPRD1, encoding a protein of 132 amino acids containing a proline-rich domain (PRD), has been revealed by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) with two mRNA populations of embryo axes harvested immediately before and after radicle emergence. Although at the protein level MtPPRD1 showed low homology with plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), it did exhibit the eight cysteine residues conserved in all plant LTPs, a characteristic signature that allows the formation of a hydrophobic cavity adapted for loading hydrophobic molecules. Expression studies of MtPPRD1 have been carried out by quantitative real time RT-PCR throughout germination and post-germination processes in control seeds and seeds in which germination was delayed by abscisic acid (ABA) or the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulphoximine (MSX) treatments. The results showed that MtPPRD1 expression is developmentally regulated, induced in the embryo axis immediately before radicle emergence, reaches its maximum expression and declines during the early post-germination phase. Organ specificity studies showed that, except for a low and probably constitutive expression in roots, MtPPRD1 is specifically expressed in the embryo axis. Based on both experimental and in silico studies several putative roles are proposed for MtPPRD1 in Medicago truncatula, this protein can intervene (i) as an LTP in membrane biogenesis and regulation of the intracellular fatty acid pool by binding and transferring fatty acids and phospholipids between membranes, (ii) in the control of a developmental process specific to late germination and to early phases of post-germination, and (iii) and/or pathogen defence.

  17. A-centers in silicon studied with hybrid density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2013-07-29

    Density functional theory employing hybrid functional is used to gain fundamental insight into the interaction of vacancies with oxygen interstitials to form defects known as A-centers in silicon. We calculate the formation energy of the defect with respect to the Fermi energy for all possible charge states. It is found that the neutral and doubly negatively charged A-centers dominate. The findings are analyzed in terms of the density of states and discussed in view of previous experimental and theoretical studies.

  18. Plasma environment of magnetized asteroids: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Simon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of a magnetized asteroid with the solar wind is studied by using a three-dimensional hybrid simulation code (fluid electrons, kinetic ions. When the obstacle's intrinsic magnetic moment is sufficiently strong, the interaction region develops signs of magnetospheric structures. On the one hand, an area from which the solar wind is excluded forms downstream of the obstacle. On the other hand, the interaction region is surrounded by a boundary layer which indicates the presence of a bow shock. By analyzing the trajectories of individual ions, it is demonstrated that kinetic effects have global consequences for the structure of the interaction region.

  19. VV and VO2 defects in silicon studied with hybrid density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Christopoulos, Stavros Richard G

    2014-12-07

    The formation of VO (A-center), VV and VO2 defects in irradiated Czochralski-grown silicon (Si) is of technological importance. Recent theoretical studies have examined the formation and charge states of the A-center in detail. Here we use density functional theory employing hybrid functionals to analyze the formation of VV and VO2 defects. The formation energy as a function of the Fermi energy is calculated for all possible charge states. For the VV and VO2 defects double negatively charged and neutral states dominate, respectively.

  20. Structure and weights optimisation of a modified Elman network emotion classifier using hybrid computational intelligence algorithms: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhan, Mansour; Abbasnezhad Arabi, Mahdi; Gharavian, Davood

    2015-10-01

    Artificial neural networks are efficient models in pattern recognition applications, but their performance is dependent on employing suitable structure and connection weights. This study used a hybrid method for obtaining the optimal weight set and architecture of a recurrent neural emotion classifier based on gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and its binary version (BGSA), respectively. By considering the features of speech signal that were related to prosody, voice quality, and spectrum, a rich feature set was constructed. To select more efficient features, a fast feature selection method was employed. The performance of the proposed hybrid GSA-BGSA method was compared with similar hybrid methods based on particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm and its binary version, PSO and discrete firefly algorithm, and hybrid of error back-propagation and genetic algorithm that were used for optimisation. Experimental tests on Berlin emotional database demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed method using a lighter network structure.

  1. Preliminary Study of the Supercritical CO{sub 2} Hybrid Cycle for the HTGR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong Jun; Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This study was conducted to explore the potential of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle for the HTGR application. The S-CO{sub 2} cycle is being considered as a PCS due to its high thermal efficiency, simplicity, compactness and so on. Generally, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is characterized as a highly recuperated cycle which means that to achieve high thermal efficiency, the cycle requires a highly effective recuperator. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) showed that direct application of the standard S-CO{sub 2} recompressing Brayton cycle to the HTGR or the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is difficult to achieve high thermal efficiency due to the mismatch of the temperature difference between the temperature drop of helium as the primary reactor coolant and the temperature rise of CO{sub 2} as the PCS coolant through an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX). Therefore, our research team suggests a novel S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton and Rankine hybrid cycle, to solve this limitation. This S-CO{sub 2} hybrid concept is utilizing the waste heat of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle as heat input to the S-CO{sub 2} Rankine cycle. Dividing the thermal capacity of the heat source in to the Brayton cycle part and Rankine cycle part of the S-CO{sub 2} hybrid cycle appropriately, the temperature difference at the IHX could be reduced, therefore the net system performance and operating range can be improved. In this study, the ANL research is reviewed by the in-house cycle analysis codes developed by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) research team. And the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton and Rankine hybrid cycle is studied as a PCS for the VHTR condition which was utilized by ANL research team; it was assumed that the core outlet temperature to be 850 .deg. C and the core inlet temperature of 400 .deg. C.

  2. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  3. Comparative Simulation Study of Production Scheduling in the Hybrid and the Parallel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela Maria L.R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is one of the most important decisions in production control. An approach is proposed for supporting users to solve scheduling problems, by choosing the combination of physical manufacturing system configuration and the material handling system settings. The approach considers two alternative manufacturing scheduling configurations in a two stage product oriented manufacturing system, exploring the hybrid flow shop (HFS and the parallel flow shop (PFS environments. For illustrating the application of the proposed approach an industrial case from the automotive components industry is studied. The main aim of this research to compare results of study of production scheduling in the hybrid and the parallel flow, taking into account the makespan minimization criterion. Thus the HFS and the PFS performance is compared and analyzed, mainly in terms of the makespan, as the transportation times vary. The study shows that the performance HFS is clearly better when the work stations’ processing times are unbalanced, either in nature or as a consequence of the addition of transport times just to one of the work station processing time but loses advantage, becoming worse than the performance of the PFS configuration when the work stations’ processing times are balanced, either in nature or as a consequence of the addition of transport times added on the work stations’ processing times. This means that physical layout configurations along with the way transport time are including the work stations’ processing times should be carefully taken into consideration due to its influence on the performance reached by both HFS and PFS configurations.

  4. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  5. A study on new market development using a hybrid of QFD and ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Rashedeh Makhzan Mousavi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on new product development (NPD using a hybrid of quality function deployment (QFD and analytical network process (ANP. The study is accomplished in one of the biggest auto producers in Iran named Saipa. The study examines whether or not NDP influences positively on critical success factors (CSF and knowledge management (KM. The study also examines whether KM influences on success of NPD. Using some statistical tests, the study confirms that NDP influences on CSF and KM and there is a positive and meaningful relationship between KM and success of NPD. In addition, the study has prioritized various factors for development of new product development and determined that “technology application consistent with customer’s needs” as well as “Having various meetings with different departments” are the most important factors for the success of new product development.

  6. Hybrid plasmonic gap modes in metal film-coupled dimers and their physical origins revealed by polarization resolved dark field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Lei, Dang Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Plasmonic gap modes sustained by metal film-coupled nanostructures have recently attracted extensive research attention due to flexible control over their spectral response and significantly enhanced field intensities at the particle-film junction. In this work, by adopting an improved dark field spectroscopy methodology - polarization resolved spectral decomposition and colour decoding - we are able to ``visualize'' and distinguish unambiguously the spectral and far field radiation properties of the complex plasmonic gap modes in metal film-coupled nanosphere monomers and dimers. Together with full-wave numerical simulation results, it is found that while the monomer-film system supports two hybridized dipole-like plasmon modes having different oscillating orientations and resonance strengths, the scattering spectrum of the dimer-film system features two additional peaks, one strong yet narrow resonant mode corresponding to a bonding dipolar moment and one hybridized higher order resonant mode, both polarized along the dimer axis. In particular, we demonstrate that the polarization dependent scattering radiation of the film-coupled nanosphere dimer can be used to optically distinguish from monomers and concurrently determine the spatial orientation of the dimer with significantly improved accuracy at the single-particle level, illustrating a simple yet highly sensitive plasmon resonance based nanometrology method.Plasmonic gap modes sustained by metal film-coupled nanostructures have recently attracted extensive research attention due to flexible control over their spectral response and significantly enhanced field intensities at the particle-film junction. In this work, by adopting an improved dark field spectroscopy methodology - polarization resolved spectral decomposition and colour decoding - we are able to ``visualize'' and distinguish unambiguously the spectral and far field radiation properties of the complex plasmonic gap modes in metal film

  7. Movement of a Hybrid Zone Between Lineages of the Australian Glass Shrimp (Paratya australiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeremy D; Schmidt, Daniel J; Hughes, Jane M

    2016-09-01

    In 1993, a population of freshwater glass shrimp (Paratya australiensis) was translocated from Kilcoy Creek to Branch Creek in the Conondale Range, Queensland. Subsequent genetic analysis revealed that the translocated and resident shrimp belonged to different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages that were capable of hybridizing. Monitoring of the pools along Branch Creek up until 2002 suggested that the translocated lineage had an advantage in upstream pools and the resident lineage dominated downstream. Differential temperature tolerance and hybridization barriers such as hybrid inviability and mate selection were factors proposed to explain hybrid zone structure. The major objective of this study was to combine nuclear and mtDNA markers to identify the structure of the hybrid zone in 2013 and identify any changes that had occurred since 2002. Specifically, we used genetic data to test for evidence of hybrid zone movement and used the inbreeding coefficient (F IS) to investigate whether mating was random in the contact zone where hybridization barriers could be present. The results revealed that the hybrid zone center has shifted 510 m downstream since 2002. Increased rainfall in the region since 2010 could have facilitated this. Secondly, mating appears significantly nonrandom in the pools where both lineages occur, supporting the existence of partial hybridization barriers. This study reveals a complex and dynamic hybrid zone and exemplifies why multiple temporal studies are necessary to understand hybrid zone structure.

  8. Studies on the Utilization Potentiality of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Hybrid in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of comparative studies was carried out on the genetic effects of 25 alien cytoplasms of wheat on the growth potential, heading stage , fertility, resistance against diseases, important agronomic traits and its heterosis of 125 nuclei-cytoplasmic hybrids of wheat. The results indicated that there were clearly effects of alien cytoplasms on some characteristics, but the nucleus still exerted main effect on other characteristics. The effect of interactions between nucleus and cytoplasm was comparative obvious in some combination. Consequently, when we utilize the effects of alien cytoplasms, we should pay full attention to the facts such as the characteristic to be improved, the effects of cytoplasm ,nucleus, the nucleus-cytoplasm interactions on that characteristics . From the preliminary studies, we believed that the cytoplasmic types of M°, S1, Sv, D2, D and B, and the nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrids of (Ae. sharonensis) -Bl74, (Ae. squarrosa)352-35, (Ae. cylindrica) -352-35, (Ae. cylindrica)-E EN-1, (Ae. cylindrica)- NPFP, and (Ae. speltoides)352-35 would have some utilization potentiality in cultivar improvement.

  9. Hybrid CIS-DFT method to study electric field effects on electronic excited states of ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mei-Zhong; Zhu Zheng-He; Chen Xiao-Jun; Xu Guo-Liang; Zhang Yong-Bin; Mao Hua-Ping; Shen Xiao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of the effects of external dipole electric field on the molecular structure of ethylene using a hybrid method which combines the single-excitation configuration interactions (CIS) with density functional theory (DFT), i.e. CIS-DFT(B3LYP). It is found that the effects of electric dipole field on the molecular geometry (D2h, D2d and C2v), dipole moment, transition dipole moment, polarizability and, particularly, excitation energy of ethylene are remarkable. The advantages of the hybrid CIS-DFT method are that it can determine the symmetry of molecule and the correct order of excitation as well as the Molecular Orbital (MO) electron configuration;thereby the electronic excitation states of ethylene are easily derived, and most of them are in agreement with those obtained in experiments or references. It may be the first time the effects of external electric field on ethylene molecule have been considered. Compared with other ab initio methods, the CIS-DFT method is relatively accurate and low cost in computation. We expect that it can be used to study other closed-shell molecules.

  10. Comparison of hybrid fixation versus dual intramedullary nailing fixation for forearm fractures in older children: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongzeng; Shui, Xiaolong; Wang, Jianshun; Cai, Leyi; Wang, Gang; Hong, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical outcomes of hybrid fixation using elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) for the radius and plate screw fixation for the ulna (Hybrid group) with dual ESIN fixation (D-ESIN group) for both-bone forearm fractures in children between 10 and 16 years of age. Fifty patients with both-bone forearm fractures (28 patients in the Hybrid group and 22 patients in the D-ESIN group) were reviewed. Functional outcomes were evaluated according to the criteria of Price et al. Radiological results were assessed by fracture union at three and six months and bone union time. Postoperative complications were also recorded. The times of fluoroscopy intraoperatively and duration of immobilization postoperatively were significantly lower in the Hybrid group (P < 0.05). The union rate of the ulna at three months postoperatively in the hybrid group was significantly higher than that in the D-ESIN group (P < 0.05). The average time of bone union was significantly shorter in the hybrid group than that in the D-ESIN group (P < 0.05). There were no differences according to the satisfactory rate and degree, the major and minor complications between the groups. Hybrid fixation is superior in terms of the times of fluoroscopy intraoperatively, duration of immobilization postoperatively, delayed union rate of the ulna and the average time of bone union. Therefore, hybrid fixation is an alternative treatment for both-bone forearm fractures in children between 10 and 16 years of age. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hybrid practices as a means to implement quality improvement: A comparative qualitative study in a Dutch and Swedish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartz-Topp, Julia; Sanne, Johan M; Pöstges, Heide

    2016-11-15

    Managers and scholars commonly perceive resistance from professionals as hampering the implementation of quality improvement (QI) and refer to the incompatibility of clinical and managerial approaches to QI as a reason. Yet a growing body of research indicates that, in practice, these two approaches rather blend into hybrid practices that embody different types of QI-related knowledge and values. This opens up a new perspective on implementation challenges that moves attention away from resistance against managerial QI toward difficulties for clinicians to draw together different types of knowledge and values within their clinical work. So far, little is known about how managers can support clinicians to generate hybrid QI practices. The aim of this study was to deepen our understanding of how managers can support the generation of hybrid practices that help clinicians to integrate QI into their everyday work. We draw on comparative qualitative research including 21 semistructured interviews, documentary analysis, and participant observation that we conducted in one Dutch and one Swedish hospital over a period of 8 months in 2011/2012. Hospital managers designed hybrid forums, tools, and professional roles in order to facilitate the integration of different QI practices, knowledge, and values. This integration generated new hybrid practices and an infrastructure for QI that has potential to support clinicians in their efforts to align different demands. New opportunities to implement QI emerge when we change the implementation problem from clinical resistance to the need of support for clinicians to develop hybrid QI practices. Hospital managers then have to intentionally organize for the generation of hybrid practices by designing, for example, hybrid forums, tools, and professional roles that integrate different knowledge and values in a nonhierarchical way.

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of a membrane-enriched fraction from flag leaves reveals responses to chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilu eSong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The induction of wheat male fertile lines by using the chemical hybridizing agent SQ-1 (CHA-SQ-1 is an effective approach in the utilization of heterosis; however, the molecular basis of male fertility remains unknown. Wheat flag leaves are the initial receptors of CHA-SQ-1 and their membrane structure plays a vital role in response to CHA-SQ-1 stress. To investigate the response of wheat flag leaves to CHA-SQ-1 stress, we compared their quantitative proteomic profiles in the absence and presence of CHA-SQ-1. Our results indicated that wheat flag leaves suffered oxidative stress during CHA-SQ-1 treatments. Leaf O2-, H2O2, and malonaldehyde levels were significantly increased within 10 h after CHA-SQ-1 treatment, while the activities of major antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were significantly reduced. Proteome profiles of membrane-enriched fraction showed a change in the abundance of a battery of membrane proteins involved in multiple biological processes. These variable proteins mainly impaired photosynthesis, ATP synthesis protein mechanisms and were involved in the response to stress. These results provide an explanation of the relationships between membrane proteomes and anther abortion and the practical application of CHA for hybrid breeding.

  13. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  14. Revealing a room temperature ferromagnetism in cadmium oxide nanoparticles: An experimental and first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Bououdina, Mohamed

    2015-03-26

    We obtain a single cadmium oxide phase from powder synthesized by a thermal decomposition method of cadmium acetate dehydrate. The yielded powder is annealed in air, vacuum, and H2 gas in order to create point defects. Magnetization-field curves reveal the appearance of diamagnetic behavior with a ferromagnetic component for all the powders. Powder annealing under vacuum and H2 atmosphere leads to a saturation magnetization 1.15 memu g-1 and 1.2 memu g-1 respectively with an increase by 45% and 16% compared to the one annealed in air. We show that annealing in vacuum produces mainly oxygen vacancies while annealing in H2 gas creates mainly Cd vacancy leading to room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) component together with known diamagnetic properties. Ab initio calculations performed on the CdO nanoparticles show that the magnetism is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Cd d and O p orbitals together with the vacancy. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  15. Combining geometric morphometrics with molecular genetics to investigate a putative hybrid complex: a case study with barbels Barbus spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, M F; Schreiner, C; Delmastro, G B; Herder, F

    2016-03-01

    This integrative study examined the morphological and genetic affinities of three endemic barbel species from Italy (brook barbel Barbus caninus, Italian barbel Barbus plebejus and horse barbel Barbus tyberinus) and of putative hybrid specimens to their species of origin. Two of the species frequently occur together with the non-native barbel Barbus barbus. DNA barcoding indicates that mitochondrial (mt) haplotypes often do not match the species expected from morphology. Linear distance measurements and meristics are not informative for discrimination of the species and putative hybrids, but a discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) of geometric landmark data produces reassignments largely in congruence with mt and nuclear genetic data. Cyto-nuclear conflicts confirm the presence of hybridization in B. plebejus and B. tyberinus and identify additional introgressed specimens. A comparison between mixed genotypes and their morphology-based assignment reveals no predictable pattern. The finding that most individuals of the morphologically similar B. plebejus and B. tyberinus have very high assignment probabilities to their respective species suggests that the presented approach may serve as a valuable tool to distinguish morphologically very similar taxa.

  16. Core-Shell-Corona Silica Hybrid Nanoparticles Templated by Spherical Polyelectrolyte Brushes: A Study by Small Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoya; Li, Li; Wang, Weihua; Tian, Yuchuan; Wang, Yunwei; Wang, Junyou; von Klitzing, Regine; Guo, Xuhong

    2017-09-06

    Core-shell-corona silica/polymer hybrid nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were prepared in the template of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPB) which consist of a solid polystyrene (PS) core densely grafted with linear poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains. The microstructure of obtained hybrid nanoparticles was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and in combination with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The generation of silica shell within the brush is confirmed by the significant increase of the electron density in the shell, and the silica shell showed a unique inner-loose-outer-dense structure, whose thickness is pH sensitive but is insensitive to ionic strength as revealed by fitting SAXS data. After dissolving the PS core, hollow silica nanoparticles were obtained and determined by SAXS, which should be ideal carriers for pH-triggered drug delivery. SAXS is confirmed to be a powerful method to characterize the core-shell-corona silica/polymer hybrid and hollow silica nanoparticles.

  17. Transit Network Design: a Hybrid Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony Approach and a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A bus network design problem in a suburban area of Hong Kong is studied. The objective is to minimize the weighted sum of the number of transfers and the total travel time of passengers by restructuring bus routes and determining new frequencies. A mixed integer optimization model is developed and was solved by a Hybrid Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony algorithm (HEABC. A case study was conducted to investigate the effects of different design parameters, including the total number of bus routes available, the maximum route duration within the study area and the maximum allowable number of bus routes that originated from each terminal. The model and results are useful for improving bus service policies.

  18. Experimental and theoretical studies of a pyrazole-thiazolidin-2,4-di-one hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaque, Md.; Avecilla, Fernando; Haque, Ashanul; Perwez, Ahmad; Khan, Md. Shahzad; Rizvi, M. Moshahid Alam

    2017-08-01

    The present work describes synthesis, characterization and biological evaluations of a hybrid compound 10 composed of two intriguing scaffolds pyrazole and thiazolidin-2,4-di-one. The title compound was obtained via multi-step reaction and characterized by a number of techniques (viz. IR, UV-Visible, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS) including X-ray crystallography. The structural and photophysical data of compound 10 were well supported by theoretical calculations performed at density functional (DFT) level. In-vitro anticancer studies on different human cancer cell lines indicated moderate to low activity of the compounds. The molecular target of the compound was predicted through in-silico studies. Finding of the studies are presented herein.

  19. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Study and Its Application Using a Hybrid Model Optimized by Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The support vector regression (SVR and neural network (NN are both new tools from the artificial intelligence field, which have been successfully exploited to solve various problems especially for time series forecasting. However, traditional SVR and NN cannot accurately describe intricate time series with the characteristics of high volatility, nonstationarity, and nonlinearity, such as wind speed and electricity price time series. This study proposes an ensemble approach on the basis of 5-3 Hanning filter (5-3H and wavelet denoising (WD techniques, in conjunction with artificial intelligence optimization based SVR and NN model. So as to confirm the validity of the proposed model, two applicative case studies are conducted in terms of wind speed series from Gansu Province in China and electricity price from New South Wales in Australia. The computational results reveal that cuckoo search (CS outperforms both PSO and GA with respect to convergence and global searching capacity, and the proposed CS-based hybrid model is effective and feasible in generating more reliable and skillful forecasts.

  20. Study of Micro Grid Hybrid System of Photovoltaic and Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitasari Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundant potentials of new and renewable energy that can be used for electricity generation, especially in rural areas which have no access for grid electricity yet. The energy resources can be from solar, water, biomass or biofuel. Many villagers still use diesel generators to produce electricity in their villages. It is considered expensive because fuel price in rural areas increases 2-3 times than the normal price due to transportation cost. Hybrid system using renewable energy resources is one of the solutions to produce electricity in affordable cost for rural area. The idea is to combine diesel generators and photovoltaic toproduce electricity. Moreover, the diesel engine fuel can be replaced with biofuel. This study will analyze the hybrid system in a small scale which consists of 1kWp photovoltaic and 3 kW diesel engine. Electric load power will vary. The system is controlled by a single bidirectional inverter whichconverts power from DC to AC and vice versa

  1. Hybrid System for Ex Vivo Hemorheological and Hemodynamic Analysis: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Eunseop; Jun Kang, Yang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-06-19

    Precise measurement of biophysical properties is important to understand the relation between these properties and the outbreak of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, a systematic measurement for these biophysical parameters under in vivo conditions is nearly impossible because of complex vessel shape and limited practicality. In vitro measurements can provide more biophysical information, but in vitro exposure changes hemorheological properties. In this study, a hybrid system composed of an ultrasound system and microfluidic device is proposed for monitoring hemorheological and hemodynamic properties under more reasonable experimental conditions. Biophysical properties including RBC aggregation, viscosity, velocity, and pressure of blood flows are simultaneously measured under various conditions to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of this measurement system. The proposed technique is applied to a rat extracorporeal loop which connects the aorta and jugular vein directly. As a result, the proposed system is found to measure biophysical parameters reasonably without blood collection from the rat and provided more detailed information. This hybrid system, combining ultrasound imaging and microfluidic techniques to ex vivo animal models, would be useful for monitoring the variations of biophysical properties induced by chemical agents. It can be used to understand the relation between biophysical parameters and CVDs.

  2. SWNT-DNA and SWNT-polyC hybrids: AFM study and computer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtsev, M V; Lytvyn, O S; Stepanian, S G; Leontiev, V S; Adamowicz, L; Karachevtsev, V A

    2008-03-01

    Hybrids of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) with fragmented single or double-stranded DNA (fss- or fds-DNA) or polyC were studied by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM) and computer modeling. It was found that fragments of the polymer wrap in several layers around the nanotube, forming a strand-like spindle. In contrast to the fss-DNA, the fds-DNA also forms compact structures near the tube surface due to the formation of self-assembly structures consisting of a few DNA fragments. The hybrids of SWNT with wrapped single-, double- or triple strands of the biopolymer were simulated, and it was shown that such structures are stable. To explain the reason of multi-layer polymeric coating of the nanotube surface, the energy of the intermolecular interactions between different components of polyC was calculated at the MP2/6-31++G** level as well as the interaction energy in the SWNT-cytosine complex.

  3. Study on Absorption and Regeneration Performance of Novel Hybrid Solutions for CO2 Capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jie; Yin Jun; Zhu Feifei; Chen Xin; Tong Ming; Kang Wanzhong; Zhou Yanbo; Lu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a kind of hybrid solution MEA-methanol shows a better CO2 capture performance over aqueous MEA solution. However, the vaporization of methanol is the biggest disadvantage that hinders its application, so it is necessary to minimize the vaporization of methanol during both the absorption and regeneration processes. In this work, two kinds of hybrid solutions were studied and compared with aqueous MEA solution and MEA-methanol solution, including MEA/TEA/methanol solution and MEA/glycerol/methanol solution. The absorption property of MEA/glycerol/methanol solution is better than aqueous MEA solution within a certain period of time and the absorption property of MEA/TEA/methanol solution is too poor to be used in CO2 capture. By increasing the concentration of TEA and decreasing the concentration of MEA, the absorption rate, CO2 capture efifciency and absorption capacity all decreased. Upon adding glycerol, the cyclic capacity decreased and the generation temperature increased, and moreover, the density and viscosity also increased considerably. So after adding TEA and glycerol, the CO2 capture performance of MEA-methanol solvent cannot be improved.

  4. Hybrid density functional study on lattice vibration, thermodynamic properties, and chemical bonding of plutonium monocarbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yang; Bin, Tang; Tao, Gao; BingYun, Ao

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid density functional theory is employed to systematically investigate the structural, magnetic, vibrational, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monocarbide (PuC and PuC0.75). For comparison, the results obtained by DFT, DFT + U are also given. For PuC and PuC0.75, Fock-0.25 hybrid functional gives the best lattice constants and predicts the correct ground states of antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure. The calculated phonon spectra suggest that PuC and PuC0.75 are dynamically stable. Values of the Helmholtz free energy ΔF, internal energy ΔE, entropy S, and constant-volume specific heat C v of PuC and PuC0.75 are given. The results are in good agreement with available experimental or theoretical data. As for the chemical bonding nature, the difference charge densities, the partial densities of states and the Bader charge analysis suggest that the Pu-C bonds of PuC and PuC0.75 have a mixture of covalent character and ionic character. The effect of carbon vacancy on the chemical bonding is also discussed in detail. We expect that our study can provide some useful reference for further experimental research on the phonon density of states, thermodynamic properties of the plutonium monocarbide. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21371160 and 21401173).

  5. Study on development of active-passive rehabilitation system for upper limbs: Hybrid-PLEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Jin, Y; Fukushima, K; Akai, H; Furusho, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. Active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices can realize a lot of varieties of haptics. But they basically require high-cost safety system. On the other hand, passive-type (brake-based) haptic devices have inherent safety. However, the passive robot system has strong limitation on varieties of haptics. There are not sufficient evidences to clarify how the passive/active haptics effect to the rehabilitation of motor skills. In this paper, we developed an active-passive-switchable rehabilitation system with ER clutch/brake device named 'Hybrid-PLEMO' in order to address these problems. In this paper, basic structures and haptic control methods of the Hybrid-PLEMO are described.

  6. Hybridization and crystal-field effects in Kondo insulators studied by means of core-level spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strigari, Fabio

    2015-04-13

    and even for symmetries lower than tetragonal. In addition to that, HAXPES measurements on the CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 10} series are presented. A common technique for studying hybridization effects in rare earths, and their electronic structure in general, is photoelectron spectroscopy in the soft X-ray range (hv ≤ 1.5 keV). However, in this energy region surface effects are known to matter so that the picture about the hybridization interaction might be distorted with respect to the bulk. The use of hard X-rays (hν=5-10 keV) guarantees a sufficiently large probing depth for obtaining information about the actual bulk electronic structure. In a detailed quantitative analysis of HAXPES 3d core level spectra - using a combination of full multiplet calculations and a configuration interaction model (fm-CI model) - the hybridization strength can be quantified. The XAS results show that the CEF ground states of CeRu{sub 2}Al{sub 10} and CeOs{sub 2}Al are very similar, while it is clearly different for the non-ordering system CeFe{sub 2}Al{sub 10}. The CEF description nicely explains the magnetic anisotropy observed in susceptibility data and to a large extent the small ordered moments along the c axis. We provide a reliable quantitative description of the CEF ground state of the CeM{sub 2}Al{sub 10} compounds. Furthermore, the analysis of the HAXPES data in the fm-CI model allows to quantify the intermediate 4f valence and establishes that the exchange interaction increases within the series from Ru to Os to Fe. A substantial amount of Kondo screening is shown to be present even in the magnetically ordered Ru and Os compounds. The polarized XAS study on CeNiSn demonstrates that the monoclinic CEF is well described in a trigonal approximation, and the determined 4f ground-state wave function is consistent with results from inelastic neutron scattering for Cu-doped CeNiSn. Moreover, the systematic investigation of the CeRh{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x}In{sub 5} substitution series by means

  7. Semiconductor quantum dot-inorganic nanotube hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizman, Ronen; Schwartz, Osip; Deutsch, Zvicka; Itzhakov, Stella; Zak, Alla; Cohen, Sidney R; Tenne, Reshef; Oron, Dan

    2012-03-28

    A synthetic route for preparation of inorganic WS(2) nanotube (INT)-colloidal semiconductor quantum dot (QD) hybrid structures is developed, and transient carrier dynamics on these hybrids are studied via transient photoluminescence spectroscopy utilizing several different types of QDs. Measurements reveal efficient resonant energy transfer from the QDs to the INT upon photoexcitation, provided that the QD emission is at a higher energy than the INT direct gap. Charge transfer in the hybrid system, characterized using QDs with band gaps below the INT direct gap, is found to be absent. This is attributed to the presence of an organic barrier layer due to the relatively long-chain organic ligands of the QDs under study. This system, analogous to carbon nanotube-QD hybrids, holds potential for a variety of applications, including photovoltaics, luminescence tagging and optoelectronics.

  8. Stuttering Intervention in Three Service Delivery Models (Direct, Hybrid, and Telepractice: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. Valentine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed outcomes in stuttering intervention across three service delivery models: direct, hybrid, and telepractice for two 11-year old children who stutter. The goal of the study was to investigate whether short-term goals were maintained through the telepractice sessions. The Stuttering Severity Instrument, Fourth Edition (SSI-4 was administered to each child before and after each intervention period and weekly fluency samples (percentage of stuttered syllables in a monologue were obtained in each of the 10-week intervention periods. In addition, the Communication Attitudes Test-Revised was used to assess the children’s attitudes toward speaking. Following the telepractice period, parents and children completed a questionnaire concerning the therapy experience via telepractice. Both children continued to improve fluency as measured by the weekly fluency samples. SSI-4 severity ratings improved for one child and remained consistent for the other. These outcomes appear to demonstrate that telepractice is viable for improving and maintaining fluency.

  9. 1,5-Diarylpyrazole and vanillin hybrids: Synthesis, biological activity and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vázquez, Eduardo; Castañeda-Arriaga, Romina; Ramírez-Espinosa, Juan José; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Hernández-Luis, Francisco; Chaverri, José Pedraza; Estrada-Soto, Samuel

    2015-07-15

    Herein, we report the design and synthesis of 13 diarylpyrazole hybrids with vanillin constructed as dual compounds against oxidative stress and diabetes. Compounds were tested in two different antioxidant assays. It was found that all compounds showed an important antioxidant activity in both DPPH and ORAC models and the activity was even more remarkable than vanillin. In addition, the hypoglycemic effect of compounds 1, 2, 4 and 12 was evaluated. Interestingly, compound 1 had the most potent hypoglycemic effect with a glycemia reduction of 71%, which was higher than rimonabant. Finally, a DFT study to propose a reasonable antioxidant mechanism is detailed. Both thermodynamic and kinetic studies indicated that the most feasible mechanism consists in the HAT abstraction of the phenolic hydrogen due to the formation of an stable transition state through the most rapid and exergonic path, while the SPLET mechanism is the most significant at higher pH values.

  10. Using hybrid associative classifier with translation (HACT for studying imbalanced data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cleofas Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Class imbalance may reduce the classifier performance in several recognition pattern problems. Such negative effect is more notable with least represented class (minority class Patterns. A strategy for handling this problem consisted of treating the classes included in this problem separately (majority and minority classes to balance the data sets (DS. This paper has studied high sensitivity to class imbalance shown by an associative model of classification: hybrid associative classifier with translation (HACT; imbalanced DS impact on associative model performance was studied. The convenience of using sub-sampling methods for decreasing imbalanced negative effects on associative memories was analysed. This proposal’s feasibility was based on experimental results obtained from eleven real-world datasets.

  11. Diffusion of interstitial oxygen in silicon and germanium: a hybrid functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Davide; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-12-01

    The minimum-energy paths for the diffusion of an interstitial O atom in silicon and germanium are studied through the nudged-elastic-band method and hybrid functional calculations. The reconsideration of the diffusion of O in silicon primarily serves the purpose of validating the procedure for studying the O diffusion in germanium. Our calculations show that the minimum energy path goes through an asymmetric transition state in both silicon and germanium. The stability of these transition states is found to be enhanced by the generation of unpaired electrons in the highest occupied single-particle states. Calculated energy barriers are 2.54 and 2.14 eV for Si and Ge, in very good agreement with corresponding experimental values of 2.53 and 2.08 eV, respectively.

  12. A Case Study of a Hybrid Parallel 3D Surface Rendering Graphics Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik; Madsen, Jan; Pedersen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the design strategy used inbuilding a graphics computer, for drawing very complex 3Dgeometric surfaces. The goal is to build a PC based computer systemcapable of handling surfaces built from about 2 million triangles, andto be able to render a perspective view...... of these on a computer displayat interactive frame rates, i.e. processing around 50 milliontriangles per second. The paper presents a hardware/softwarearchitecture called HPGA (Hybrid Parallel Graphics Architecture) whichis likely to be able to carry out this task. The case study focuses ontechniques to increase...... the clock frequency as well as the parallelismof the system. This paper focuses on the back-end graphics pipeline,which is responsible for rasterizing triangles.%with a practically linear increase in performance. A pure software implementation of the proposed architecture iscurrently able to process 300...

  13. A study on flow distribution for integrated hybrid actuator by analysis of reed valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jang Mi; Kang, Seung Hwan; Ko, Han Seo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Nam Seo; Li, Yong Zhe [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many studies have been conducted recently on an integrated hybrid actuator due to the increasing need for unmanned aircraft and guided weapons. In this study, flow distribution was analyzed for a reed valve which was used for flow regulation to improve the performance of the actuator. By using a Fluid structural interaction (FSI) technique with Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) having a moving mesh, numerical analysis was performed according to the thickness, shape and driving frequency of the reed valve. From the calculated results, the maximum performance of the reed valve was found at the valve thickness of 0.15 mm and the driving frequency of 250 Hz for a no-load state. The optimum thickness and shape for the valve for each driving frequency were also realized.

  14. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment: design studies based on superconducting and hybrid toroidal field coils. Design overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    This document is a design overview that describes the scoping studies and preconceptual design effort performed in FY 1983 on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) class of device. These studies focussed on devices with all-superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and on devices with superconducting TF coils supplemented with copper TF coil inserts located in the bore of the TF coils in the shield region. Each class of device is designed to satisfy the mission of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn. Typical design parameters are: major radius = 3.75 m, minor radius = 1.0 m, field on axis = 4.5 T, plasma current = 7.0 MA. These designs relay on lower hybrid (LHRH) current rampup and heating to ignition using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). A pumped limiter has been assumed for impurity control. The present document is a design overview; a more detailed design description is contained in a companion document.

  15. Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic behavior of conventional and hybrid braced frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Wei

    This dissertation summarizes both experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of conventional steel concentrically braced frame systems of the type widely used in North America, and preliminary studies of an innovative hybrid braced frame system: the Strong-Back System. The research work is part of NEES small group project entitled "International Hybrid Simulation of Tomorrow's Braced Frames." In the experimental phase, a total of four full-scale, one-bay, two-story conventional braced frame specimens with different bracing member section shapes and gusset plate-to-beam connection details were designed and tested at the NEES Berkeley Laboratory. Three braced frame specimens were tested quasi-statically using the same predefined loading protocol to investigate the inelastic cyclic behavior of code-compliant braced frames at both the global and local level. The last braced frame specimen was nearly identical to one of those tested quasi-statically. However, it was tested using hybrid simulation techniques to examine the sensitivity of inelastic behavior on loading sequence and to relate the behavior observed to different levels of seismic hazard. Computer models of the test specimens were developed using two different computer software programs. In the software framework OpenSees fiber-based line elements were used to simulate global buckling of members and yielding and low-cycle fatigue failure at sections. The LS-DYNA analysis program was also used to model individual struts and the test specimens using shell elements with adaptive meshing and element erosion features. This program provided enhanced ability to simulate section local buckling, strain concentrations and crack development. The numerical results were compared with test results to assess and refine and the ability of the models to predict braced frame behavior. A series of OpenSees numerical cyclic component simulations were then conducted using the validated modeling approach. Two

  16. Structural, thermal and ion transport studies of different particle size nanocomposite fillers incorporated PVdF-HFP hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G. Gnana [Specialized Graduate School of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Pil [Specialized Graduate School of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ae Rhan [Specialized Graduate School of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Kee Suk [Specialized Graduate School of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nahmks@chonbuk.ac.kr; Elizabeth, R. Nimma [Department of Physics, Lady Doak College, Madurai 625002 (India)

    2009-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexa fluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP)/sulfosuccinic acid were fabricated with different nanometer sizes of silica particles. Morphological images reveal the embedded ceramic filler over the membrane. Structural characterizations were made by FT-IR and XPS, ensure the inclusion of sulfosuccinic acid and silica into the PVdF-HFP polymer matrix. Sulfonic acid groups promote the IEC values and greater swelling behavior. Silica content in the hybrid membranes had a great effect on crystalline character as well as thermal properties of the membranes. Decrease in the filler size creates an effective route of polymer-filler interface and promotes the protonic conductivity of the membranes. The high conductivities in the range of 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} were achieved through synergistic interactions between the organic and inorganic moieties of the hybrid membranes. Due to these splendid features, the prepared hybrid membranes can be a trademark in the field of fuel cells.

  17. Study of Antibacterial Efficacy of Hybrid Chitosan-Silver Nanoparticles for Prevention of Specific Biofilm and Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs deposited alternatively layer by layer (LBL on chitosan polymer in the form of a thin film over a quartz plate and stainless steel strip has been studied. An eight-bilayer chitosan/silver (Cs/Ag8 hybrid was prepared having a known concentration of silver. Techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES, and atomic force microscopy (AFM were carried out to understand and elucidate the physical nature of the film. Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli, were used as a test sample in saline solution for antibacterial studies. The growth inhibition at different intervals of contact time and, more importantly, the antibacterial properties of the hybrid film on repeated cycling in saline solution have been demonstrated. AFM studies are carried out for the first time on the microbe to know the morphological changes affected by the hybrid film. The hybrid films on aging (3 months are found to be as bioactive as before. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated good biocompatibility. The hybrid can be a promising bioactive material for the prevention of biofilms specific to E. coli and in purification of water for safe drinking.

  18. First Principles Study on the Electronic Structure and Interface Stability of Hybrid Silicene/Fluorosilicene Nanoribbons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Q G; Zhang, J F; Ao, Z M; Wu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The interface stability of hybrid silicene/fluorosilicene nanoribbons (SFNRs) has been investigated by using density functional theory calculations, where fluorosilicene is the fully fluorinated silicene...

  19. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  20. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  1. Novel triazole hybrids of myrrhanone C, a natural polypodane triterpene: Synthesis, cytotoxic activity and cell based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Madasu; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Ramakrishna, Sistla; Mallavadhani, Uppuluri Venkata

    2016-05-23

    The 3-keto functionality in ring A of myrrhanone C, a natural bicyclic triterpene has been chemically modified and synthesized 27 novel triazole hybrids belonging to two different series in very good to excellent yields (66-83%). The synthesized compounds were thoroughly characterized by their spectroscopic data (IR, (1)H&(13)C NMR, HRMS). All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against a panel of five human cancer cell lines by employing MTT assay using doxorubicin as the standard. In general the synthesized compounds showed anticancer activity against almost all the cell lines screened. Interestingly, the oxime based triazoles (4a-4n) showed higher activity than the benzylidene triazoles (6a-6m). Most significantly compound 4a showed potent activity against all the tested cell lines, especially against lung cancer (A-549) with an IC 50 of 6.16 μm. In view of their significant activity against lung cancer cell lines, compounds 4a and 4l were subjected to detailed biological studies, which revealed that they arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase and induced cell death by apoptosis that was further confirmed by Hoechst staining, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and Annexin V-FITC assay. These compounds will serve as lead molecules in the development of potent anticancer drug candidates especially for lung cancer.

  2. Hybrid aerogels and bioactive aerogels under uniaxial compression: an in situ SAXS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquivias, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure of hybrid organic/inorganic aerogels is composed by an inorganic phase covalently bonded to an organic chain forming a copolymer. Conventional hybrid aerogels were studied as well as bioactive hybrid aerogels, that is, aerogels with a calcium active phase added. In this work, the relationship between mechanical response and nanostructure was studied, using a specifically designed sample-holder for in situ uniaxial compression obtaining at the same time the small-angle X-ray pattern from synchrotron radiation (SAXS. Structural elements can be described as a particulated silica core surrounded by the organic chains. These chains are compressed on the direction parallel to the load, and a relationship between macroscopic uniaxial compression and particle and pore deformations can be established.

    La compleja estructura de los aerogeles híbridos orgánico/inorgánicos está compuesta por una fase inorgánica de sílice, unida mediante enlaces covalentes a una red de cadenas orgánicas. Se han estudiado composites híbridos convencionales y bioactivos, esto es, con una fase activa de calcio añadida. En este trabajo se ha investigado la relación entre la respuesta mecánica y la nanoestructura, con ayuda de un portamuestras específicamente diseñado para el estudio in situ de muestras bajo compresión uniaxial, a la vez que se obtiene el espectro de rayos-X a bajo-ángulo de radiación sincrotrón (SAXS. Los elementos estructurales se pueden describir como núcleos particulados de sílice rodeados de las cadenas orgánicas. Estas, se comprimen en la dirección paralela a la carga pudiéndose establecer una relación entre la compresión uniaxial macroscópica y la deformación de las partículas y poros que forman la estructura.

  3. Comparative Embryological Studies on Infertility of Interspecific Hybridizations Between Oryza sativa with Different Ploidy Levels and O.officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xue-lin; LU Yong-gen; LIU Xiang-dong; LI Jin-quan; ZHAO Xing-juan

    2009-01-01

    As maternal parents, diploid (L202-2x) and autotetraploid (L202-4x) of Oryza sativa cv. L202 were crossed with O. officinalis. Embryo development and fertilization in these two crosses were comparatively studied. There were no mature hybrid seeds obtained because all the hybridized spikelets died 30 days after pollination. The main reasons for no seed set were abnormal fertilization and development of the embryos and endosperms in the interspecific hybrids. There were double- fertilization, egg cell single-fertilization and non-fertilization in these crosses. Although 59.45% and 54.87% of hybrid embryos produced in the crosses of L202-2x/O. officinalis and L202-4x/O. officinalis, respectively, hybrid embryos ceased to develop or degenerated and plenty of free endosperm nuclei were in disaggregating state without developing cellular endosperms three days after pollination. Besides, some embryological differences in these two crosses were found, that is, the rate of double-fertilization and total rate of double- and single-fertilization in L202-2x/O. officinalis were higher than those in L202-4x/O. officinalis. The embryo and endosperm of hybrids developed more slowly, and embryos and free endosperm nuclei were more severely degenerated in L202-4x/O. officinalis than in L202-2x/O. officinalis. Five days after pollination, a few of embryos in L202-2x/O. officinalis developed into pear-shaped ones, however, embryos in L202-4x/O. officinalis were all degenerated. Therefore, it is more difficult to obtain interspecific hybrids by wide crosses between autotetraploid of O. sativa and O. officinalis.

  4. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  5. Proximal deletion of chromosome 21 confirmed by in situ hybridization and molecular studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtens, W.; Peterson, M.B.; Noeel, J.C.; Flament-Durand, J.; Van Regemorter, N.; Delneste, D.; Cochaux, P.; Verschraegen-Spae, M.R.; Van Roy, N.; Speleman, F. [Brugmann Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Foetal blood sampling was performed at 35 weeks of gestation due to abnormal foetal ultrasound findings. There was apparent monosomy 21 (45,XX,-21) in all mitoses analyzed. The infant died at 37 weeks during delivery. Examination disclosed facial anomalies, clubfeet, hypoplasia of the left urogenital tract, agenesis of corpus callosum, ventricular dilatation, and heterotopias. Reevaluation of the karyotype showed an unbalanced translocation (1;21) (q44;q22.11) which resulted from a maternal balanced translocation. These findings were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular studies with chromosome 21 specific markers. The latter showed a proximal deletion of the maternally derived chromosome 21 including all loci from centrometer down to the D21S210 locus. This case illustrates the need for complementary cytogenetic and molecular investigations in cases of apparent monosomy 21. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Optimal Hybrid Renewable Airport Power System: Empirical Study on Incheon International Airport, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to global energy problems (e.g., the oil crisis, the Fukushima accident, the Paris Agreement, the South Korean government has executed a strict renewable energy plan to decrease the country’s dependence on fossil fuel. Public facilities, such as international airports, which use substantial amounts of electricity, are the most in need of government regulation. In this study, we attempt to determine the optimal hybrid electricity generation system for South Korea’s largest airport: Incheon International Airport. In the analysis, we use three scenarios: the current load, 120% of the current load, and 140% of the current load, according to the plan to expand Incheon International Airport. According to the COE (cost of electricity and the NPC (net present cost of the result, it is economically feasible to completely cover the potential increase in the electric load with PV power. Government policy implications and limitations are discussed.

  7. A hybrid density functional study on the electron and hole trap states in anatase titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takenori; Ohno, Takahisa

    2012-01-14

    We present a theoretical study on electron and hole trap states in the bulk and (001) surface of anatase titanium dioxide using screened hybrid density functional calculations. In both the bulk and surface, calculations suggest that the neutral and ionized oxygen vacancies are possible electron traps. The doubly ionized oxygen vacancy is the most stable in the bulk, and is a candidate for a shallow donor in colorless anatase crystals. The hole trap states are localized at oxygen anions in both the bulk and surface. The self-trapped electron centered at a titanium cation cannot be produced in the bulk, but can be formed at the surface. The electron trap level at the surface oxygen vacancy is consistent with observations by photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical absorptions and luminescence in UV-irradiated anatase nanoparticles are found to come from the surface self-trapped hole and the surface oxygen vacancy.

  8. Oxygen defects in amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: A hybrid functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhendong, E-mail: zhendong.guo@epfl.ch; Ambrosio, Francesco; Pasquarello, Alfredo [Chaire de Simulation à l' Echelle Atomique (CSEA), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-08-08

    The electronic properties of the oxygen vacancy and interstitial in amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are studied via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and hybrid functional calculations. Our results indicate that these defects do not occur in amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, due to structural rearrangements which assimilate the defect structure and cause a delocalization of the associated defect levels. The imbalance of oxygen leads to a nonstoichiometric compound in which the oxygen occurs in the form of O{sup 2–} ions. Intrinsic oxygen defects are found to be unable to trap excess electrons. For low Fermi energies, the formation of peroxy linkages is found to be favored leading to the capture of holes. The relative +2/0 defect levels occur at 2.5 eV from the valence band.

  9. Femtosecond spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer in MDMO-PPV:ZnO hybrid bulk heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchetto, E.; De Cola, L. [Institute of Physics, University of Muenster, Mendelstrasse 7, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Slooff, H. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Zhang, H. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129, 1018 WS Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    The photophysics of charge carriers (polaron) in MDMO-PPV:ZnO hybrid bulk heterojunction is studied at 80 K by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A short-lived positive polaron is observed in the blend phase in MDMO-PPV:ZnO blend films with a weight ratio of 1:1 and 1:2. Further increase of ZnO weight ratio results in a significant quenching of the polaron absorption. The results are discussed in the concept that both pristine polymer and MDMO-PPV:ZnO blend phases coexist in the blend films. It is concluded that a polaron is photogenerated within the excitation laser pulse (<100 fs) and electron transfer efficiency is highest in blend films 1:1 and 1:2. Lack of the interfacial area and faster back electron transfer process are discussed to be responsible for the quenching of the electron transfer efficiency in blend film 1:3.

  10. Studies on the Developmental Genetics of Tiller Number in Three-line Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Kang-jing; LIN Wen-xiong; WANG Xue-ren; CHEN Zhi-xiong; GUO Yu-chun; LIANG Yi-yuan; CHEN Fang-yu; LI Ya-juan

    2002-01-01

    Following NC Ⅱ design, the developmental genetic behavior of tiller number (TN) in three-line indica hybrid rice was studied using additive-dominance developmental genetic models and the corresponding statistical methods. The results showed that dominance effects were predominant for TN. The expression of those additive effects were affected by environment and genotype interaction, but the expression of dominance effects were not affected. Heterosis was the strongest in the middle developmental periods of TN. Additive effects and dominance effects were selectively expressed throughout in the entire tillering developmental stage.Analysis of genetic correlation between TN at different stages and the productive panicles indicated that a close correlation appeared earlier in the populations with higher heterosis than in those with less heterosis. Utilization of heterosis at the middle tillering stage might enhance the final biomass but reduce the percentage of productive panicles.

  11. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix B: trade-off studies. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-06-11

    Trade-off studies of Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) design elements were performed to identify the most promising design concept in terms of achievable petroleum savings. The activities in these studies are described. The results are presented as preliminary NTHV body design, expected fuel consumption as a function of vehicle speed, engine requirements, battery requirements, and vehicle reliability and cost. (LCL)

  12. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  13. Experimental study of hybrid-knife endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD versus standard ESD in a Western country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín de-la Peña

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is an effective but time-consuming treatment for early neoplasia that requires a high level of expertise. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and learning curve of gastric ESD with a hybrid knife with high-pressure water jet and to compare with standard ESD. Material and methods: We performed a prospective non-survival animal study comparing hybrid-knife and standard gastric ESD. Variables recorded were: Number of en-bloc ESD, number of ESD with all marks included (R0, size of specimens, time and speed of dissection and adverse events. Ten endoscopists performed a total of 50 gastric ESD (30 hybrid-knife and 20 standard. Results: Forty-six (92% ESD were en-bloc and 25 (50% R0 (hybrid-knife: n = 13, 44%; standard: n = 16, 80%; p = 0.04. Hybrid-knife ESD was faster than standard (time: 44.6 ± 21.4 minutes vs. 68.7 ± 33.5 minutes; p = 0.009 and velocity: 20.8 ± 9.2 mm²/min vs. 14.3 ± 9.3 mm²/min (p = 0.079. Adverse events were not different. There was no change in speed with any of two techniques (hybrid-knife: From 20.33 ± 15.68 to 28.18 ± 20.07 mm²/min; p = 0.615 and standard: From 6.4 ± 0.3 to 19.48 ± 19.21 mm²/min; p = 0.607. The learning curve showed a significant improvement in R0 rate in the hybrid-knife group (from 30% to 100%. Conclusion: despite the initial performance of hybrid-knife ESD is worse than standard ESD, the learning curve with hybrid-knife ESD is short and is associated with a rapid improvement. The introduction of new tools to facilitate ESD should be implemented with caution in order to avoid a negative impact on the results.

  14. Causal-Comparative Study Analyzing Student Success in Hybrid Anatomy and Physiology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline Anita

    2013-01-01

    In the biological sciences, higher student success levels are achieved in traditionally formatted, face-to-face coursework than in hybrid courses. The methodologies used to combine hybrid and in-person elements to the course need to be applied to the biological sciences to emulate the success seen in the traditional courses since the number of…

  15. Cross section measurements of the yield of spallation reactions related to the study of hybrid reactor systems; Measures de sections efficaces de production de produits de reactions en rapport avec l`etude de systemes de reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Stephan, C. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    1999-11-01

    Studies presently developed on the design of hybrid systems need the knowledge of spallation products and their production rate. To obtain this information we have performed cross-section measurements using the inverse kinematical method. (authors) 2 figs.

  16. Development and application of dynamic hybrid multi-region inventory analysis for macro-level environmental policy analysis: a case study on climate policy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Wei; Heijungs, Reinout; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-03-19

    We develop a novel inventory method called Dynamic Hybrid Multi-Region Inventory analysis (DHMRI), which integrates the EEMRIOA and Integrated Hybrid LCA and applies time-dependent environmental intervention information for inventory analysis. Consequently, DHMRI is able to quantify the change in the environmental footprint caused by a specific policy while taking structural changes and technological dynamics into consideration. DHMRI is applied to assess the change in the total CO2 emissions associated with the total final demand caused by the climate policy in Taiwan to demonstrate the practicality of this novel method. The evaluation reveals that the implementation of mitigation measures included in the existing climate policy, such as an enhancement in energy efficiency, promotion of renewable energy, and limitation of the growth of energy-intensive industries, will lead to a 28% increase in the total CO2 emissions and that the main driver is the export-oriented electronics industry. Moreover, a major increase in the total emissions is predicted to occur in Southeast Asia and China. The observations from the case study reveal that DHMRI is capable of overcoming the limitations of existing assessment tools at macro-level evaluation of environmental policies.

  17. Triazole tethered C5-curcuminoid-coumarin based molecular hybrids as novel antitubulin agents: Design, synthesis, biological investigation and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbinder; Kumar, Mandeep; Nepali, Kunal; Gupta, Manish K; Saxena, Ajit K; Sharma, Sahil; Bedi, Preet Mohinder S

    2016-06-30

    Keeping in view the confines allied with presently accessible antitumor agents and success of C5-curcuminoid based bifunctional hybrids as novel antitubulin agnets, molecular hybrids of C5-curcuminoid and coumarin tethered by triazole ring have been synthesized and investigated for in-vitro cytotoxicity against THP-1, COLO-205, HCT-116 and PC-3 human tumor cell lines. The results revealed that the compounds A-2 to A-9, B-2, B-3, B-7 showed significant cytotoxic potential against THP-1, COLO-205 and HCT-116 cell lines, while the PC-3 cell line among these was found to be almost resistant. Structure activity relationship revealed that the nature of Ring X and the length of carbon-bridge (n) connecting triazole ring with coumarin moiety considerably influence the activity. Methoxy substituted phenyl ring as Ring X and two carbon-bridges were found to be the ideal structural features. The most potent compounds (A-2, A-3 and A-7) were further tested for tubulin polymerization inhibition. Compound A-2 was found to significantly inhibit the tubulin polymerization (IC50 = 0.82 μM in THP-1 tumor cells). The significant cytotoxicity and tubulin polymerization inhibition by A-2 was further rationalized by docking studies where it was docked at the curcumin binding site of tubulin.

  18. Ultrasoft 1.5 keV aluminum K X rays are efficient producers of complex chromosome exchange aberrations as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C S; Stevens, D L; Savage, J R

    1996-08-01

    The electron pairs generated by ultrasoft 1.5 keV aluminum K X-ray photons deposit their energy in tracks of length < 70 nm and provide an ideal tool for analyzing the spatial distribution of breaks and misrepair processes. We have undertaken the analysis of changes in chromosome structure produced by aluminum K X rays in untransformed HF12 human fibroblasts in G1 phase using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Multicolored chromosome-specific DNA probes for chromosomes 1 and 2 and an alpha-satellite pan-centromeric probe were used to examine in vitro radiation-induced chromosome-type exchange aberrations. After mean doses of 0.37-2.93 Gy the relative frequencies of complex exchanges, derived from three or more breaks in two or more chromosomes, ranged from 15-35%. For the classic break-age-and-rejoining theory to hold, very large interaction distances are needed to account for this high frequency of multibreak interactions, unless many sites pre-exist where several different chromosomes come very close together. Alternatively, damaged DNA may be able to interact with adjacent undamaged DNA, obviating the need for large rejoining distances.

  19. Hybrids monosomal for human chromosome 5 reveal the presence of a spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) carrier with two SMN1 copies on one chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailman, M D; Hemingway, T; Darsey, R L; Glasure, C E; Huang, Y; Chadwick, R B; Heinz, J W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Schafer, R W; Abuelo, D N; Reich, E W; Theil, K S; Burghes, A H; de la Chapelle, A; Prior, T W

    2001-02-01

    We have analyzed the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1) dosage in 100 parents of children with homozygous SMN1 deletions. Of these parents, 96 (96%) demonstrated the expected one-copy SMN1 carrier genotype. However, four parents (4%) were observed to have a normal two-copy SMN1 dosage. The presence of two intact SMN1 genes in the parent of an affected child indicates either the occurrence of a de novo mutation event or a situation in which one chromosome has two copies of SMN1, whereas the other is null. We have separated individual chromosomes from two of these parents with two-copy SMN1 dosage by somatic cell hybridization and have employed a modified quantitative dosage assay to provide direct evidence that one parent is a two-copy/ zero-copy SMN1 carrier, whereas the other parent had an affected child as the result of a de novo mutation. These findings are important for assessing the recurrence risk of parents of children with spinal muscular atrophy and for providing accurate family counseling.

  20. Novel transparent zirconium-based hybrid material with multilayered nanostructures: studies of surface dewettability toward alkane liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheder, Benjamin; Urata, Chihiro; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully prepared unique inorganic-organic hybrid materials that demonstrate excellent transparency and dewettability toward various alkane liquids (n-hexadecane, n-dodecane and n-decane) without relying on conventional surface roughening and perfluorination. Such coatings were made using a novel family of hybrid materials generated by substituting carboxylic acids, with a range of alkyl chain lengths (CH(3)(CH(2))(x-2)COOH where x = total carbon number, i.e., 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 22, or 24, into zirconium (Zr) tetra-propoxide complexes. This precursor was then mixed with acetic acid and spincast to produce transparent thin Zr-carboxylic acid (ZrCA(x)) hybrid films using a nonhydrolytic sol-gel process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided proof of Zr-O-Zr network formation in the films upon casting and also followed changes to the physical nature (liquid-like or solid-like) of the alkyl chain assemblies depending upon alkyl chain length. X-ray diffractometry revealed that the hybrid films prepared using the longer chain carboxylic acids (ZrCA(x≥18)) spontaneously self-assembled into lamella structures with d-spacings ranging from 29.5 to 32.7 Angstroms, depending on the length of the alkyl chain. On the other hand the remaining films (ZrCA(xoleophobicity among the seven hybrid films. In particular, small volume alkane droplets (5 μL) could be easily set in motion to move across and off ZrCA(14) film surfaces without pinning at low tilt angles (~6°).

  1. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  2. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  3. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  4. Comparative Transcriptomic Study of Muscle Provides New Insights into the Growth Superiority of a Novel Grouper Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Yu; Hu, Guojun; Zhang, Xinhui; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Guo, Chuanyu; Tang, Zhujing; Li, Xiaofeng; You, Xinxin; Lin, Haoran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Grouper (Epinephelus spp.) is a group of fish species with great economic importance in Asian countries. A novel hybrid grouper, generated by us and called the Hulong grouper (Hyb), has better growth performance than its parents, E. fuscoguttatus (Efu, ♀) and E. lanceolatus (Ela, ♂). We previously reported that the GH/IGF (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor) system in the brain and liver contributed to the superior growth of the Hyb. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we analyzed RNA expression levels of comprehensive genes in the muscle of the hybrid and its parents. Our data showed that genes involved in glycolysis and calcium signaling in addition to troponins are up-regulated in the Hyb. The results suggested that the activity of the upstream GH/IGF system in the brain and liver, along with the up-regulated glycolytic genes as well as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and troponins related to the calcium signaling pathway in muscle, led to enhanced growth in the hybrid grouper. Muscle contraction inducing growth could be the major contributor to the growth superiority in our novel hybrid grouper, which may be a common mechanism for hybrid superiority in fishes.

  5. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  6. Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Wopereis, I. G. J. H., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences: Vol. 2 (pp. 419-420). Chic

  7. Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Wopereis, I. G. J. H., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences: Vol. 2 (pp. 419-420). Chic

  8. Processing and study of the wear and friction behaviour of discrete graded Cu hybrid composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Ram Prabhu

    2015-06-01

    Discrete functionally graded composites are the novel composites which have high potential in the brake friction material applications. In this paper, we have prepared discrete functional graded Cu/10%SiC/20%graphite(Gr)/10%boron nitride (h-BN) hybrid composites by the layer stacking compaction and pressure sintering techniques.We have considered two types of composites based on h-BN particle sizes. The size ranges of h-BN used were 140–180 and 3–25 m. The friction and wear properties of the composites were evaluated in a laboratory scale brake inertial dynamometer at low (5, 10 m s−1) and high sliding speeds (30, 35 m s−1) and, high braking load (2000 N) conditions. In addition, we have performed microstructure characterization, density, hardness and flexural strength measurements.Wear surface morphology studies were also carried out using stereoscope and scanning electron microscope. Our experiments lead to the following important results: (1) the large size h-BN particle improves the densification of the hybridized composite layer and provides higher wear resistance and better braking performance at all sliding speeds, (2) the wear loss (by mass) and the stopping distance/time increase with sliding speeds due to the increase in the braking energy, (3) at low sliding speeds (5, 10 m s−1), abrasive wear is the main wear mechanism, whereas many different wear mechanisms (delamination, oxidation, abrasive) are cooccuring at higher sliding speeds (30, 35 m s−1), (4) the mechanical properties (flexural strength and surface hardness) of composites are not affected by the h-BN particle size, (5) the incorporation of copper layer in the discrete layer structure deflects and arrests the crack at the copper/composite layer interface, thus improving the fracture resistance in addition to improving the bulk thermal conductivity.

  9. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  10. Hybrid poplar and forest soil response to municipal and industrial by-products: a greenhouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Gilmore, Daniel W; Mozaffari, Morteza; Rosen, Carl J; Halbach, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been conducted in the Lake States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan) to evaluate the effects of municipal and industrial by-product applications on the early growth of short rotation woody crops such as hybrid poplar. Anticipated shortages of harvestable-age aspen in the next decade can be alleviated and rural development can be enhanced through the application of by-products to forest soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of inorganic fertilizer, boiler ash, biosolids, and the co-application of ash and biosolids application on tree growth and soil properties by measuring hybrid poplar clone NM-6 (Populus nigra L. x P. maximowiczii A. Henry) yield, nutrient uptake, and select post-harvest soil properties after 15 wk of greenhouse growth. Treatments included a control of no amendment; agricultural lime; inorganic N, P, and K; three types of boiler ash; biosolids application rates equivalent to 70, 140, 210, and 280 kg available N ha(-1); and boiler ash co-applied with biosolids. All of the by-products treatments showed biomass production that was equal to or greater than inorganic fertilizer and lime treatments. A trend of increased biomass with increasing rates of biosolids was observed. Soil P concentration increased with increasing rates of biosolids application. None of the by-products treatments resulted in plant tissue metal concentrations greater than metal concentrations of plant tissue amended with inorganic amendments. Biosolids, boiler ash, and the co-application of biosolids and boiler ash together on forest soils were as beneficial to plant growth as inorganic fertilizers.

  11. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  12. Performance study of sugar-yeast-ethanol bio-hybrid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Mackie, David M.; Benyamin, Marcus; Ganguli, Rahul; Sumner, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Renewable alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons for energy generation are of general interest for a variety of political, economic, environmental, and practical reasons. In particular, energy from biomass has many advantages, including safety, sustainability, and the ability to be scavenged from native ecosystems or from waste streams. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can take advantage of microorganism metabolism to efficiently use sugar and other biomolecules as fuel, but are limited by low power densities. In contrast, direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) take advantage of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) to generate electricity from alcohols at much higher power densities. Here, we investigate a novel bio-hybrid fuel cell design prepared using commercial off-the-shelf DAFCs. In the bio-hybrid fuel cells, biomass such as sugar is fermented by yeast to ethanol, which can be used to fuel a DAFC. A separation membrane between the fermentation and the DAFC is used to purify the fermentate while avoiding any parasitic power losses. However, shifting the DAFCs from pure alcohol-water solutions to filtered fermented media introduces complications related to how the starting materials, fermentation byproducts, and DAFC waste products affect both the fermentation and the long-term DAFC performance. This study examines the impact of separation membrane pore size, fermentation/fuel cell byproducts, alcohol and salt concentrations, and load resistance on fuel cell performance. Under optimized conditions, the performance obtained is comparable to that of a similar DAFC run with a pure alcohol-water mixture. Additionally, the modified DAFC can provide useable amounts of power for weeks.

  13. The prospects for hybrid electric vehicles, 2005-2020 : results of a Delphi Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H. K.; Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-22

    The introduction of Toyota's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Prius, in Japan has generated considerable interest in HEV technology among US automotive experts. In a follow-up survey to Argonne National Laboratory's two-stage Delphi Study on electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) during 1994-1996, Argonne researchers gathered the latest opinions of automotive experts on the future ''top-selling'' HEV attributes and costs. The experts predicted that HEVs would have a spark-ignition gasoline engine as a power plant in 2005 and a fuel cell power plant by 2020. The projected 2020 fuel shares were about equal for gasoline and hydrogen, with methanol a distant third. In 2020, HEVs are predicted to have series-drive, moderate battery-alone range and cost significantly more than conventional vehicles (CVs). The HEV is projected to cost 66% more than a $20,000 CV initially and 33% more by 2020. Survey respondents view batteries as the component that contributes the most to the HEV cost increment. The mean projection for battery-alone range is 49 km in 2005, 70 km in 2010, and 92 km in 2020. Responding to a question relating to their personal vision of the most desirable HEV and its likely characteristics when introduced in the US market in the next decade, the experts predicted their ''vision'' HEV to have attributes very similar to those of the ''top-selling'' HEV. However, the ''vision'' HEV would cost significantly less. The experts projected attributes of three leading batteries for HEVs and projected acceleration times on battery power alone. The resulting battery packs are evaluated, and their initial and replacement costs are analyzed. These and several other opinions are summarized.

  14. A Comparative Study of Pollutant Removal Stability in Hybrid Wetland Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanveer Ferdous Saeed; Guang zhi Sun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two alternative substrates (wood mulch and zeolite) on the performance of three laboratory-scale hybrid wetland systems that had identical system components and configurations.Each system consisted of a vertical flow (VF) wetland column,followed by a horizontal flow (HF) column and a vertical flow column.The substrates employed were wood mulch,gravel and zeolite,and Phragmites australis were planted in each column.The systems received synthetic wastewater,with pollutant loadings in the range of 8.5-38.0g/(m2· d) total nitrogen (TN) and 4.0-46.4 g/(m2· d) biological oxygen demand (BOD5).Wood mulch and zeolite substrates showed higher efficiencies in terms of removing nitrogenous compounds and biodegradable organics.The supply of organic carbon from the organic mulch substrates enhanced denitrification,while adsorption of influent ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4—N) in zeolite played a major role in the removal of nitrogenous species in the wetland columns.Overall,the average percentage removals of TN and BOD5 reached>66% and >96% respectively,indicating stable performances by the hybrid wetland systems under the experimental loading ranges.Mathematical models were developed,based on the combination of Monod kinetics and continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) flow patterns to describe the degradation of nitrogenous compounds.Predictions by the models closely matched the experimental data,indicating the validity and potential application of Monod kinetics in the modelling and design of treatment wetlands.

  15. A Detailed Experimental Study on Single-Pump Raman/EDFA Hybrid Amplifiers: Static, Dynamic, and System Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Han; Chang, You Min; Han, Young Geun; Chung, Haeyang; Hyuck Kim, Sang; Lee, Sang Bae

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the performance comparison of three different schemes of single-pump dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF)-based Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) hybrid amplifiers together with a DCF-based Raman-only amplifier in terms of static properties, dynamic properties, and system impact: Raman-only amplifier (Type I), Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifiers recycling residual Raman pump in a cascaded EDF located either after (Type II) or prior to (Type III) a DCF, and a Raman-assisted EDFA (Type IV), the concept of which was proposed by Kurosawa With respect to the overall gain and system impact based on bit error rate (BER) measurements in a transmission system, the hybrid amplifier of Type II was found to have the best performance among the four types while the Raman-only amplifier shows the best tolerance to transient response.

  16. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk

  17. A hybrid analytical network process and fuzzy goal programming for supplier selection: A case study of auto part maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Zande Hesami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present a hybrid model to select auto part suppliers. The proposed method of this paper uses factor analysis to find the most influencing factors on part maker selection and the results are validated using different statistical tests such as Cronbach's Alpha and Kaiser-Meyer.The hybrid model uses analytical network process to rank different part maker suppliers and fuzzy goal programming to choose the appropriate alternative among various choices. The implementation of the proposed model of this paper is used for a case study of real-world problem and the results are discussed.

  18. STUDY ON THE VOLUMETRIC RATIO OF THE HYBRID GM REGENERATOR OVER THE COLD CHAMBER WORKING AT 4K.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,L.

    1999-07-12

    This paper presents a computational analysis on the hybrid GM regenerator at liquid helium region. The effects of the ratio of the regenerator volume over the cold chamber volume on cooling performance were simulated numerically. The results show that there exits a minimum ratio of the regenerator volume over the cold chamber volume for a G-M cryocooler at 4K. The cooling capacity of the refrigerator drops sharply with smaller regenerator, and rises slowly with larger regenerator. The effects of the material combinations of the hybrid regenerator on the volumetric ratio were also studied. The design principle of the geometry size of the regenerator working at 4K was discussed.

  19. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  20. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations in intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Natalia; Xu, Fang; Wu, Weiqing; Carr, Ryan J; Li, Peining; Hui, Pei

    2014-09-01

    Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a distinct smooth muscle neoplasm with a potential of clinical aggressiveness due to its ability to extend into intrauterine and extrauterine vasculature. In this study, chromosomal alterations analyzed by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization were performed in 9 cases of IVL. The analysis was informative in all cases with multiple copy number losses and/or gains observed in each tumor. The most frequent recurrent loss of 22q12.3-q13.1 was observed in 6 tumors (66.7%), followed by losses of 22q11.23-q13.31, 1p36.13-p33, 2p25.3-p23.3, and 2q24.2-q32.2 and gains of 6p22.2, 2q37.3 and 10q22.2-q22.3, in decreasing order of frequency. Copy number variants were identified at 14q11.2, 15q11.1-q11.2, and 15q26.2. Genes mapping to the regions of loss include CHEK2, EWS, NF2, PDGFB, and MAP3K7IP1 on chromosome 22q, HEI10 on chromosome 14q, and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B, E2F2, ARID1A KPNA6, EIF3S2 , PTCH2, and PIK3R3 on chromosome 1p. Regional losses on chromosomes 22q and 1p and gains on chromosomes 12q showed overlaps with those previously observed in uterine leiomyosarcomas. In addition, presence of multiple chromosomal aberrations implies a higher level of genetic instability. Follow-up polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing analysis of MED12 gene revealed absence of G> A transition at nucleotides c.130 or c.131 in all 9 cases, a frequent mutation found in uterine leiomyoma and its variants. In conclusion, this is the first report of high-resolution, genome-wide investigation of IVL by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. The presence of high frequencies of recurrent regional loss involving several chromosomes is an important finding and likely related to the pathogenesis of the disease.

  1. Fully Automated Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) Staining and Digital Analysis of HER2 in Breast Cancer : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Logt, Elise M. J.; Kuperus, Deborah A. J.; van Setten, Jan W.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Boers, James. E.; Schuuring, Ed; Kibbelaar, Robby E.

    2015-01-01

    HER2 assessment is routinely used to select patients with invasive breast cancer that might benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to validate a fully automated in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure that combines the automated Leica HER2 fluorescent ISH system for Bond with su

  2. FEASIBILITY STUDY AND OPTIMIZATION OF AN HYBRID SYSTEM (EOLIAN- PHOTOVOLTAIC - DIESEL WITH PROVISION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY COMPLETELY INDEPENDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Saheb-Koussa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available      In engineering, simulation is an effective and economical, commonly used to make preliminary or comparative studies, both during development (design and normal operation of systems. Currently, several simulation tools, using HOMER, are used in academia. Thus, in this work, we present the principle of feasibility study and optimization of a stand alone hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel. Furthermore, we determined the price per kWh of electricity supplied by the stand alone hybrid system, which amounts to $ 1417 / kWh. The site considered in this study represents the Adrar site located in the south west Algeria. Thus, we have inferred from this work as part of a configuration of the stand alone hybrid system obviously depends on available energy resources and constraints. On the other hand we have highlighted the role of the renewable energy uses in reducing emissions of greenhouse gas (CO2 rate = 16086 kg / year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the stand alone hybrid system studied.

  3. Comparative study of PP0275C hybrid photodetector and XP2020Q photomultiplier in scintillation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszynski, Marek [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Klamra, Wlodzimierz [Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Wolski, Dariusz [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Czarnacki, Wieslaw [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Kapusta, Maciej [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Balcerzyk, Marcin [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2006-05-15

    The properties of a hybrid photodetector (HPD), type PP0275C, produced by Delft Electronic Products B.V., for scintillation detection and spectrometry were studied and compared to a standard XP2020Q photomultiplier. The study was performed for several scintillators, such as NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl) and LSO(Ce) of different dimensions. The excellent capability of the HPD to resolve single photoelectron events was fully confirmed. However, the study of the HPD with the scintillators showed a dramatically reduced number of photoelectrons and a further deterioration of energy resolution, depending on the size (diameter or length) of the crystals. For a 10 mm diameter NaI(Tl) a number of 5000{+-}250 photoelectrons/MeV was measured, which corresponds to about 56% of that observed with the XP2020Q with comparable quantum efficiency. An energy resolution of 9.2% for 662 keV {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source as measured with the HPD light readout indicated on a serious degradation, larger than that arising from the statistics of photoelectrons. In conclusion, the study showed that this HPD is optimized for single photon detection but its application to scintillation detection is very limited.

  4. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in the study of human skin melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Thierry; Coelho, Sergio G; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Hearing, Vincent J

    2007-03-01

    Although keratinocytes are the most numerous type of cell in the skin, melanocytes are also key players as they produce and distribute melanin that protects the skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In vitro experiments on melanocytic cell lines are useful to study melanogenesis and their progression towards melanoma. However, interactions of melanocytes with keratinocytes and with other types of cells in the skin, such as fibroblasts and Langerhans cells, are also crucial. We describe two techniques, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue in situ hybridization (TISH), that can be used to identify and study melanocytes in the skin and their responses to UV or other stimuli in situ. We describe a practical method to localize melanocytic antigens on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections and in frozen sections using indirect immunofluorescence with conjugated secondary antibodies. In addition, we detail the use of TISH and its combination with IHC to study mRNA levels of genes expressed in the skin at cellular resolution. This methodology, along with relevant tips and troubleshooting items, are important tools to identify and study melanocytes in the skin.

  5. Breeding Strategy of Acacia Hybrid (Acacia mangium × A. auriculiformis to Increase Forest Plantation Productivity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium× A.auriculiformis shows better growth and wood properties, and tolerance to pest and disease. Currently, acacia hybrid breeding strategy was developed through naturally hybrid selected from trees grown in plantation. However, mass propagation of acacia hybrid using such kind of strategy was not satisfied due to ageing effect. This study was aimed to develop a new acacia hybrid breeding strategy using controlled pollination hybridization technique. The strategy was developed through a series of research: flowering, crossing, hybrid identification, clone multiplication, and clonal test. The results of study showed that the series of research for developing acacia hybrid breeding strategy was achieved. Flowering time synchronization provided a high probability for the success of controlled pollination hybridization. Leaves taxonomy at seedling stage revealed to be an efective way to identify acacia hybrid with acuracy of 92.2%. The acacia hybrid was succesfully propagated using shoot cutting at rate of 78.1%. The best selected clones of acacia hybrid outperformed in height growth at rates of 17.28% over to superior pure parents, which is equivalent to the estimated stand productivity at around 48 m3 ha-1 y-1. The series of research provided a new effective and efficient breeding strategy for acacia hybrid.Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis,  Acacia mangium, acacia hybrid, controlled pollination, breeding strategyDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.128

  6. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall. Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrence between regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids are found only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberian stone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in the undergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found to be approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took an intermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure of needles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids. Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructive effect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like the Siberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming from latent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have no internal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and their natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. In the most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf

  7. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall. Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrence between regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids are found only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberian stone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in the undergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found to be approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took an intermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure of needles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids. Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructive effect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like the Siberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming from latent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have no internal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and their natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. In the most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf

  8. Comparative molecular modeling study of Arabidopsis NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and its hybrid protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuno Lee

    Full Text Available 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs play important roles in the protection of chloroplast proteins from oxidative damage. Arabidopsis NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase isotype C (AtNTRC was identified as efficient electron donor for chloroplastic 2-Cys Prx-A. There are three isotypes (A, B, and C of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR in Arabidopsis. AtNTRA contains only TrxR domain, but AtNTRC consists of N-terminal TrxR and C-terminal thioredoxin (Trx domains. AtNTRC has various oligomer structures, and Trx domain is important for chaperone activity. Our previous experimental study has reported that the hybrid protein (AtNTRA-(Trx-D, which was a fusion of AtNTRA and Trx domain from AtNTRC, has formed variety of structures and shown strong chaperone activity. But, electron transfer mechanism was not detected at all. To find out the reason of this problem with structural basis, we performed two different molecular dynamics (MD simulations on AtNTRC and AtNTRA-(Trx-D proteins with same cofactors such as NADPH and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD for 50 ns. Structural difference has found from superimposition of two structures that were taken relatively close to average structure. The main reason that AtNTRA-(Trx-D cannot transfer the electron from TrxR domain to Trx domain is due to the difference of key catalytic residues in active site. The long distance between TrxR C153 and disulfide bond of Trx C387-C390 has been observed in AtNTRA-(Trx-D because of following reasons: i unstable and unfavorable interaction of the linker region, ii shifted Trx domain, and iii different or weak interface interaction of Trx domains. This study is one of the good examples for understanding the relationship between structure formation and reaction activity in hybrid protein. In addition, this study would be helpful for further study on the mechanism of electron transfer reaction in NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase proteins.

  9. Subunit orientation in the Escherichia coli enterobactin biosynthetic EntA-EntE complex revealed by a two-hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarian, Paknoosh; Pawelek, Peter D

    2016-08-01

    The siderophore enterobactin is synthesized by the enzymes EntA-F and EntH in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We previously reported in vitro evidence of an interaction between tetrameric EntA and monomeric EntE. Here we used bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid (BACTH) assays to demonstrate that the E. coli EntA-EntE interaction occurs intracellularly. Furthermore, to obtain information on subunit orientation in the EntA-EntE complex, we fused BACTH reporter fragments T18 and T25 to EntA and EntE in both N-terminal and C-terminal orientations. To validate functionality of our fusion proteins, we performed Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assays using E. coli entE(-) and entA(-) knockout strains transformed with our BACTH constructs. We found that transformants expressing N-terminal and C-terminal T18/T25 fusions to EntE exhibited CAS signals, indicating that these constructs could rescue the entE(-) phenotype. While expression of EntA with N-terminal T18/T25 fusions exhibited CAS signals, C-terminal fusions did not, presumably due to disruption of the EntA tetramer in vivo. Bacterial growth assays supported our CAS findings. Co-transformation of functional T18/T25 fusions into cya(-)E. coli BTH101 cells resulted in positive BACTH signals only when T18/T25 fragments were fused to the N-termini of both EntA and EntE. Co-expression of N-terminally fused EntA with C-terminally fused EntE resulted in no detectable BACTH signal. Analysis of protein expression by Western blotting confirmed that the loss of BACTH signal was not due to impaired expression of fusion proteins. Based on our results, we propose that the N-termini of EntA and EntE are proximal in the intracellular complex, while the EntA N-terminus and EntE C-terminus are distal. A protein-protein docking simulation using SwarmDock was in agreement with our experimental observations.

  10. Extreme Environments Facilitate Hybrid Superiority – The Story of a Successful Daphnia galeata × longispina Hybrid Clone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Johanna; Gießler, Sabine; Poxleitner, Monika; Navas Faria, Amanda; Yin, Mingbo; Wolinska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization within the animal kingdom has long been underestimated. Hybrids have often been considered less fit than their parental species. In the present study, we observed that the Daphnia community of a small lake was dominated by a single D. galeata × D. longispina hybrid clone, during two consecutive years. Notably, in artificial community set-ups consisting of several clones representing parental species and other hybrids, this hybrid clone took over within about ten generations. Neither the fitness assay conducted under different temperatures, or under crowded and non-crowded environments, nor the carrying capacity test revealed any outstanding life history parameters of this hybrid clone. However, under simulated winter conditions (i.e. low temperature, food and light), the hybrid clone eventually showed a higher survival probability and higher fecundity compared to parental species. Hybrid superiority in cold-adapted traits leading to an advantage of overwintering as parthenogenetic lineages might consequently explain the establishment of successful hybrids in natural communities of the D. longispina complex. In extreme cases, like the one reported here, a superior hybrid genotype might be the only clone alive after cold winters. Overall, superiority traits, such as enhanced overwintering here, might explain hybrid dominance in nature, especially in extreme and rapidly changing environments. Although any favoured gene complex in cyclic parthenogens could be frozen in successful clones independent of hybridization, we did not find similarly successful clones among parental species. We conclude that the emergence of the observed trait is linked to the production of novel recombined hybrid genotypes. PMID:26448651

  11. Energy system feasibility study of an Otto cycle/Stirling cycle hybrid automotive engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilising a Stirling cycle engine as an exhaust gas waste heat recovery device for an Otto cycle internal combustion engine (ICE) in the context of an automotive power plant. The hybrid arrangement would produce increased brake power output for a given fuel consumption rate when compared to an ICE alone. The study was dealt with from an energy system perspective with design practicalities such as power train integration, location of auxiliaries, manufacture costs and other general plant design considerations neglected. The study necessitated work in two distinct areas: experimental assessment of the performance characteristics of an existing automotive Otto cycle ICE and mathematical modelling of the Stirling cycle engine based on the output parameters of the ICE. It was subsequently found to be feasible in principle to generate approximately further 30% useful power in addition to that created by the ICE by using a Stirling cycle engine to capture waste heat expelled from the ICE exhaust gases over the complete range of engine operating speeds. (author)

  12. Quantitative study of the spin Hall magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althammer, M.; Meyer, S.; Nakayama, H.; Schreier, M.; Altmannshofer, S.; Weiler, M.; Huebl, H.; Gesprägs, S.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Meier, D.; Klewe, C.; Kuschel, T.; Schmalhorst, J.M.; Reiss, G.; Shen, L.; Gupta, A.; Chen, Y.T.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Saitoh, E.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally investigate and quantitatively analyze the spin Hall magnetoresistance effect in ferromagnetic insulator/platinum and ferromagnetic insulator/nonferromagnetic metal/platinum hybrid structures. For the ferromagnetic insulator, we use either yttrium iron garnet, nickel ferrite, or ma

  13. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

    Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of flows describing swing dynamics with switching rules that are based on protection operation. This paper refers to data on a cascading outage in the September 2003 blackout in Italy and shows a hybrid dynamical system by which propagation of outages reproduced is consistent with the data. This result suggests that hybrid dynamical systems can provide an effective model for the analysis of cascading outages in power systems.

  14. Hybrid reactor safety study. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    A preliminary generic safety evaluation of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor concept has been performed and a hybrid reactor safety program plan for guiding future safety work has been proposed. The emphasis of the work was limited to accident analysis where the main concern is for the health and safety of the public. Major radioactive sources in the hybrid were identified and their inventories compared to those of fission reactors. The means for accidental release of radioactivity to the public were identified, as were the barriers which preclude such accidental releases. Consequence analyses of hypothetical bounding accidents potentially defining the upper bound envelope of risk/consequence to the population and environment surrounding the hybrid site were performed.

  15. Experimental Study on the Mechanical, Creep, and Viscoelastic Behavior of TiO2/Glass/Epoxy Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, H. R.; Salehi, M.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of hybrid glass/epoxy nanocomposites whose matrix was doped with 0.25, 0.5, and 1 vol.% of TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated in tension and bending. The nanoparticles were found to increase the strength of the composites by 20-30% and their stiffness by 10-20%. In addition, their creep resistance also grew. A SEM analysis of microstructure of the composites revealed that these improvements were caused by an increased adhesion between fibers and the matrix and enhanced properties of the matrix itself.

  16. A six-year prospective randomized study of a nano-hybrid and a conventional hybrid resin composite in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 6 year prospective randomized equivalence trial was to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a new nano-hybrid resin composite (RC) in Class II restorations in an intraindividual comparison with its well-established conventional hybrid RC predecessor....

  17. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs

  18. Contribution to the study of hybrid ventilation system effectiveness in office and educational buildings; Contribution a l'etude de l'efficacite des systemes de ventilation hybride dans les batiments du secteur tertiaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cron, F.

    2004-06-15

    This study is part of the International Energy Agency Annex 35, 'Hybrid Ventilation in New and Retro-fitted Office Buildings', also called the HybVent Project. It presents the numerical analyses of a number of hybrid ventilation systems and their potential for several buildings in relation to local climate characteristics. The first part of this work reviews the state-of-the-art of existing ventilation systems and details the principles, expectations and features of hybrid ventilation systems. This first section also examines some examples of hybrid systems extracted from the collection of Annex 35 case studies. A comprehensive bibliography of numerical tools available for this type of analysis is given in the second section. The numerical models for building simulation and the object-oriented environment used to develop our simulation tool are presented in this section as well. Two single-zone studies undertaken in this project are reported in the third section. The first study concerns an experimental cell simulation. Numerical results are compared to experimental data to validate the use of the simulation tool developed. The second single-zone study predicts the potential of a specific hybrid ventilation system in a typical classroom, given climatic conditions. Finally, the last section presents a more complete study - a multi-zone study of the Tonga school, an Annex 35 case study located in Sweden. Three rooms were modelled initially to compare numerical results to experimental data and then to analyse the performance of the existing hybrid ventilation system and two other systems. This final study was completed for three European cities with very different climates. The overall analysis of the potential of the hybrid ventilation systems considered and the perspective for future work are outlined in the conclusion. (author)

  19. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  20. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  1. Columbia River Estuary Hybrid Model Studies. Report 1. Verification of Hybrid Modeling of the Columbia River Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    King, J.M., and Carlson, P.R. 1966. " Seismic Reflection Studies of Buried Channels off the Columbia River," Ore Bin, Vol. 28, Aug. 12. Boone, C.G...Adjacent Ocean Waters, University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA. 64. Foster, R.F. 1972. The History of Hanford and Its Contribution of Radionuclides...Corvallis, OR. 81. Hanson, P.J., and Forster, W.O. 1969. "Measurement of Columbia River Flow Time from Hanford Reactors to Astoria, Oregon - Summer

  2. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of fl...

  3. Porosity Study of Hybrid Silica Mesostructure in Aluminium Oxide Membrane Columnar by Cyclic Voltammetry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Jalil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica mesostructure has been grown within with a porous aluminium oxide membrane columnar material (hybrid-AOM. This was prepared using a sol-gel technique with Pluronic P123 triblock copolymer as the structure-directing agent and tetraethyl orthosilicate as the inorganic source. The porosity of the hybrid-AOM after ethanol extraction was calculated from the cyclic voltammetry response of a neutral probe (FcMeOH, using Randles-Sevčik equation.

  4. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac, E-mail: jaehacko@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  5. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-01

    Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic-anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75d and 60d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4L/kgvs and 113.2L/kgvs. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  6. A phenomenological study of hybrid stars in which the crossover transition from quark to hadron makes the EOS stiffer in contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Li, Cheng-Ming; Zhao, Ya-Peng; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xin-Lian; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we make a phenomenological study of the mass-radii relationship of hybrid stars from the point of view of the smooth crossover phase transition. We find a way to construct stiff hybrid equations of state (EOSs) with soft EOSs of both the quark matter and the hadronic matter. For the hadron phase, we adopt the EOS softened by introducing hyperons that are considered to exist in the core of a neutron star. For the quark phase, we introduce a quark EOS based on the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) that is calculated in our previous work, and it is also a soft EOS. In contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition, we find that the resulting EOS is stiff and the maximum mass of the hybrid stars is still about two times of solar mass. This result indicates the rich possibilities of the crossover model.

  7. Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - the case study of the hybrid system - microgrid in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, G.; Mohamed, E.S.; Kyriakarakos, G. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kassem, A.W.S. [Alexandria Univ., El Chatbi (Egypt). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid renewable energy systems is one of the most promising application of renewable energy technologies in remote areas, where the cost of grid extension is prohibitive and the price of fossil fuels increase drastically with the remoteness of the location. Applications of hybrid systems range from small power supplies for remote households providing electricity for lighting or water pumping and water supply to village electrification for remote communities. The strategic objective of the HYRESS project is to remove the knowledge barriers against the installation of Renewable Energy Systems and creation of micro grids. In order to fulfill this objective, three different modular hybrid systems with the generating technologies connected to the AC side were designet, installed and evaluated in three selected remote sites far away from the grid in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. This paper describes the hybrid system installed in Egypt as a case study and presents first operation results. (orig.)

  8. Studies on the Growth Habits and Characteristics of Two Polyploid Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice with Powerful Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao-jian; DU Chao-qun; DAI Bing-cheng; CHEN Dong-ling; CHEN Jian-guo; CAI De-tian

    2007-01-01

    Based on a series of polyploid indica-japonica hybrid plant lines obtained from a new breeding strategy of using double predominance of wide cross and polyploidization to breed super rice, two polyploid indica-japonica hybrids, PSR073 and PSR120 were studied in their growth periods to show the powerful heterosis in a larger scale and to study the characteristics of polyploid indica-japonica hybrids more elaborately. The leaf age, tiller growth, flowering habits, and agronomic traits of them were observed to analyze their growth habits and characteristics. The results showed that the.agronomic traits of PSR073 and PSR 120, such as the plant height, panicle length, grain length, grain width, and 1000-grain weight, all acquired obvious predominance of polyploidy, and that the seed setting rate was more than 83%. No significant difference was observed between the two tetraploids and common diploids in the leaf age, tiller growth, and flowering habits. It was concluded that the characteristics of the two powerful heterosis polyploid hybrids were different from those of the polyploid rice reported earlier. Wide cross and polyploidization had no negative effects on their growth habits and characteristics; on the contrary these had powerful heterosis. This had provided theoretic and practical evidences for their application to agricultural production.

  9. Effect of backbone chemistry on hybridization thermodynamics of oligonucleic acids: a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2016-02-28

    In this paper we study how varying oligonucleic acid backbone chemistry affects the hybridization/melting thermodynamics of oligonucleic acids. We first describe the coarse-grained (CG) model with tunable parameters that we developed to enable the study of both naturally occurring oligonucleic acids, such as DNA, and their chemically-modified analogues, such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and locked nucleic acids (LNAs). The DNA melting curves obtained using such a CG model and molecular dynamics simulations in an implicit solvent and with explicit ions match with the melting curves obtained using the empirical nearest-neighbor models. We use these CG simulations to then elucidate the effect of backbone flexibility, charge, and nucleobase spacing along the backbone on the melting curves, potential energy and conformational entropy change upon hybridization and base-pair hydrogen bond residence time. We find that increasing backbone flexibility decreases duplex thermal stability and melting temperature mainly due to increased conformational entropy loss upon hybridization. Removing charges from the backbone enhances duplex thermal stability due to the elimination of electrostatic repulsion and as a result a larger energetic gain upon hybridization. Lastly, increasing nucleobase spacing decreases duplex thermal stability due to decreasing stacking interactions that are important for duplex stability.

  10. Review and comparison study of hybrid diesel/solar/hydro/fuel cell energy schemes for a rural ICT Telecenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.O.; Yung, V.C.; Anyi, M.; Othman, A.K.; Ab. Hamid, K.B. [Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Tarawe, J. [e-Bario ICT Telecenter, Bario, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, the rural electrification study of an ICT Telecenter in particular reference to the Kelabit Highland of Sarawak is presented. The use of diesel generator and its associated environmental implications is first discussed. The cost-effectiveness of the present solar PV system and the solar/hydro schemes for rural electrification of the rural ICT are evaluated employing the HOMER simulation software, considering sustainability factors such as system efficiency, weather, fuel costs, operating and maintaining costs. Subsequently, simple novel Hybrid Energy Performance Equations and the associated Energy Performance Curves are derived and introduced, respectively, which provide a visualization model, simplifying hybrid system analysis. Results obtained in this study have shown that combined power schemes is more sustainable in terms of supplying electricity to the Telecenter compared to a stand-alone PV system due to prolong cloudy and dense haze periods. The hybrid systems can have efficiency range of {proportional_to}15%-75% compared to PV stand-alone of only {proportional_to}10%, indicating hybrid systems are more reliable and sustainable - in minimizing both energy losses and excess energy. (author)

  11. Photochromic hybrid organic-inorganic liquid-crystalline materials built from nonionic surfactants and polyoxometalates: elaboration and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Andreas S; Constantin, Doru; Davidson, Patrick; Impéror, Marianne; Pansu, Brigitte; Panine, Pierre; Nicole, Lionel; Sanchez, Clément

    2008-06-17

    This work reports the elaboration and structural study of new hybrid organic-inorganic materials constructed via the coupling of liquid-crystalline nonionic surfactants and polyoxometalates (POMs). X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy demonstrate that these hybrid materials, highly loaded with POMs (up to 18 wt %), are nanocomposites of liquid-crystalline lamellar structure (Lalpha), with viscoelastic properties close to those of gels. The interpretation of X-ray scattering data strongly suggests that the POMs are located close to the terminal -OH groups of the nonionic surfactants, within the aqueous sublayers. Moreover, these materials exhibit a reversible photochromism associated to the photoreduction of the polyanion. The photoinduced mixed-valence behavior has been characterized through ESR and UV-visible-near-IR spectroscopies that demonstrate the presence of W(V) metal cations and of the characteristic intervalence charge transfer band in the near-IR region, respectively. These hybrid nanocomposites exhibit optical properties that may be useful for applications involving UV-light-sensitive coatings or liquid-crystal-based photochromic switches. From a more fundamental point of view, these hybrid materials should be very helpful models for the study of both the static and dynamic properties of nano-objects confined within soft lamellar structures.

  12. An integrated multi-omics study revealed metabolic alterations underlying the effects of coffee consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Takahashi

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have indicated that coffee consumption may reduce the risks of developing obesity and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. Our previous study revealed the changes on gene expression profiles in the livers of C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet containing three types of coffee (caffeinated, decaffeinated and green unroasted coffee, using DNA microarrays. The results revealed remarkable alterations in lipid metabolism-related molecules which may be involved in the anti-obesity effects of coffee. We conducted the present study to further elucidate the metabolic alterations underlying the effects of coffee consumption through comprehensive proteomic and metabolomic analyses. Proteomics revealed an up-regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (a key enzyme in the TCA cycle and its related proteins, suggesting increased energy generation. The metabolomics showed an up-regulation of metabolites involved in the urea cycle, with which the transcriptome data were highly consistent, indicating accelerated energy expenditure. The TCA cycle and the urea cycle are likely be accelerated in a concerted manner, since they are directly connected by mutually providing each other's intermediates. The up-regulation of these pathways might result in a metabolic shift causing increased ATP turnover, which is related to the alterations of lipid metabolism. This mechanism may play an important part in the suppressive effects of coffee consumption on obesity, inflammation, and hepatosteatosis. This study newly revealed global metabolic alterations induced by coffee intake, providing significant insights into the association between coffee intake and the prevention of type 2 diabetes, utilizing the benefits of multi-omics analyses.

  13. An integrated multi-omics study revealed metabolic alterations underlying the effects of coffee consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shoko; Saito, Kenji; Jia, Huijuan; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have indicated that coffee consumption may reduce the risks of developing obesity and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. Our previous study revealed the changes on gene expression profiles in the livers of C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet containing three types of coffee (caffeinated, decaffeinated and green unroasted coffee), using DNA microarrays. The results revealed remarkable alterations in lipid metabolism-related molecules which may be involved in the anti-obesity effects of coffee. We conducted the present study to further elucidate the metabolic alterations underlying the effects of coffee consumption through comprehensive proteomic and metabolomic analyses. Proteomics revealed an up-regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (a key enzyme in the TCA cycle) and its related proteins, suggesting increased energy generation. The metabolomics showed an up-regulation of metabolites involved in the urea cycle, with which the transcriptome data were highly consistent, indicating accelerated energy expenditure. The TCA cycle and the urea cycle are likely be accelerated in a concerted manner, since they are directly connected by mutually providing each other's intermediates. The up-regulation of these pathways might result in a metabolic shift causing increased ATP turnover, which is related to the alterations of lipid metabolism. This mechanism may play an important part in the suppressive effects of coffee consumption on obesity, inflammation, and hepatosteatosis. This study newly revealed global metabolic alterations induced by coffee intake, providing significant insights into the association between coffee intake and the prevention of type 2 diabetes, utilizing the benefits of multi-omics analyses.

  14. Hybrid 3D pregnant woman and fetus modeling from medical imaging for dosimetry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibin, Lazar; Anquez, Jeremie; Angelini, Elsa; Bloch, Isabelle [Telecom ParisTech, CNRS UMR 5141 LTCI, Institut TELECOM, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Numerical simulations studying the interactions between radiations and biological tissues require the use of three-dimensional models of the human anatomy at various ages and in various positions. Several detailed and flexible models exist for adults and children and have been extensively used for dosimetry. On the other hand, progress of simulation studies focusing on pregnant women and the fetus have been limited by the fact that only a small number of models exist with rather coarse anatomical details and a poor representation of the anatomical variability of the fetus shape and its position over the entire gestation. In this paper, we propose a new computational framework to generate 3D hybrid models of pregnant women, composed of fetus shapes segmented from medical images and a generic maternal body envelope representing a synthetic woman scaled to the dimension of the uterus. The computational framework includes the following tasks: image segmentation, contour regularization, mesh-based surface reconstruction, and model integration. A series of models was created to represent pregnant women at different gestational stages and with the fetus in different positions, all including detailed tissues of the fetus and the utero-fetal unit, which play an important role in dosimetry. These models were anatomically validated by clinical obstetricians and radiologists who verified the accuracy and representativeness of the anatomical details, and the positioning of the fetus inside the maternal body. The computational framework enables the creation of detailed, realistic, and representative fetus models from medical images, directly exploitable for dosimetry simulations. (orig.)

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  16. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  17. The interaction between hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite and selective contacts in perovskite solar cells: an infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idígoras, J; Todinova, A; Sánchez-Valencia, J R; Barranco, A; Borrás, A; Anta, J A

    2016-05-11

    The interaction of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite and selective contacts is crucial to get efficient, stable and hysteresis-free perovskite-based solar cells. In this report, we analyze the vibrational properties of methylammonium lead halide perovskites deposited on different substrates by infrared absorption (IR) measurements (4000-500 cm(-1)). The materials employed as substrates are not only characterized by different chemical natures (TiO2, ZnO and Al2O3), but also by different morphologies. For all of them, we have investigated the influence of these substrate properties on perovskite formation and its degradation by humidity. The effect of selective-hole contact (Spiro-OmeTad and P3HT) layers on the degradation rate by moisture has also been studied. Our IR results reveal the existence of a strong interaction between perovskite and all ZnO materials considered, evidenced by a shift of the peaks related to the N-H vibrational modes. The interaction even induces a morphological change in ZnO nanoparticles after perovskite deposition, pointing to an acid-base reaction that takes place through the NH3(+) groups of the methylammonium cation. Our IR and X-ray diffraction results also indicate that this specific interaction favors perovskite decomposition and PbI2 formation for ZnO/perovskite films subjected to humid conditions. Although no interaction is observed for TiO2, Al2O3, and the hole selective contact, the morphology and chemical nature of both contacts appear to play an important role in the rate of degradation upon exposure to moisture.

  18. Fish predation on a Daphnia hybrid species complex: A factor explaining species coexistence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaak, P.; Hoekstra, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies on the life histories of Daphnia hybrids and their parental species have revealed that hybrids can combine an intermediate size with a relatively high reproductive rate, which might explain their success in many European lakes. Based on this information, we formulated the temporal

  19. Monitoring studies should consider temporal variability to reveal relations between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA WOJCIECHOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of monitoring cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic environments is to reveal the relationship between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables. Studies typically correlate data that were simultaneously sampled. However, samplings occur sparsely over time and may not reveal the short-term responses of cyanobacterial abundance to environmental changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stronger cyanobacteria x environment relationships in monitoring are found when the temporal variability of sampling points is incorporated in the statistical analyses. To this end, we investigated relationships between cyanobacteria and seven environmental variables that were sampled twice yearly for three years across 11 reservoirs, and data from an intensive monitoring in one of these reservoirs. Poor correlations were obtained when correlating data simultaneously sampled. In fact, the 'highly recurrent' role of phosphorus in cyanobacteria blooms is not properly observed in all sampling periods. On the other hand, the strongest correlation values for the total phosphorus x cyanobacteria relationship were observed when we used the variation of sampling points. We have also shown that environment variables better explain cyanobacteria when a time lag is considered. We conclude that, in cyanobacteria monitoring, the best approach to reveal determinants of cyanobacteria blooms is to consider environmental variability.

  20. Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Studies of Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michael; Whitfield, Pamela; Jalarvo, Niina; Ehlers, Georg; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Herron, Norman; Johnson, Lynda; Guise, William; Milas, Ivan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Daemen, Luke; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal; Page, Katharine; Wang, Xiaoping; Ye, Feng

    Hybrid perovskites (ABX3) have attracted a great deal of attention recently as light absorbers for photovoltaics. In these materials the A site is occupied by organic cations, for example methyl ammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA) cations, the B site is occupied by metals, for example Pb or Sn, and the X anions are halogens (I, Br, or Cl). Typical of perovskites, these materials exhibit a series of structural phase transitions involving rotations or tilts of the BX6 octahedra, but with the added complexity that the inorganic framework is coupled to order-disorder transitions of the organic cations. We have used neutron scattering techniques to characterize the structures and dynamics of several of these compounds as a function of temperature. In addition, high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to investigate the structural phase transitions. These studies yield a detailed picture of the structures, dynamics, and structural phase transitions of these compounds, and provide a firm basis for understanding their excellent photovoltaic properties.

  1. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  2. An Experimental Study of Laboratory Hybrid Power System with the Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minarik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents very small laboratory hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen power system. The system was primarily assembled to verify the operability of the control algorithms and practical deployment of available commercial hydrogen technologies that are directly usable for storage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in a small island system. This energetic system was installed and tested in Laboratory of fuel cells that is located in the university campus of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava. The energetic system consists of several basic components: a photovoltaic field, accumulators bank, water commercial electrolyzer and compact fuel cell system. The weather conditions recorded in two different weeks as model weather and solar conditions are used as case studies to test the energetic system and the results for two different cases are compared each other. The results show and illustrate selected behaviour curves of the power system and also average energy storage efficiency for accumulation subsystem based on hydrogen technologies or at the energetic system embedded components. On the basis of real measurement and its evaluation the ideal parameters of the photovoltaic field were calculated as well as the hydrogen technologies for supposed purpose and the power requirements.

  3. Numerical and experimental studies of the hybrid rocket motor with multi-port fuel grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Li, Xintian; Zeng, Peng; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional numerical simulations and experimental studies of the hybrid rocket motor with multi-port fuel grain. The numerical model is established based on the Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence, chemical reactions, fuel pyrolysis, and solid-gas boundary interactions. The simulation is performed based on the 98% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant combination. The results indicate that the flow field and fuel regression rate distributions present apparent three-dimensional characteristics. The fuel regression rates decrease first and then gradually increase with the axial location increasing. At a certain cross section, the fuel regression rates are lower in the points on arcs with smaller radius of curvature when the fuel port is a derivable convex figure. Two experiments are carried out on a full scale motor with the simulation one. The working process of the motor is steady and no evident oscillatory combustion is observed. The fuel port profiles before and after tests indicate that the fuel regression rate distributions at the cross section match well with the numerical simulation results.

  4. Performance of Hybrid Photon Detectors and Studies of Two-Body Hadronic B Decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, L; Parkes, C

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the CERN LHC accelerator will begin physics data taking in late 2009. LHCb aims to discover New Physics processes via precision measurements using heavy flavoured hadrons, such as $B$ and $D$ hadrons. This thesis describes studies relevant to measurements of $B$ decays to hadronic final states at LHCb. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters of LHCb are crucial to the performance of such measurements. They use arrays of Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) as their photodetection system. Detailed results are presented from the characterisation programme of the entire sample of 557 HPDs that were produced. Their overall performance is found to be outstanding, with only 2.2\\% of HPDs judged to be unusable for the RICHes. The LHCb requirements and the contractual specifications are met and often exceeded in key areas. The measurement of the single photoelectron detection efficiency, $\\eta$, of the HPD anode is described in detail. The efficiency was measured as $\\eta=(87.9\\pm 1.4)\\%$. This va...

  5. A hybrid molecular dynamics study on the non-Newtonian rheological behaviors of shear thickening fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaihui; Wang, Yu; Xuan, Shouhu; Gong, Xinglong

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural evolution dependency on the apparent viscosity in shear-thickening fluids (STFs), a hybrid mesoscale model combined with stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD) and molecular dynamics (MD) is used. Muller-Plathe reverse perturbation method is adopted to analyze the viscosities of STFs in a two-dimensional model. The characteristic of microstructural evolution of the colloidal suspensions under different shear rate is studied. The effect of diameter of colloidal particles and the phase volume fraction on the shear thickening behavior is investigated. Under low shear rate, the two-atom structure is formed, because of the strong particle attractions in adjacent layers. At higher shear rate, the synergetic pair structure extends to layered structure along flow direction because of the increasing hydrodynamics action. As the shear rate rises continuously, the layered structure rotates and collides with other particles, then turned to be individual particles under extension or curve string structure under compression. Finally, at the highest shear rate, the strings curve more severely and get into two-dimensional cluster. The apparent viscosity of the system changes from shear-thinning behavior to the shear-thickening behavior. This work presents valuable information for further understanding the shear thickening mechanism.

  6. Properties of carbon impurities in ZnO: A hybrid functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Luo, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of the room temperature (RT) ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO and the trend that the higher the C concentration, the smaller the saturation magnetic moment (Ms), have remained controversial and puzzling for a long time. Using density-functional calculations with hybrid functional, we qualitatively understand these experimental phenomena. The substitutional CO defects dominate in Zn-rich conditions and n -type materials. They carry 1 or 2 μB/C , depending on the position of the Fermi level. In low C concentrations and at RT, the CO defects are kept isolated and prefer to couple ferromagnetically, thus the Ms is larger. As the C concentration increases, nonmagnetic C2 dimers form through binding of two CO defects or binding of one CO defect with one interstitial C, thus decreasing the Ms. Our results also suggest that the ferromagnetism from CO defects can be quenched by higher annealing temperatures. Furthermore, the p -type conductivity from carbon dopant is not supported in the present study.

  7. Study of Performance of Hybrid yarns (Hemp/ Polypropylene/ Glass Woven Reinforcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Manins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of reinforcements of 100 tex hemp yarns and hybrid yarns reinforcements with same hemp yarns and glass fibres’ (136 Tex in warp direction (25 % or 50 % interwoven with hemp yarns. The industrial loom CTБ-175 and craftsman’s loom, plain weaving technique for production of reinforcements with surface density in range of 91-246 g/m2 were used in the production. Tensile strength of hemp reinforcement on warp direction is 241.7N-279.8N and tensile modulus 218.48MPa-271.24MPa.The measurement of fabric thickness and physical-mechanical properties of reinforcements were carried out according to ISO 5084:1996 and LVS EN ISO 13934-1-2001 standards. One and two layer composites of woven reinforcements of hemp and polypropylene yarns were produced with Laboratory Press LP_S_50/SASTM. The surface density of one layer composite is 311.2 g/m2 and 608.4 g/m2 of two layers composite. The tensile strength of same composites is 303.1N and 599.5N, the tensile stress is 35.66 MPa and 40.65 MPa. The elastic modulus of one layer composites is 908.2 MPa and 1152.5MPa for two layers composite. The mechanical properties of composites were established according to ISO 527-5:2009 standard.

  8. Synthesis, β-glucuronidase inhibition and molecular docking studies of hybrid bisindole-thiosemicarbazides analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Imran, Syahrul; Rahim, Fazal; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Huma; Ullah, Hayat; Salar, Uzma; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid bisindole-thiosemicarbazides analogs (1-18) were synthesized and screened for β-glucuronidase activity. All compounds showed varied degree of β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential when compared with standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=48.4±1.25μM). Compounds 4, 7, 9, 6, 5, 12, 17 and 18 showed exceptional β-glucuronidase inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 5.7μM. Compounds 1, 3, 8, 16, 13, 2 and 14 also showed better activities than standard with IC50 values ranging from 7.12 to 15.0μM. The remaining compounds 10, 11, and 15 showed good inhibitory potential with IC50 values 33.2±0.75, 21.4±0.30 and 28.12±0.25μM respectively. Molecular docking studies were carried out to confirm the binding interaction of the compounds.

  9. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Selection of Blastocysts for Repeated Implantation Failure Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Ermanno; Bono, Sara; Ruberti, Alessandra; Lobascio, Anna Maria; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Biricik, Anil; Spizzichino, Letizia; Greco, Alessia; Tesarik, Jan; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Fiorentino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and transfer of a single euploid blastocyst in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) can improve clinical results. Three patient groups are compared: 43 couples with RIF for whom embryos were selected by array CGH (group RIF-PGS), 33 couples with the same history for whom array CGH was not performed (group RIF NO PGS), and 45 good prognosis infertile couples with array CGH selected embryos (group NO RIF PGS). A single euploid blastocyst was transferred in groups RIF-PGS and NO RIF PGS. Array CGH was not performed in group RIF NO PGS in which 1-2 blastocysts were transferred. One monoembryonic sac with heartbeat was found in 28 patients of group RIF PGS and 31 patients of group NO RIF PGS showing similar clinical pregnancy and implantation rates (68.3% and 70.5%, resp.). In contrast, an embryonic sac with heartbeat was only detected in 7 (21.2%) patients of group RIF NO PGS. In conclusion, PGS by array CGH with single euploid blastocyst transfer appears to be a successful strategy for patients with multiple failed IVF attempts. PMID:24779011

  10. Hybrid functional study rationalizes the simple cubic phase of calcium at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanyu; Cui, Wenwen; Ma, Yanming

    2012-11-14

    Simple cubic (SC) phase has been long experimentally determined as the high-pressure phase III of elemental calcium (Ca) since 1984. However, recent density functional calculations within semi-local approximation showed that this SC phase is structurally unstable by exhibiting severely imaginary phonons, and is energetically unstable with respect to a theoretical body-centered tetragonal I4(1)/amd structure over the pressure range of phase III. These calculations generated extensive debates on the validity of SC phase. Here we have re-examined the SC structure by performing more precise density functional calculations within hybrid functionals of Heyd-Scuseria-Erhzerhof and PBE0. Our calculations were able to rationalize fundamentally the phase stability of SC structure over all other known phases by evidence of its actual energetic stability above 33 GPa and its intrinsically dynamical stability without showing any imaginary phonons in the entire pressure range studied. We further established that the long-thought theoretical I4(1)/amd structure remains stable in a narrow pressure range before entering SC phase and is actually the structure of experimental Ca-III(') synthesized recently at low temperature 14 K as supported by the excellent agreement between our simulated x-ray diffraction patterns and the experimental data. Our results shed strong light on the crucial role played by the precise electron exchange energy in a proper description of the potential energy of Ca.

  11. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin AGARWAL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

  12. Optically active substituted polyacetylene@carbon nanotube hybrids: Preparation, characterization and infrared emissivity property study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Xiaohai; Zhou, Yuming, E-mail: ymzhou@seu.edu.cn; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yongjuan; Zhang, Zewu; He, Man

    2014-08-15

    Optically active substituted polyacetylene@multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPA@MWCNTs) nanohybrids were fabricated by wrapping helical SPA copolymers onto the surface of modified nanotubes through ester bonding linkage. SPA copolymer based on chiral phenylalanine and serine was pre-polymerized by a rhodium zwitterion catalyst in THF, and evidently proved to possess strong optical activity and adopt a predominately one-handed helical conformation. Various characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the SPA had been covalently grafted onto the nanotubes without destroying their original graphite structure. The wrapped SPA was found to exhibit an enhancement in thermal stability and still maintained considerable optical activity after grafting. The infrared emissivity property of the nanohybrids at 8–14 μm was investigated in addition. The results indicated that the SPA@MWCNTs hybrid matrix could possess a much lower infrared emissivity value (ε=0.707) than raw MWCNTs, which might be due to synergistic effect of the unique helical conformation of optically active SPA and strengthened interfacial interaction between the organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids with low infrared emissivity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of optically active SPA copolymer derived from serine and phenylalanine. • Preparation and characterization of optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids. • Application study of the SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids (ε=0.707) in lowering the infrared emissivity.

  13. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El-Tous, Saleh Al-Battat, Sandro Abdel Hafith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-TafilaJordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168 $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053 $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  14. 3-D Parallel, Object-Oriented, Hybrid, PIC Code for Ion Ring Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Y. A.

    1997-08-01

    The 3-D hybrid, Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code, FLAME has been developed to study low-frequency, large orbit plasmas in realistic cylindrical configurations. FLAME assumes plasma quasineutrality and solves the Maxwell equations with displacement current neglected. The electron component is modeled as a massless fluid and all ion components are represented by discrete macro-particles. The poloidal discretization is done by a finite-difference staggered grid method. FFT is applied in the azimuthal direction. A substantial reduction of CPU time is achieved by enabling separate time advances of background and beam particle species in the time-averaged fields. The FLAME structure follows the guidelines of object-oriented programming. Its C++ class hierarchy comprises the Utility, Geometry, Particle, Grid and Distributed base class packages. The latter encapsulates implementation of concurrent grid and particle algorithms. The particle and grid data interprocessor communications are unified and designed to be independent of both the underlying message-passing library and the actual poloidal domain decomposition technique (FFT's are local). Load balancing concerns are addressed by using adaptive domain partitions to account for nonuniform spatial distributions of particle objects. The results of 2-D and 3-D FLAME simulations in support of the FIREX program at Cornell are presented.

  15. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Simple Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel, L.; Brown, Clifford, A.; Walker, Bruce, E.

    2012-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the Langley Research Center s 14- by 22-Foot wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full three-dimensional 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of candidate engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft and to provide a database for shielding code validation. A range of frequencies, and a parametric study of modes were generated from exhaust and inlet nacelle configurations. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular to the axis of the nacelle (in its 0 orientation) and three planes parallel were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed five sweeps, for a total span of 160 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Level, and integrated Power Levels are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct modal structure.

  16. Optimizing a Hybrid Energy Storage System for a Virtual Power Plant for Improved Wind Power Generation: A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Diosi, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one approach to find two optimum energy storages (ESs) to build a hybrid system which is part of a virtual power plant. Here it means the combination of the hybrid energy storage system and wind power plant (WPP). The discussed approach is applied in a case study on the power...

  17. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  18. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  19. An experimental study of nonlinear behaviour of capacitance in graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsawafi, Suaad; Wang, Xiao; Jin, Jie; Song, Mo

    2016-06-01

    Graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid films were fabricated as high performance electrode materials by a simple water solution casting method with different contents of single-wall CNT (SWCNT), multi wall CNT (MWCNT) and multi wall CNT with hydroxyl group (MWCNT-OH). The films with MWCNTs showed a layered, interconnected and well entangled structure at nano-scale. With increasing CNT contents, the capacitance of the G/MWCNT and GO/MWCNT films raised almost linearly and their resistance reduced. G/SWCNT and GO/SWCNT films did not form layered structures leading to a very low capacitance. Nonlinear behaviour of the capacitance with voltage has been observed in the G/MWCNT and GO/MWCNT hybrid films. The length and thickness of the hybrid film have significant influences on the capacitance. The capacitance and conductivity increase with increasing the thickness and decrease with increasing the length of the hybrid films. For the application of graphene/CNT hybrid films as electrodes, these characters could be taken into account.

  20. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  1. First-Principles Study of Electronic Structure of Type I Hybrid Carbon-Silicon Clathrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Peng, Xihong

    2016-08-01

    A new class of type I hybrid carbon-silicon clathrates has been designed using computational methods by substituting some of the Si atoms in the silicon clathrate framework with carbon atoms. In this work, the electronic structure of hybrid carbon-silicon clathrates with and without alkaline or alkaline-earth metal guest atoms has been computed within the density functional theory framework. The theoretical calculations indicate that a small number of carbon substitutions in the Si46 framework slightly reduces the density of states (DOS) near the band edge and narrows the bandgap of carbon-silicon clathrates. Weak hybridization of the conduction band occurs when alkaline metal (Li, Na, K) atoms are inserted into the structure, while strong hybridization of the conduction band occurs when alkaline-earth metal (Mg, Ca, Ba) atoms are inserted into the hybrid structure. Empty C y Si46- y clathrates within the composition range of 2 ≤ y ≤ 15 can be tuned to exhibit indirect bandgaps of 1.5 eV or less, and may be considered as potential electronic materials.

  2. Studies on 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Banerjee; A K Shukla

    2015-05-01

    A cost-effective 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitor is developed and performance tested. These hybrid ultracapacitors employ flexible-graphite sheets as negative plate currentcollectors that are coated amperometrically with a thin layer of conducting polymer, namely poly-aniline to provide good adhesivity to activated-carbon layer. The positive plate of the hybrid ultracapacitors comprise conventional lead-sheet that is converted electrochemically into a substrate-integrated lead-dioxide electrode. 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors both in absorbent-glass-mat and polymeric silicagel electrolyte configurations are fabricated and characterized. It is possible to realize 12 V configurations with capacitance values of ∼200 F and ∼300 F, energy densities of ∼1.9 Wh kg−1 and ∼2.5 Wh kg−1 and power densities of ∼2 kW kg−1 and ∼0.8 kW kg−1, respectively, having faradaic-efficiency values of ∼90 % with cycle-life in excess of 100,000 cycles. The effective cost of the mentioned hybrid ultracapacitors is estimated to be about ∼4 US$/Wh as compared to ∼20 US$/Wh for commercially available ultracapacitors.

  3. Polarization and Dielectric Study of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Thin Film to Reveal its Nonferroelectric Nature under Solar Cell Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Yang, Mengjin; Li, Zhen; Islam, Nazifah; Pan, Xuan; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2016-07-08

    Researchers have debated whether methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3), with a perovskite crystal structure, is ferroelectric and therefore contributes to the current--voltage hysteresis commonly observed in hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We thoroughly investigated temperature-dependent polarization, dielectric, and impedance spectroscopies, and we found no evidence of ferroelectric effect in a MAPbI3 thin film at normal operating conditions. Therefore, the effect does not contribute to the hysteresis in PSCs, whereas the large component of ionic migration observed may play a critical role. Our temperature-based polarization and dielectric studies find that MAPbI3 exhibits different electrical behaviors below and above ca. 45 degrees C, suggesting a phase transition around this temperature. In particular, we report the activation energies of ionic migration for the two phases and temperature-dependent permittivity of MAPbI3. This study contributes to the understanding of the material properties and device performance of hybrid perovskites.

  4. Carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber/hybrid filler composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of the OSW and NLS are measured with the dynamic contact-angle technique. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS of the OSW reveals that the OSW possesses various reactive functional groups namely hydroxyl groups (OH. Hybrid filler from NLS and OSW were incorporated into carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR to produce XNBR hybrid composites. The reaction of OH groups from the OSW with COOH of the XNBR is checked by attenuated total reflectance spectra (ATR-IR of the composites. The degree of curing ΔM (maximum torque-minimum torque as a function of hybrid filler as derived from moving die rheometer (MDR is reported. The stress-strain behavior of the hybrid composites as well as the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is studied. Bonding quality and dispersion of the hybrid filler with and in XNBR are examined using scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM in SEM.

  5. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling study of novel tacrine-carbazole hybrids as potential multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiratmatrakul, Supatra; Yenjai, Chavi; Waiwut, Pornthip; Vajragupta, Opa; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Tohda, Michihisa; Boonyarat, Chantana

    2014-03-21

    New tacrine-carbazole hybrids were developed as potential multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents for their cholinesterase inhibitory and radical scavenging activities. The developed compounds showed high inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with IC50 values ranging from 0.48 to 1.03 μM and exhibited good inhibition selectivity against AChE over butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Molecular modeling studies revealed that these tacrine-carbazole hybrids interacted simultaneously with the catalytic active site (CAS) and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. The derivatives containing methoxy group showed potent ABTS radical scavenging activity. Considering their neuroprotection, our results indicate that these derivatives can reduce neuronal death induced by oxidative stress and β-amyloid (Aβ). Moreover, S1, the highest potency for both radical scavenging and AChE inhibitory activity, exhibited an ability to improve both short-term and long-term memory deficit in mice induced by scopolamine. Overall, tacrine-carbazole derivatives can be considered as a candidate with potential impact for further pharmacological development in Alzheimer's therapy.

  6. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia shawi shawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Yara Lins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs. Identifications revealed 11 (25.6% strains of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, 4 (9.3% of L. (V. shawi shawi, 7 (16.3% of L. (V. shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9% of L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. lainsoni, 2 (4.7% of L. (L. amazonensis, and 7 (16.3% of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V. braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V. shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V. guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V. s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V. shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V. s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V. guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V. s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. s. shawi exchange genetic information.

  7. Mapping of coma anisotropies to plasma structures of weak comets: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gortsas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coma anisotropies on the plasma environment of comets have been studied by means of a 3-D hybrid model which treats electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas ion dynamics are covered by a kinetic approach. From Earth-based observations as well as from in-situ spacecraft measurements the shape of the coma of many comets is ascertained to be anisotropic. However, most plasma simulation studies deploy a spherically symmetric activity pattern. In this paper anisotropy is studied by considering three different coma shape models. The first model is derived from the Haser model and is characterised by spherically symmetry. This reference model is then compared with two different neutral gas shape models: the dayside restricted model with no nightside activity and a cone shaped model with opening angle of π/2. In all models the integrated surface activity is kept constant. The simulations have been done for the Rosetta target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two heliocentric distances, 1.30 AU and 3.25 AU. It is found that shock formation processes are modified as a result of increasing spatial confinement. Characteristic plasma structures of comets such as the bow shock, magnetic barrier region and the ion composition boundary exhibit a shift towards the sun. In addition, the cone shaped model leads to a strong increase of the mass-loaded region which in turn leads to a smooth deceleration of the solar wind flow and an increasing degree of mixture between the solar wind and cometary ion species. This creates an additional transport channel of the magnetic field from the magnetic barrier region away which in turn leads to a broadening of this region. In addition, it leads to an ion composition boundary which is only gradually developed.

  8. Droplet spreading and permeating on the hybrid-wettability porous substrates: a lattice Boltzmann method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Wen-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spreading and permeation of droplets on porous substrates is a fundamental process in a variety of applications, such as coating, dyeing, and printing. The spreading and permeating usually occur synchronously but play different roles in the practical applications. The mechanisms of the competition between spreading and permeation is significant but still unclear. A lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the spreading and permeation of droplets on hybrid-wettability porous substrates, with different wettability on the surface and the inside pores. The competition between the spreading and the permeation processes is studied in this work from the effects of the substrate and the fluid properties, including the substrate wettability, the porous parameters, as well as the fluid surface tension and viscosity. The results show that increasing the surfacewettability and the porosity contact angle both inhibit the spreading and the permeation processes. When the inside porosity contact angle is larger than 90° (hydrophobic, the permeation process does not occur. The droplets suspend on substrates with Cassie state. The droplets are more easily to permeate into substrates with a small inside porosity contact angle (hydrophilic, as well as large pore sizes. Otherwise, the droplets are more easily to spread on substrate surfaces with small surface contact angle (hydrophilic and smaller pore sizes. The competition between droplet spreading and permeation is also related to the fluid properties. The permeation process is enhanced by increasing of surface tension, leading to a smaller droplet lifetime. The goals of this study are to provide methods to manipulate the spreading and permeation separately, which are of practical interest in many industrial applications.

  9. Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moignier, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.moignier@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France); Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mazeron, Jean-Jacques [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, Service de Radiotherapie, Paris (France)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

  10. Real time hybridization studies by resonant waveguide gratings using nanopattern imaging for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bougot-Robin, Kristelle

    2013-12-20

    2D imaging of biochips is particularly interesting for multiplex biosensing. Resonant properties allow label-free detection using the change of refractive index at the chip surface. We demonstrate a new principle of Scanning Of Resonance on Chip by Imaging (SORCI) based on spatial profiles of nanopatterns of resonant waveguide gratings (RWGs) and its embodiment in a fluidic chip for real-time biological studies. This scheme allows multiplexing of the resonance itself by providing nanopattern sensing areas in a bioarray format. Through several chip designs we discuss resonance spatial profiles, dispersion and electric field distribution for optimal light-matter interaction with biological species of different sizes. Fluidic integration is carried out with a black anodized aluminum chamber, advantageous in term of mechanical stability, multiple uses of the chip, temperature control and low optical background. Real-time hybridization experiments are illustrated by SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) detection in gyrase A of E. coli K12, observed in evolution studies of resistance to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. We choose a 100 base pairs (bp) DNA target (∼30 kDa) including the codon of interest and demonstrate the high specificity of our technique for probes and targets with close affinity constants. This work validates the safe applicability of our unique combination of RWGs and simple instrumentation for real-time biosensing with sensitivity in buffer solution of ∼10 pg/mm2. Paralleling the success of RWGs sensing for cells sensing, our work opens new avenues for a large number of biological studies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.

  11. Feasibility study and techno-economic analysis of an SOFC/battery hybrid system for vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, P.; Brett, D. J. L.; Brandon, N. P.

    A feasibility study and techno-economic analysis for a hybrid power system intended for vehicular traction applications has been performed. The hybrid consists of an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) operating at 500-800 °C and a sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery operating at 300 °C. Such a hybrid system has the benefits of extended range and fuel flexibility (due to the IT-SOFC), high power output and rapid response time (due to the battery). The above hybrid has been compared to a fuel cell-only, a battery-only and an ICE vehicle. It is shown that the capital cost associated with a fuel cell-only vehicle is still much higher than that of any other power source option and that a battery-only option would potentially encounter weight and volume limitations, particularly for long drive times. It is concluded that increasing drive time per day decreases substantially the payback time in relation to an ICE vehicle running on gasoline and thus that the hybrid vehicle is an economically attractive option for commercial vehicles with long drive times. In the case where the battery has reached volume production prices at £70 kWh -1 and current fuel duty values remain unchanged then a payback time gasoline equivalent fuel economy of 25.1 km L -1, almost twice that of a gasoline fuelled ICE vehicle of the same size, and CO 2 emissions of 71.6 g km -1, well below any new technology target set so far. It is therefore recommended that a SOFC/ZEBRA demonstration be built to further explore its viability.

  12. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition of Solanum bulbocastanum (+) S. tuberosum somatic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovene, Marina; Savarese, Salvatore; Cardi, Teodoro; Frusciante, Luigi; Scotti, Nunzia; Simon, Philipp W; Carputo, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    Somatic hybrids between the wild incongruent species Solanum bulbocastanum (2n = 2x = 24) and S. tuberosum haploids (2n = 2x = 24) have been characterized for their nuclear and cytoplasmic genome composition. Cytologic observations revealed the recovery of 8 (near-)tetraploid and 3 hexaploid somatic hybrids. Multicolor genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis was carried out to study the genomic dosage of the parental species in 5 somatic hybrids with different ploidy. The GISH procedure used was effective in discriminating parental genomes in the hybrids; most chromosomes were unambiguously colored. Two (near-)tetraploid somatic hybrids showed the expected 2:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage; 2 hexaploids revealed a 4:2 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage, and 1 hexaploid had a 2:4 cultivated-to-wild genomic dosage. Characterization of hybrid cytoplasmic genomes was performed using gene-specific primers that detected polymorphisms between the fusion parents in the intergenic regions. The analysis showed that most of the somatic hybrids inherited the plastidial and mitochondrial DNA of the cultivated parent. A few hybrids, with a rearranged mitochondrial genome (showing fragments derived from both parents), were also identified. These results confirmed the potential of somatic hybridization in producing new variability for genetic studies and breeding.

  13. Studying the Mechanism of Hybrid Nanoparticle Photoresists: Effect of Particle Size on Photopatterning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2015-07-28

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Hf-based hybrid photoresist materials with three different organic ligands were prepared by a sol-gel-based method, and their patterning mechanism was investigated in detail. All hybrid nanoparticle resists are patternable using UV exposure. Their particle sizes show a dramatic increase from the initial 3-4 nm to submicron size after exposure, with no apparent inorganic content or thermal property change detected. XPS results showed that the mass percentage of the carboxylic group in the structure of nanoparticles decreased with increasing exposure duration. The particle coarsening sensitivities of those hybrid nanoparticles are consistent with their EUV performance. The current work provides an understanding for the development mechanism and future guidance for the design and processing of high performance resist materials for large-scale microelectronics device fabrication.

  14. Study of improvement of indices maize line to establish their position in hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana DIRZU-COCOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. crop that is grown on large areas - over 140 million hectares worldwide, and 400-500 thousand ha in Moldova due to production potential broad diversity of use as food for humans, animals, birds raw material for industrial processing. The upward trend in average yields achieved is largely attributed to the improvement of scientific programs. Select the line with the characters and traits that are transmitted hereditary hybrids and contribute to their performance, ensure progress in improvement. Therefore, the process of creating inbred lines associated with combining ability testing as a measure of productivity conferred hybrids, is significant research programs. Orientation purpose of improved maize hybrids to formulas and simple change to a superior capitalization heterosis effect and perfect uniformity of plant requires changes in methodology for the creation, evaluation and classification of inbred lines.

  15. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel, C. Backman

    2017-06-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements.

  16. Fatigue of hybrid glass/carbon composites: 3D computational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Gaoming; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2014-01-01

    3D computational simulations of fatigue of hybrid carbon/glass fiber reinforced composites is carried out using X-FEM and multifiber unit cell models. A new software code for the automatic generation of unit cell multifiber models of composites with randomly misaligned fibers of various properties...... and geometrical parameters is developed. With the use of this program code and the X-FEM method, systematic investigations of the effect of microstructure of hybrid composites (fraction of carbon versus glass fibers, misalignment, and interface strength) and the loading conditions (tensile versus compression...... cyclic loading effects) on fatigue behavior of the materials are carried out. It was demonstrated that the higher fraction of carbon fibers in hybrid composites is beneficial for the fatigue lifetime of the composites under tension-tension cyclic loading, but might have negative effect on the lifetime...

  17. 75As-NQR study of the hybridization gap semiconductor CeOs4As12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, M.; Higa, N.; Niki, H.; Kawata, T.; Sekine, C.

    2016-02-01

    We performed an 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement on CeOs4As12. The 75As-NQR spectrum shape demonstrates that the Ce-site filling fraction of our high-pressure synthesized sample is close to unity. A presence of the c — f hybridization gap is confirmed from the temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1. An increase of 1/T1 below ∼3 K indicates a development of the spin fluctuations. The 1/T1 for CeOs4As12 shows similar behavior as that for CeOs4Sb12 with different magnitude of the c — f hybridization gap. An absence of phase transition in CeOs4As12 may be caused by the increase of the c — f hybridization, which increases the gap magnitude and reduces the residual density of state inside the gap.

  18. Electric and hybrid electric vehicle study utilizing a time-stepping simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Shaltens, Richard K.; Beremand, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of NASA's advanced power technologies to electric and hybrid vehicles was assessed using a time-stepping computer simulation to model electric and hybrid vehicles operating over the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). Both the energy and power demands of the FUDS were taken into account and vehicle economy, range, and performance were addressed simultaneously. Results indicate that a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configured with a flywheel buffer energy storage device and a free-piston Stirling convertor fulfills the emissions, fuel economy, range, and performance requirements that would make it acceptable to the consumer. It is noted that an assessment to determine which of the candidate technologies are suited for the HEV application has yet to be made. A proper assessment should take into account the fuel economy and range, along with the driveability and total emissions produced.

  19. Use of discrete Wigner functions in the study of a hybrid dissipative system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboiro, M.; Civitarese, O.; Ramirez, R.; Tielas, D.

    2017-09-01

    The persistence of coherence in a hybrid dissipative system, which is composed of superconducting flux-qubits (SFQs) and an electron ensemble, is analyzed. Both the interactions between the electrons and the SFQs are taken into account. The time evolution of the hybrid system is discussed in terms of the discrete Wigner function of each subsystem and in terms of the entropic uncertainty relations. The inclusion of a linewidth, both for the electrons and the SFQs, influences the coherence of each subsystem and the pattern of spin squeezing of the corresponding steady state.

  20. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis, appendices B1 - B4. [hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Documentation is presented for a program which separately computes fuel and energy consumption for the two modes of operation of a hybrid electric vehicle. The distribution of daily travel is specified as input data as well as the weights which the component driving cycles are given in each of the composite cycles. The possibility of weight reduction through the substitution of various materials is considered as well as the market potential for hybrid vehicles. Data relating to battery compartment weight distribution and vehicle handling analysis is tabulated.

  1. Applications of ribosomal in situ hybridization for the study of bacterial cells in the mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Poulsen, Lars Kongsbak; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Localization of E. coli and S. typhimurium in the large and small intestine of streptomycin-treated mice was visualized by in situ hybridization with specific rRNA target probes and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Growth rates of E. coli BJ4 colonizing the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mice...... were estimated by quantitative hybridization. The ribosomal contents were measured in bacteria isolated from cecal mucus, cecal contents and feces and correlated with the ribosomal contents of bacteria growing in vitro with defined rates. The data suggest that E. coli BJ4 grows with an apparent...

  2. Neuronal gene expression in aluminum-induced neurofibrillary pathology: an in situ hybridization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, C B; Muma, N A

    1997-01-01

    Alterations in cytoskeletal proteins such as the perikaryal accumulation of neurofilaments (NFs) occur in a number of human neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and may contribute to their debilitating effects. The administration of aluminum salts to rabbits induces the aberrant accumulation of NFs within the proximal axons and perikarya of vulnerable neurons and is one animal model which has been extensively studied in an attempt to gain insight into the mechanism(s) of NF perturbations in human disease. Previous studies using Northern blotting techniques to examine mRNA levels in the aluminum-induced neuropathy model have led to seemingly contradictory results. We have used in situ hybridization which provides the cellular resolution needed to: 1) determine whether there are generalized decreases in the levels of mRNA expression or decreases in mRNA encoding specific proteins; 2) determine whether alterations in mRNA levels occur specifically in neurons with NF accumulations; and 3) begin to resolve some of the apparent contradictions in the literature. A moderate dose of aluminum lactate administered on two consecutive days produced neurofibrillary tangles in spinal cord neurons seven days after the first dose. Polyadenylated mRNA levels were not altered in spinal cord neurons in aluminum-treated compared to saline-treated control animals or in tangle-bearing compared to non tangle-bearing neurons in aluminum-treated animals. Middle and high NF subunit (NFH) mRNA levels were not significantly different from polyadenylated mRNA levels in spinal cord neurons in aluminum-treated/control animals. NFH mRNA levels were decreased in neurons containing aluminum-induced NF accumulations. These results suggest that NFH gene expression may be down regulated by an inhibitory feedback mechanism induced by perikaryal accumulations of NFs. This inhibitory feedback regulation for NFH may have

  3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  4. Dynamics of hybrid amoeba proteus containing zoochlorellae studied using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-H.; Fong, B. A.; Alfano, S. A., Jr.; Rakhlin, I.; Wang, W. B.; Ni, X. H.; Yang, Y. L.; Zhou, F.; Zuzolo, R. C.; Alfano, R. R.

    2011-03-01

    The microinjection of organelles, plants, particles or chemical solutions into Amoeba proteus coupled with spectroscopic analysis and observed for a period of time provides a unique new model for cancer treatment and studies. The amoeba is a eukaryote having many similar features of mammalian cells. The amoeba biochemical functions monitored spectroscopically can provide time sequence in vivo information about many metabolic transitions and metabolic exchanges between cellar organelles and substances microinjected into the amoeba. It is possible to microinject algae, plant mitochondria, drugs or carcinogenic solutions followed by recording the native fluorescence spectra of these composites. This model can be used to spectroscopically monitor the pre-metabolic transitions in developing diseased cells such as a cancer. Knowing specific metabolic transitions could offer solutions to inhibit cancer or reverse it as well as many other diseases. In the present study a simple experiment was designed to test the feasibility of this unique new model by injecting algae and chloroplasts into amoeba. The nonradiative dynamics found from these composites are evidence in terms of the emission ratios between the intensities at 337nm and 419nm; and 684nm bands. There were reductions in the metabolic and photosynthetic processes in amoebae that were microinjected with chloroplasts and zoochlorellae as well of those amoebae that ingested the algae and chloroplasts. The changes in the intensity of the emissions of the peaks indicate that the zoochlorellae lived in the amoebae for ten days. Spectral changes in intensity under the UV and 633nm wavelength excitation are from the energy transfer of DNA and RNA, protein-bound chromophores and chlorophylls present in zoochlorellae undergoing photosynthesis. The fluorescence spectroscopic probes established the biochemical interplay between the cell organelles and the algae present in the cell cytoplasm. This hybrid state is indicative

  5. Dry Sliding Tribological Studies of AA6061-B4C-Gr Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monikandan, V. V.; Joseph, M. A.; Rajendrakumar, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    The dry sliding behavior of stir-cast AA6061-10 wt.% B4C composites containing 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt.% graphite particles was studied as a function of applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance on a pin-on-disk tribotester. The wear rate and friction coefficient increased with increase in applied load and sliding distance. The increase in graphite addition reduced the increase in wear rate and friction coefficient in the sliding speed range 2-2.5 m/s. Scanning electron microscopy of the worn pin revealed a graphite tribolayer, and transmission electron microscopy revealed overlapping deformation bands under 30 N applied load. Upon increasing the applied load to 40 N, welded region with fine crystalline structure was formed due to dynamic recrystallization of AA6061 alloy matrix.

  6. Multiwavelength Study to Reveal Dust Properties and Cloud 3D Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Laurent; Lefevre, C.

    2017-06-01

    The study of low-mass prestellar cores is a difficult task which needs to gather several tools, dust and gas observations, radiative transfer modelling. No single tracer can reveal the physical characteristics of these cores. We show that based on observations of N2H+, and dust from 1 µm to 1 mm, one can hope today to have a faithful 3D description of a dark cloud and its prestellar core. Dust being ill-defined, only the combination of absorption, scattering and emission measurements and modelling can alleviate the degeneracy between temperature, density and emissivity of the dust.

  7. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  8. Microalterations of inherently unstable genomic regions in rat mammary carcinomas as revealed by long oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamovic, T.; McAllister, D.; Guryev, V.; Wang, X.; Andrae, J.W.; Cuppen, E.; Jacob, H.; Sugg, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of copy number variants in normal genomes poses a challenge to identify small genuine somatic copy number changes in high-resolution cancer genome profiling studies due to the use of unpaired reference DNA. Another problem is the well-known rearrangements of immunoglobulin and T-cell

  9. Microalterations of inherently unstable genomic regions in rat mammary carcinomas as revealed by long oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamovic, T.; McAllister, D.; Guryev, V.; Wang, X.; Andrae, J.W.; Cuppen, E.; Jacob, H.; Sugg, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of copy number variants in normal genomes poses a challenge to identify small genuine somatic copy number changes in high-resolution cancer genome profiling studies due to the use of unpaired reference DNA. Another problem is the well-known rearrangements of immunoglobulin and T-cell re

  10. Microalterations of Inherently Unstable Genomic Regions in Rat Mammary Carcinomas as Revealed by Long Oligonucleotide Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamovic, Tatjana; McAllister, Donna; Guryev, Victor; Wang, Xujing; Andrae, Jaime Wendt; Cuppen, Edwin; Jacob, Howard J.; Sugg, Sonia L.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of copy number variants in normal genomes poses a challenge to identify small genuine somatic copy number changes in high-resolution cancer genome profiling studies due to the use of unpaired reference DNA. Another problem is the well-known rearrangements of immunoglobulin and T-cell re

  11. The Application of Statistical Design of Experiments to Study the In-Plane Shear Behaviour of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical aspect of experimental study on the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel with intermediate layer. The study was aimed at providing information of how significant the contribution of intermediate layer to the in-plane shear behaviour of new developed sandwich panel. The investigation was designed as a single factor experimental design and the results were throughly analysed with statistics software; Minitab 15. The panels were tested by applying a tensile force along the diagonal of the test frame simulating pure shear using a 100 kN MTS servo-hydraulic UTM. The result shows that the incorporation of intermediate layer has sinificantly enhanced the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel. The statistical analysis shows that the value of F0 is much higher than the value of Ftable, which has a meaning that the improvement provided by the incorporation of intermediate layer is statistically significant.

  12. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  13. Double Resonant Topology for 72V Battery Charger used in a Hybrid Electric Locomotive - Study and Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    BUTTERBACH, S; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; Lallemand, R; Coquery, G.; JEUNESSE, A; EVAIN, Y; AUBIN, PH

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the study, adaptation and experimental validation of a 9kW lead-acid battery charger used to feed the 72VDC bus inside the hybrid electric locomotive demonstrator in the frame of the French research project PLATHEE. The topology of the charger is based on a high frequency double resonant series-parallel circuit which allows soft switching, losses minimization, reduction of passive component weight and facilitates system integration. Specific charging and floating modes we...

  14. A prospective randomised study of periprosthetic femoral bone remodeling using four different bearings in hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerahn, Bo; Borgwardt, Lotte; Ribel-Madsen, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: We performed a study to assess whether different bearing materials have an impact on femoral bone remodeling within the first four years after a hybrid total hip arthroplasty. 205 of 300 patients were available for 4 years follow-up after being randomly allocated to four prosthetic...... 1, 6, and 7.Bone remodeling after total hip arthroplasty may depend on the composition of bearing materials, but age, height, weight, and stem size are also related to changes in BMD....

  15. Study of issues in difficult-to-weld thick materials by hybrid laser arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, Mehdi

    There is a high interest for the high strength-to-weight ratio with good ductility for the welds of advanced alloys. The concern about the welding of thick materials (Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and 5xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys) has stimulated the development of manufacturing processes to overcome the associated issues. The need to weld the dissimilar materials (AHSS and aluminum alloys) is also required for some specific applications in different industries. Hence, the requirement in the development of a state-of-the-art welding procedure can be helpful to fulfill the constraints. Among the welding methods hybrid laser/arc welding (HLAW) has shown to be an effective method to join thick and difficult-to-weld materials. This process benefits from both advantages of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and laser welding processes. The interaction of the arc and laser can help to have enough penetration of weld in thick plates. However, as the welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys and steels is very difficult because of the formation of brittle intermetallics the present work proposed a procedure to effectively join the alloys. The reports showed that the explosively welded aluminum alloys to steels have the highest toughness, and that could be used as an "insert" (TRICLAD) for welding the thick plates of AHSS to aluminum alloys. Therefore, the HLAW of the TRICLAD-Flange side (Aluminum alloy (AA 5456)) to the Web side (Aluminum alloys (AA 6061 and AA 5456)) and the TRICLAD-Flange side (ASTM A516) to the Web side (AHSS) was studied in the present work. However, there are many issues related to HLAW of the dissimilar steels as well as dissimilar aluminum alloys that have to be resolved in order to obtain sound welds. To address the challenges, the most recent welding methods for joining aluminum alloys to steels were studied and the microstructural development, mechanical properties, and on-line monitoring of the welding processes were discussed as well

  16. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; ZHAO ChunJiang

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism. Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism. Tibetan Chicken (Gallus gallus) is a Chinese in-digenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas, which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world. It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia, which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet. In the present study, Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Ham-burger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration, respectively. Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups. The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to GeneChip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken. As a result, 50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out. Among up-regulated genes, some are involved in the gone ontology (GO) such as cell growth, cell difference, muscle con-traction and signal transduction. However, the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia. Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication, ion transport, protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction. Interestingly, gene enrichment analyses of these differential gone expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus. Moreover, the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that TI-betan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken. In addition, 12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were

  17. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism.Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism.Tibetan Chicken(Gallus gallus) is a Chinese indigenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas,which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world.It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia,which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet.In the present study,Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Hamburger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration,respectively.Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups.The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to Genechip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken.As a result,50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out.Among up-regulated genes,some are involved in the gene ontology(GO) such as cell growth,cell difference,muscle contraction and signal transduction.However,the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia.Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication,ion transport,protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction.Interestingly,gene enrichment analyses of these differential gene expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus.Moreover,the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that Tibetan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken.In addition,12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were identified,which seem to result in a

  18. European multi-centre study of the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenarz, T.; James, C.; Cuda, D.; O'Connor, A.; Frachet, B.; Frijns, J.H.; Klenzner, T.; Laszig, R.; Manrique, M.; Marx, M.; Merkus, P.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Offeciers, E.; Pesch, J.; Ramos-Macias, A.; Robier, A.; Sterkers, O.; Uziel, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the preservation of residual hearing in subjects who received the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant. To investigate the performance benefits up to one year post-implantation in terms of speech recognition, sound quality, and quality of life. DESIGN: Prospective, with seq

  19. Cytogenetic studies of Lolium multiflorum Lam., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., their hybrids and amphidiploids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijer, G.

    1982-01-01

    Plant breeders intercross Lolium multiflorum and Festuca arundinacea with the purpose of obtaining hybrids which combine agronomically interesting characters of the parent species. The end result can be an amphidiploid, or the transfer of a limited number of genes from one species to the other. Espe

  20. Study of reproductive barriers in the production of P. elliottii x P. caribaea hybrid seed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivlal, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction, the P. elliottii (Pe) x P. caribaea var. hondurensis (Pch) hybrid has played a very important role in the plantation forestry industry due to its displayed improved growth, desirable wood properties (Du Plooy, 1984; Malan...

  1. European multi-centre study of the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenarz, T.; James, C.; Cuda, D.; O'Connor, A.; Frachet, B.; Frijns, J.H.; Klenzner, T.; Laszig, R.; Manrique, M.; Marx, M.; Merkus, P.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Offeciers, E.; Pesch, J.; Ramos-Macias, A.; Robier, A.; Sterkers, O.; Uziel, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the preservation of residual hearing in subjects who received the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant. To investigate the performance benefits up to one year post-implantation in terms of speech recognition, sound quality, and quality of life. DESIGN: Prospective, with

  2. Fourth Generation Broadband Delivered by Hybrid FttH Solution — A Techno-Economic Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillipson, F.; Smit-Rietveld, C.J.C.; Verhagen, W.P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of fibre will be inevitable for transporting hundreds of Mb/s to and from end-users, but this does not necessary mean that fibre has to be deployed all the way up to a point into the home. An alternative is bringing fibre up to the Home (Hybrid FttH) and reusing existing telephony wiring for

  3. Study of improving the quality of bread and wheat-aegilops hybrids with the biotechnological ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbarzada, Aygun; Hasanova, Sudaba

    2016-08-01

    The great need of the people to bread demands to increase high qualitative grain plants. At present time for solving these problem different methods of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology are widely used in the process of selection. To investigate biochemical peculiarities of wheat-aegilops hybrids and to define the correlative relation between these characteristics. To investigate the technological peculiarities of wheat- aegilops hybrids and to define the relation between their main biochemical and technological characteristics. The conclusion of this investigation showed the followings- the wheat-aegilops hybrids according to their morphological and biochemical characteristics have approached to wheats. The electrophoretic spectres of the wheat- aegilops hybrids which have stable for their morphological characteristics are homogeny and heterogenic. Hereditarily some group protei